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1/23/2012- Microbiology (Biol 250)

Impact of microorganisms
What is considered a microorganism: Bacteria- microorganism Fungi- most consider themselves microorganisms its a strange category micro-yeasts, you are unable to see them macro- mold on food, and mushrooms, able to see with the naked eye Protozoa or protists- won't cover in class amoebas (malaria) African sleeping sickness Viruses- theres a debate if they are microorganisms What makes up a virus? Are they living? Many can cause disease Plants and animals microorganism are far more populated than plants and animals Number of microorganisms leave a big impact

The number of microorganisms leave a big impact Impact and importance of Microorganisms 1) Teaches us basic biology Simple Ethics Reproduces fast and in high numbers Easy manipulated What we know is biology comes from studies in microorganisms how are body works comes from microbiology and microorganisms physiology the comparison of animals and humans comes from the study of microbiology Bacteria to us--> long line but microorganisms can be traced all the way to human Simple Complexity of us compared to microorganisms we have many different cells we are multicellularour cells work together less adaptability compared to others bacteria are uni-cellularmore simple compared to others Ethical Issues Ethical issues arise when human cells are studied (agricultural organisms) Bacterial have a lot less ethical issues than human cells, easier to study Bacteria is now starting to be issues with bio warfare as well as certain studies are becoming ethical (strains of influenza) Reproduction-fast and high numbers E. coli can divide into two within 15 minutes 1---> billions in a day

Ease of working with microorganisms no special training grow everywhere

2)Microbes can (not do) cause disease. Pathogenicity 1% of know microbes casuse disease. 99% known don't cause disease we only know of 1% of the microorganisms on earth human centric-any thing micro kill- bad rep of bacteria we care about our health too much germs are always bad belief Vast majority do not cause diesease we have adapted Pathogenicity adaptation between pathogens (microorganisms and animals/humans) *** check on recording (what)????defined as a disagreement between a microbe and you If our bodies and microorganisms can work together they will not become harmful 1,000-10,000 more microorganisms teeming on us than our own cells Bacteria is far less worse and less likely to cause disease than viruses viral infections vs. bacterial infections Some microorganisms will avoid humans all together, do not like human temp (37 C) Bread yeast (37 C too hot) Bacteria such as the ones found at Yellowstone need much higher temps (all the different colors are different types of microorganisms) A lot of bacteria lives in our bodies and keeps us healthy E. Coli in our intestines, produces vitamin K giving us the supply we need of vitamin K When we are healthy: Bacteria is at its highest, they fill areas of our body so that when bad bacteria enters our body they have no where to go, because good bacteria already is filling where bad could go Anti-bacterial/antibiotics, kills good bacteria leaving spaces for bad bacteria to go into, making one immuno-comprimised 3) Make food Food and drinkmicroorganisms are part of some or all production beer and wine-produced with assistance yogurt- contains a probiotichealthy bacteria bread products-yeast cheese tofu sauerkraut On the opposite end of food production is food spoilage There's a difference between spoilage organisms and food borne infectious diseases

Food spoilage Food has been altered in its taste or consistency milk-drinking from the carton will introduce more bacteria-->most often won't make you sick lettuce-slimy film is bacteria Preventing food borne illnesses/infectious disease and food spoilage Microorganisms are the reason we cook and refrigerate foods lowers the chances of diseases causing microorganisms Another reason cooking is so important: microorganisms can lack taste or smell cooking can insure that we don't consume them E. Coli 4) Microorganisms are essential for recycling Two types decompositionmicroorganisms are essential, its what they do naturally Bioremidationtechnology steps in to use microbes in a unnatural way for recycling synthetic decomposition manipulation of the genes to make more microbes microbes genetically engineered to clean up natural messes oil spills benzene Currently there are only 2 things that are unable to decompose styrofoam additive to gasoline, TBME 5) Microorganisms are everywhere Because they are so abundant the have to impact us Require only one thing to survive wateronly thing needed for a microorganism to live in an enviroment even the moisture in the air is enough for microorganisms to survive dew on a blade of grass-teeming with millions of microorganisms Five impacts of microorganisms: 1) Teaches us basic biology 2) Microorganisms can affect our health 3) Make food or drink 4) Essential for recycling 5) They are everywhere

Classification of Microorganisms
No common names such as dog or cat more complex Nomenclature naming method binomial nomenclature genous species Order is as follows (***need to know this) Kingdom domain Fillum Class Order Families Genous ** have to write for all bacteriathis is there common name Species ** Genous is always capitalized species is never capitalized If typed the name is italicized If had written both names are underlined Strain is represented by numbers or letters defines if it is a good or bad strain all the same genous or species Example: E. coli 0157:H7