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Zhijian Yu, Minjian Zhao, Lifeng Liu

Department of Information Science & Electronic Engineering

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov. China, 310027

Email: yuzhijian@263.net

Zhiyong Luo

Haige Communication Co. Ltd.

Guangzhou, Guangdong Prov. China, 510655

AbstractA data-aided synchronization method for jointly

estimating the symbol timing and carrier frequency offset has

been proposed for 4-ary CPFSK modulation with h = 0.25. The

proposed algorithm is based on a special preamble and has a

feedforward structure that is suitable for digital realizations.

Simulation results indicate the timing and frequency recovery

algorithm can be employed with short preamble of 16 symbols

and is well suited for burst mode transmissions.

I. INTRODUCTION

Due to their superior bandwidth efciency and constant

envelope properties, M-ary continuous phase frequency shift

keying (M-CPFSK) signals with modulation index 1/M are

very attractive for data transmission over nonlinear chan-

nels. Demodulation in digital communication systems requires

knowledge of the symbol timing and carrier frequency offset.

Mistiming and frequency drifts arise due to propagation,

Doppler effects and mismatch between transmitter and receiver

oscillators.

Some symbol timing and frequency recovery have been

proposed in the literature [6]-[10]. In [10] carrier recovery

scheme for 4-ary CPFSK with h = 0.25 is presented, where

the CPFSK signal is shaped with a rectangle frequency pulse.

A raised cosine frequency pulse is preferred for lowering

the adjacent interfere and improving the error rate perfor-

mance [13]. In [6] a nondata-aided algorithm is proposed to

recover the symbol timing and carrier frequency offset for

MSK signals. The general case of MSK-type modulation is

discussed in [7]. However in burst mode transmissions, rapid

timing and frequency synchronization is essential as receivers

must be able to correctly synchronize on short burst of data.

Data-aided synchronization techniques are preferred for these

applications.

In this paper we propose a data-aided timing and frequency

recovery scheme for 4-ary CPFSK (4-CPFSK) with modu-

lation index h = 0.25. The pulse shaped CPFSK signal is

considered along with a raised cosine pulse.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. The

signal model and some basic notations are introduced in

Section II. In Section III, the algorithm is described. Numerical

results are provided in Section IV. Section V contains our

conclusions are.

II. SIGNAL MODEL

The complex envelope of an M-CPFSK signal may be

written as

s(t) = e

j(t;

) (1)

where

(t; ) = 2h

+

k=

k

q(t kT) (2)

is the information bearing phase. In the above equation, h is

the modulation index, T is the symbol interval, q(t) is the

phase pulse, and = {

k

} are independent data symbols

taking on the values in the set R = {1, 3, , (M1)}.

The phase pulse q(t) is related to the frequency pulse h(t) by

the relation

q(t) =

_

t

h()d. (3)

The pulse h(t) is time limited to the interval (0, LT) and is

normalized so that

q(LT) = 1/2. (4)

A raised cosine (LRC) frequency pulse with

h(t) =

_

1

2LT

_

1 cos

_

2

t

LT

_

, 0 t LT

0, otherwise.

(5)

is preferred because the error rate performance of M-ary

CPFSK signals with modulation index 1/M can be signi-

cantly improved by employing a raised cosine baseband pulse

[13].

We assume that s(t) is transmitted over an AWGN channel.

The complex envelope of the received signal is modelled as

x(t) = e

j2ft+

s(t ) + n(t) (6)

where f and represent the frequency offset and the carrier

phase, respectively, is the timing epoch, and n(t) is the

channel noise which is assumed to be white and Gaussian

with a one side spectral density N

0

=

2

n

. Then the signal-to-

noise rate (SNR) per symbol is given as SNR= E

s

/N

0

, where

E

s

represents the received signal energy per symbol.

In a digital implementation of the receiver, the waveform

x(t) is sampled at some rate T

s

= T/N, where N is the

oversampling factor. In the study, we take N large enough to

avoid aliasing.

0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 (C) 2004 IEEE

1762 0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE

Denoting x

k

(i) the sample of x(t) taken at t = kT + iT

s

,

we have

x

k

(i) = e

j[(kT+iT

s

;)+2f(kT+iT

s

)+]

+ n

k

(i) (7)

with 0 i N 1. In the above equation, the index k

counts the symbol intervals while i counts the samples within

a symbol interval.

III. TIMING AND FREQUENCY ESTIMATION

In this section, we describe the synchronization algorithm

for 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK modulation. This discussion

is also suitable for LRC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK signals with

any other L.

For 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK modulation with h = 0.25,

(2) can be written as

(t; ) =

2

+

k=

k

q(t kT) (8)

where

k

{1, 3}.

We set the preamble to the following structure

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 .

Then the signal in the preamble interval is periodic with a

period 4T. We can describe s(t) as

s(t) = exp

_

j

2

+

k=

q

4T

(t 4kT)

_

(9)

with

q

4T

(t) =

_

_

1

4

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, 0 < t T

1

4

+

t

2T

, T < t 2T

3

4

+

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, 2T < t 3T

9

4

t

2T

, 3T < t 4T.

(10)

To recover the symbol timing and carrier frequency offset,

consider the one-lag autocorrelation of x

4

(t)

c(t; , f) = E

_

[x(t)x

(t T)]

4

_

(11)

where E{} denotes the expectation operation. Inserting (6)

and (9) into (11) yields

c(t; , f) = E

_

exp

_

j2

+

k=

p(t 4kT)

__

e

j8fT

+ N(t) (12)

where N(t) is a noise term and

p(t) = q

4T

(t) q

4T

(t T). (13)

For the convenience, we write c(t; , f) as

c(t; , f) = c(t )e

j8fT

+ N(t) (14)

with

c(t) = E

_

exp

_

j2

+

k=

p(t 4kT)

__

. (15)

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

Normalized time, t/T

c

(

t

)

L=1

L=2

L=3

Fig. 1. Shapes of c(t).

Its shown from (10) that (13) can be written as

p(t) =

_

1

2

+

t

2T

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, 0 < t T

1

2

+

t

2T

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, T < t 2T

3

2

t

2T

+

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, 2T < t 3T

3

2

t

2T

+

1

2

sin

2t

2T

, 3T < t 4T.

(16)

Its obvious that p(t) is also a periodic signal with a period

of 4T. The signal snapshots of (0, T], (T, 2T], (2T, 3T]

and (3T, 4T] appear with equal probability 1/4. Then the

expectation in (15) can be got

c(t)

=

1

4

exp

_

j2

_

1

2

+

t

2T

1

2

sin

2t

2T

__

+

1

4

exp

_

j2

_

1

2

+

t + T

2T

1

2

sin

2(t + T)

2T

__

+

1

4

exp

_

j2

_

3

2

t + 2T

2T

+

1

2

sin

2(t + 2T)

2T

__

+

1

4

exp

_

j2

_

3

2

t + 3T

2T

+

1

2

sin

2(t + 3T)

2T

__

=

1

4

exp

_

j

t

T

__

exp

_

j sin

2t

2T

_

+ exp

_

j sin

2t

2T

__

1

4

exp

_

j

t

T

__

exp

_

j sin

2t

2T

_

exp

_

j sin

2t

2T

__

=

j

2

sin

_

sin

2t

2T

__

exp

_

j

t

T

_

exp

_

j

t

T

__

= sin

_

sin

t

T

_

sin

_

t

T

_

. (17)

The line with a legend L = 2 in Fig. 1 illustrates the shape

of c(t). Its shown that c(t) is periodic with a period of T.

Substituting (17) into (14) yields

c(t; , f) = sin

_

sin

(t )

T

_

sin

_

(t )

T

_

e

j8fT

+ N(t). (18)

0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 (C) 2004 IEEE

1763 0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE

Its clear that c(t; , f) provides information about the

parameter and f. Assuming for simplicity that the noise

term is negligible, we get

(t) = sin

_

sin

(t )

T

_

sin

_

(t )

T

_

e

j8fT

. (19)

|(t)| is even with = 0 and the location of the maximum

of |(t)| is

T

2

. Let us denote by (i) the samples of (t)

taken at the time t = iT/N. Then from the above equation

we have

(i) = sin

_

sin

_

_

i

N

T

___

sin

_

_

i

N

T

__

e

j8fT

. (20)

For |(i)|, taking the Fourier transform and rearranging yields

=

T

2

arg

_

N1

i=0

|(i)| e

j2i/N

_

. (21)

gives an estimation of the location of the maximum of |(t)|.

As is explained above, the location of the maximum of |(t)|

is

T

2

. Then the estimation of is given as

= +

T

2

. (22)

and 0 < T.

Let i

max

denote the index of the maximum of |(i)|, which

can be taken as the round of . Then the estimation of

frequency offset is given as

fT =

arg{(i

max

)}

8

. (23)

In a digital implementation the computation of the expecta-

tion is performed by an averaging lter of length L

0

over the

sequence of samples [x

k

(i)x

k1

(i)]

4

in the preamble interval

where i is xed. Then

(i) is given by

(i) =

1

L

0

L

0

1

k=0

_

x

k

(i)x

k1

(i)

4

(24)

where 0 i N 1 and L

0

should be an integer multiple

of 4 because of the preamble structure.

c(t) for other L can be derived as the discussion above. Fig.

1 shows the shape of c(t) for other L such as L =1 and 3.

IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS

In this section, we provide some numerical results about the

performance of the timing and frequency recovery algorithm

on the AWGN channel. We assume the receiver lter band-

width be large enough not to distort the signal components.

The oversampling factor has been set to 8 and the averaging

lter length L

0

to 16, 32, 64 and 128.

Fig. 2 illustrates the average frequency estimations

E{

fT} as function of fT for E

s

/N

0

=10dB. The perfect

timing is assumed at the receiver. From (23), the frequency

offset estimation

fT range is (

1

8

,

1

8

] for < arg{} .

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

A

v

e

r

a

g

e

f

r

e

q

e

u

n

c

y

e

s

t

im

a

t

io

n

s

Normalized freqency, fT

ideal

L

0

=128

L

0

=16

Fig. 2. Average frequency estimations for 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK

(SNR=10dB).

5 10 15 20 25

10

7

10

6

10

5

10

4

10

3

10

2

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

M

S

E

Es/No(dB)

L

0

=128

L

0

=64

L

0

=32

L

0

=16

Fig. 3. Frequency MSE for 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK (fT = 0.05).

If the normalized frequency offset fT is out of the range

(

1

8

,

1

8

], the average frequency estimation will be

E{

fT} = fT +

k

4

(25)

where k is chosen to satisfy

1

8

< fT +

k

8

1

8

. Then the

maximum unbiased estimation range is |fT| <

1

8

. Fig. 2

appears that the estimations are unbiased over range |fT| <

0.07 for L

0

= 16 and |fT| < 0.1 for L

0

= 128. The

unbiased estimation range gets narrower as L

0

decreases.

Fig. 3 shows the normalized frequency mean square error

(MSE), E{(

f f)T]

2

}, versus E

s

/N

0

for the averaging

lter length L

0

=16, 32, 64 and 128. The frequency offset

fT = 0.05 and perfect timing is assumed.

Fig. 4 and 5 illustrate the normalized timing MSE, E{(

)/T]

2

}, as a function of E

s

/N

0

. Fig. 4 illustrates the timing

performance with different averaging lter length L

0

. We

assume the carrier frequency offset fT = 0. Simulation

results show the performance increases with the averaging

lter length L

0

.

Fig. 5 shows the timing MSE for the frequency offset

fT=0, 0.05 and the averaging lter length L

0

=16, 128. It

is seen the timing algorithm is robust to the carrier frequency

offset.

0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 (C) 2004 IEEE

1764 0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE

5 10 15 20 25

10

4

10

3

10

2

10

1

T

im

in

g

M

S

E

Es/No(dB)

L

0

=128

L

0

=64

L

0

=32

L

0

=16

Fig. 4. Timing MSE for 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK (fT = 0).

5 10 15 20 25

10

4

10

3

10

2

10

1

T

im

in

g

M

S

E

Es/No(dB)

L

0

=128, fT=0

L

0

=128, fT=0.05

L

0

=16, fT=0

L

0

=16, fT=0.05

Fig. 5. Timing MSE for 2RC pulse shaped 4-CPFSK.

In summary, the results show the synchronization algorithm

with L

0

= 16 is suited for burst mode transmissions where

rapid synchronization is preferred.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper we present an all-digital algorithm for jointly

estimating the timing and carrier frequency offset in 4-ary

CPFSK modulation with h = 0.25. The pulse shaped CPFSK

signal is considered along with a raised cosine pulse. The

proposed algorithm is based on a special preamble and has

a feedforward structure that is suitable for digital implemen-

tation. Simulation results indicate the timing and frequency

recovery algorithm can be employed with short preamble

and is well suited for burst mode transmissions where rapid

synchronization is essential.

It is interesting to mention that the algorithm can be also

used to nondata-aided synchronization systems. Equation (18)

will be achieved as the discussion in [7] without the proposed

preamble structure and longer averaging lter length will be

wanted.

REFERENCES

[1] J. B. Anderson, T. Aulin and C. E. Sundberg. Digital Phase Modulation,

New York: Plenum, 1986.

[2] S. C. White and N. C. Beaulieu. On the application of the Cramer-

Rao and detection theory bounds to mean square error fo symbol timing

recovery, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1635-1643, Oct.

1992.

[3] M. G. Floyd. Interpolation in digital modems-part I: fundamentals,

IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 501-507, Mar. 1993.

[4] M. G. Floyd. Interpolation in digital modems-part II: implementation

and performance, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 998-1008,

June 1993.

[5] J. Armstrong and D. Strickland. Symbol synchronization using signal

samples and interpolation, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, No. 2, pp.

318-321, Feb. 1993.

[6] R. Mehlan, Y. E. Chen and H. Meyr. A fully digital feedforward MSK

demodulator with joint frequency offset and symbol timing estimation for

burst mode mobile radio, IEEE Trans. VT, vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 434-443,

Nov. 1993.

[7] M. Morelli and U. Mengali. Joint frequency and timing recovery for

MSK-Type modulation, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 938-946,

June 1999.

[8] G. Caire and C. Elia. A new symbol timing and carrier frequency offset

estimation algorithm for noncoherent orthogonal M-CPFSK, IEEE Trans.

Commun., vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1314-1326, Oct. 1999.

[9] Y. Zhan, Z. Ma and Z. Cao. A novel carrrier recovery method for

CPFSK Demodulation, in Proceedings of International Conference on

Communication Technology, Aug. 2000, vol. 2, pp. 1351-1353.

[10] J. A. Schoonees and R. M. Braun. A carrrier recovery scheme for 4-

CPFSK with h =

1

4

, in Proceedings of IEEE South African Symposium

on Communications and Signal Processing, Aug. 1993, pp. 118-122.

[11] A. Grifn and D. P. Taylor. On differentially demodulated CPFSK,

Proc. ICC 96, (Dallas, TX), 1996, vol. 1, pp. 354-358.

[12] N. Ekanayake and R. Liyanapathirana. One the exact formula for the

minimum squared Euclidean distance of CPFSK, IEEE Trans. Comm.,

vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 2917-2918, Nov. 1993.

[13] J. P. Fonseka. Baseband pulse shaping to reduce intersymbol interfer-

ence in narrowband M-ary CPFSK signaling, in Proceedings of the Tenth

Annual International Conference on Computers and Communications,

(Phoenix), Mar. 1991, pp. 393-400.

0-7803-8521-7/04/$20.00 (C) 2004 IEEE

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