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SHARLENE KATZ

DAVI D SCHWARTZ
JAMES FLYNN
I and Q Components in
Communications Signals
and Single Sideband
7/22/2010
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OVERVIEW
Description of I and Q signal representation
Advantages of using I and Q components
Using I and Q to demodulate signals
I and Q signal processing in the USRP
Single Sideband (SSB)
Processing I and Q components of a SSB signal in the
USRP
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Standard Representation of Communications
Signals
Modulation Time Domain Frequency Domain
AM
DSB
FM
X
AM
(f)
f
-f
c
f
c
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Overview of I and Q Representation
I and Q are the In-phase and Quadrature
components of a signal.
Complete description of a signal is:
x(t) can therefore be represented as a vector with
magnitude and phase angle.
Phase angle is not absolute, but relates to some
arbitrary reference.
( ) ( ) ( ) x t I t jQ t = +
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Overview of I and Q Representation
In Digital Signal Processing (DSP), ultimate
reference is local sampling clock.
DSP relies heavily on I and Q signals for processing.
Use of I and Q allows for processing of signals near
DC or zero frequency.
If we use real signals (cosine) to shift a modulated signal to
baseband we get sum and difference frequencies
If we use a complex sinusoid to shift a modulated signal to
baseband we ONLY get the sum
This avoids problems with images
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Overview of I and Q Representation
Nyquist frequency is twice highest frequency, not
twice bandwidth of signal.
For example: common frequency used in analog
signal processing is 455 kHz. To sample in digital
processing, requires 910 kS/s. But if the signal
bandwidth is only 10 kHz. With I & Q, sampling
requires only 20 kS/s.
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Overview of I and Q Representation
I and Q allows discerning of positive and negative
frequencies.
If :
Then:
( ) H f a jb = +
( ) H f a jb =
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Overview of I and Q Representation
Representing familiar characteristics of a signal with I
and Q:
Amplitude:
Phase:
Frequency:
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) A t I t Q t = +
1
( )
( ) tan
( )
Q t
t
I t
|

| |
=
|
\ .
2 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Q t I t
I t Q t
t
t t
f t
t I t Q t
|
c c

c
c c
= =
c +
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DEMODULATION
AM:
SSB:
FM:
PM:
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) x t i t q t = +
( ) ( ) x t i t =
1
1 ( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
( ) tan
( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
i t q t q t i t
x t
t i t i t q t q t

( +
| |
=
| (
A
\ .

1
( )
( ) tan
( )
q t
x t
i t

(
=
(

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Overview of I and Q Representation
The traditional FM equation:
The analytic equation:
Modulation and Demodulation methods are different
when I and Q representation is used
( ) cos( ( ) )
FM c m
x t t k x t dt e = +
}
( ) ( )cos( ) ( )sin( )
FM c c
x t I t t jQ t t e e = +
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USRP DAUGHTER BOARD
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
AMP
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FPGA
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
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Complex Multiply
I
Q
cos (
f
t
n
)
cos (
f
t
n
)
I
Q
(A + j B) * (C + j D) = AC BD + j (BC + AD)
I + j Q
cose
f
t +
sine
f
t
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Sideband Modulation
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Wheres the intelligence?
A signal carries useful information only when it changes.
Change of ANY carrier parameter produces sidebands.
The intelligence or information is in the sidebands.
Why not just send the sidebands or just a sideband?
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AM Review
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AM review:
Carrier is modulated by varying amplitude linearly
proportional to intelligence (baseband) signal amplitude.
Block Diagram
m x
+
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t) x
AM
(t)=A
c
[1+mx(t)]cos
e
c
t
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AM: Time Domain
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AM in the Time Domain
Unmodulated
carrier
100% modulated
carrier
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AM: Frequency Domain
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AM in the Frequency Domain
carrier
upper
sideband
lower
sideband
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Double Sideband Modulation (DSB)
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Lets just transmit the sidebands
m x
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t) +
X
x
DSB
(t) = A
c
*m*x(t)*cose
c
t
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DSB: Time Domain
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Double Sideband in the Time Domain
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DSB: Frequency Domain
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Double Sideband in the Frequency Domain
carrier was here
upper
sideband
lower
sideban
d
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Example of a DSB Signal
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DSB Spectrum
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Note: the upper and lower sidebands are the same
Do we need both of them?
carrier was here
upper
sideband
lower
sideband
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SSB Signals
7/22/2010
A sideband signal is obtained by adding a sideband
filter to capture the upper or lower sideband.
x
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t)
Lower
Sideband
Filter
Low Pass Filter
f
f
f
f
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Example of a USB Signal
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Comparison of DSB and SSB
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Power: SSB requires half of the power of DSB
Bandwidth: SSB requires half of the bandwidth of
DSB
Complexity: SSB modulators/demodulators are
more complex
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SSB Example
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SSB Example
Modulate as Upper Sideband Signal:
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SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
AMP
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SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
C
AMP
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SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
AMP
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SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
C
AMP
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SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
AMP
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SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
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SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
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SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
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SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
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Practical SSB Reception
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Example above assumed no other signals on the
band and perfectly synchronized oscillators
Need to isolate (filter) the signal of interest and deal
with oscillators slightly out of sync
GRC tutorial demonstrates Weavers Method of
demodulating SSB that solves these problems