Você está na página 1de 37

SHARLENE KATZ

DAVI D SCHWARTZ
JAMES FLYNN
I and Q Components in
Communications Signals
and Single Sideband
7/22/2010
1
OVERVIEW
Description of I and Q signal representation
Advantages of using I and Q components
Using I and Q to demodulate signals
I and Q signal processing in the USRP
Single Sideband (SSB)
Processing I and Q components of a SSB signal in the
USRP
7/22/2010
2
Standard Representation of Communications
Signals
Modulation Time Domain Frequency Domain
AM
DSB
FM
X
AM
(f)
f
-f
c
f
c
7/22/2010
3
Overview of I and Q Representation
I and Q are the In-phase and Quadrature
components of a signal.
Complete description of a signal is:
x(t) can therefore be represented as a vector with
magnitude and phase angle.
Phase angle is not absolute, but relates to some
arbitrary reference.
( ) ( ) ( ) x t I t jQ t = +
7/22/2010
4
Overview of I and Q Representation
In Digital Signal Processing (DSP), ultimate
reference is local sampling clock.
DSP relies heavily on I and Q signals for processing.
Use of I and Q allows for processing of signals near
DC or zero frequency.
If we use real signals (cosine) to shift a modulated signal to
baseband we get sum and difference frequencies
If we use a complex sinusoid to shift a modulated signal to
baseband we ONLY get the sum
This avoids problems with images
7/22/2010
5
Overview of I and Q Representation
Nyquist frequency is twice highest frequency, not
twice bandwidth of signal.
For example: common frequency used in analog
signal processing is 455 kHz. To sample in digital
processing, requires 910 kS/s. But if the signal
bandwidth is only 10 kHz. With I & Q, sampling
requires only 20 kS/s.
7/22/2010
6
Overview of I and Q Representation
I and Q allows discerning of positive and negative
frequencies.
If :
Then:
( ) H f a jb = +
( ) H f a jb =
7/22/2010
7
Overview of I and Q Representation
Representing familiar characteristics of a signal with I
and Q:
Amplitude:
Phase:
Frequency:
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) A t I t Q t = +
1
( )
( ) tan
( )
Q t
t
I t
|

| |
=
|
\ .
2 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Q t I t
I t Q t
t
t t
f t
t I t Q t
|
c c

c
c c
= =
c +
7/22/2010
8
DEMODULATION
AM:
SSB:
FM:
PM:
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) x t i t q t = +
( ) ( ) x t i t =
1
1 ( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
( ) tan
( ) ( 1) ( ) ( 1)
i t q t q t i t
x t
t i t i t q t q t

( +
| |
=
| (
A
\ .

1
( )
( ) tan
( )
q t
x t
i t

(
=
(

7/22/2010
9
Overview of I and Q Representation
The traditional FM equation:
The analytic equation:
Modulation and Demodulation methods are different
when I and Q representation is used
( ) cos( ( ) )
FM c m
x t t k x t dt e = +
}
( ) ( )cos( ) ( )sin( )
FM c c
x t I t t jQ t t e e = +
7/22/2010
10
USRP DAUGHTER BOARD
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
ADC
AMP
7/22/2010
11
FPGA
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
7/22/2010
12
Complex Multiply
I
Q
cos (
f
t
n
)
cos (
f
t
n
)
I
Q
(A + j B) * (C + j D) = AC BD + j (BC + AD)
I + j Q
cose
f
t +
sine
f
t
7/22/2010
13
Sideband Modulation
7/22/2010
Wheres the intelligence?
A signal carries useful information only when it changes.
Change of ANY carrier parameter produces sidebands.
The intelligence or information is in the sidebands.
Why not just send the sidebands or just a sideband?
14
AM Review
7/22/2010
AM review:
Carrier is modulated by varying amplitude linearly
proportional to intelligence (baseband) signal amplitude.
Block Diagram
m x
+
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t) x
AM
(t)=A
c
[1+mx(t)]cos
e
c
t
15
AM: Time Domain
7/22/2010
AM in the Time Domain
Unmodulated
carrier
100% modulated
carrier
16
AM: Frequency Domain
7/22/2010
AM in the Frequency Domain
carrier
upper
sideband
lower
sideband
17
Double Sideband Modulation (DSB)
7/22/2010
Lets just transmit the sidebands
m x
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t) +
X
x
DSB
(t) = A
c
*m*x(t)*cose
c
t
18
DSB: Time Domain
7/22/2010
Double Sideband in the Time Domain
19
DSB: Frequency Domain
7/22/2010
Double Sideband in the Frequency Domain
carrier was here
upper
sideband
lower
sideban
d
20
Example of a DSB Signal
7/22/2010
21
DSB Spectrum
7/22/2010
Note: the upper and lower sidebands are the same
Do we need both of them?
carrier was here
upper
sideband
lower
sideband
22
SSB Signals
7/22/2010
A sideband signal is obtained by adding a sideband
filter to capture the upper or lower sideband.
x
A
c
cose
c
t
x(t)
Lower
Sideband
Filter
Low Pass Filter
f
f
f
f
23
Example of a USB Signal
7/22/2010
24
Comparison of DSB and SSB
7/22/2010
Power: SSB requires half of the power of DSB
Bandwidth: SSB requires half of the bandwidth of
DSB
Complexity: SSB modulators/demodulators are
more complex
25
SSB Example
Start with arbitrary waveform in baseband:
7/22/2010
26
SSB Example
Modulate as Upper Sideband Signal:
7/22/2010
27
SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
ADC
AMP
7/22/2010 28
SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
AD
C
AMP
7/22/2010
29
SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
ADC
AMP
7/22/2010 30
SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
AD
C
AMP
7/22/2010 31
SSB Example
I
Q
cos
c
t
sin
c
t
LPF
LPF
ADC
ADC
AMP
7/22/2010 32
SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
7/22/2010 33
SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
7/22/2010 34
SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
7/22/2010 35
SSB Example
I
Q
complex
multiply
sin
f
t
n
cos
f
t
n
decimate
decimate
n = sample
number
I
Q
To USB
and PC
7/22/2010 36
Practical SSB Reception
7/22/2010
37
Example above assumed no other signals on the
band and perfectly synchronized oscillators
Need to isolate (filter) the signal of interest and deal
with oscillators slightly out of sync
GRC tutorial demonstrates Weavers Method of
demodulating SSB that solves these problems