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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT ALBANY, NY 12234

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY


2011 Edition

Table A
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Name

Value

Standard Pressure

Unit

101.3 kPa
1 atm

Standard Temperature

kilopascal
atmosphere

273 K
0C

kelvin
degree Celsius

Table B
Physical Constants for Water
Heat of Fusion

334 J/g

Heat of Vaporization

2260 J/g

Specific Heat Capacity of H2O()

4.18 J/gK

Table C
Selected Prefixes
Factor

Prefix

Symbol

103

kilo-

10 1

deci-

10 2

centi-

10 3

milli-

10 6

micro-

10 9

nano-

10 12

pico-

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Table D
Selected Units
Symbol

Name

Quantity

meter

length

gram

mass

Pa

pascal

pressure

kelvin

temperature

mol

mole

amount of
substance

joule

energy, work,
quantity of heat

second

time

min

minute

time

hour

time

day

time

year

time

liter

volume

ppm

parts per million

concentration

molarity

solution
concentration

atomic mass unit

atomic mass

Table E
Selected Polyatomic Ions
Formula

Name

Formula

Name

H3O+

hydronium

CrO42

chromate

Hg22+

mercury(I)

Cr2O72

dichromate

NH4+

ammonium

MnO4

permanganate

C2H3O2
CH3COO

acetate

NO2

nitrite
nitrate

CN

cyanide

NO3

CO32

peroxide

carbonate

O22

HCO3

OH

hydroxide

hydrogen
carbonate

PO43

phosphate

C2O42

oxalate

SCN

thiocyanate

ClO

hypochlorite

SO32

sulfite

ClO2

chlorite

SO42

sulfate

ClO3

chlorate

HSO4

hydrogen sulfate

ClO4

perchlorate

S2O32

thiosulfate

Table F
Solubility Guidelines for Aqueous Solutions
Ions That Form
Soluble Compounds

Exceptions

Ions That Form


Insoluble Compounds*

Exceptions

Group 1 ions
(Li+, Na+, etc.)

carbonate (CO32)

when combined with Group 1


ions or ammonium (NH4+)

ammonium (NH4+)

chromate (CrO42)

acetate (C2H3O2 or
CH3COO)

when combined with Group 1


ions, Ca2+, Mg2+, or
ammonium (NH4+)

phosphate (PO43)

hydrogen carbonate
(HCO3)

when combined with Group 1


ions or ammonium (NH4+)

sulfide (S2)

chlorate (ClO3)

when combined with Group 1


ions or ammonium (NH4+)

hydroxide (OH)

when combined with Group 1


ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr 2+, or
ammonium (NH4+)

nitrate (NO3)

halides

(Cl,

Br, I)

sulfates (SO42)

when combined with


Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg22+
when combined with Ag+,
Ca2+, Sr 2+, Ba2+, or Pb2+

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

*compounds having very low solubility in H2O

Table G
Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure
150.

KI

NaNO3

140.

130.

KNO3
120.

110.

Solubility (g solute/100. g H2O)

100.

90.

80.

NH4Cl
70.

HCl
60.

KCl

50.

40.

NaCl
30.

KClO3
20.

NH3
SO2

10.

0
0

10.

20.

30.

40.

50.

60.

70.

80.

90.

100.

Temperature (C)

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Table H
Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids
200.

propanone
ethanol
water

Vapor Pressure (kPa)

150.

ethanoic
acid
101.3 kPa

100.

50.

0
0

25

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

50.

75

100.

125

Table I
Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K
H (kJ)*

Reaction
CH4(g) + 2O2(g)

CO2(g) + 2H2O()

C3H8(g) + 5O2(g)

3CO2(g) + 4H2O()

890.4

Table J
Activity Series**
Most
Active

Metals
Li

Nonmetals Most
Active
F2

2219.2

Rb

Cl2

2C8H18() + 25O2(g)

16CO2(g) + 18H2O()

10943

Br2

2CH3OH() + 3O2(g)

2CO2(g) + 4H2O()

1452

Cs

I2

C2H5OH() + 3O2(g)

2CO2(g) + 3H2O()

1367

Ba

C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g)

6CO2(g) + 6H2O()

2804

Sr

566.0

Ca

393.5

Na

3351

Mg

+182.6

Al

2CO(g) + O2(g)

2CO2(g)

C(s) + O2(g)

CO2(g)

4Al(s) + 3O2(g)

2Al2O3(s)

N2(g) + O2(g)

2NO(g)

N2(g) + 2O2(g)

2NO2(g)

+66.4

Ti

2H2(g) + O2(g)

2H2O(g)

483.6

Mn

2H2(g) + O2(g)

2H2O()

571.6

Zn

N2(g) + 3H2(g)

2NH3(g)

91.8

Cr

2C(s) + 3H2(g)

C2H6(g)

84.0

Fe

2C(s) + 2H2(g)

C2H4(g)

+52.4

Co

+227.4

Ni

+53.0

Sn

2C(s) + H2(g)

C2H2(g)

H2(g) + I2(g)

2HI(g)

KNO3(s)

H2O

K+(aq) + NO3(aq)

+34.89

Pb

NaOH(s)

H2O

Na+(aq) + OH(aq)

44.51

H2

NH4Cl(s)

H2O

NH4+(aq) + Cl(aq)

+14.78

Cu

+25.69

Ag

NH4NO3(s)
NaCl(s)
LiBr(s)

H2O
H2O

H2O

NH4+(aq) + NO3(aq)

Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)
Li+(aq)

H+(aq) + OH(aq)

Br(aq)
H2O()

+3.88
48.83
55.8

*The H values are based on molar quantities represented in the equations.


A minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction.

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Least
Active

Au

Least
Active

**Activity Series is based on the hydrogen


standard. H2 is not a metal.

Table N
Selected Radioisotopes

Table K
Common Acids
Formula

Name

Nuclide

HCl(aq)

hydrochloric acid

HNO2(aq)

nitrous acid

HNO3(aq)

nitric acid

H2SO3(aq)

sulfurous acid

H2SO4(aq)

sulfuric acid

H3PO4(aq)

phosphoric acid

H2CO3(aq)
or
CO2(aq)

carbonic acid

CH3COOH(aq)
or
HC2H3O2(aq)

ethanoic acid
(acetic acid)

Table L
Common Bases
Formula
NaOH(aq)

sodium hydroxide

KOH(aq)

potassium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2(aq)

calcium hydroxide

NH3(aq)

aqueous ammonia

Table M
Common AcidBase Indicators
Indicator

Approximate
pH Range
for Color
Change

Color
Change

methyl orange

3.14.4

red to yellow

bromthymol blue

6.07.6

yellow to blue

phenolphthalein

89

Decay
Mode

Nuclide
Name

198Au

2.695 d

gold-198

14C

5715 y

carbon-14

37Ca

182 ms

calcium-37

60Co

5.271 y

cobalt-60

137Cs

30.2 y

cesium-137

53Fe

8.51 min

iron-53

220Fr

27.4 s

3H

12.31 y

hydrogen-3

8.021 d

iodine-131

37K

1.23 s

potassium-37

42K

12.36 h

potassium-42

85Kr

10.73 y

krypton-85

7.13 s

nitrogen-16

19Ne

17.22 s

neon-19

32P

14.28 d

phosphorus-32

131I

16N

Name

Half-Life

francium-220

239Pu

2.410 104 y

plutonium-239

226Ra

1599 y

radium-226

222Rn

3.823 d

radon-222

90Sr

29.1 y

strontium-90

99Tc

2.13 105 y

technetium-99

232Th

1.40 1010 y

thorium-232

233U

1.592 105 y

uranium-233

235U

7.04 108 y

uranium-235

238U

4.47 109 y

uranium-238

Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 20102011,


CRC Press

colorless to pink

litmus

4.58.3

red to blue

bromcresol green

3.85.4

yellow to blue

thymol blue

8.09.6

yellow to blue

Source: The Merck Index, 14th ed., 2006, Merck Publishing Group

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Table O
Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry
Name

Notation

alpha particle

4 He
2

beta particle

0
1 e

Symbol

or 42

or 10

gamma radiation

0
0

neutron

1
0n

1H
1

or 11p

0
+1e

or +10

proton
positron

Table P
Organic Prefixes
Prefix

Number of
Carbon Atoms

meth-

eth-

prop-

but-

pent-

hex-

hept-

oct-

non-

dec-

10

Table Q
Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons
Name

Examples

General
Formula

Name

CnH2n+2

ethane

Structural Formula
H H

alkanes

H C C H
H H
H

alkenes

alkynes

CnH2n
CnH2n2

ethene

ethyne

C C
H

H C

C H

Note: n = number of carbon atoms


Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Table R
Organic Functional Groups
Class of
Compound

Functional
Group

General
Formula

halide
(halocarbon)

F (fluoro-)
Cl (chloro-)
Br (bromo-)
I (iodo-)

R X
(X represents
any halogen)

alcohol

OH

OH

CH3CH2CH2OH
1-propanol

ether

O R

CH3OCH2CH3
methyl ethyl ether

ketone

organic acid

C H

R C H

amide

CH3CH2C H
propanal
O

R C R

CH3CCH2CH2CH3
2-pentanone

C OH

C O

C OH
O

R C O R
R

amine

O
ester

CH3CHClCH3
2-chloropropane

O
aldehyde

Example

R N R

O R

C NH

C NH

CH3CH2C OH
propanoic acid
O
CH3CH2COCH3
methyl propanoate
CH3CH2CH2NH2
1-propanamine
O
CH3CH2C NH2
propanamide

Note: R represents a bonded atom or group of atoms.

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

P eriod

+1
1

Be

2-8-2

Sr

+1 137.33

2-8-18-8-2

38

+1 87.62

2-8-8-2

+2 138.9055

2-8-18-9-2

39

+2 88.9059

2-8-9-2

+2 44.9559

Ca 21Sc

20

+1 40.08

+2

+2

Fr

Zr

Hf

-18-32-18-9-2

Rf

104

+3 (261)

*18-32-10-2

72

+3 178.49

2-8-18-10-2

40

+3 91.224

V
2-8-13-1
+3 95.94
+5

+6 (98)

2-8-13-2

+2 54.9380
+3
+6

+4 101.07
+6
+7

2-8-14-2

+2 55.845
+3
+4
+7

Cr 25Mn 26Fe

24

+2 51.996
+3
+4
+5

Group

4
+2
+4

Co

+3 102.906

2-8-15-2

27

+2 58.9332
+3

Ni

+3 106.42

2-8-16-2

28

+2 58.693
+3

10
+1 65.409
+2

12

2-8-18-12-1
2-8-18-13-1

(266)

-18-32-12-2

74

+5 183.84

2-8-18-13-2

(272)

-18-32-13-2

2-8-18-15-1

+4 190.23
+6
+7

(277)

-18-32-14-2

Re 76Os

75

+6 186.207

Pr

+4 231.036

59

+3 140.908
+4

90

91

Th Pa

232.038

58

Ce

140.116

2-8-18-1
+2 107.868
+4

29
2-8-18-2

+1 112.41

+3 (145)

(281)

-18-32-17-1

78

Pt

2-8-18-18

+3 195.08
+4

+3 150.36

2-8-18-18-2

(280)

-18-32-18-1

79

(285)

-18-32-18-2

+1 200.59
+3

Au 80Hg

2-8-18-18-1

+2 196.967
+4

+2 151.964
+3

+2 157.25
+3

+3 158.925

+3 (244)
+4
+5
+6

+3 (243)
+4
+5
+6

+3 (247)
+4
+5
+6

+3 (247)

Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk


93

+3 (237)
+4
+5
+6

Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 20102011, CRC Press

**The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers 113 and above
will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC.

92

+4 238.029
+5

13

Al

In
Tl
(284)

-18-32-18-3

81

+1 204.383
+2

2-8-18-18-3

49

+2 114.818

2-8-18-3

+2 69.723

2-8-3

C
Si

Pb
(289)

-18-32-18-4

82

+1 207.2
+3

2-8-18-18-4

Sn
50

+3 118.71

2-8-18-4

+3 72.64

2-8-4

14

+3 28.0855

2-4

+3 12.011

14

+2 74.9216
+4

2-8-5

15

4 30.97376
+2
+4

2-5

4 14.0067
+2
+4

15

S
3 78.96
+3
+5

2-8-6

16

16
3 15.9994
2
1
+1
+2
+3
+4 8
+5 2-6
3 32.065
+3
+5

Group

2-8-18-6

(288)

-18-32-18-5

83

Bi

2-8-18-18-5

+2 208.980
+4

51

Po
(292)

-18-32-18-6

84

+3 (209)
+5

2-8-18-18-6

3 127.60
+3
+5

Sb 52Te

2-8-18-5

+2 121.760
+4

17

Cl

Br
l

(?)

18

He

Kr

(294)

-18-32-18-8

(222)

2-8-18-18-8

Xe
54

1 131.29
+1
+5
+7

2-8-18-8

36

1 83.798
+1
+5

2-8-8

18

1 39.948
+1
+5
+7

Ar

Ne
2-8

10

1 20.180

2
2

At 86Rn
-18-32-18-7

85

+2 (210)
+4

2-8-18-18-7

53

2 126.904
+4
+6

2-8-18-7

35

2 79.904
+4
+6

2-8-7

17

2 35.453
+4
+6

2-7

2 18.9984

18
4.00260

0
+2
+4
+6

0
+2

+3 164.930

98

Cf

+3 (251)
+4

+3 168.934

+3 173.04

99

+2 174.9668
+3

+3 (258)

+2 (259)
+3

Lr
103

+2 (262)
+3

Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu


+3 (257)

68

+3 167.259

Es 100Fm 101Md 102No

+3 (252)

Dy 67Ho
66

+3 162.500

+3

+3

Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113


Uut
Uup 116
Uuq 115
Uuh 117
Uus 118
Uuo
114
**

109

(276)

-18-32-15-2

77

Ir

2-8-18-16-1

+3 192.217
+4

Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb

60

+3 144.24

Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs

105

+4 (262)

-18-32-11-2

Ta

73

+4 180.948

41

26.98154

2-3

10.81

13

Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se

+2 63.546
+3

11

Note: Numbers in parentheses


are mass numbers of the most
stable or common isotope.

Relative atomic masses are based


on 12 C = 12 (exact)

Selected Oxidation States

Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd

+4 92.9064

2-8-11-2

23

+2 50.9415
+3
+4

2-4

12.011

*denotes the presence of (2-8-) for elements 72 and above

-18-32-18-8-2

Ra 89Ac

88

Ti

2-8-10-2

22

Atomic Number

Symbol

Atomic Mass

Periodic Table of the Elements

Electron Configuration

KEY

+3 47.867

2-8-18-18-9-2

+2 (227)

2-8-18-18-8-2

+1 (226)

-18-32-18-8-1

87

(223)

2-8-18-18-8-1

55

Cs 56Ba 57La

132.905

2-8-18-8-1

37

Rb

85.4678

2-8-8-1

19

39.0983

2-8-1

11

Na 12Mg

+1 24.305

2-2

+1 9.01218

Group

Li

22.98977

2-1

6.941

1.00794

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

10

H
He
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

36
37
38
39
40

Atomic Symbol
Number

1086
1402
1314
1681
2081

1312
2372
520.
900.
801

krypton
rubidium
strontium
yttrium
zirconium

gallium
germanium
arsenic (gray)
selenium (gray)
bromine

iron
cobalt
nickel
copper
zinc

scandium
titanium
vanadium
chromium
manganese

1351
403
549
600.
640.

579
762
944
941
1140.

762
760.
737
745
906

633
659
651
653
717

sulfur (monoclinic) 1000.


chlorine
1251
argon
1521
potassium
419
calcium
590.

sodium
496
magnesium
738
aluminum
578
silicon
787
phosphorus (white) 1012

carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
fluorine
neon

hydrogen
helium
lithium
beryllium
boron

Name

First
Ionization
Energy
(kJ/mol)

0.8
1.0
1.2
1.3

1.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
3.0

1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.7

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.6

2.6
3.2

0.8
1.0

0.9
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2

2.6
3.0
3.4
4.0

2.2

1.0
1.6
2.0

Electronegativity

116
312
1050.
1795
2128

303
1211
1090.
494
266

1811
1768
1728
1358
693

1814
1941
2183
2180.
1519

388
172
84
337
1115

371
923
933
1687
317

63
54
53
24

14

454
1560.
2348

Melting
Point
(K)

Table S
Properties of Selected Elements

120.
961
1655
3618
4682

2477
3106

958
332

3134
3200.
3186
2835
1180.

3109
3560.
3680.
2944
2334

718
239
87
1032
1757

1156
1363
2792
3538
554

77
90.
85
27

20.
4
1615
2744
4273

Boiling*
Point
(K)

0.003425
1.53
2.64
4.47
6.52

5.91
5.3234
5.75
4.809
3.1028

7.87
8.86
8.90
8.96
7.134

2.99
4.506
6.0
7.15
7.3

2.00
0.002898
0.001633
0.89
1.54

0.97
1.74
2.70
2.3296
1.823

0.001145
0.001308
0.001553
0.000825

0.000082
0.000164
0.534
1.85
2.34

Density**
(g/cm3)

116
215
190.
176
164

123
120.
120.
118
117

124
118
117
122
120.

159
148
144
130.
129

104
100.
101
200.
174

160.
140.
124
114
109

75
71
64
60.
62

32
37
130.
99
84

Atomic
Radius
(pm)

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

11

Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
Cs
Ba
La
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
At
Rn
Fr
Ra
Ac

46
47
48
49
50

51
52
53
54
55

56
57

72
73
74
75

76
77
78
79
80

81
82
83
84
85

86
87
88
89

radon
francium
radium
actinium

thallium
lead
bismuth
polonium
astatine

osmium
iridium
platinum
gold
mercury

hafnium
tantalum
tungsten
rhenium

barium
lanthanum

0.9
1.1

2.1
2.1
2.7
2.6
0.8

2.2
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.0

1.6
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.3

1000.
1193

904
723
387
161
302

1828
1235
594
430.
505

2750.
2896
2430.
2606
2237

Melting
Point
(K)

1037
393
509
499

589
716
703
812

814
865
864
890.
1007

659
728
759
756

0.7
0.9
1.1

1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4
1.9

1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9

202
300.
969
1323

577
600.
544
527
575

3306
2719
2041
1337
234

2506
3290.
3695
3458

Elements 5871 have been omitted.

503
538

831
869
1008
1170.
376

804
731
868
558
709

652
684
702
710.
720.

Electronegativity

Elements 90 and above have been omitted.

antimony (gray)
tellurium
iodine
xenon
cesium

palladium
silver
cadmium
indium
tin (white)

niobium
molybdenum
technetium
ruthenium
rhodium

Name

First
Ionization
Energy
(kJ/mol)

211

3471

1746
2022
1837
1235

5285
4701
4098
3129
630.

4876
5731
5828
5869

2170.
3737

1860.
1261
457
165
944

3236
2435
1040.
2345
2875

5017
4912
4538
4423
3968

Boiling*
Point
(K)

Source: CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 20102011, CRC Press

*boiling point at standard pressure


**density of solids and liquids at room temperature and density of gases at 298 K and 101.3 kPa
no data available

Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh

41
42
43
44
45

Atomic Symbol
Number

0.009074

5
10.

11.8
11.3
9.79
9.20

22.587
22.562
21.5
19.3
13.5336

13.3
16.4
19.3
20.8

3.62
6.15

6.68
6.232
4.933
0.005366
1.873

12.0
10.5
8.69
7.31
7.287

8.57
10.2
11
12.1
12.4

Density**
(g/cm3)

146
242
211
201

144
145
150.
142
148

136
132
130.
130.
132

164
158
150.
141

206
194

140.
137
136
136
238

130.
136
140.
142
140.

156
146
138
136
134

Atomic
Radius
(pm)

Table T
Important Formulas and Equations
d = density
m = mass
V = volume

m
V

Density

d=

Mole Calculations

number of moles =

Percent Error

% error =

Percent Composition

% composition by mass =

given mass
gram-formula mass

measured value accepted value


100
accepted value

parts per million =

mass of part
100
mass of whole

mass of solute
1 000 000
mass of solution

Concentration
moles of solute
liter of solution

molarity =

Combined Gas Law

P1V1
T1

P2V2
T2

Titration

MAVA = MBVB

Heat

q = mCT
q = mHf
q = mHv

Temperature

K = C + 273

P = pressure
V = volume
T = temperature
MA = molarity of H+

MB = molarity of OH

VA = volume of acid

VB = volume of base

q = heat
Hf = heat of fusion
m = mass
Hv = heat of vaporization
C = specific heat capacity
T = change in temperature
K = kelvin
C = degree Celsius

DET 609 ADU


Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry 2011 Edition

12