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Breathing Apparatus

Breathing Apparatus

COPYRIGHT MAHANAGAR GAS LIMITED 2004

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Breathing Apparatus

Contents
Tab No: Session Plan Resources Trainer Notes OHTs Tests and Assessments Handouts 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Session Plan
Est. Time (mins) Information Presented Trainer Activity

Day 1
5 5 10 60 15 15 15 15 15 30 45 Introduction & Scope Aims Objectives Practical Session Hierarchy of Safety Physiology of Respiration Situations requiring use of Breathing Apparatus Types of Breathing Apparatus Talk OHT 1 Talk & show OHT 2 Talk & Show OHT 3 Talk Talk & Show OHT 4 Talk & Show OHT 5 - 7 Talk & Explain OHT 8 - 9 Talk & Explain OHT 10

Selection criteria for Breathing Apparatus Talk & Explain OHT 11 - 12 Care and maintenance of respiratory Talk & Explain OHT 13 - 14 protective equipment Martindale unassisted and assisted fresh Talk & Demonstrate. Show air breathing apparatus OHT 15 - 16

Total time = 1 day

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Resources
Staff Classroom session Workshop Session One trainer One trainer/Assessor - competent and sufficiently experienced in the use of breathing apparatus. Lecture room Workshop area Dry marker pens Stationery Whiteboard OHT projector Flipchart PPE Gloves Medicated wipes Visual Aids OHTs 1 - 16 Self contained BA Distance BA Handouts Course handouts 1. Unassisted fresh air breathing system 2. Use of assisted fresh air system, powered by mini turbine

Facilities

Classroom session Workshop session Trainer Trainee Classroom

Materials

Equipment

Documentation

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Trainer Notes
OHT 1
Prerequisite
Consultation must be made to medical requirements for using respiratory protective equipment.

Scope
This training session addresses techniques and precautions when the use of breathing apparatus becomes necessary. It covers the background legislation, Company procedures, pre use checks, and safe use of distance & assisted air breathing apparatus.

Aim

OHT 2
The aim of this course is to demonstrate that trainees are able to carry out basic maintenance and safety checks on various sets of breathing apparatus and/or to demonstrate they are able to use distance breathing apparatus.

Objectives

OHT 3
At the end of the session the trainee will be able to:

Identify factors that will relate to the respiratory requirements of


individuals, constituents of fresh air, cardiovascular functions, respiratory problems and basic physiology.

Identify measures to ensure effective use of breathing apparatus. Demonstrate knowledge of what constitutes a hazardous or potentially
hazardous environment.

Demonstrate the pre-checks required before breathing apparatus can be


used.
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Prepare, test and use approved type of breathing apparatus and ancillary
equipment, complying with all safety requirements.

Practical session
Following the classroom session, the trainees will undertake a practical session on the use of BA. Trainer Note: Confirm if any trainees suffer from claustrophobia or have any respiratory problems.

Hierarchy of safety

OHT 4
In assessing the risks associated with working with live gas, we need to consider the hierarchy of safety. The hierarchy of safety is based on the following criteria.

Prevention
This is the elimination of all risk, i.e., not working on live gas at all. This is of course, impractical, as the integrity of our network depends on the maintenance of it, which requires us to occasionally work in oxygen deficient environments, therefore necessitating the use of breathing apparatus.

Restraint
Given that we work in Oxygen deficient situations, we need to implement systems which make the job as safe as possible. Such systems include: minimising the amount of gas escaping, and adherence to the engineering procedures.

Supplementary actions
These are the actions that assist in the control of the hazards and reduce the risks. Examples of supplementary actions are the application of safe working practices and precautions, regular cleaning and inspection of breathing apparatus i.e., at least once per month and recorded.
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Physiology of respiration
Before a person is allowed to wear breathing apparatus, it is essential that they possess knowledge of the physiology of breathing and the effects that certain gases have on the respiratory function.

Respiration
In simple terms respiration is the exchange of gases between an organism and its surroundings. In the main, this means the intake of oxygen into the body, and the elimination of carbon dioxide. Both of these processes take place via the lungs and this breathing process is referred to as ventilation of the lungs. The physical process of respiration consists of two actions:

Inhalation - Breathing in. Exhalation - Breathing out.


Respiration is spontaneous action which, unless some physical cause intervenes is performed automatically by the human body some 15 to 30 times a minute from the moment of its birth to its death. The body performs this action because it needs the oxygen which is normally obtained from the atmosphere. To obtain this vital gas, air must be brought into the lungs and held for sufficient time for the oxygen required to be absorbed and the carbon dioxide to be expelled from the blood.

Function of Oxygen in maintaining life


For life to continue we must breathe. Breathing enables us to take in oxygen as an essential gas that is supplied continuously from the atmosphere of which it forms approximately one-fifth by volume. The function performed by oxygen in maintaining life is extremely complicated and is very difficult to describe without using medical phraseology.

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To put it in the simplest term possible, the body may be likened to a great number of small chemical engines each of which needs fuel and oxygen to keep it working, and an exhaust to carry away the fumes.

Each time a muscle is used, whether for walking, sleeping, breathing or other bodily functions, one of these engines is started and fuel and oxygen must be supplied to it. The fuel is supplied by the digestive system, and the oxygen by respiration. At the same time, carbon dioxide and other waste products are given off. Oxygen, although not commonly regarded as food, is actually the most important of all foods, for all the energy of the body, warmth, power to work, and life itself, are dependant on the oxidisation of foodstuffs in the tissues of the body.

Composition of the atmosphere

OHT 5
The atmosphere which is drawn into the lungs in the process of respiration consists of three principle gases in the following proportions by volume:

Oxygen Nitrogen (including rare gases) Carbon Dioxide

20.93% 79.04% 00.03%

The rare gases mentioned above consist of a small percentage of six other gases such as argon, neon, helium etc., but as these only constitute a total of about 0.91% of the atmosphere, and moreover can only be separated from nitrogen with difficulty, it is usual for ordinary purposes to include them in the percentage of nitrogen. Although Nitrogen is the main gas of the atmosphere, it takes no active part in respiration at ordinary pressure. Being an inert gas, it passes in and out of the body practically unchanged, whilst carbon dioxide, although it has a very valuable function as a respiratory stimulant, is actually produces in greater quantities from respiration than is supplied by the atmosphere.

The respiratory mechanism

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In breathing the ribs are automatically lifted upwards and outwards by the muscles that lie between them. The diaphragm which is synchronised with this rib movement contracts and lowers causing an increase in the capacity of the chest. The expansion of the chest creates a partial vacuum within the lungs which are then automatically filled with air. The lungs are two spongy lobes of fleshy tissue which are made up of a mass of air tubes and cells. The cells, or alveoli as they are called, are situated at the extreme ends of the tiny air tubes. When the inhaled air has adequately filled the lungs and alveoli, the mechanism of inhalation is stopped. At this point the oxygen is dissolved and diffuses through the microscopically thin walls of the alveoli and into the blood stream. At the same time, the gaseous waste products given off by the body, carbon dioxide, diffuses through the walls and into the lungs in the opposite direction. As the carbon dioxide reaches approximately 4% by volume, a signal is sent to the respiratory centre in the brain, and in turn to the muscles in the chest which simply relax. The elasticity of the chest causes a reduction of chest volume and therefore air is expelled from the lungs to the atmosphere.

OHT 6
Composition of the air breathed: Inhaled Air Exhaled Air Oxygen 20.93%* 16.96% Carbon Dioxide 0.03% 4.00% Nitrogen and other gases 79.04% 79.04% Note: If this volume falls by approximately 4% a person will fall into unconsciousness. From these figures we can see that the body has absorbed 3.97% of the oxygen, and has given up approximately the same proportion of carbon dioxide, i.e. 4%. The nitrogen and other gases remain virtually unchanged.

The power to work


The oxygen requirement of the body varies with the amount of work performed. If the body is resting, only the involuntary muscles governing the action of the lungs, the heart and the digestive organs are being used. The breathing rate
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would be about 15 to 18 times a minute, with only a small amount of oxygen required. As soon as the body becomes active, more muscles are used, and a greater supply of oxygen is required. When the energy is exerted through work or nervous excitement the breathing rate increases, and may be as much as 30 times per minute or even more. At rest, about 1/2 litre of air is normally inhaled at each breath, and about the same quantity is exhaled. This amount is known as tidal air. By taking a very deep breath, a further 2 litres, known as the inspiratory reserve volume, may be taken in, making a total of 21/2 litres in all. On subsequent very deep inhalation this may be increased by a further 1 litres. The amount thus exhales is known as the vital capacity, and varies with different people.

OHT 7
The following table give an indication of the variation in oxygen consumption and air respired for varying degrees of exertion. (source Prof. J.S. Haldane)
Respiration Volume of air Oxygen Air per minute in litres per consumed breathed respiration per minute in per litres minute in litres 16.8 0.46 0.23 7.7 17.1 0.61 0.32 10.4 14.7 1.27 0.78 18.6 16.2 1.53 1.06 25 18.2 2.1 1.6 37 19.3 3.14 2.5 60.9

At rest Standing Walking 2 mph Walking 3 mph Walking 4 mph Walking 5 mph (very heavy work rate)

It can be seen that the volume of oxygen required by the body varies from 0.23 lpm to 2.5 lpm at a very heavy work rate, and that the amount of air breathed to obtain this quantity varies between 7.7 and 61 litres per minute. It also shows that the volume of air per breath varies between 0.46 litres and 4 litres. The respiration rate is also influenced by the state of mind. When a person becomes very anxious or an emergency situation arises, the body responds by rapidly producing adrenaline, which enters the blood stream and immediately stimulates various vital organs. The heartbeat increases and the body temperature will rise with an increase in breathing rate, which is independent of the work rate.

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The effect on the respiratory system is that the lungs breathe out before the correct level of carbon dioxide is reached which can also cause rapid shallow breathing known as hyperventilation. This rapid shallow breathing provides the body with an excess of oxygen and a deficit of carbon dioxide.

Hyperventilation causes the body to expel more carbon dioxide than it does during normal breathing. When there are abnormally low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood the small arterial vessels tend to dilate, with a fall in blood pressure. The most apparent symptoms of hyperventilation are numbness or tingling of the feet, hands and face. The person may also feel dizzy, giddy or faint.

Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is the natural stimulant to breathing and the respiratory centre in the brain is governed and controlled by the amount of gas in the blood. When the percentage of carbon dioxide rises in the body, as it does in exertion, the respiratory centre instructs the chest muscles to work harder and in turn the lungs breathe more deeply and faster to get rid of the excess gas and restore the normal level in the blood.

Situations requiring use of Breathing Apparatus

OHT 8
"It shall always be worn in situations where the responsible engineer has specified the use of full fire protective clothing. It shall be worn whenever gas in atmosphere concentrations are equal to or greater than 20 % LEL." It shall always be worn where a risk assessment identifies the need or when necessary under confined spaces regulations.

BA General
Always have breathing apparatus available and ready for use when you expect to encounter:

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Oxygen deficient atmosphere. Toxic fumes or gas. Deep excavations or confined spaces. Live gas operations.

OHT 9

When using Breathing apparatus:

Always have at least two persons experienced and trained in its use
available, one acting as a guard for the other wearing the apparatus. Always have at least two sets of apparatus available and ready for use if needed. Make it ready for use in a safe area

Do not use defective equipment or equipment outside its indicated test


date. Return all such equipment to a responsible person for replacement. If you need further information about breathing apparatus, ask your manager.

Extra guidance notes on existing Breathing Apparatus Procedures


Careful consideration of the location of any air inlet for BA is essential. Particular attention to any leaking gas, exhaust fumes or wind etc. should be made. No work should be undertaken which compromises the fit of the facemask or the integrity of the air hoses. Due regard should be made for the possibility of snagging/crushing against plant etc.

Types of breathing apparatus

OHT 10
There are two distinct methods of providing personal respiratory protection against contaminated atmospheres.

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By purifying the air breathed. By supplying air or oxygen from an uncontaminated source.
In the first method the atmosphere to be inhaled is drawn through a filter which removes specific contaminants passing through it. This is known as a FILTERING DEVICE. The second method enables the wearer to breathe independently of the atmosphere. Devices that achieve this are known as BREATHING APPARATUS.

Self contained breathing apparatus


There are two types of self-contained breathing apparatus:

Closed Circuit oxygen. Open Circuit compressed air. Closed circuit oxygen breathing apparatus
Self contained Closed Circuit oxygen breathing apparatus removes Carbon dioxide from the exhaled air and adds oxygen to the inhaled air for breathing by the wearer and is independent of the ambient atmosphere.

Open circuit compressed air breathing apparatus


Self contained Open Circuit compressed air breathing apparatus has a portable supply of compressed air and is independent of the ambient atmosphere. The exhaled air passes without re-circulation to the ambient atmosphere.

Non-self contained breathing apparatus


There are two types of non self-contained breathing apparatus:

Fresh Air Hose. Compressed Air Line Fresh air hose

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The air for breathing is drawn from an adjacent uncontaminated area along a large diameter hose by the action of the wearers lungs. This action may be assisted by a manually operated bellows or blower, or by a mechanically operated blower. The air supply hose is relatively short, no more than 9m long for unassisted, and up to 36m, (as per manufacturers recommendations) for assisted, and may restrict the wearers movements. Return to respirable atmosphere must be along the route of entry. The apparatus consists of a full-face mask fitted with an inhalation and exhalation valve system, connected to the hose by means of a hand tight seal. Unassisted fresh air hose is fitted with an anchor at the inlet and a suitable device to prevent entry of coarse particles. Manually and power assisted fresh air hose has a continuous flow of air forced through the hose by the blower to a full-face mask.

Compressed air line


There are two types of compressed air line breathing apparatus.

Demand. Continuous flow.


This apparatus supplies air to the wearer through a flexible air supply hose attached to a compressed air line. The maximum length of hose which may be used is dependant upon the internal diameter and the pressure of air required at the apparatus.

Demand type breathing apparatus


The apparatus consists of a full-face mask connected to a lung governed demand valve and compressed air supply hose. The valve opens when the wearer inhales, and closes when he/ she exhales. Negative pressure is created in the facemask by the action of the wearers lungs on inhalation unless a positive pressure demand valve is used.

Continuous flow breathing apparatus

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This type of apparatus consists of a full-face mask, half-mask or an air hood or blouse connected to an air supply hose. The wearer is continuously supplied with breathable air from a source of compressed air.

Selection criteria for breathing apparatus

OHTs 11 12

Care and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment

OHT 13
The program for the care and maintenance of equipment should be appropriate to the type of plant, working conditions and the hazards involved and should ensure that the equipment is properly maintained to retain the original performance standards. Arrangements should include those for:

Inspection for defects. Cleaning and decontamination. Servicing. Storage. Issue. Transportation. Records.

Inspection for defects


All respiratory equipment should be inspected as a matter of routine for correct functioning before and after each occasion of use, and also at intervals not exceeding one month. Reference should be made to the manufacturers instructions and replacements should be in accordance with these instructions.

OHT 14
Particular attention should be paid to the following points:

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Face piece, hoods and blouses. Harness. Inlet and outlet valve mountings. Inlet and outlet valves. Filters. Metal and plastic components. Hose and airlines.

Cleaning and decontamination


Equipment should be cleaned as frequently as is necessary, and in any case as soon as possible after use, as moisture allowed to dry on the valves will interfere with their correct functioning. The face piece and breathing tube should be disconnected and cleaned by washing with soap (not detergent) and warm water, then thoroughly rinsed. The equipment should then be dried at room temperature away from direct sunlight. Where the equipment has been used by an individual who is known or is suspected to be suffering from an infectious illness of the skin or respiratory tract, it is necessary to adopt more stringent procedures. i.e. the BA should be stripped down, and swabbed or dipped in antiseptic solution. Strong antiseptics can damage the equipment, and cause dermatitis.

Servicing
Servicing must be carried out by a competent person in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Dust respirator filters should be renewed. Immediately after use, used and partly used oxygen and air cylinders should be replaced by fully charged cylinders.

Storage
After inspection or repair, the equipment should be stored in suitable containers or boxes to protect against dirt, oil, sunlight, extreme heat or cold, excessive moisture and harmful chemicals.

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The ends of airlines should be protected to keep the lines internally clean.

Issue
Breathing Apparatus should be issued only to persons trained in its use. The equipment should be properly documented, and signed for by the operative. Breathing Apparatus should not be issued unless each item of the equipment has an identifying mark. The issue of Breathing Apparatus should include ancillary equipment such as a means of cleaning.

Transportation
Transportation of breathing apparatus poses no particular problem. The equipment should be kept clean and protected from accidental damage and stored in such a way as to make it easily accessible. SCBA needs special attention to prevent damage to the gauges and valves of the air cylinders. Equipment etc., especially air cylinders, should be well secured in vehicles.

Records
Each respiratory protective device should be given a distinguishing number and a record of cleaning, inspection and maintenance should be kept.

Unassisted fresh air breathing system

OHT 15 16 & Handout 1


Show components of the system and their function.

Strainer, spike and 9m hose assembly. Belt and bracket. Twin air hose (increased volume of air in twin hose). Full-face mask.

Demonstrate fitting the full-face mask.


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Problem of sealing with beard or spectacles. Show the inhalation and exhalation valves (check for damage). Show speech diaphragm (to assist speech. Should not be used as the primary method of communication when using BA). Grade 1 resistance of Visor. Adjustment of straps. Check seal of mask.

Demonstrate assembling the equipment.


Fit strainer to the end of hose. Check hose for damage. Stake, hook or tie in a suitable location. 1.1.1 Upwind. 1.1.2 Away from dropped kerbs. 1.1.3 Where air is of breathable quality. Remove caps from belt bracket - Check O-Ring. Connect Y-Piece of twin hose to belt bracket - check O-Ring, tighten by hand. Fit belt and bracket around waist - main hose pointing down, adjust belt. Pass twin hoses over shoulders, avoiding twisting. 1.1.4 Fit full-face mask. 1.1.5 Two straps in each hand. 1.1.6 Chin in first. 1.1.7 Hold mask on face - tighten top strap first. 1.1.8 Then bottom straps. 1.1.9 Lastly middle straps. Test for leak tightness - seal strainer end, and breathe in. Mask should collapse onto face.

Trainee to try gentle exercise in equipment, to get a feel for activities whilst wearing breathing apparatus. All trainees to try equipment, including pre-use checks.

Handout 2

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Use of assisted fresh air system, powered by mini turbine


Normally, if the system is likely to be used for any significant period of time, (i.e. longer than an hour) then the assisted option is preferable in terms of comfort to the user. The equipment is exactly the same as the unassisted system except with the addition of a mini turbine blower. All turbine blowers should be operated in accordance with individual manufacturers instructions. Use of a mini turbine blower allows the use of a longer hose, up to 40m in length. This would be particularly useful if the use of the 9m hose meant the turbine unit would still be in a gaseous atmosphere, or other area which would disallow the use of electrical equipment. Where there is concern about the use of electrically operated turbine unit in a gaseous atmosphere, a pneumatically operated turbine is available. However, consideration must be given to the situation of the turbine, to eliminate the risk of carbon monoxide being inhaled from the exhaust of the compressor. In order to give confidence in the equipment, it is important to know exactly how the air is supplied to the apparatus, and what action to take in case of emergency, such as malfunction or failure of an air line supply.

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OHTs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Title slide Aim Objectives Hierarchy of Safety Composition of the Atmosphere Composition of the Air Breathed Oxygen consumption and air respired for varying degrees of exertion Have breathing apparatus available and ready for use when you expect to encounter When using breathing apparatus Types of breathing apparatus Criteria for selecting breathing apparatus Flowchart Care and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment Inspection for defects Unassisted fresh air breathing apparatus Unassisted fresh air breathing apparatus, continued

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Tests and Assessments


Multi-choice questions for Breathing Apparatus & (fresh air & assisted) Practical Assessment 1 Unassisted & Turbine Assisted Breathing
Apparatus

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Written assessment
Please read the following notes before you answer any questions and complete your personal details at the top of the answer sheet. Each question shows four possible answers (lettered a, b, c and d) only ONE is correct. Decide which one is correct and tick the square on the answer sheet against the appropriate question. If you change your mind, put a line through and tick the correct box.

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Questions for Breathing Apparatus & (fresh air & assisted)


a. How often should you inspect and record breathing apparatus on a regular basis? a) b) c) d) Once a month. Once a week. Once a year. Twice a year.

b. When operatives are working in a gaseous atmosphere the possibility of asphyxiation can exist, this is due to: a) b) c) d) Lack of nitrogen in the atmosphere. Lack of oxygen in the atmosphere. Too much oxygen in the atmosphere. The smell of natural gas.

c. What is the normal percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere? a) b) c) d) 12 % 21 % 24 % 18 %

d. When we exhale what percentage of oxygen do we retain in our body? a) b) c) d) 3.00% 5.00% 4.00% 2.50%

e. How many competent people must be on site when any type of breathing apparatus is being used? a) b) c) d) 1 person. 1 persons and anyone nearby to assist. 3 people. 2 people (one standing by the turbo unit & the other in the gaseous area).

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f. What is the frequency that a turbo blower on the MSA unit must be inspected by a competent person? a) b) c) d) 7. Every 6 months. Every 12 months. Every 14 months. Every 24 months.

What is the maximum length of hose when using fan assisted B.A.? a. b. c. d. 3m 10 m 15 m 36 m

8.

When the breathing zone contains a gaseous or oxygen deficient atmosphere what is the recommended level for using breathing apparatus. a) b) c) d) 10% LEL 20% LEL 20% Gas 100% LEL

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Practical assessment 5: Unassisted & Turbine Assisted Breathing Apparatus


Candidate instructions You are required to prove competence in checking, testing, and use of unassisted & turbine assisted breathing apparatus in accordance with company procedures Facilities/Materials Breathing Apparatus, Mouth wipes Time Allowed 20 mins

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Practical Assessment 5 Unassisted & Turbine Assisted Breathing Apparatus


Assessors Instructions To be successful in this assessment the trainee must complete, without error, the following assessment area. A failure to do so will indicate further training required.
Trainee Name Signature Date Assessor Name Signature

PASS Company procedures 1)State when BA must be available for use. 2)State the No of persons and apparatus that must be available. Inspection 1)Ensure BA storage box is not damaged with hinges and fastener in good working order. 2)Carry out before use maintenance check as in manufacturers instructions. 3)State the defect procedure. Prepare/Don the mask and hose assembly 1)Connect hose and mask as in manufacturers instructions. 2)Don facemask as in manufacturers instructions. 3)Carry out Negative Pressure Test.

RETRAIN

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PASS Complete Assembly (unassisted Equipment) 1)State the maximum length of hose that can be used without turbine. 2)Fit filter to free end of air supply hose. 3)Fit spike clamp to the end of air supply hose. 4)Lay air supply hose upwind of the job in an area free from gas, dust and fumes. 5)Locate air supply hose in a position where it cannot be damaged, kinked or flattened. 6)Position end filter above ground and secure spike into safe ground. Complete Assembly (Assisted Equipment) 1)State the maximum length of hose that can be used when turbine assisted. 2)State the minimum distance the turbine must be sited away from the excavation and why. 3)Ensure that the air filter is clean. 4)Connect free end of air supply hose to turbine unit. Tighten unions without use of tools. 5)Connect turbine to suitable electrical supply. 6)Select 1 or 2 person operation. 7)For 1 person ensure plastic cap is fitted to turbine. 8)Turn on unit and adjust air supply

RETRAIN

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PASS Clean and store equipment 1)Disinfect mask after use. 2)Keep in plastic bag within case. 3)Store cases correctly in the vehicle Maintain Checks 1)State when the equipment must be inspected/made available for inspection. 2)Complete applicable documentation.

RETRAIN

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Handouts
2 3 Unassisted fresh air breathing system Use of assisted fresh air system, powered by mini turbine

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Handout 1

Unassisted fresh air breathing system


Components of the system and their function Strainer, spike and 9m hose assembly. Belt and bracket. Twin air hose (increased volume of air in twin hose). Full-face mask. Fitting the full face mask

Problem of sealing with beard or spectacles. Show the inhalation and exhalation valves (check for damage). Show speech diaphragm (to assist speech. Should not be used as the
primary method of communication when using BA). Grade 1 resistance of Visor. Adjustment of straps. Check seal of mask. Assembling the equipment

Fit strainer to the end of hose. Check hose for damage. Stake, hook or tie in a suitable location.
Upwind. Away from dropped kerbs. Where air is of breathable quality. Remove caps from belt bracket - Check O-Ring. Connect Y-Piece of twin hose to belt bracket - check O-Ring, tighten by hand. Fit belt and bracket around waist - main hose pointing down, adjust belt. Pass twin hoses over shoulders, avoiding twisting. Fit full-face mask. Two straps in each hand. Chin in first. Hold mask on face - tighten top strap first. Then bottom straps. Lastly middle straps. Test for leak tightness - seal strainer end, and breathe in. Mask should collapse onto face.

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Handout 2

Use of assisted fresh air system, powered by mini turbine


Normally, if the system is likely to be used for any significant period of time, (i.e. longer than an hour) then the assisted option is preferable in terms of comfort to the user. The equipment is exactly the same as the unassisted system except with the addition of a mini turbine blower. All turbine blowers should be operated in accordance with individual manufacturers instructions. Use of a mini turbine blower allows the use of a longer hose, up to 36m in length. This would be particularly useful if the use of the 9m hose meant the turbine unit would still be in a gaseous atmosphere, or other area which would disallow the use of electrical equipment. Where there is concern about the use of electrically operated turbine unit in a gaseous atmosphere, a pneumatically operated turbine is available, However, consideration must be given to the situation of the turbine, to eliminate the risk of carbon monoxide being inhaled from the exhaust of the compressor.

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