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Frame of Reference

www.avid.com
Project Type 720p23.976 Avid DNxHD Avid DNxHD60 Avid DNxHD90 Avid DNxHD90x Avid DNxHD115 Avid DNxHD175 Avid DNxHD175x Avid DNxHD145 Avid DNxHD220 Avid DNxHD220x Avid DNxHD36 Avid DNxHD115 Avid DNxHD175 Avid DNxHD175x Avid DNxHD36 Avid DNxHD115 Avid DNxHD175 Avid DNxHD175x Avid DNxHD120 Avid DNxHD185 Avid DNxHD185x Avid DNxHD120 Avid DNxHD185 Avid DNxHD185x Avid DNxHD145 Avid DNxHD220 Avid DNxHD220x Bits per Sample 8 8 10 8 8 10 8 8 10 8 8 8 10 8 8 8 10 8 8 10 8 8 10 8 8 10

Statistics & Specifications


Raster Size 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1280x720 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 1920x1080 Frames per Sec 23.976 23.976 23.976 50 50 50 59.94 59.94 59.94 23.976 23.976 23.976 23.976 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 29.97 29.97 29.97 Sampling Ratio 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 4:2:2 GB per Hour 26 40 40 51 77 77 64 97 97 16 51 77 77 16 51 77 77 53 81 81 53 81 81 64 97 97 SD 720x486 1:1 NTSC 720x576 1:1 PAL Sony MPEG IMX Panasonic DVC PRO 50 DV NTSC DV PAL Data Rate Sampling Bits per GB per (Mb/s) Ratio Sample Hour 200 198 50 50 25 25 (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:1:1) (4:2:0) 10 10 8 8 8 8 88 87 22 22 11 11

720p50

720p59.94

HD DVC PRO HD XDCAM HD422 (50) XDCAM HD 35 XDCAM HD 25 XDCAM EX 35 P2 AVC-INTRA 50 P2 AVC-INTRA 100 1920x1080i HD - 25 fps 1920x1080i HD - 29.97 fps 1920x1080p HD - 23.98 fps 1280x720p HD - 25 fps 1280x720p HD - 50 fps 1280x720p HD - 59.94 fps 1280x720p HD - 29.97 fps HDV 2K - 24 fps

Data Rate Sampling Bits per GB per (Mb/s) Ratio Sample Hour 100 50 35 25 35 50 100 1483 1185 948 439 879 1054 421 25 2188 (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:0) (4:2:0) (4:2:0) (4:2:0) (4:2:2) (4:4:4) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:2) (4:2:0) (4:4:4) 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 10 44 22 15 11 15 22 44 652 521 417 193 386 463 185 11 962

1080p23.976

1080p24

1080p25

1080i50

1080i59.94

Avid DNxHD Project Specifications

Non-Square Pixel SD Formats 480i59.94 (NTSC) 720x480 576i50 (PAL) 720x576


Luma

Thanks to the fact that the human eye is worse at seeing differences between shades of colors than degrees of lightness, one very effective way of making digital video files smaller is to remove some of the color information. This is expressed as a ratio such as 4:2:0, 4:1:1 etc. As video is comprised of a Luma carrier and a Chroma carrier, they can be treated differently, allowing us to keep the degrees of lightness but cut back on color.

Thin Raster 720 HD 960x720

Full Raster 1280x720

Chroma

Thin Raster HDV 1440x1080

Full Raster 1920x1080


Luma

4:1:1
Luma

Chroma

Luma

4:2:0

Chroma

Full aperture 2K 2048x1556

4:2:2

Chroma

4:4:4

Frame Sizes Aspect Ratios


16:9 (1.78:1)

Chroma Subsampling GoP Compression


Group of Pictures A popular method of compressing video information over time exploiting a concept known as Temporal Redundancy by calculating the contents of some frames based of the images contained in others. This can save a lot of storage by reusing frame information that does not change over time, rather than storing full information for every frame. The trade off is that it is more processor intensive due to having to read several frames to build the one it needs. I.E. HDV and XDCAM

4:3 (1.33:1)

2.40:1

2:1

Time/Footage at 24 fps
1 min 16mm 35mm 36 feet 90 feet 5 min 180 feet 450 feet 10 min 360 feet 900 feet

GoP Order Transmission Order

I-Frames Intra-Coded Frames Full frames which are independent of the other frame types and used as a fixed reference for P and B frames.

B-Frames Bi-Directional Frames Calculate the contents of themselves based on images both before and after themselves.

P-Frames Predicted Frames Use Motion Compensation to predict how they look based on this information from nearby I and P frames.

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