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Proced|a

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Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ICM11

Dynamic Debonding Strength of Fiber Glass Composite

Fergyanto E. Gunawan*

Department of Industrial Engineering, Binus University, Jl. K. H. Syahdan 9, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia

Abstract

A laminated composite may fail by various mechanisms: debonding, delamination, fiber fracture, matrix cracking,

and fiber buckling. The fiber fracture possess the greatest threat the structure integrity. However, the progressive

debonding often increases the load sustained by the fiber; therefore, it may promote the fiber fracture. It is clear that

data of the debonding strength are crucial. Unfortunately, the experiment for the purpose is often difficult particularly

in a high-strain rate case. In this paper, we present an experimental technique to obtain the mechanical properties of

the debonding in the high-strain rate case.

2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of ICM11

Keywords: Cohesize zone model, dynamic debonding, fracture mechanics, finite element analysis

1. Introduction

Debonding is a prominent fracture mechanism particularly in a long fiber reinforced composite

structure. Therefore, characterizing the debonding properties such as the strength and the fracture energy

is essential.

Many systematic investigations [1--17] have been performed to study the debonding despite existence

of many challenges particularly in the experimental aspects. Within this respect, one major issue is related

with the specimen design. The specimen should allow one to easily produce the debonding on various

loading conditions, to easily observe the debonding process, and to easily measure parameters related to

the debonding.

The experiments in studying the debonding phenomenon can mainly be divided into two groups: the

fiber pull-out testing method and the fiber push-out testing method. The fiber pull-out test particularly

* Corresponding author. Tel.: (+62 - 21) 534 - 5830; fax: (+62 - 21) 530 - 0244.

E-mail address: fgunawan@binus.edu

18777058 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.006

Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530

26 Fergyanto E. Gunawan / Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530

2 Author name

using a single fiber has been widely used with great success

a transversal loading condition [8], and on a microscopic condition using a drop of the matrix as called the

microbond test method [6, 9, 10]. In addition, the method has also been studied analytically

into account the friction effect [3,4], the thermal stress, and the residual stress

single fiber, the pull-out testing method has also been used in the debonding inv

[2, 12, 15, 17]. The use of a bundle instead of a single fiber is particularly interesting when dealing with a

very small fiber diameter such as natural fibers. The kenaf natural fiber, for an

diameter in range of 40--70 [18]. Even in an experiment involving an synthetic fiber, Ref.

that using a bundled fibers allowed a better control and better visualization of the failure process.

Therefore, a debonding test using a bundle of fibers is easier in a number of circumstances. In addition to

the fiber pull-out testing method, the debonding phenomenon has also been studied by means of the fiber

push-out testing method [7, 13, 14]. Reference

the basis of the fracture mechanics, and has also compared the results to those of the fiber pull

method. The fiber push-out method seems to offer a simple tech

loading conditions, specifically in conjunction with the Hopkinson testing method

In this work, we present a specimen design, which in combination with the numerical model of the

debonding of Xu and Needleman [19], allows us to infer the debonding characteristics in a high strain rate

regime by means of the Hopkinson bar testing apparatus

2. Debonding Specimen and Its Numerical Model

2.1. The Specimen Design

To measure the debonding strength in the static and the dynamic loading conditions, we devised a

cylindrical-type specimen as shown in Fig.

Figure 1:

The specimen has a bundle of glass fibers that placed along its axis strengthened by the epoxy material.

Two types of the specimens were produced: 1

for the dynamic test was 200 mm; It was designed such that the incident wave could clearly be separated

from the reflected wave. A shorter specimen was used in a static test. The specimen was simply

manufactured in the laboratory by using a 10

reduced to 9.5 mm using a lathe machine; and a notch having an angle of 60

Author name / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000

using a single fiber has been widely used with great success [1, 5, 9, 10] on various conditions such as on

, and on a microscopic condition using a drop of the matrix as called the

. In addition, the method has also been studied analytically [16]

, the thermal stress, and the residual stress [11]. Not only using a

out testing method has also been used in the debonding involving a bundle of fibers

. The use of a bundle instead of a single fiber is particularly interesting when dealing with a

very small fiber diameter such as natural fibers. The kenaf natural fiber, for an example, only has a

. Even in an experiment involving an synthetic fiber, Ref. [14]

that using a bundled fibers allowed a better control and better visualization of the failure process.

herefore, a debonding test using a bundle of fibers is easier in a number of circumstances. In addition to

out testing method, the debonding phenomenon has also been studied by means of the fiber

. Reference [7] has provided a theoretical analyses of the method, on

the basis of the fracture mechanics, and has also compared the results to those of the fiber pull

out method seems to offer a simple technique to study the debonding in dynamic

loading conditions, specifically in conjunction with the Hopkinson testing method [13, 14].

In this work, we present a specimen design, which in combination with the numerical model of the

, allows us to infer the debonding characteristics in a high strain rate

regime by means of the Hopkinson bar testing apparatus [20].

Debonding Specimen and Its Numerical Model

in the static and the dynamic loading conditions, we devised a

type specimen as shown in Fig. 1.

igure 1: Geometry of the debonding specimen

The specimen has a bundle of glass fibers that placed along its axis strengthened by the epoxy material.

Two types of the specimens were produced: 1 mm and 2 mm of the bundle diameter. The specimen length

mm; It was designed such that the incident wave could clearly be separated

from the reflected wave. A shorter specimen was used in a static test. The specimen was simply

manufactured in the laboratory by using a 10 mm diameter aluminum tube. The specimen diameter was

mm using a lathe machine; and a notch having an angle of 60 degree was introduced to the

ns such as on

, and on a microscopic condition using a drop of the matrix as called the

[16] by taking

. Not only using a

olving a bundle of fibers

. The use of a bundle instead of a single fiber is particularly interesting when dealing with a

example, only has a

[14] suggested

that using a bundled fibers allowed a better control and better visualization of the failure process.

herefore, a debonding test using a bundle of fibers is easier in a number of circumstances. In addition to

out testing method, the debonding phenomenon has also been studied by means of the fiber

has provided a theoretical analyses of the method, on

the basis of the fracture mechanics, and has also compared the results to those of the fiber pull-out

nique to study the debonding in dynamic

In this work, we present a specimen design, which in combination with the numerical model of the

, allows us to infer the debonding characteristics in a high strain rate

in the static and the dynamic loading conditions, we devised a

The specimen has a bundle of glass fibers that placed along its axis strengthened by the epoxy material.

mm of the bundle diameter. The specimen length

mm; It was designed such that the incident wave could clearly be separated

from the reflected wave. A shorter specimen was used in a static test. The specimen was simply

diameter was

degree was introduced to the

Fergyanto E. Gunawan / Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530 27

Author name

specimen. On each specimen, four strain gages were attached at a distance of 20

mechanical properties of the glass fiber are 76.0

ratio, and 1165 kg/m

3

for density; meanwhile, for the hardened polyester, these properties are 5.4

0.32, and 2450 kg/m

3

.

2.2. The Finite Element Model of the Debond

For the above specimen design, the debonding properties cannot be inferred directly from the test data,

but indirectly by means of a finite element analysis. Figure

debonding specimen. The specimen was ass

the model were the zero thickness cohesive elements

such the observed debonding on the specimen (see Fig

specimen was produced by means of the Hopkinson bar testing apparatus

Figure 2: The finite element model of the debonding specimen of Fig. 1

In the model of Fig. 3, it was assumed that the crack would start from the notch root, and then

straightly propagate to the fiber-matrix interface although in

Furthermore, it was also assumed that the traction

the bilinear softening model [21, 22] and its mechanical properties were governed by the

the material strength, and the interface fracture energy. In this particular model, the debonding would be

initiated when the following is satisfied:

where ( ) is the Macaulay brackets that set any negative values to zero,

material strength, the subscript n denotes for the normal direction, the subscript

direction, and the superscript c denotes the critical value. However, complete debonding only occurs when

Author name / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000

specimen. On each specimen, four strain gages were attached at a distance of 20 mm from the notch. The

iber are 76.0 GPa for the Young's modulus, 0.23 for the Poisson's

for density; meanwhile, for the hardened polyester, these properties are 5.4

The Finite Element Model of the Debonding Specimen

For the above specimen design, the debonding properties cannot be inferred directly from the test data,

but indirectly by means of a finite element analysis. Figure 2 shows the detailed finite element mesh of the

The specimen was assumed to be axis-symmetric. The most important features of

the model were the zero thickness cohesive elements [21]. Those elements were introduced to the model

such the observed debonding on the specimen (see Fig 3) could be reproduced. The debonding on the

specimen was produced by means of the Hopkinson bar testing apparatus [20].

Figure 2: The finite element model of the debonding specimen of Fig. 1

Figure 3: The debonding specimen

, it was assumed that the crack would start from the notch root, and then

matrix interface although in the experiment, it was not always straight.

Furthermore, it was also assumed that the traction-separation model of the cohesive elements following

and its mechanical properties were governed by the elastic modulus,

the material strength, and the interface fracture energy. In this particular model, the debonding would be

_

(I

n

)

I

n

c

_

2

+_

I

s

I

s

c

]

2

= 1

is the Macaulay brackets that set any negative values to zero, T denotes the traction or the

denotes for the normal direction, the subscript s denotes for the

denotes the critical value. However, complete debonding only occurs when

3

mm from the notch. The

GPa for the Young's modulus, 0.23 for the Poisson's

for density; meanwhile, for the hardened polyester, these properties are 5.4 GPa,

For the above specimen design, the debonding properties cannot be inferred directly from the test data,

shows the detailed finite element mesh of the

symmetric. The most important features of

. Those elements were introduced to the model

produced. The debonding on the

3: The debonding specimen

, it was assumed that the crack would start from the notch root, and then

the experiment, it was not always straight.

separation model of the cohesive elements following

elastic modulus,

the material strength, and the interface fracture energy. In this particular model, the debonding would be

denotes the traction or the

denotes for the shear

denotes the critical value. However, complete debonding only occurs when

28 Fergyanto E. Gunawan / Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530

4 Author name

In the above equation, G denotes the cohesive energy, and

composites [23].

2.3. The Model Calibration and Results

The identification of the cohesive zone model's parameters were performed in two steps. Those

parameters related to the cohesive zone model in the matrix

step, and followed by the calibration for the parameters of the fiber

those material parameters were completely performed on the basis of the data obtained from the tests of

the 1 mm fiber-bundle specimens; then, the established model was used to p

propagation on the 2~mm fiber-bundle specimen. The calibration results: for the matrix

the tensile strength was 72 MPa, and the critical cohesive energy in tension was

matrix interface: the tensile strength was

energy was 2 MPamm for the both modes. Although a dominant mixed mode fracture occurred on the

fiber-matrix interface, but the matrix-matrix interface fractured in a pure normal mode. In Fig.

we compare the experimental data with the data predicted by the model.

Figure 4: The solid line is the strain-time history recorded at the

rear-gage of the 1 mm bundled fiber diameter specimen when

the matrix ahead of the notch fractured, and the circle

the simulation results.

Figure 6: The maximum strain of the reflected stress

rear gage versus the debonding length of 1 mm bundled fiber

diameter specimen.

Author name / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000

_

0

n

0

n

c

]

u

+ _

0

s

0

s

c

]

u

= 1

denotes the cohesive energy, and = 1 is suitable for the thermoplastic matrix

The identification of the cohesive zone model's parameters were performed in two steps. Those

parameters related to the cohesive zone model in the matrix-matrix interface were established in the first

ibration for the parameters of the fiber-matrix interface. The calibration of

those material parameters were completely performed on the basis of the data obtained from the tests of

bundle specimens; then, the established model was used to predict the debonding

bundle specimen. The calibration results: for the matrix-matrix interface,

, and the critical cohesive energy in tension was 2 MPamm; for the fi

matrix interface: the tensile strength was 54 MPa the shear strength was 67 MPa, and the critical cohesive

for the both modes. Although a dominant mixed mode fracture occurred on the

matrix interface fractured in a pure normal mode. In Fig.

we compare the experimental data with the data predicted by the model.

ime history recorded at the

mm bundled fiber diameter specimen when

the matrix ahead of the notch fractured, and the circle denotes

Figure 5: The solid line is the strain-time history recorded at the

rear-gage of the 1~mm bundled fiber diameter specimen when

the debonding on the matrix-fiber interface was about to occur,

the circle denotes the simulation results.

The maximum strain of the reflected stress-wave at the

mm bundled fiber

Figure 7: The maximum strain of the reflected stress

rear gage versus the debonding length of 2 mm bundled fiber

diameter specimen.

is suitable for the thermoplastic matrix

The identification of the cohesive zone model's parameters were performed in two steps. Those

matrix interface were established in the first

matrix interface. The calibration of

those material parameters were completely performed on the basis of the data obtained from the tests of

redict the debonding

matrix interface,

; for the fiber-

, and the critical cohesive

for the both modes. Although a dominant mixed mode fracture occurred on the

4 to Fig. 7,

time history recorded at the

the 1~mm bundled fiber diameter specimen when

fiber interface was about to occur,

denotes the simulation results.

The maximum strain of the reflected stress-wave at the

mm bundled fiber

Fergyanto E. Gunawan / Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530 29

Author name / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000 5

3. Discussion

We first discuss comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental data from a macroscopic

level and then from a microscopic level. At the end, we discuss the mode mixity of the debonding-tip

during propagation.

In the macroscopic level, we compare the strain time history recorded in the experiment to those

predicted by the model. Only the case of 1 mm bundle-fiber specimen is presented in this paper due

limitation of the space. Figure 4 shows a comparison when the matrix ahead of the notch fractured;

meanwhile, Fig. 5 shows a comparison when the debonding has also occurred on the interface. In general,

those figures show that the model reasonably reproduced the data recorded in the experiment particularly

along the time of the stress wave reached the measurement point; however, during the unloading,

significant deviation exists between the two, but this clearly due to the error in the experimental data.

Rather similar nature were also observed for the case of 2 mm bundle-fiber specimen. Hence, we conclude

the model is acceptable in the macroscopic level.

In the microscopic level, we compare the debonding length obtained in the experiments to those

predicted by the model. For the two-type of specimens, the results are reproduced in Fig. 6 for the 1 mm

bundle-fiber specimen and in Fig. 7 for the 2 mm bundle-fiber specimen. We should note that the

maximum strains in the figures are those associated with the reflected tensile stress-waves. In this

comparison, unlike the comparison of the strain-time history, reasonable deviations existed between those

two data. The deviations were mainly due to scattering of the maximum strain and debonding length data

obtained from the experiments; meanwhile, the relation between the maximum strain and the debonding

length obtained from the model was more consistent. However, from a statistical point of view, the

experimental data seems to scatter around the model predicted data within an acceptable band. Therefore,

the model also reasonably reproduced the experimental data in the microscopic level.

The crack was initiated at the notch root, then propagated to the interface, and finally, kinked to the left

and the right on the interface. The tensile stress-wave reached the notch around 136.8 s, and instantly,

initiated debonding on the interface. Initially, the normal component was slightly bigger than the

tangential component; but the tangential component quickly increased. At a certain debonding length, the

mode mixity became a constant, and the debonding mainly propagated at the case.

4. Conclusion

In conjunction with the numerical model of the debonding of Xu and Needleman [19], we have

proposed an experimental design that allows us to characterize the debonding properties. In this particular

design, when the debonding is reasonably long, the debonding propagates at a constant mode mixity on

the dynamic loading condition as well as on the static loading condition [15], but a different mode mixity

can easily be obtained by changing the radius ratio of the fiber and the matrix. Since the debonding

characteristics strongly depend on the mode mixity [24] the current specimen would allow one to obtain

easily the debonding characteristics for a wide range of the mode mixity.

Acknowledgments

I thank Fenny T. Kurniawati and Motoharu Yamauchi for performing the debonding test statically and

dynamically during their studentship at Toyohashi University of Technology in Japan.

30 Fergyanto E. Gunawan / Procedia Engineering 10 (2011) 2530

6 Author name / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000000

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