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# Wind load: It is calculated from IS 875: part 3 BASIC WIND SPEED(Vb): It is applicab`le at 10 m height above mean ground level

for different zonesd of the country. Basic wind speed is based on peak gust speed averaged over a short time interval of about 3 seconds and correspondence to 10 m height above the mean ground level in an open terrain. Basic wind speed have been worked out for a 50-year return period. Basic wind speed for jaipur is taken as 47m/s. Design wind speed(Vz): The design wind speed (Vz) at any height Z for the chosen structure: (a) Risk level (k1), (b) terrain roughness and height of structure (k2), (c) Local topography (k3). It can be mathematically expressed as follows: Vz= Vb*k1*k2*k3 a.Risk coefficient (k1): The basic wind speed for terrain category 3 as applicable at 7.5 m height. The suggested life span to be assumed in designed and the corresponding k1 factors for different class of structure for the purpose of design are given in table 1 of IS 875 : part 3. From table 1 of IS 875: part 3, our industrial0. building comes in the category of important building and structure having mean probable design life of 50 years and basic wind speed 47 m/s. corresponding to that the value of k1 is taken as 1. b. Terrai roughness and height of structure (k2): selection of terrain categories shall be made with due regard to the effect of abstructions which constitute the ground surface roughness. The terrain category used in the design of a structure may vary depending on the direction of wind under consideration. Since our building comes under the category 3 and class B . we take value of k2 from table 2 of IS 875: part 3. For different heights corresponding values of k2 is given for different terrain and class. c. local topography(k3) : the effect of topography will be significant at a site when the upwind slope () is greater than about 3, and below that , the value of k3 may be taken to be equal to 1.0. the value of k3 is confined in the range of 1.0 to 1.36 fr slope greater than 3. But in our case we consider building at plane ground . So value of k3 is taken as 1

design wind pressure: the wind pressure at any height above mean ground level shall be obtained by the following relationship between wind pressure and wind speed: pz= 0.6*Vz2 where pz =wind pressure in N/m2 at height z, and Vz= design wind speed in m/s at height z.

Earthquake load An earthquake load is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the earths crust that creats seismic waves. At the earths surface, earthquake may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and disruption of property . an earthquake is caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way and fault liner occur. Earthquake forces are induced as the structure responds dynamically to earthquake induced ground motion. This makes earthquake action fundamentally different from any other imposed loads. Thus the earthquake forces imposed are directly influenced by the dynamic in elastic characterisitics of the structure itself. Through careful selection of appropriate, well distributed lateral load resisting systems, and by proper planning of the building area, the influence of many second order effects.

Seismic analysis General principles and design criteria General principles -earthquake cause random motion of ground which can be resolved in any three mutually perpendicular directions. This motion causes the structure to vibrate. The vibration intensity of ground expected at any location depends upon the magnitude of earthquake, the depth of focus, distance from the epicenter and the strata on which the structure stands. The predominant direction of vibration is horizontal. Relevant combinations of forces applicable for design of a particular structure have been specified in the relavant clauses. -the response of the structure to the ground vibration is a function of the nature of foundation soil, materials, form, size and mode of construction of the structure : and the duration and the intensity of

ground motion . this standard specifies design seismic coefficient for structure standing on soil or rocks which will not settle or slide due to loss of strength during vibrations. Factors: Importance factor(I) It is a factor used to abtain the design seismic force deprnding on the functional use of the structure, characterized by hazardous consequence of its failure, its post earthquake functional need, historic value, or economic importance. Response reduction factor(R) It is the factor by which the actual base shearforce, that would be generated if the structure were to remain elastic during its response to the design basic earthquake shaking shall be reduced to abtain the design lateral force. Zone factor(z) It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum depending on the perceived maximum seismic risk characterized by maximum considered earthquake in the zone in which the structure is loaceted. The basic zone factors included in this standard are reasonable estimate of effecyive peak ground acceleration.

## Seismic load Automatically generated in SAP by selecting CityZone factorjaipur 0.10

Response reduction factor R - 5 Importance factor - 1 Soil type - medium soil Damping ratio 5%