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3439-EME 6383 Automotive Powertrain II

Session # 14:
Powertrain NVH Issues and Trouble
Shooting
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
1
January - May 2012
Professor: Shan Shih, Ph.D.
LTU, Automotive Research Institute
Master Degree Program

Session Summary
NVH issues and their trouble shooting is a very important subject in auto
component and system design and product development. It is related to
product quality, customary satisfaction and product durability. In
powertrain the most important NVH issues are (1) the torsional vibration,
(2) bending vibration, (3) prop shaft critical speed, (4) gear box noise, etc.
They will be introduced here. (5) Half shaft and (6) sub-frame resonances
will be discussed as well
In product design there are 3 major category of performance
considerations: functionality, durability and quality. NVH belongs to
quality. NVH problems usually is being addressed the last in the product
development cycle. This is because most NVH problems are system
related and are difficult to address up front. However, in modern
engineering more and more NVH issues are considered in the design stage
instead of trouble shooting stage. The methodology will be introduced in
this session.

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
2
Outline (1/2)
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Shaft Critical Speed
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
3
Outline (2/2)
Gearbox Noise NVH Issues
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain NVH Trouble Shooting
Methodology
Basics
Approaches

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
4
Powertrain NVH Issues - Classification
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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ADAMS Powertrain Dynamic
Models
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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ADAMS Powertrain &
Suspension Interaction Models
Outline (1/2)
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Shaft Critical Speed
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
7
Simple Analysis
Do a quick calculation: 3000/60*2=100,
therefore we know this 2
nd
order engine
excitation hits the natural frequency of the
powertrain which is 99 Hz.
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
8
Engine excitation frequency Powertrain Natural Frequency
Matching or not Matching
?
9
4 Cylinder Longitudinal
Mounted Powertrain:
Engine excitation can be in
the (1) around x, (2)around
y and (3) z directions
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
X
Y
Z
Torsional Vibration is in the
around x direction.
Front vehicle
10
4 Cylinder Transversely
Mounted FWD Powertrain:
Engine excitation can be in
the (1) around x, (2)around
y and (3) z directions
In this case: Torsional Vibration is in the around y direction.
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
11

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
Engine rear
mount
RWD
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
12
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
13
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Symptoms
Torsional Resonance due to engine firing
pulses and/or driveline U-joint 2
nd
order
excitations
Vibration, noise, and premature parts failure
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
14
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Required Techniques in Problem Solving
Test Measurement
Resonance in vehicle acceleration
Rotating speed or torque fluctuation at various
powertrain locations
Simulation Analysis
Lumped moment of inertia, torsional stiffness and
damping
Engine harmonic torque input at each crank throw, U-
joint motion input
Mode shape and frequency response analysis
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
15
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Root Causes
High amplitude engine firing pulses
Large or unequal driveline U-joint angles
Unequal Phasing, high driveline speed
Inadequate clutch damper design
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
16
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Solutions
Clutch damper stiffness and damping design
Driveline U-joint angles/phasing
Driveline inertial damper, viscous damper,
dual mass flywheel damper
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
17
Outline (1/2)
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Shaft Critical Speed
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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Bending Vibration
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Symptoms
Bending mode resonance of powertrain
Cracked transmission/clutch housing, noise
and vibration

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
20
Transmission Housing Crack
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Shih, 2012
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Powertrain Bending Vibration
Required Techniques
Test Measurement
Modal analysis, lateral and vertical bending
Simulation Analysis
ADAMS linear eigen and dynamic analysis
Mode tuning via test Modal analysis
Vibration modes characterization
Dynamic operation loads and deflections
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
22
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Root Causes
First order excitation of unbalance from
engine, Torque converter, or U-joint
High speed driveline
Unbalanced driveline
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
23
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Solutions
Structural stiffening
Damping
Lower driveline speed
Driveline/U-joint balance
Add center bearing for shaft support
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
24
Outline (1/2)
Powertrain Torsional Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Bending Vibration
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain Shaft Critical Speed
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
25
Use 2 Hooke Joints
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Shih, 2012
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Double Cardan U-joints for main
prop shaft
Bearing supports are required
to avoid critical speed issue.
3 U-joints
4 U-joints
2 U-joints
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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Shan Shih, 2001, #12
4.34 9.67 8.26 4.40 5.50 5.20
5.40 5.20 6.00 6.00
Can you count how many u-joints are
used in this 8x8 vehicle?
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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5 . 0
4
1
2
87 . 9
|
.
|

\
|
H
=
L
EIg
f
e
7 3E E =
( )
64
4 4
i o
D D
I
H
=
g=386
( )
2 2
4
i o
R R
H
= e
Avoid shafts
flextural natural
frequency
Assumed rigid
simply supported
shaft
To design, make f1 as
high as possible.
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
30
Drive shaft Bending resonance due to engine excitation
0.00 400.00 Linear
Hz
0.00
0.14
A
m
p
l i t
u
d
e
(
g
/
N
)
80.91
FRF shaf t:-RZ/f orce:+RZ
FRF shaf t:-RZ/f orce:+RZ
0.00 400.00 Linear
Hz
0.00 400.00 Hz
-180.00
180.00
P
h
a
s
e

80.91


Calculate the corresponding
shaft speed from the engine
speed
4
th
gear ratio=1: 4800
engine rpm6014
th

gear ratio=80Hz
5
th
gear ratio: 4100engine
rpm600.8385
th
gear
ratio=81.5Hz

81 HZ
It is determined as 81 Hz
Based on the above analysis it is
concluded that the vibration is 1
st

order shaft bending.
Step2 from test to determine the shaft
natural frequency
Step1 check the waterfall plot
Step3 This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
Powertrain Shaft Critical Speed
Symptoms
Booming noise and vibration at certain engine speed and
transmission gear ratio
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Test Measurement
Modal analysis
Simple test on driveline natural frequencies
Analysis
CAE modeling
Solutions
2-segment shaft with center bearing
Add shaft damper


This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
31
Outline (2/2)
Gearbox Noise NVH Issues
Symptoms
Required techniques in Problem Solving
Solutions
Powertrain NVH Trouble Shooting
Methodology
Basics
Approaches

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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ENGINE RPM
& TORQUE
DATA
SPUR &
HELICAL GEAR
GEOMETRY
SHAFT
STIFFNESS &
MISALIGNMENT
BEARING
STIFFNESS
DATA
GEAR STATIC
TRANSMISSION
ERROR
LOADED GEAR TOOTH
PROFILE SIMULATION , [6]
(LDP)
GEAR-SHAFT-BEARING
SIMULATION (ADAMS)
BEARING DYNAMIC
LOADS TIME DOMAIN
FFT (MATLAB)
DYNAMIC BEARING LOADS;
FREQUENCY DOMAIN
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODEL
(ANSYS)
ACOUSTIC MODEL (COMET)
SURFACE VELOCITIES IN
FREQUENCY RANGE
SOUND PRESSURE
LEVEL (dB) IN
FREQUENCY RANGE.
POWER.
CORRELATE WITH TEST
CORRELATE WITH TEST
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
34




ENGINE RPM
& TORQUE
DATA
SPUR &
HELICAL GEAR
GEOMETRY
SHAFT
STIFFNESS &
MISALIGNMENT
BEARING
STIFFNESS
DATA
GEAR STATIC
TRANSMISSION
ERROR
LOADED GEAR TOOTH
PROFILE SIMULATION , [6]
(LDP)
GEAR-SHAFT-BEARING
SIMULATION (ADAMS)
BEARING DYNAMIC
LOADS TIME DOMAIN
FFT (MATLAB)
DYNAMIC BEARING LOADS;
FREQUENCY DOMAIN
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODEL
(ANSYS)
ACOUSTIC MODEL (COMET)
SURFACE VELOCITIES IN
FREQUENCY RANGE
SOUND PRESSURE
LEVEL (dB) IN
FREQUENCY RANGE.
POWER.
CORRELATE WITH TEST
CORRELATE WITH TEST
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
Gearbox Noise
Symptoms
Transmission, Transfer Gearbox and Axle Gear Noise and
Gearbox Housing Resonance
Engine idling, acceleration, cruise, and coasting
High frequency booming noise or low frequency rattle
Required Techniques
Test Measurement
Analysis
Root Causes
Gear profile precision
Gearbox stiffness
System design consideration
Solutions
Design and manufacturing improvements



This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
35
Engine and Chassis Components NVH Problem
Solving Example
Half Shaft Resonance
Sub-frame Resonance
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Shih, 2012
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Suspension Components NVH Demo
#1: Half Shaft Resonance
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Shih, 2012
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Procedures in Excitation-Resonance
Type NVH Problem Diagnosis
This method uses the waterfall plot as a starting point
It is most suitable in powertrain NVH problem solving because
the excitation frequencies are well defined
Focus on the locations of red spots in the waterfall plot
Conduct a CAE analysis to check the systems various natural
frequencies
Comparison the analysis results with the test measurement
generated plots
Check the correlation with the database for conclusions

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
38
Powertrain NVH Trouble Shooting
Root cause Identification
Information Gathering
interviewing
observing
test measurement
Simple analytical
model can help if dynamic properties are available.
Diagnostic and Analysis
To identify the frequency at which the problem occurred
To identify the source of excitation,
To identify the subsystem or component whose natural
frequency coincides with the problem frequency
This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
39
Powertrain NVH Trouble Shooting
Make Design Change Recommendations.
To eliminate the NVH source by changes in design or
control at the source component, such as an engine, U-
joint, tire, brake, pump, gear, shaft, etc.
To isolate the NVH source from the rest of the system,
such as the increase of shaft spline backlash
To change system's stiffness or inertia, or supporting
condition so that to shift the system's natural frequency
To add damping to the system

This teaching material is developed by Shan
Shih, 2012
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