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Solar Daylighting and Artificial Lighting:

1. Solar Lighting Daylighting with Windows Clerestory windows

SunCatcher -- Solar Lighting and Ventilation SUNCATCHER natural daylight and ventilation systems convey natural daylight and ventilation from roof level down into the building below by combining the principles of the WINDCATCHER natural ventilation system with Monodraught's SUNPIPE natural daylight system.

Sunshine From a Tube These simple skylights typically consist of a clear, dome- like lens connected to a highly reflective piece of tubing. The lens gathers sunlight and transmits it into a room via a ceiling fixture that resembles a conventional ceiling light. Tubular skylights are ideal for retrofitting bathrooms, hallways, walk-in closets or any dark room of a house. Some models come with flexible tubes, so you can snake them around obstructions in attics. And you don't have to be television home-

improvement pro Bob Vila to add them to your home most do-it-yourselfers can install a unit in a couple of hours using hand tools.

SunPipe SUNPIPE natural daylight systems consist of silverised mirror-finish aluminium tubes that carry daylight down into the room below. The SUNPIPE natural daylight system terminates in the patented Diamond dome, which seals the pipe against the ingress of rain, dust or insects, the ceiling diffuser seals the SUNPIPE natural daylight system at ceiling level. With this arrangement there is virtually no heat loss in winter months and solar gain is minimised during summer months. Monodraught manufacture a range of six standard sizes from 230mm to 1000mm diameter. Light Shelves Light shelves are an effective way to enhance the lighting from windows on the equator-facing side of a structure, this effect being obtained by placing a white or reflective metal light shelf outside the window. Usually the window will be protected from direct summer season sun by a projecting eave. The light shelf projects beyond the shadow created by the eave and reflects sunlight upward to illuminate the ceiling. This reflected light can contain little heat content and the reflective illumination from the ceiling will typically reduce deep shadows, reducing the need for general illumination. Daylight Collector "Himawari" is a device consists of a sun sensor and Fresnel lens to collect and direct sunlight through optical fiber to the designated position. A stepper motor is used and is controlled by a sensor and a microprocessor to point its lenses in the direction of the sun at all times. When there is no direct sunlight, the "HIMAWAEI" system tracks the sun accurately along the computed arc of the sun.

Heliostat Lighting The use of heliostats, mirrors which are moved automatically to reflect sunlight in a constant direction as the sun moves across the sky, is gaining popularity as an energy-efficient method of lighting. A heliostat can be used to shine sunlight directly through a window or skylight, or into any arrangement of optical elements, for example light tubes, that distribute the light where it is needed.

Smart glass Smart glass is the name given to a class of materials and devices that can be switched between a transparent state and a state which is opaque, translucent, reflective, or retro-reflective. The switching is done by applying an electric voltage to the material, or by performing some simple mechanical operation. Windows, skylights, etc., that are made of smart glass can be used to adjust indoor lighting, compensating for changes of the brightness of the light outdoors and of the required brightness indoors. Fiber-optic concrete wall The days of dull, grey concrete could be about to end. A Hungarian architect has combined the worlds most popular building material with optical fiber from Schott to create a new type of concrete that transmits light. A wall made of LitraCon allegedly has the strength of traditional concrete but thanks to an embedded array of glass fibers can display a view of the outside world, such as the silhouette of a tree, for example.

2. Efficient Artificial Lighting Incandescent light bulb compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) Solar Powered LED Solar panel collection systems using photovoltaic (PV) technology are a direct current (DC) energy source, which for most applications, including standard lighting, must be converted to alternating current (AC). However, since LED technology is inherently DC driven, it is more suitable for integration with solar power systems. The potential low power requirement for many LED applications also makes LED more suitable because solar power capacity is currently more limited in comparison to typical electrical grid AC power.

Halogen Hybrid solar lighting The hybrid solar lighting system uses a roof-mounted solar collector to concentrate visible sunlight into a bundle of plastic optical fibers. The optical fibers penetrate the roof and distribute the sunlight to multiple hybrid luminaires within the building. The hybrid luminaires blend the natural light with artificial light (of variable intensity) to maintain a constant level of room lighting. One collector powers about eight fluorescent hybrid light fixtures, which can illuminate about 1000 square feet.