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INTRODUCTION TRAINING Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

Training involves the development of skills that are usually necessary to perform a specific job. Its purpose is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs better. Training makes newly appointed workers fully productive in the minimum of time. It is equally necessary for the old employees whenever new machines & equipments are introduced and there is a change in the techniques of doing the things. In fact, training is a continuous process. The managers are continuously engaged in training their subordinates. They should ensure that any training program should attempt to bring about positive changes in the:
1. 2.

Knowledge, Skills, and

3. Attitudes of the workers. Improving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Business performance rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HR professionals lead the search for ways to enhance the effectiveness of employees in their jobs today and prepare them for tomorrow. Over the years, training programs have grown into corporate with these goals in mind. Training programs should enhance performance and enrich the contributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to develop appropriate talent in the workforce internally. In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles, structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however; expanding fast but controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds. Training is essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but not its benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways reluctance to send the most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel after training etc. With

disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designing and carrying out training effectively and economically. Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. The primary objective of training is to improve individual and organization performance. Training is usedor misusedto do a variety of things from informing, motivating, rewarding to changing behaviour and improving performance. However the goal of the training professional (as shown below) is to have the training input impact the performance output of the trainee.

Training In

Performance Output Trainee / Performer

Learning to work efficiently and accurately. Every trainee is always a performer, operating in some performance context of expectations, consequences, varying level of resources, and varying degrees of feedback. Given this, training is but one factor in producing job performance. The training analyst must know what performance can be impacted by training and what performance cant, and what performance factors must also be altered if the recommended training input is to result in meaningful performance output. Every trainee performer does impact organization performance in a fairly direct way. A training analyst needs to learn how the performer impacts the organization for the training to have any impact. They must uncover that linkage between performer and organization, as obscure as it may be.

A System Look at Training

As you might expect, the training function of any organization can be viewed as a key subsystem of that organization, as shown in the figure above. This system view suggests that: 1. The training function is a processing system, converting training needs data, training technology, training expertise, budget, and untrained personnel into trained personnel for the various operating functions or units (receiving systems). Training organization may perform other functions such as brokering outside training resources, which are not shown in this model for reasons of simplicity. 2. The primary inputs of training needs and untrained personnel are converted into the output of trained personnel through subsystems such as analysis, design, dev, delivery, and evaluation. 3. The training processing system is subject to the same system laws regarding responding to receiving systems that apply to organization and the general systems model. Two primary sources of feedback: Self-evaluation against internal criteria and evaluation by receiving systems against their criteria. As with other processing systems, the training subsystem must be responsive to its receiving systems or it will perish and/or be replaced. This means that: 1. The internal criteria must be in synch with the criteria used by the receiving systems and/or clients. If the client expecting increased performer and organization performance (sales increase, reduction in manufacturing costs of new products) and the training function is evaluating the quality of the training output by a smiles test or happiness index, the training subsystem may be producing an unacceptable output as far as the client is concerned.

2. The training output is going to be only as good as the training needs data input that the training subsystem is processing. This system view of training has implications for the design and management of the training function, as well as for determining needs. The quality of the training output is only as good as the training needs data input. If the training needs have not been properly identified, then both the training course and the training functions are in jeopardy. Training is quite relevant in the following four areas: a) New Employees To provide the participants with a broad understanding of the company and its diversity. To provide specific conceptual understanding of organization, marketing, production, financial, commercial and general management with special references to the company. To provide opportunity for group dynamics, problem solving and decision making through case study. To create a sense of camaraderie and pride to belong to the company. To sharpen skills in key functions of their job. Introduce training on a continuous and ongoing process basis. b) Performance Improvement

c) Operational Problems Not all problem can be corrected through training, but many can. And to determine whether or not training can be of help, the problem has to be defined. Once the problem has been defined and it is clear that it is because of lack of knowledge or skills, it can be concluded that it is a training problem. The following are some of the indicators: Continuing mistakes and errors on the job. Excessive overtime needed to do the work. Employees requesting transfers to new jobs. Performance is low, or decreasing. Employees seem reluctant to assume further responsibility.

d) Employee Development

Developing employees for future responsibilities is a LONG TERM process. It is not something, which can be accomplished overnight. It requires a well thought out plan of action that usually is broken down into a series of specific training steps and learning experience. All of high performers should receive at least some developmental training. Their performance in such activities will help the evaluation as to which employees have the most potential. This throws up data as to who should receive further development.

Training And Development Process: You can change the behavior in an entire organization, provided you treat training as a process rather than an event. - Warren G. Bennis In an organization Training process moves from these three phases:

Organization analysis Task/Job analysis


Define aims of objective Develop methods and TRAINING DESIGN AND

Instructional procedures

DELIVERY Select and prepare trainees Conduct training Facilitate transfer and further development TRANSFER AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING

Conduct Evaluation

Three phases of training process are: Phase 1: Pre-training. This may also be called the preparation phase. The process starts with an understanding of the situation requiring more effective behavior. An organizations concerns before training lie mainly in four areas: Clarifying the precise objectives of training and the use the organization expects to make of the participants after training; selection of suitable

participants; building favorable expectations and motivation in the participants prior to the training; and planning for any changes that improved task performance will require in addition to training. Phase 2: Training. During the course of the training, participants focus their attention on the new impressions that seem useful, stimulating and engaging. There is no guarantee that the participants will in fact learn what they have chosen. But the main purpose remains: participants explore in a training situation what interests them, and a training institutions basic task is to provide the necessary opportunities. Having explored, participants try out some new behavior. If they find the new behavior useful, they try it again, check it for effectiveness and satisfaction, try it repeatedly and improve it. Finally, they incorporate this new facet into their habitual behavior in the training situation. If they do not find it useful, they discard it, try some variant, or discontinue learning in this direction. The intricate process of selection and testing is continuous and more or less conscious. It is important that work organizations meanwhile prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return. Phase 3: Post-training. This may be called the "follow up" phase. When training per se concludes, the situation changes. When the participants return back to work from the training, a process of adjustment begins for everyone involved. The newly learned skills undergo modification to fit the work situation. Participants may find their organizations offering encouragement to use the training and also support for continuing contact with the training institution. On the other hand, they may step into a quagmire of negativity. More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primary objective of the training process as a whole. In the simplest training process, improvement is a dependent variable, and participants and organizations independent variables. A model of training in its simplest form is presented in figure below:

But training is actually a more complex process than the above figure suggests. In the first place, the training system itself needs to be included. It may be a temporary system but the trainers in the system also learn through the various opportunities available for checking their effectiveness, i.e. through feedback. Thus the independent and intervening variables also become dependent variables. The elaboration is shown in next figure (2):

Employers in all fields are challenged to find, develop, and retain top talent. Their people are their most valuable strategic resource, though many executives dont realize the importance of having highly competent people on their team. Too often employers allow themselves to be satisfied with less that adequate capacity. A major strategic advantage in this highly competitive environment will be the opportunity for training and education. Workers, dedicated to managing their own careers, will be increasingly hungry for training to build their skills so they can stay marketable. Sharp employers will invest huge amounts of resources to enhance the capacity of current employees to avoid the need to spend heavily to recruit qualified people from the outside. Deadwood those with low potential and low performance level. These could be outcome of faulty selection policy of the organization.

Work horses those employees with high performance level but with low potential. These good performers for the existing and routine jobs but lack confidence for higherlevel responsibilities hence need training.


Problem children employees with high potential but not willing to perform. Organization face difficulty in handling them and they need attitudinal training to develop positive attitude towards work.


Stars the employees upon which the organization may feel pride.

Keeping in view the category of employees the major areas of organizational training are human relation, value system attitude, motivation and morale, stress management, and communication and mutual trust etc. TRAINING AND LEARNING Training and Learning: To understand what training techniques can do to improve an employees job performance, it need to be explained how people learn. Theories of Learning: Learning is concerned with bringing about permanent change as a result of experience. This can be done through direct experience or observation. Regardless which technique is applied to learn, it is not possible to measure. However, it is possible to measure changes in attitudes and behaviour that occur as a result of learning. There are two major theories have demonstrated learning research over the years. Cognitive view: This view argues that an individuals purposes or intentions direct his or her actions. Environmental perspective: this proponent believes that the individual is acted upon and his or her behavior is a function of its external consequences. More recently an approach has been offered that blends both of these theories-learning is a continuous interaction between the individual and the social environment in which he or she functions. That is called social-learning theory. This theory acknowledges that individual learns by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences. Four processes have been found to determine the influence a model will have on an individual: 1. Attentional processes: People only learn from a model when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. Individuals tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, and similar to them. 2. Retention processes: A models influence depends on how the individual remember the models action, even after the model is no longer readily available. 3. Motor reproduction processes: After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activities.

4. Reinforcement processes: Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the model behavior if positive incentive or rewards are provided. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING Principles of Learning: The above processes derived from social-learning theory are frequently presented in more specific terms as principle of learning. Learning and motivation: Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. The experience, therefore, should be designed so learners can see how it will help them achieve goals they have set for themselves. For example, with enhanced knowledge you get promotion. Feedback and learning: Feedback is best when it is immediate rather than delayed. The sooner the individual have some knowledge of how well they are performing, the easier for them to correct their erroneous activities. Reinforcement and learning: Learning will be facilitated by positive reinforcement. For example, if the workers are positively praised when they are properly performing the task, workers would be more motivated to perform better. When behavior is punished, it is temporarily suppressed but is unlikely to be extinguished. Practice and learning: Practice increases a learners performance. When learners actually practice what they have read, heard, or seen, they gain confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have learned. There are three way a worker can practice a job - one, practice the whole job at once; two, break it into two parts; three, break it into two, three, or what ever way is convenient for you. Learning curve: Learning begins rapidly, then plateaus. Learning rates can be expressed as a curve that usually begins with a sharp rise, then increases at a decreasing rate until a plateau is reached. Transferring learning: Learning must be transferred to the job. It does not make any sense, if you learn skills in the class-room but you cannot transfer the skills to your job. Objectives of Training No matter what the industry, or the size of your business, training can have a positive effect on business performance and a measurable impact on the bottom line. Research shows that productivity increases even while training takes place. Staff who have received formal training have been found to be up to 230 per cent more productive than

untrained colleagues working in the same role. High labor productivity will increase your business output and can open a greater share of the market, or expand the market through an increase in quality and reputation. 1. Business Objectives. Staff Retention Training increases staff retention as it gives employees an incentive to stay on. Staff retention is a significant cost saving. The loss of one competent person can cost the equivalent of at least a year's pay and benefits. In some companies, training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent and have led to a return on investment of 7,000 per cent. Improved quality and productivity Training appropriate to worker and employer needs increases the quality and flexibility of your services by fostering:

Accuracy and Efficiency Good work safety practices Better customer service. Most enterprises provide on-the-job training, particularly at induction. However, ongoing training almost always shows a positive return on investment.

The flow-on effect The benefits of training in one area can flow to all levels of your organization. For some retail businesses, training store managers has increased profits with sales rising up to 10 per cent and staff turnover rates declining by 37 per cent. Over time, training will not only boost the bottom line, but reduce costs by decreasing: Wasted time and materials Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment Workplace accidents which may result in lower future insurance premiums Recruitment costs such as advertising and induction, through the internal promotion of skilled staff Absenteeism. Staying competitive Staying competitive in a global market place requires businesses to continually change their work practices and infrastructures. Training is used to manage and facilitate the implementation

of new technology, work practices and strategies by delivering the necessary skills to your workforce. The training your staff receives will also act as benchmarks for future recruitment and quality assurance practices. There are a variety of benefits from training other than those that directly affect profit. Businesses, which have implemented training, have reported improvements in:

Staff morale and satisfaction 'Soft-skills' such as inter-staff communication and leadership Time management Customer satisfaction.

2. Employee benefits Regular training and learning opportunities are an investment that will allow employees to prosper and develop their careers while giving your business a highly skilled workforce and a competitive advantage in the market. Staff turnover and recruitment Studies of training across developed nations reveal that organizations with lower staff turnover spend the most on training and education. Minimizing staff turnover will benefit the organization. Replacing staff is a costly process skills are lost, resources are disrupted and recruiting new personnel takes time and money. Staff who receive ongoing training are more likely to commit to their employers because:

Completion of the training develops their careers The training enables them to take on greater responsibility and higher paid work.

Measuring potential candidates against competencies delivered in your training programs also streamlines the recruitment process and reduces the induction period.

Increase workforce flexibility Training increases the skill-set of your workforce enabling it to engage in a wider range of tasks and responsibilities. Greater confidence and motivation leads staff to become less reliant on management and supervision. Training in skills specific to your industry does not necessarily limit the benefits of flexibility. Staff who receive such targeted training often achieve improvements in:

Communication skills Professionalism Conscientiousness

Creativity and innovation.

The benefits of a trained workforce have been shown to flow through to customers who become more satisfied with the improved level of products and services. Improved staff attitude and morale People enjoy learning when the material is relevant to their interests and many will be eager to apply their new skills and knowledge in practical situations. Staff who possess diverse skills are generally more satisfied and positive in their jobs. This decreases the occurrence of work-related stress and improves the overall work environment. By investing in their training, staff often feels:

Company have confidence in them to do the job The business values them and is giving something back over and above wages.

As a result, they will become self-starters, develop further competencies such as leadership and teambuilding, and be more willing to undertake further training. Training is also a perfect opportunity for business to get to know its staff, and for them to get to know each other. 3. Staying competitive To retain an edge over their competitors, organizations have to keep abreast of industry changes, technological advances and new industry legislation. Nationally recognized training, which is continually reviewed and updated by industry and training experts, keeps your business up-to-date with the latest industry and global marketplace developments. 4. New business opportunities Trained and motivated staff who understand the specifics of your business operations, are a sustainable competitive advantage. They will give your business the competitive edge by:

Increasing productivity and standards in production, therefore boosting your business reputation Being able to undertake a greater variety of work and therefore allow you to expand or open up new markets Allowing you to bid for more specialized, high value contracts Assisting you to meet business objectives faster.

Take advantage of new technologies

Training is vital to stay ahead and take advantage of new information technologies, which play a crucial role in many organizations. Trained staff will prevent your business from suffering skill shortages in IT and all other areas relevant to your industry. Training is flexible and can occur with little disruption to your business. Vocational education and training can be delivered when and where it suits your business - after hours, on or off-thejob, and even online. Training Methods Training method is a systematic procedure or technique by which a particular skill is developed in a person/employee of an organization. The quality of any training program depends upon the combination of training methods adopted. The method by which job training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. There are many different ways to train. On the basis of their characteristics, the important training methods are classified as: A. ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS On the job training Job Rotation Guidance and Counseling Syndicate Groups Role Plays Case Method Management Games In Basket Exercise Lecture Extension Talk Group Discussion Seminar Brain Storming



D. SKILL BASED METHODS Assignments Practice after Demonstration Task Performance Skill Teaching

E. EXPERIENTIAL METHOD Lecture A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily oneway: from the instructor to the learner. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. Seminar Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations. Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods. Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the managers ideas, causing conflict. Sensitivity Trainings- T Groups, Transactional Analysis. A detailed description of methods is given below:

Role Playing During a role-play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch. Case Studies A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track. Self-discovery Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research. Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning. Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employees progress. Movies/videos/computer-based training Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program. Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.

Discussion Groups These can be set up inside or outside your job setting, with friends or co-workers. You could set up a regular brown-bag lunch group, or an after-hours discussion with peers, with or without a group leader or facilitator. Books, videos, current events, or simply topics of interest to participants could stimulate discussions. The possibilities are endless, limited only by your interest, imagination, and initiative. On-the-job training This is the most common method of training. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance standards as a lesson plan. Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality-based. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor. Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job, providing no real training. Mentoring A mentor can tutor others in their learning. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system. Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure. Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits. When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.

One-to-one and Small Group Training. Many aspects of work are best explained in the workplace and some aspects can only be trained in the workplace. Many managers, supervisors, team leaders and specialists are thrown into the task of helping others to learn a job with little guidance on how to do it effectively. Brainstorming A problem or open questions are stated to focus upon. Few moments are given to groups to jot down their own thoughts before starting the round. All ideas are recorded on flip chart paper. When brainstorm completes group is asked to merge items and narrow to a manageable few. Establish Rules of Brainstorming: one idea per person, be wild and creative, no interruptions, no evaluation of others' comments, individuals may pass. When to Use:

To generate many alternative solutions to a problem To come up with new uses for things or design new products When participants represent many different backgrounds When you want to create equity within a group (break through traditional, established roles) To encourage all group members to speak To obtain the best and fullest intelligence and creativity from a combined group

In Basket Exercise The in basket is simulation of managers workload on a typical day. The participant is required to assume the role of a manager in a hypothetical organization. He is then presented with an assortment of problems. These problems are presented to the manager in the form of letters, memos and memoranda, all put in the IN- Tray of the participant. The participant is asked to read the IN-Tray and take appropriate action within a limited time. Pros: Rooted in the real life situation of the corporate world. Hence, effectively enhance skills in decision-making and problem solving. Cons: Are expensive to construct as also to administer. It is essentially individual and noninteractive. SENSITIVITY TRAINING

Sensitivity training is an experiential approach to training. It provides participants an opportunity to actually experience some concepts of management just as a manager would experience them. It attempts to develop the diagnostic ability of participants the ability to perceive reality. The individual is made aware of himself and his impact on others. It increases sensitivity and awareness towards others and their styles. It helps in understanding how conflicts arise and are resolved. T- Groups: A T-Group consist of eight to fifteen persons. The trainer after setting forth the objectives of the T Group recedes into the background creating vacuum which impels participants to develop structure and meaning themselves. Data developed by the group behaviour is used to understand the here and now. Analysis is direct and immediate to see through and decipher reality from appearance and perceptions. T- Group processes concentrate on the present to the total exclusion of the past, and participants are in the act of observing while participating. Transactional analysis: This method is a communication between people and theory of personality. Learning these theories, managers can better understand others behaviours and also can assist them altering their responses so as to produce more effective results TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION Training is useless unless you have a purpose, it's knowing for what purpose to train for that can break men's fulfilment. Training needs assessment begins with identifying organizational needs in terms of capabilities, task needs assessment in terms of skill sets that are needed within the firm, and individual needs analysis to determine how employee skills fit with company needs . A training needs assessment provides vital informationrmation about the real needs of the organizationanization. This pre-training tool helps a company to strategically identify specific areas needing attention (training and non-training). The assessment results help target training more cost-effectively.

Training activities, which are ill directed and inadequately focused do not serve the purpose of the trainers, the trainees, or the organization, hence identification of training needs become the top priority of every progressive organization. In fact, training needs analysis helps in defining the gap between what is happening and what should happen. Identification of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Determining training needs is not just a training process issue. It is also a rg management issue reflecting the mission, philosophy, and strategy of the training function. A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge, skills or values to perform an assigned task satisfactorily. A needs analysis is the process of identifying whether training is required, and what type of training would be appropriate for the situation. It involves considering the existing skills and performance of the workforce, and the required/desired skills of the workforce now and for the future. A training needs analysis can be completed broadly across the organizationanisation, or can be completed for an individual. An analysis of the training needs of an individual is sometimes called a "skills audit".

Broadly, a needs analysis involves the following steps:


An assessment of the future needs of the organization. Is training addressing the future skills required for the organization to achieve its strategic goals' This can be done through workforce planning, and reviewing the strategic direction. For further information refer to the Workforce Planning Guide.

2. An assessment of the current situation - what is currently happening and what should be happening across broad areas of the organization. This can be done through general observation, through conducting surveys, interviews or focus groups. 3. Investigating if training is the appropriate response to the issues. Is the issue trainingrelated or is there another solution' This can be done through reviewing the skills, knowledge and attitudes of staff, through reviewing performance data, gathering feedback from staff and people accessing the service, observing the workflow, or through interviews and focus groups. 4. Determining what type and method of training and development will provide the appropriate solution. Prioritise delivery.

5. Reporting the information, and gaining commitment for development of a training plan and implementation of appropriate training. BASIC APPROACHES TO DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS Following Figure shows the linkage between training input and performance output and four approaches to determining training needs: (1) Knowledge/Skill Input (2) Repertoire or (3) Task Output Output (4) Job (5) Process/ Output Function Competencies



A. Training Need Survey

B. Compet -ency Study

C. Task Analysis

D. Perfor-mance Analysis


Performance Analysis, starts with links 5 and 4. One can begin the needs analysis by

determining the desired process and job output and ultimately what knowledge and skill was required to perform the various tasks. This approach will also identify the other performance factors such as consequences and feedback-in addition to training-that are required if the job and process outputs are to occur.

Task Analysis, enters the linkage at point 3. if applying a task analysts approach to

determining the training needs begin by determining the tasks performed by the supervisors and then ascertaining what knowledge and skill was required to successfully perform those

tasks. This approach to needs analysis is output focused but does not tie directly into job performance or address the other performance factors.

Competency Study, enters the linkage at point 2, the performer repertoire. Begin by

determining what experts in the claims function thought the competences or capabilities of a claim supervisor were and then ascertaining what knowledge and skill was required to have the capabilities to display the competencies. This approach does not directly link the rg input to performance output or address the performance context of the performer.

Training Need Survey, enters at point 1. this is a very straight forward survey. Survey

a range of informed sources within the claim function and ask what rg they thought was required by or would be beneficial for claim supervisors. This is basically an informed opinion survey and begins and ends at point 1 in the linkage. This approach to needs analysis is relatively quick but makes no direct links to performance output at any levels. Of the four approaches mentioned above where the training analyst starts the needs analysis depends on the circumstances. SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR NEEDS ANALYSIS Management Customers or End Users Government Workers Technology A reactive training approach is totally and exclusively responsive to management as its source of information. Ask your management contacts the following questions: Who will receive the training? What is the nature of the population to be trained? What problems have created the need for training? What specific results would management like the training to achieve? What is the time frame for training? What is the budget for training?


CUSTOMERS OR END USERS No one can argue with a need for training that has been defined by an effective customer survey. This is especially true in light of the old saying, The customer is always right. Usually a company has some form of customer feedback. It may be a customer service or complaint department, market research, receptionists, shipping and expediting and so on. In fact, any area or department that regularly interfaces with the companys customers or end users is a way to gauge customer response to your company. Heres what one should look for: Number and pattern of complaints- Document both the weekly or monthly number of complaints and what articles, services or employees are involved. Service records- too frequent service calls imply both inferior quality and inadequate service. If your company services hardware of any kind, look for patterns in the frequency of service, both in the items serviced and among the departments or service people themselves. Retraining might be an effective solution. Customer service- there are few better sources of information for needs analysis than simply walking around observing how things are done. Look at how customers react to company personnel. Customers Survey- All of us who travel are familiar with the ubiquitous customers surveys in hotels and restaurants. These are an effective source of data on how well employees are performing and whether or not they may need training. GOVERNMENT Most managers are aware of the impact a change in government regulations has on company operations. Yet such a change seldom comes as a surprise. The government debates it, the media report it, the issues are discussed. WORKERS Frequently the workplace can tell you when some form of training or retraining may be in order. Here are some areas that can be monitored: Absenteeism and Turnover rates Union Bargaining Positions Outside Seminars

Exit interviews Employee Surveys

TECHNOLOGY If your department does not currently offer new managers training in word processing or computer applications, you will have to provide it sooner or later. Monitor technological changes that affect the workplace. For example, electronic mail and interactive video telephones are becoming current. TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT INVOLVES: Assess your needs Making a decision about the right training for your organization depends on a number of factors identifying business needs, the needs of your employees and a recognition of existing skill levels. Identify your business needs An assessment of your training needs will help you identify the gaps in skills and knowledge that are vital for your business. Your analysis can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observation or any type of available research. To assess your business needs consider the following questions:

Where do you want your business to go? What potential business areas can benefit from training? What does the business want to achieve from investing in training? How much time, equipment, money and other resources do you want or need to allocate to training? What do you expect will be the level of staff involvement in training?

Ask key leaders or managers in your organization what goals and objectives they must accomplish this year and how training could assist to accomplish them. For example, if you need to reduce production costs, targeted training can improve your production processes by decreasing re-work or rejection of defective products. Get feedback from your employees. Ask them:

What areas of the business could be improved, for example, processes, customer relations or technology?

To identify areas where individual supervisors could improve performance. Where and with whom are the specific skills vital to the output of your business located?

Research your industry: If you can, find out what other organizations are doing with training and then benchmark your training plan against their experiences. Also, find out benchmark statistics, such as the cost of production for a similar product. These statistics can form targets for your business to meet or exceed as a result of training. Formal records of previous training your business has conducted, including induction programs, are also useful. They can make it easier to review your training needs and ensure that future training is relevant. Identify employee needs When evaluating the training that's required to achieve your business goals, one should also identify the training needs of your employees. There are training options for all staff - from entry level workers to board level executives - and training needs vary based upon how your business is structured, and how responsibilities are shared and distributed. First you should assess the nature of the employees' work and the competencies that the business requires to run efficiently. Consider the following questions:

What skills and knowledge are required to perform the work of your staff? What are the measures of successful performance of their work? Are your employees reaching these levels? Employees will be the best resource for this information. They will be able to tell you

what is and isn't working. One should ensure that employees have a job description, where the skills and knowledge required to do the job are clearly outlined. This will also facilitate the assessment of your training needs. Use Training Packages:

If you need help determining which competencies your staff need to achieve, you can find ideas in one of the many training packages that are offered across all industries. Training Packages outline the skills and knowledge a person must demonstrate at work and provide guidelines for assessing these competencies.

Consider your employees' response In order for the training to return maximum benefits the training should also meet the needs of your employees individually. For example, answer these questions:

How will your employees accept the training? How do your employees prefer to learn? What expectations do they have about the training? How will training impact on your employees' regular job functions? How will the age, gender, skills and experiences of your employees affect the nature of the training? This information will come from the employees themselves or your personal knowledge

of them. You might also conduct a questionnaire or informal interview, which you could include in your training records. Skills recognition Employees may already have the skills or knowledge that will enable them to gain a qualification without taking part in the whole training programram. Skills recognition is the acknowledgment by a training provider that an employee has gained an appropriate level of skill and knowledge that would have otherwise been developed through undertaking a course. These skills and knowledge may have been gained through some form of study, through a training provider or by self-tuition, work or life experience. Why conduct Training Need Analysis? TNA plays a critical role in planning the use of available training and development resources. Critically it ensures that money is spent on essential training and development that will help drive the business forward to meet its objectives. In the same way it can help

highlight occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternative action such as recruitment or contracting out work. BENEFITS: Employee Benefits Employees have the opportunity to learn from performing training assessment. Employees begin to realize that they can make choices concerning their careers through the needs assessment programram, express concerns about the present status of their job knowledge (without having the informationrmation show up on their performance appraisal), facilitate the company in achieving its objectives and goals, and evaluate their own knowledge and learning

Organizational Benefits A needs assessment provides a systematic, repeatable approach for customizing training program. As a result, organizations can know what their training needs are and develop a base for sequencing and phasing in new knowledge. understanding as to why they are providing particular training. OTHER BENEFITS: Eliminate chaos from your training efforts Set the direction and tone of your training effort Align training with your business goals and objectives Bring reason, cohesiveness and clarity to your training effort Monitor the progress of your organization in achieving its training goals Firms also develop an Know what their training needs are. Why provide a kind of training. Develop and new knowledge. Knowing what training is being planned and why. Justifying costs in relation to training benefits.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The effectiveness of the training programmes can be established through this study. This study helps to understand, analyze & apply the core concepts of training in an organization. Managers would be able to identify the need of training for its employees. Managers would know what employees think of the training and development programmes and make changes if necessary.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Kirkpatrick (1994) has developed a model for evaluating the effectiveness of training within organization. It has four levels: Level 1: reaction- a measure of how participants feel about various aspects of the program. Level 2: learning- a measure of the knowledge acquired, skills improved or attitudes changed during training. Level 3: behavior - a measure of the extent to which participants change their behavior because of training and Level 4: results- a measure of the final results for the organization that occur due to training, including increased sales, higher productivity, and reduced employee turnover. The difficulty of standardizing measurement increases from the level on the Kirkpatrick scale. The American society of Training and Development (ASTD) benchmarking survey also includes questions around initial skill change as result of training, and follow-up evaluation of performance on course objectives (with assessments being obtained from participants and supervisors).These measures are similar but not identical to levels one and three on Kirkpatricks scale for measuring training effectiveness. Various correlations between learning effectiveness and institutional factor and learning effectiveness and organization outcomes may then be examined (Bassi & Ahlstrand, 2000. p12-13) The scales described above for looking at effectiveness of training focus on effects at the individual and organizational level. However, participation in training and development may also have effect for the economy as a whole. The OCED (1997) summarizes the nature of these effects as follows: For individuals: qualification, employment, job satisfaction, earnings, career progression: For organization: employee morale, absenteeism, labor turnover, productivity, quality of output, production costs, sales and profit; and For economies: level of structural unemployment, inflation, international competitiveness and economic growth (OCED, 1997, p20) Most of these effects are measurable, either directly according to some (relatively) standard classification system (e.g. qualifications) or through a specially designed rating scale or other instrument (e.g. for job satisfaction).While some research focuses on the effects of training on these variables, other research looks at my increase skill levels, and higher skill levels are associated with higher participation in training.

Training is widely understood as communication directed at a defined population for the purpose of developing skills, modifying behavior, and increasing competence. Generally, training focuses exclusively on what needs to be known. Education is a longer-term process that incorporates the goals of training and explains why certain information must be known. Education emphasizes the scientific foundation of the material presented. Both training and education induce learning, a process that modifies knowledge and behavior through teaching and experience. The research model described here pertains to both training and education. Therefore, in this document, "training" refers to both processes. In contrast to informal training (which is embedded in most instances of human exchange), formal training interventions have stated goals, content, and strategies for instruction. Our intent is to offer a general approach to intervention effectiveness research that addresses formal training across settings and topics. The model integrates primary and secondary data collection with qualitative and quantitative analyses so that the benefits of each research technique can be applied to the evaluation of training effectiveness. Training intervention effectiveness research is needed to (1) identify major variables that influence the learning process and (2) optimize resources available for training interventions. Logical and progressive study models are best suited to identify the critical elements and causal relationships that affect training effectiveness and efficiency. In training research, it is often difficult to arrive at definitive answers. Typically, many variables minimize effects and make results difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the amount of variance attributed to any one variable is usually small. Therefore, if training is to be an essential component of planned interventions, a uniform system of research is needed to explain how training is made effective and to indicate how resources for training should be organized. The model described here recognizes that formal training interventions are affected by several real-world factors such as uneven resource availability across training settings and differing levels of experience and expertise among instructors. Accordingly, training evaluation research should be conducted in the field where possible in order to incorporate these variables into the study of effectiveness. Established techniques (such as qualitative study methods and quasi-experimental research designs) are available to deal with the difficulties of field research [Miles and Huberman 1984; Tuckman 1972]. These techniques enable researchers to develop evaluation designs appropriate for investigating many of the critical elements of effective training. As presented, the model provides a framework in which to practice these methodologies.

Consequently, routine implementation of the model will lead to increased consistency and logic across training evaluation studiesand to generalization of research findings to multiple training circumstances. Comr. S. Peter, 2008 The Statute of Artificers of 1563 is the first example of state intervention and provided the legal basis for vocational training until 1814 when the 'laissez faire' attitudes of the time opposing any state regulation brought about its abolition. Nevertheless, the attitudes contained in it, notably restriction of entry and the insistence on time-serving to qualify as a craftsman, lingered on until the latter part of the 20th century. The craft trade unions that emerged from the mid-19th century insisted on apprenticeship qualifications for membership, and used craft status as a means of gaining and maintaining influence and power. And the attitudes that had brought about the abolition of the Statute of Artificers, which might be characterized as voluntarism versus state regulation or intervention, are still present in debates in the 21st century. When Labour came to power in 1997, it inherited a situation in which there was growing evidence that the UK had more poorly qualified employees and fewer young people in training than most of its European competitors. Two 1998 Green Papers, The Learning Age and Lifelong Learning, announced the government's commitment to lifelong learning. Also in 1998, Labour announced its 'welfare-to-work' scheme - New Deal, to get the long-term unemployed into employment. How successful this was is arguable: many of those who found jobs might have done so anyway because of the growth in the economy. There were complaints about the relevance of the training and the associated bureaucracy. This was followed by the Leitch Review of Skills1. Published in 2006, it proposed tackling the continuing problem of low skills by (among other recommendations) proposals for the UK ultimately getting to a position where 95% of adults would achieve a Level 2 qualification, and supporting a new pledge for employers to voluntarily commit to train all eligible employees up to Level 2. G. Balucha, 2005 Writing about recent and current events, historical perspective is lacking. The clash between voluntarism and interventionism still exists, although the influence of the European Union, with a broadly more interventionist philosophy, is increasing. Modern Apprenticeships,

despite re-branding, struggle to succeed. There is still no 'training culture' among many employers, as exists more widely in certain other EU nations, and the training performance of SMEs in particular remains a real problem. The initial responses to Leitchs call for a skills pledge are not encouraging, particularly amongst small firms2, and there is opposition to the idea of intervention in the form of a statutory right to workplace training. There are concerns that the new work-related diplomas will be regarded as inferior to GCSEs and A-levels, although vocational qualifications sit alongside academic qualifications easily in most of continental Europe. As part of a larger research project on evaluation, I reviewed the relevant Australian, British and American journals for the period 1970-1986. My intention was to identify themes or trends in the evaluation of T&D programs, and ultimately to extract from the literature some practical guidelines, techniques or models useful to T&D/HRD professionals, particularly in the area of management development and Human Resource programs. I was initially surprised by the relatively small number of articles on the subject of evaluation. A total of six articles in Australian journals was found (five by Australian practitioners), and the Australian National Library has no record of any publication dealing with HRD evaluation for the period 1980-86. In British and American journals, some eighty articles were located, the most prolific period being 1982-84. The other impression one gains is of the uneven quality of this material. Much of it is rather superficial and general; some on the other hand is so academic in style it would be difficult for many practitioners to understand or apply. The lack of extensive bibliographies and literature reviews was also a surprise finding. As a result, one of the products of this research project was the development of an annotated bibliography of more than eighty articles. This is included at the end of this article. In reviewing the literature I undertook a content analysis of the articles. In this article I will relate my findings in relation to the definition of evaluation, the purpose of evaluation as expressed by the author, and the models or techniques proposed. Current evaluation practice There is ample evidence that evaluation continues to be one of the most vexing problems facing the training fraternity. Catanello and Kirkpatrick's 1968 survey of 110 industrial organisations evaluating training (Burgoyne and Cooper, 1975, 60) revealed that very few were assessing anything other than trainee reactions.

Looking at similar data and the emphasis in much of the literature, one wonders if there has been much change in 20 years (see, for example, Brown, 1980, 11). Galagan (1983,48) and Del Gaizo (1984, 30) both refer to a survey of Training and Development Journal readers in which 30% of the respondents identified evaluation of training as the most difficult part of their job. Easterby-Smith and Tanton (1985, 25) report on their British survey involving HRD practitioners in fifteen organisations. In virtually every case the only form of evaluation being done was end-of-course trainee reactions, and the data so obtained seldom used. Such findings are similar to my own 1985 survey of a sample of Public Service and private company trainers in Sydney to determine both their attitude to evaluation and what was being carried out by them in practice. All expressed a firm belief in the principle of evaluation, and all administered end of-course forms of varying degrees of complexity to gauge trainee reactions to the instructors, content, and facilities. But 75% admitted that was as far as their evaluation went, mainly because they did not know what else to do. As Easterby-Smith and Tanton (1985) observe, much current practice is only a ritual, and in many cases the evaluation that counts is done before the course is ever given; post-course data merely confirm prior judgements that the training is satisfactory. In the minds of many practitioners evaluation is viewed as a problem rather than a solution, and an end rather than a means. Where evaluation of programs is being undertaken it is often a 'seat of the pants' approach and very limited in its scope. Overawed by quantitative measurement techniques, and lacking both the budget and the time as well as the required expertise for comprehensive evaluations, trainers often revert to checking in the only way they know - post-course reactions - to reassure themselves the training is satisfactory. If the literature is a reflection of general practice, it can be assumed that many practitioners do not understand what the term evaluation encompasses, what its essential features are, and what purpose it should serve. Consequently the use of training courses far outstrips what is known of their usefulness. When such programs are evaluated, the common sources of data (other than trainee reactions) are numbers of participants, decreased absenteeism at work, high rating of instructors, etc. Many trainers are therefore making judgements on the basis of activities ("employee days of training") and not on relevant results. Many practitioners regard the development and delivery of training courses as their primary concern, and evaluation something of an afterthought. On the other hand, adopting the premise that no news is good news, many practitioners still avoid the evaluation issue. Preferring to "remain in the dark", and worried that evaluation

will only confirm their worst fears (since they have no other alternative to offer management if the current program is shown to be educationally ineffective), they choose to settle for a nonthreatening survey of trainee reactions. Towards a definition Providing a sound definition is more than a lexicographic exercise; it can clarify and refine concepts, generating a framework within which to develop a pragmatic approach to the subject. Evaluation is no exception, and the apparent confusion in the minds of many as to the purposes and functions of evaluation corresponds to the ignorance or misunderstanding of what is meant by this and related terms such as research, validation, and assessment. A variety of definitions can be found in the literature, many of them stipulative, and the inconsistencies in the use of the terminology has "muddied the waters'' of training evaluation a great deal, affecting the success of evaluation efforts (Wittingslow, 1986, 8). Bramley & Newby (1984a) summarise the diversity of terminology used over the past decade, and offer a most helpful comprehensive table showing the interrelationships between various concepts of evaluation. Rackham (1974, 454) offers perhaps the most amusing and least academic definition of evaluation, referring to it as a form of training archaeology where one is obsessively digging up the past in a manner unrelated to the future! In the literature reviewed, where a definition of evaluation is given, the majority of writers tend to view it as the gathering of information in order to make a value judgement about the program, such as necessary changes or the possible cessation of the program. Williams (1976, 12) defines evaluation as the assessment of value or worth. Harper & Bell (1982, 24) refer to the planned collection, collation and analysis of information to enable judgements about value and worth. However, as Williams (1976, 12) observes, value is a rather vague concept, and this has contributed to the different interpretations of the term evaluation.