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Rectification Equipment Calculations


Predefined conditions:
Capacity in relation to initial mixture (feed), t/h More volatile component in feed, mol % More volatile component in top product (distillate), mol % More volatile component in bottom product, mol % Feed temperature, oC Top product temperature, oC Bottom product temperature, oC Saturated water steam temperature, oC Initial cooling water temperature, oC Final cooling water temperature, oC

Gf(-) Xf Xd Xw tf' td' tw' tst t0H2O= tfinalH2O =

4.3 42 98 3 15 35 35 130 18 38

t/h mol % = mol % =


o o o o o o

mol % = C C C C C C

Mass Balance Concerning the Basic Fluxes in the Column


Molecule weight M1 = Mmorevolatile (pure substance) Molecule weight M2 = Mlessvolatile (pure substance) Molecule weight Mf Molecule weight Md Molecule weight Mw Mass concentration Xf(-) Mass concentration Xd(-) Mass concentration Xw(-) Mass flux Gf(-) Mass flux Gw(-) Mass flux Gd(-) Molar flux Gf Molar flux Gd Molar flux Gw 32.04 18.02 23.9084 31.7596 18.4406 0.5628482 0.9886523 0.0521241 1.1944444 0.5430689 0.6513756 0.0499592 0.0205096 0.0294496 kg/kmol kg/kmol kg/kmol kg/kmol kg/kmol kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kg/s kg/s kg/s kmol/s kmol/s kmol/s

4.3

t/h

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium
Table: Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium: Concentration of the more volatile component in liquid phase - equilibrium concentration in the vapor phase. X 0 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Y* 0 0.278 0.425 0.602 0.752 0.798 0.838 0.878 0.915 t, C P mmHg 100 760 92.4 87.7 81 75.4 73.2 71.2 69.4 67.7
o

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0.9 1

0.96 1

66 64.6

Y* X
1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Y* 0 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0

Diagram - liquid-vapor equilibrium Y* 0 0 0.278 0.278 0.425 0.425 0.602 0.602 0.752 0.752 0.798 0.798 0.838 0.838 0.878 0.878 0.915 0.915 0.96 0.96 1 1 0 0

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 X 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1

This diagram provides information about: Equilibrium concentrations: yf* yd* yw*

0.76 0.99 0.17

mol parts

mol parts mol parts

Diagram - boiling and condensation curves


t

0 110 0.05 100 0.1 0.2 90 0.4 0.5 80 0.6 70 0.7 0.8 60 0.9 50 1 0.96 40 0.915 0.878 30 0.838 20 0.798 0.752 10 0.602 0.425 0 0.278 0

100 92.4 87.7 81 75.4 73.2 71.2 69.4 67.7 66 64.6 66 67.7 69.4 71.2 73.2 75.4 81 87.7 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 92.4

0 1 1.1

X, Y

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100 This diagram provides information about: tf td tw tvd tvu (at yd*) (at yw*) 75 65 95 66 99
o o o o o

Feed boiling point temperature Top product (distillate) boiling point temperature Bottom product boiling point temperature Steam leaving the column Steam after reboiler

C C C C C

Density of Fluxes
r1, r2 -pure substances' densities at coresponding temperatures tf, td, tw.

Feed density - at temperature r1 r2 rf (more volatile) (less volatile) (feed) Top product density - at temperature r1 r2 rd (more volatile) (less volatile) (top product - distillate) Bottom product density - at temperature r1 r2 rw (more volatile) (less volatile) (bottom product)

75 741 975

kg/m3 kg/m3
3

827.85566 kg/m 65 751 980


o

C
3

kg/m

kg/m3

3 752.9967 kg/m o

95 719.5 961.5

kg/m3 kg/m3

3 944.93373 kg/m

Volume Fluxes
Vf Vd Vw (feed) (top product) (bottom product) 0.0014428 m /s 0.000865 m /s 0.0005747 m /s
3 3 3

Flux D F W

G(-)

Collected Current Results X(-) M kg/kmol 31.7596 23.9084 18.4406

r
3

V
3 o

t C 65 75 95

kmol/s kg/s kmol/kmol kg/kg 0.0205096 0.6513756 0.98 0.9886523 0.0499592 1.1944444 0.42 0.5628482 0.0294496 0.5430689 0.03 0.0521241

kg/m m /s 752.9967 0.000865 827.85566 0.0014428 944.93373 0.0005747

Number of Plates in the Rectification Column

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Y*

X 1 0 0.95 0.9 0.05 0.1 0.85 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.75 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.55 1
0.5 0.45 0.98 0.4 0.98
0.35

Y* 1 0 0.278 0.425 0.602 0.752 0.798 0.838 0.878 0.915 0.96 1 0 0.98 0 0.98 0.6815385

0.3 0.25

0.03 0.98

0.2 0.42 0.15 0.1 0.03

0 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.42 0.6815385 0 0.42 0 0.2 0 Xw 0.1

0.3

0.4

XF

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Xd 1 X

This figure provides information about and gives graphical representation of the operation lines (redcolored ones) for the two parts of the column. Slop 0.3928571 B max (max snip) 0.595 R min (min Reflux ratio) 0.6470588 k coefficient for Reflux ratio calculation: R = 1,3*Rmin + k 0.3 R (operation Reflux ratio) 1.1411765 B (snip of operation line of rectification part) 0.4576923 nth ntl F YF (number of plates for the rectification part) (number of plates for the striping part) vapor content leaving F plate Relative volatility a Y* a
h h l

7.4 3.2 2.4358974 0.6815385 mol parts

use the diagram Y*/X at X use the diagram Y*/X at X

h l

0.7 0.225

mol. parts mol. parts

0.88 0.63 3.1428571 5.8648649 1.0959916 1.9980918

mol parts mol parts

Y*
h l

(relative volatility for rectification part) (relative volatility for striping part) (rectification part) (striping part) Capacity coefficients of plates

a a *
l

a * mlh
l ml

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a*m 0.13 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10

h 0.84 0.73 0.65 0.595 0.55 0.525 0.5 0.455 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.3 0.29

l, m 0.9 D 1 0.3 1.25 1.5 0.25 1.75 2 0.2 2.5 3 0.15 3.5 4 4.5 0.1 5
0.05

D 0 0.05 0.125 0.163 0.192 0.215 0.237 0.25 0.258 0.263 0.267 0.27

Defining correction, D

0 0 1 2 l, m 3 4 5

hh h Correction D
l

(rectification part; use table h/a*m) (striping part; use table h/a*m) (if the path ( l ) of the liquid on plate > 0,9 m; use table D/l) (rectification part) (striping part)

0.448 0.38 0 0.448 0.38

hh(corrected) hl(corrected)

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N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X

plate

0.1535377 0.2656605 0.397259 0.5231294 0.6249614 0.6992758 0.0769443 0.1486565 0.2431254 0.3495269 0.454192 0.5473239 0.03 0.0581001 0.1010258 0.1575733 0.2212635 0.2839142 plate
11 12 13 14 15 16

0.7276245 0.7440583 0.7629589 0.7839675 0.8064759 0.8296928 0.7137932 0.727352 0.7433039 0.7615212 0.7816609 0.8031792 0.459457 0.4805192 0.5059593 0.5358898 0.5700707 0.6078586 plate
21 22 23 24 25 26

0.930361 0.9445308 0.9566044 0.966766 0.9752361 0.9822433 0.9076169 0.9241544 0.938692 0.9512691 0.9620064 0.9710725 0.8095541 0.8441885 0.8752174 0.9024942 0.9260926 0.9462387 plate
31 - feeding 32 33 34 35 36

0.7853957 0.6986808 0.7091939 0.7221021 0.7375664 0.7555656 0.6839653 0.6905578 0.6989068 0.7092983 0.7219624 0.7370166 0.3842405 0.4245534 0.4369229 0.452588 0.4720855 0.495847 plate
41 42 43 44 45 46

0.8667029 0.8879036 0.9072456 0.9244533 0.9394465 0.9522913 0.8392605 0.8610526 0.881747 0.9008795 0.9181575 0.9334494 0.674143 0.715932 0.7568203 0.7956491 0.831547 0.8639656 plate
51 - top 52 53 54 - feeding 55 56

0.9910575 0 0.7486037 0.7849683 0.6974125 0.7076171 0.9827248 0.5424641 0.6207971 0.6831822 0.6895574 0.6976481 0.9724234 0 0.3367524 0.3836412 0.4230841 0.4350458 plate
61 62 63 64 65 66

0.7947704 0.8177294 0.8409798 0.8636782 0.8850998 0.9047176 0.7711032 0.7919918 0.8139384 0.8362218 0.8581192 0.8789953 0.5520092 0.5880493 0.6272423 0.6684205 0.7102307 0.7513164 plate
71 72 73 74 - top 75 76

0.9710816 0.9788121 0.9851879 0.9904192 0.9567101 0.9666118 0.9749339 0.9818713 0.9144169 0.9363015 0.9548799 0.9704946 plate
81 82 83 84

0 0.541993 0
85

0.7483659 0.6204147 0.3364704


86

0.7344189 0.7519471 0.7718191 0.793564 0.816483 0.8397397 0.7193652 0.7339619 0.7509219 0.7700256 0.7908385 0.8127463 0.4680504 0.4909739 0.5183615 0.5501834 0.5860274 0.6250785 plate
91 92 93 94 95 96

0.9367575 0.9500017 0.9612226 0.9706244 0.9784338 0.9848768 0.9150147 0.9306889 0.944368 0.9561309 0.9661226 0.9745245 0.8249593 0.8580688 0.8874781 0.9131441 0.9352146 0.953962 plate
101 102 103 104 105 106

0.6967331 0.7067705 0.7191521 0.7340685 0.7515428 0.7713683 0.689022 0.6969733 0.7069094 0.7190767 0.7336215 0.7505321 0.4222989 0.4340412 0.4489602 0.4676032 0.4904325 0.5177228

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N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X N Y* Y X

plate

111

112

113

114

115

116

0.8835462 0.903313 0.9209863 0.9364481 0.9497379 0.9610004 0.8565006 0.8774726 0.8969667 0.9146544 0.9303718 0.9440934 0.707095 0.7482795 0.7876289 0.8242056 0.8573927 0.8868831 plate
121 122 123 - feeding 124 125 126

0 0.7482327 0.7847133 0.6966545 0.7066725 0.7190325 0.5417291 0.6202005 0.6827153 0.6889601 0.6968953 0.7068128 0 0.3363125 0.3832841 0.4222082 0.4339251 0.4488138 plate
131 132 133 134 135 136

0.8157777 0.8390369 0.8618119 0.8833641 0.9031482 0.9208407 0.790187 0.8120717 0.8343553 0.8563113 0.8772942 0.896803 0.5848867 0.623856 0.6649181 0.7067286 0.7479242 0.7872943 plate
141 142 143 - top 144 145 146 - feeding

0.9782179 0.9846992 0.990019 0 0.748217 0.7847025 0.9658436 0.9742909 0.9813371 0.5416981 0.6201753 0.6826956 0.9345949 0.9534385 0.9692881 0 0.3362939 0.383269

Number of plates (from the table above) n nl n


h

total number of plates - the number where the first "top" notification appears striping part - the number where the first "feeding" notification appears rectification part feeding plate

28 8 20 8

nf

Parameters of Recyling Steam and Liquid Fluxes


Reflux GR GR(-) VR Seam flux leaving the column from the top Gv Gv(-) Vv Liquid flux before reboiler Gx Gx(-) Vx Steam flux after reboiler Gvu Vvu Collected current results G G(-) V 0.0439146 kmol/s 1.3404086 m /s
3

0.023405 kmol/s 0.7433345 kg/s


3 0.0009872 m /s

0.0439146 kmol/s 1.39471 kg/s 1.2215014 m /s


3

0.0439146 kmol/s 0.8098115 kg/s 0.000857 m3/s

Flux

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(R) (V) (X) (VU)

kmol/s kg/s m /s 0.023405 0.7433345 0.0009872 0.0439146 1.39471 1.2215014 0.0439146 0.8098115 0.000857 0.0439146 0.8098115 1.3404086

C 65 66 95 99

Paremeters for Rectification and Striping Part


Average concentrations in liquid phase Xh X
l

(rectification part) (striping part) Average temperatures of liquid phase

0.7 0.225

mol. parts mol. parts

tlh tll

rectification part (determine from the t/(x,y) diagram) striping part (determine from the t/(x,y) diagram) Average concentrations in steam phase

69 80

o o

C C

Yh Yl F

(rectification part) (striping part)

0.8307692 mol parts 0.3557692 mol parts 2.4358974

Average temperatures of steam phase tvh tvl rectification part (determine from the t/(x,y) diagram) striping part (determine from the t/(x,y) diagram) 72 89.5
o o

C C

Mol weight of liquid fluxes Mlh Mll (rectification part) (striping part) Mass concentration in liquid fluxes X (-) X (-)
l h

27.834 21.1745

kg/kmol kg/kmol

(rectification part) (striping part) Liquid phase densitiy for rectification part - at temperature

0.8057771 kg/kg 0.3404567 kg/kg 69 747 978


o

C
3 3

r1 r2
h rl

more volatile component less volatile component (rectification part) Liquid phase densitiy for striping part - at temperature

kg/m kg/m

3 782.91606 kg/m o

80 736 972

r1 r2

more volatile component less volatile component

kg/m3 kg/m3

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rll

(striping part) Mol weight of steam fluxes

876.33239 kg/m

MV

h l

(rectification part) (striping part) Steam phase densitiy for rectification part - at temperature

29.667385 kg/kmol 23.007885 kg/kmol 69


o

MV

C
3 3

rVh rV
l

(rectification part) (striping part) Dynamic viscosity of liquid flux - at temperature

1.0480326 kg/m 0.7735409 kg/m 69 0.323 0.417


o

m1 m2 ml
h

more volatile component less volatile component (rectification part) Dynamic viscosity of liquid flux - at temperature

cP cP

0.3487246 cP 80 0.29 0.357


o

m1 m2 ml
l

more volatile component less volatile component (striping part)

cP cP

0.3406885 cP

Steam velocity

C Wvh Wvl

coefficient for concret plate type vapor velocity in rectification part vapor velocity in striping part Flow rates of steams

0.03

depends on the type of the plate

0.8199577 m/s 1.0097504 m/s

Vvh Vvl

(rectification part) (striping part) Column diameters

3 1.2431209 m /s

1.3061778 m /s

Dc

h l

(rectification part) (striping part) (by standard) Column height

1.3897162 m 1.2836875 m 1.4 m

Dc D

h h1 h2 h3 H

distance between two plates (1.5*D to 2*D) coeff: (0.5*D to 1*D) total column height coeff:

2 1

h1 h3

0.3 2.8 0.4 1.4 12.7

m m m m m

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Heat Balance
Condenser All data - at temperature r1 r2 rd Qd Qd (more volatile component specific enthalpy of vaporisation) (less volatile component specific enthalpy of vaporisation) (distillate specific enthalpy of vaporisation) heat quantity heat quantity Reboiler c1, c2 - specific heat capacity of pure substances at temperature (more volatile substance) (less volatile substance) (distillate) c1, c2 - specific heat capacity of pure substances at temperature c1 c2 cw (more volatile substance) (less volatile substance) (bottom product) c1, c2 - specific heat capacity of pure substances at temperature c1 c2 cf Qk Qk rst Gstk(-) (more volatile substance) (less volatile substance) (feed) heat quantity heat quantity specific enthalpy of vaporisation of saturated water steam at temperature heating steam expense for reboiler Bottom product cooler Temperature diagram
toC 100 95 90 80 70 60
50

65 1098 2346 1112.162 1551.1435 1551143.5

kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kW W

c1 c2 cd

65 2680 4192 2697.1578 95

C J/kg K J/kg K J/kg K C

2680 J/kg K 4216 J/kg K 4135.9374 J/kg K 75


o

2680 J/kg K 4200 J/kg K 3344.4707 J/kg K 1628782.7 W 1628.7827 kW 2179000 J/kg 130
o

C 0.7868326 kg/s

95 38

35 18

38 40 35 30 20

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20 10 0
1 2

18

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tavH2O tavw c1, c2 - at temperature c1(tavw) c2(tavw) cw Qw (more volatile component specific heat capacity) (less volatile component specific heat capacity) (mixture heat capacity) heat quantity Top product cooler Temperature diagram
toC 70 65

57 17 33.09944 28 61.09944 61.09944 2680 4189 4110.3447 133932.02

o o o o o o

C C C C C C

3.3529412 C

J/kg K J/kg K J/kg K W

38 65
60
50

35 18

40 30 20 10 0 1

38

35

18

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tavH2O tavD c1, c2 - at temperature tavD c1(tavD) (more volatile component specific heat capacity)

27 17 22 28 50 50 2680

o o o o o o

C C C C C C

1.5882353 C

J/kg K

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c2(tavD) cD QD

(less volatile component specific heat capacity) (mixture heat capacity) heat quantity Feed heater Temperature diagram

4180 J/kg K 2697.0216 J/kg K 52703.22 W

t,

oC

140 130
120 110 100

130 130 15

130 75

130

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1

75

15
2

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tavF c1, c2 - at temperature tavF c1(tavF) c2(tavF) cf Qf Gst (-)
f

115 55

o o

C C

o 2.0909091 C o 81.436447 C o 48.563553 C

o 48.563553 C

(more volatile component specific heat capacity) (less volatile component specific heat capacity) (mixture heat capacity) heat quantity heating steam expense for feed heater Overall steam expense

2680 J/kg K 4180 J/kg K 3335.7277 J/kg K 239060.48 W 0.1154854 kg/s

Gst(-) Cooling water expense for condensate VH2OD Cooling water expense for distillate VH2OOD Cooling water expense for bottom product

0.9023179 kg/s

0.0185101 m /s

3 0.0006289 m /s

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VH2O

OK

0.0015982 m /s Outlet/Inlet diameters

For fluxes F, R, W - the speed W For fluxes V, VU - the speed W For flux X - the speed W dF dR dw dv dvu dx

2 m/s 10 to 20 m/s 0,5 to 1 m/s

2 15 1 0.0303149 0.0250753 0.0191327 0.3220821 0.3373946 0.0330413

m/s m/s m/s m m m m m m

Reboiler Calculation
Temperature diagram 130 95

t, oC 130 140 95
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1

Dtav Ktowards Ftowards Choice of standard heat exchanger Tube and Shell standatrd heat exchanger F D n l ST SBT SOS nV h heat exchange surface internal shell diameter tube number tube length tube space surface per one pass surface between tubes surface of fence opening tube rows (along the vertical for horizontal aparatus) length between fences proposed value

35 1000

C
2 2

W/m K

46.53665 m

52 400 111 6 0.038 0.031 0.2 11 250

m mm m 2 m m
2

m2 mm

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Heat flux from heating steam to wall (pipe) Water parameters at temperature tst thermal conductivity density viscosity specific ethalpy of vaporisation acond * (tst - twall1) * F Heat flux throught wall rdep d lwall proposed value proposed value proposed value
2 0.0001724 m K / W 0.002 m 17.5 W/mK

l r m r At Qcond =

130 0.686

C W/m K
3

935 kg/m 0.000212 Pa.s 2179000 J/kg 7338.8707

Qwall =

((twall1 - twall2) * F) / S rwall Heat flux from wall to boiling liquid

Qboil =

aboil * (twall2 - tw) * F All data - at temperature tw (more volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (less volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (mixture thermal conductivity) (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity) (more volatile pure substance surface tension) (less volatile pure substance surface tension) (mixture surface tension) 95 0.1795 0.6756 0.6497412 0.000253 0.000302 0.0002992 0.016175 0.059825 0.0575498 0.0806075
o

l1 l2 lw m1 m2 mw s1 s2 sw b

C W/m K W/m K W/m K Pa.s Pa.s Pa.s N/m N/m N/m

Condition for heat transfer qcond = qwall = qboil qcond = qwall = qboil = acond * (tst - twall1) const * (twall1 - twall2) aboil * (twall2 - tw) Unknown: acond aboil twall1 twall2 Three equations, four unknown. Iteration procedure needed. Main aim - determination of heat exchange surface Fcalc

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1). tst 2). Dtcond - from 1 3). twall1 = tst - Dtcond 4). At 5). acond 6).qcond 7). Srwall 1 / Srwall 8). Dtwall 9). twall2 10). Dtboil 11). aboil 12). qboil 13). qcond

130 7 123 7338.8707

o o o

C C C
2

Fill up the table at every iteration step :

Dtcond 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

qboil 817063.7 525265.8 329458.7 196474 108370.8 53049.96 21382.54

5880.9445 W/m K
2 41166.611 W/m 2 0.0004591 m K/W 2 2178.2425 W/m K o 18.899003 C

104.101

o o

9.1009968 C
2 2730.8361 W/m K

24853.331 W/m 41166.611 W/m

2 2

CONTROL: q(cond)>q(boil). Iteration procedure stops

Dtcond(true)
qcond qboil

is determined by the absciss value at the intersection point (lower figure)

900000

800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000


200000

100000 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Dtcond

Dtcond(true) Another iteration step with Dtcond(true) 1). tst 2). Dtcond(true) 3). twall1 = tst - Dtcond 4). At 5). acond 130 6.4
o o o

6.4

C C

C 123.6 7338.8707 2 6014.1824 W/m K

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6).qcond 7). Srwall 1 / Srwall 8). Dtwall 9). twall2 10). Dtboil 11). aboil 12). qboil 13). qcond

38490.767 W/m
2

0.0004591 m K/W
2 2178.2425 W/m K o 17.670561 C

105.92944 C 10.929439 C 3938.342 W/m K


2 43043.866 W/m 3 38490.767 W/m 2 o

Diagram of heat transfer and temperature gradient

1/rdep1 =

5800.464

1/rdep2 =

5800.464

d = 0.002 tst = 130 Dtcond= 6.4 twall1 = 123.6 Dtwall 17.6706 twall2 105.92944 Dtav= 35 Dtboil 10.929439 tw = 95 qboil = 43043.866 lwall = 17.5

acond = 6014.1824 laminar layers flowing downwards

aboil = 3938.342

Kcalc Fcalc Fstandard

2 1137.3028 W/m K 2 40.918434 m

52

CONTROL: Fstandard > Fcalc. Suitable standard heat exchanger is chosen

Condenser Calculation
Temperature diagram
t, oC

70 65

65

65

65

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70 60 18 50 40
30

65

38

65

38

20 10 0 1

18

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tav2 Ktowards Ftowards d proposed value (internal pipe diameter) All data - at temperature tav2 rH2O mH2O Re n / z(calc) (number between 12000 and 15000) proposed value (calculated number of pipes per one pass) Choice of standard heat exchanger np F D n l ST SBT SOS nV h n/z Re number of passes heat exchange surface internal shell diameter tube number tube length tube space surface per one pass surface between tubes surface of fence hole tube rows (along the vertical length for horizontal aparatus) length between fences number of pipes per one pass provided that n/z - standard Heat flux from saturated organic steam to wall (pipe) All data - at temperature td m1 (more volatile pure substance viscosity)

47

o o

C 27 1.7407407 37 28 500
o o

C C

W/m2K

2 0.0838456 m 0.021 m2 o

28 996.4

kg/m3

0.000836 Pa.s 14000 95.54293

4 97 600 206 6 0.018 0.045 0.04 14 300 51.5 25972.835 mm m2 mm m 2 m m m


2 2

65

0.000336 Pa.s

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m2 md l1 l2 ld At Qcond =

(less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity) (more volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (less volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (mixture thermal conductivity) acond * (td - twall1) * F Heat flux throught wall

0.000442 0.0003378 0.189 0.655 0.1942881 1923.5031

Pa.s Pa.s W/mK W/mK W /mK

rdep d lwall Qwall =

proposed value proposed value proposed value (twall1 - twall2) * F * (1 / Srwall) Heat flux from wall to cooling liquid (water)

2 0.0001724 m K / W 0.002 m 17.5 W/mK

Q2 =

a2 * (twall2 - twall2) * F All data - for water - at temperature tav2 28


o

c2 m2 l2 Re Pr2 Condition for heat transfer qcond = qwall = q2 qcond = qwall = q2 = acond * (tD - twall1) const * (twall1 - twall2) a2 * (twall2 - tav2) Unknown: acond a2 twall1 twall2 Three equations, four unknown. Iteration procedure needed. Main aim - determination of heat exchange surface Fcalc 1). tD 2). Dtcond - starting value 1 3). twall1 = tD - Dtcond 4). At 5). acond 6).qcond 65 4
o o o

4180 J/kgK 0.000895 Pa.s 0.595 W/mK 25972.835 6.287563

C C

C 61 1923.5031 2 1772.8429 W/m K 7091.3714 W/m


2

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7). Srwall 8). Dtwall 9). twall2 10). Dt2

0.0004591 m K/W 3.2555473 C


o 57.744453 C o 29.744453 C o 57.744453 C o

All data - for water - at temperature twall2 cwall2 mwall2 lwall2 Prwall2 Re CONTROL: Re>10000 Nu/Pr

4186 J/kgK 0.005026 Pa.s 0.65 W/mK 32.36744 25972.835 Use in case of Re<10000 0,25 (Pr/Prwall) = M=

0,43

Nu2 = 0 If you have entered data for M press 'Ctrl+B'

Nu2

104.53836

11). a2 12). q2

2 2961.9203 W/m K

88100.698 W/m

CONTROL: Iteration procedure stops. acond(last) a2(last) Kcalc Fcalc W/m2K W/m2K
2 2

(value obtained by last iteration) (value obtained by last iteration)

1771 3129

744.41907 W/m K 56.316125 m

CONTROL: Fstandard > Fcalc. Suitable standard heat exchanger is chosen.

Bottom Product Cooler Calculation

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95 t, oC 100 38 90
80 70
60

95

Temperature diagram 35 18

50 40 30 20 10 0 1 F 2 38 35 18

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tav2 tav1 Ktowards Ftowards d Re proposed value (internal pipe diameter) (number between 12000 and 15000) All data - at temperature tav2 rH2O mH2O n / z(calc)

57

o o

C 17 3.3529412 33.09944 28 61.09944 1000


o o o

C C C

W/m2K

proposed value

2 4.0463529 m 0.021 m 14000 o

28

(calculated number of pipes per one pass)

kg/m3 998 0.001 Pa.s 6.9079077

CONTROL: n / z(calc) < 13. Tubular Heat Exchanger must be chosen. Press 'Ctrl+T' Use this block in case of Shell and Tube heat exchanger Choice of standard heat exchanger np F D n l ST SBT SOS nV h n/z number of passes heat exchange surface internal shell diameter pipe number tube length tube space surface per one pass surface between tubes surface of fence hole tube rows (along the vertical length for horizontal aparatus) length between fences number of pipes per one pass i.e. n/z(calc) > 13

1 4.5 273 37 1.5 0.013 0.011 0.009 7 260 37 mm m2 mm m 2 m m


2

m2

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dpipe d

standard internal pipe diameter Re - value for internal pipe space

proposed value proposed value

0.025 0.021

m m

Re(small)

2615.0515 Re - value for external pipe space

de w All data - at temperature tav1 r1 r2 rOW m1 m2 mOW


Re(large)

0.0429082 m 0.016244 m/s 61.09944


o

C
3

more volatile component density less volatile component density mixture density (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity)

754.7478 kg/m 967.11225 0.000347 0.000462 0.0002889 2333.0193

3 982.3113 kg/m

kg/m3 Pa.s Pa.s Pa.s

Use this block in case of Tubular heat exchanger i.e. n/z(calc) < 13

d D

diameters - proposed internal external 0.04 m 0.048 m 0.072 m 0.08 m

proposed value proposed value

Re - value for small slice de w Re(small) Re - value for large slice de w equivalent diameter bottom product flux velocity 0.024 m 0.2542093 m/s equivalent diameter cooling water flux velocity 0.04 m 1.2724794 m/s 50797.376

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All data at temperature tav1 r1 r2 rOW m1 m2 mOW Re(large) more volatile component density less volatile component density mixture density (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity)

61.09944

C
3

754.7478 kg/m 967.11225 0.000347 0.000462 0.000458 12881.515

3 982.3113 kg/m

kg/m3 Pa.s Pa.s Pa.s

Heat flux form cooled fluid to wall All data - at temperature tav1 c' c'' c1 m' m'' m1 l' l'' l1 Pr1 Q1 = (more volatile component specific heat capacity) (less volatile component specific heat capacity) (mixture heat capacity) (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity) (more volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (less volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (mixture thermal conductivity) a1 * (tav1 - twall1) * F Heat flux through wall rdep d lwall Srwall Qwall = proposed value proposed value proposed value (twall1 - twall2) * F * (1 / Srwall) Heat flux from wall to cooling water All data - for water - at temperature tav2 c2 m2 l2 Pr2 Q2 = cooling liquid specific heat capacity cooling liquid specific viscosity cooling liquid thermal coductivity a2 * (twall2 - tav2) * F 28
o

61.09944 2680 4181 4102.7617 0.000347 0.000462 0.000458 0.19

J/kgK J/kgK J/kgK Pa.s Pa.s Pa.s W/mK

0.652 W/mK 0.6279187 W/mK 2.9928538

0.0001724 0.002 17.5 0.0004591

m K/W m W/mK m2 K / W

0.000895 J/kgK 4180 Pa.s 0.595 W/mK 6.287563

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Condition for heat transfer q1 = qwall = q2 q1 = qwall = q2 = a1 * (tav1 - twall1) (1/Srwall) * (twall1 - twall2) a2 * (twall2 - tav2) Unknown: a1 a2 twall1 twall2 Three equations, four unknown. Iteration procedure needed. Main aim - determination of heat exchange surface Fcalc 1). tav1 2). Dt1 3). twall1 4). a1 ? 61.09944 1 60.09944 All data at temperature twall1 c' c'' c1wall m' m'' m1wall l' l'' l1wall Prwall1 (more volatile component specific heat capacity) (less volatile component specific heat capacity) (mixture heat capacity) (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity) (more volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (less volatile pure substance thermal conductivity) (mixture thermal conductivity)
o o o

C C C 60.09944 2680 4180 4101.8138 0.000359 0.000483 0.0004787 0.191 0.651 0.6270229 3.1316563
o

J/kgK J/kgK J/kgK Pa.s Pa.s Pa.s W/mK W/mK W/mK

CONTROL: Re(large)>10000

Use in case of Re<10000 Nu/Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25 = M=

Nu1 =

If you have entered data for M press 'C Nu1 a1 5). q1 6). Srwall 7). Dtwall 8). twall2 9).Dt2 3843.6492 W/m K
2 3843.6492 W/m 2 0.0004591 m K/W o 1.7646705 C 2

146.91008

58.33477 C 30.33477 C
o

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10).a2 ?

All data at temperature - twall2 cwall2 mwall2 lwall2 Prwall2

58.33477

4180 J/kgK 0.000498 Pa.s 0.657 W/mK 3.1684018

CONTROL: Re(small)>10000

Use in case of Re<10000 Nu/Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25 = M=

Nu1 = If you have enetered data for M press 'Ctrl+M' Nu2 1269.1473

a2 11). q2

2 18878.566 W/m K 2 572676.94 W/m

CONTROL: Total number of iterations < 3. Perform another iteration. Increase value of DELTA t1 - /second step/ - with 1. a1(last) a2(last) Kcalc F
OW calc

(value obtained by last iteration) (value obtained by last iteration)

4424 3344

W/m2K W/m2K
2

2 1016.0576 W/m K

3.9824049 m

Feed Heater Calculation


Temperature diagram
t, oC 140 130
120 15

130

130 75

130

100 80 60 40 20 15 75

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20
0

15 1 F 2

Dtbig Dtsmall Dtbig / Dtsmall Dtav tav2 Ktowards Ftowards Re proposed value (number between 12000 and 15000) proposed value

115

o C 55 2.0909091 o 81.436447 C

48.563553 C 220 W/m K


2 2

13.343394 m 13500

All data - at temperature tav2 m1 m2 mf n/z (more volatile pure substance viscosity) (less volatile pure substance viscosity) (mixture viscosity) (number of pipes per one pass) CONTROL: n / z > 13. This is satisfactory. Choice of standard heat exchanger np F D n l ST SBT SOS nV h n/z number of passes heat exchange surface internal shell diameter tube number tube length tube space surface per one pass surface between tubes surface of fence hole tube rows (along the vertical length for horizontal aparatus) length between fences number of pipes per one pass

48.563553 C 0.000359 Pa.s 0.000483 Pa.s 0.0004087 Pa.s 13.125419

/It does not affect the further calculations/ 2 4.5 273 37 1.5 0.013 0.011 0.009 7 260 18.5 mm m mm m m2 m2 m2
2

Tanks for Initial and Final Products


Vf VD Vw 155.82427 m .24h 93.424795 m .24h
3 62.069367 m .24h 3 3

The End

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Calculations

kmol(volatile component)/

kmol(mixture) 0.42 0.98 0.03

xes in the Column

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Y* kmol/kmol 0.99 0.76 0.17


?

on Column

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Diagram - liquid-vapor equilibrium


Y* 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

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0.5
0.4

0.5
0.4

0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2

0.1
0

0.1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 X

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

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?
7 8 - feeding 9 10

0.751042 0.7866449 0.702376 0.713764 0.624737 0.6862618 0.693481 0.7025678 0.339661 0.3859994 0.4288623 0.4424076
17 18 19 20

0.85276 0.8748817 0.8954284 0.9139872 0.825391 0.8475631 0.8690067 0.889158 0.648233 0.6899096 0.7315101 0.7717445
27 28 - top 29 30

0.988006 0.9927239 0 0.7492251 0.978659 0.9849599 0.5436979 0.6217982 0.963249 0.9774834 0 0.3374909
37 38 39 40

0.775839 0.7978673 0.8209174 0.8441404 0.754409 0.7738783 0.7949518 0.8169883 0.524093 0.5567261 0.5932562 0.6327962
47 48 49 50

0.963149 0.9722291 0.9797609 0.9859679 0.946755 0.9581672 0.9678412 0.9759619 0.892658 0.9176221 0.9390353 0.9571865
57 58 59 60

0.720184 0.7352949 0.7529564 0.7729431 0.707744 0.720087 0.7348125 0.751895 0.450226 0.4691699 0.4923282 0.5199575
67 68 69 70

0.922226 0.9375219 0.9506532 0.961771 0.898363 0.9159061 0.9314728 0.9450464 0.790486 0.8268251 0.8597413 0.8889489
77 - feeding 78 79 80

0.784805 0.6969268 0.7070121 0.7194469 0.682883 0.6891746 0.6971658 0.7071477 0.383412 0.4225227 0.4343276 0.4493214
87 88 89 90

0.862488 0.8839931 0.9037173 0.9213435 0.83503 0.8569657 0.8779104 0.8973684 0.666184 0.7079952 0.7491521 0.7884504
97 - top 98 99 100 - feeding

0.990164 0 0.7482711 0.7847397 0.981531 0.5418052 0.6202623 0.6827637 0.969726 0 0.336358 0.3833211
107 108 109 110

0.793079 0.8159817 0.8392402 0.8620075 0.769593 0.7903753 0.8122668 0.8345506 0.549452 0.5852163 0.6242093 0.6652841

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117

118

119

120 - top

0.970439 0.9782805 0.9847507 0.9900612 0.955896 0.9659244 0.9743586 0.9813934 0.912629 0.9347745 0.9535902 0.9694151
127 128 129 130

0.733926 0.7513786 0.7711851 0.7928825 0.71896 0.7334833 0.7503737 0.7694176 0.467422 0.4902128 0.5174636 0.5491548
137 138 139 140

0.936322 0.9496302 0.9609098 0.9703635 0.914507 0.9302425 0.9439814 0.9558006 0.823898 0.8571171 0.8866405 0.9124188
147 148 149 150

0.696622 0.7066325 0.7189837 0.7338681 0.688935 0.6968634 0.7067733 0.7189118 0.422171 0.4338777 0.448754 0.4673478

Liquid Fluxes

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triping Part

Diagram - boiling and condensation curves


t

110 100 90 80
70

60 50 40 30 20 10
0 0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

1.1

X, Y

mol..

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depends on the type of the plate

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water

38

steam 65
o

liquid 65
o

water

18

steam

95

water steam 130


o

water liquid 130


o

liquid

95

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(forced motion) (unaffected convection) (downward flux)

(mandatory entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (mandatory entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry)

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ll up the table at every iteration step :

qcond 9565 16087.7 21805.32 27056.19 31985.2 36672.04 41166.61

12

13

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rd heat exchanger is chosen

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(mandatory entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (mandatory entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) (optional entry) recommendable: n/z < n/z(calc)

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Nu ------------------Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25

36 34 32 30 28

(M)

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9.8

26 24 22 20
18

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2

0.5 7 12.5 17.2 21 24.5 27.8 30.7 32.8

6
Re.10-3

10

d heat exchanger is chosen.

lation

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t be chosen. Press 'Ctrl+T'

(mandatory entry) (mandatory entry) (mandatory entry)

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Nu ------------------Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25

Use in case of Re<10000 Nu/Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25 = M=

(M)
0

Nu1 = If you have entered data for M press 'Ctrl+O'

36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Re.10-3

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Re.10-3

Nu ------------------Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25

Use in case of Re<10000 Nu/Pr0,43(Pr/Prwall)0,25 = M=

(M)
0

Nu1 =

If you have enetered data for M press 'Ctrl+M'

e of DELTA t1 - /second step/ - with 1.

36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Re.10-3

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ect the further calculations/

oducts

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Interpolation

Interpolation
smaller value (independent variable) higher value (independent variable) functional value corresponding to smaller independent variable value functional value corresponding to higher independent variable value 20 7 D Result 0.56 20.34
___ ___

= = = = =

Enter 40 60 20.9 19.3 47

1.6 X

The interpolation procedure is used very often when we work with discrete data and search for a value located between two other values. A simple example is enclosed:

The table presents the surface tension of 100 % methanol at different temperature values. Here TEMPERATURE is the independent variable and SURFACE TENSION is the functional result.
0 CH3OH 20 40

24.5

22.6

20.9

60 19.3

80 17.6

C - temperature s.103, N/m - surface tension

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BasicInformation

General information Rectification equipment calculator is an Excel spreadsheet template software which calculates and sizes rectification equipments for binary mixture separations. This incudes: 1. Rectification column 2. Heat and mass balance of the installation 3. Feed heater 4. Reboiler 5. Top product condenser 6. Bottom product cooler 7. Volumes of reservoirs for the initial and the final products The program is structured in a logical succession of steps. At certain points information and explanatory notes about the current operation can be obtained by pressing the buttons. ? The calculations refer to mass and heat transfer, different parameters of the fluxes in the listed above components as well as the number of the plates in the column. This number is determined by means of the Plate by Plate method - an analytical approach. At certain points the "Interpolation" buttons are included. Pressing them will open another spreadsheet where the interpolation procedure can be performed easily and quickly. Interpolation is used when operations with table (discrete) data have to be done. For example if we have two functional values which correspond to another two values of the independent varible and we search for a functional value located between the known two functional values then interpolation is used to calculate the unknown. Three types of cells are used. The red-colored cells are cells for data entry. All necessary information for successful calculations must be entered in these cells. The green-colored cells are cells for result output. The white-colored cells (border cells) are information ones. They either contain information about results from previous calculations or some data for standardized elements used most frequently. In the last case the data can be changed. ----------------------------------------------Warning----------------------------------------------------This program does not operate with databases concerning physical and chemical properties of chemical compounds or particular standard elements so the necessary information must be obtained by external sources, for example, chemical engineering handbooks. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Scheme of the main fluxes in a rectification

Developed by Boyan Yordanov For contacts: boyoyo@abv.bg

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BasicInformation boyoyo@abv.bg bobyyor@yahoo.com Tel.: +359 888 149 262

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BasicInformation

e of the main fluxes in a rectification column

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Mass balance

M1, M2 - Molecule weights of the pure compounds M1 = Mmorevolatile M2 = Mlessvolatile Mf = Xf*M1 + (1-Xf)*M2 Md = Xd*M1+(1-Xd)*M2 Mw =Xw*M1+(1-Xw)*M2 Mass concentration Xf(-)=(M1 /Mf)*Xf Mass concentration Xd(-)=(M1 /Md)*Xd Mass concentration Xw(-)=(M1 /Mw)*Xw [G(-)] = kg/s Overall mass balance: Gf(-) = Gd(-) + Gw(-) Gf(-)*Xf(-) = Gd(-)*Xd(-) + Gw(-)*Xw(-) - in relation to more volatile substance Mole fluxes: Gf = Gf(-) / Mf Gd= Gd(-) / Md Gw = Gw(-) / Mw Liquid-vapor equilibrium

Data can be obtained from different chemical engineers handbooks but the table of type Kogan, Friedman, Kafarov are pretty handy X Y* t, oC P mmHg

Density and volume expenses of main fluxes

1/r(f,d,w) = [X(-)(f,d,w)/r1] + [1-X(-)(f,d,w)]/r2] Vf = Gf(-)/rf Vd = Gd(-)/rd Vw = Gw(-)/rw

Parameters of liquid and steam fluxes Reflux parameters GR = R * G d

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GR(-) = GR * Md VR = GR(-) / rd Steam leaving the column Gv = Gd *(R+1) Gv(-) = Gv * Md Vv = Vo * Gv * (To +tvd) / To Vo = To = 22.4 m3/kmol 273 K ideal gas molar volume

Liquid flux before reboiler Gx = Gv Gx(-) = Gx * Mw Vx = Gx(-) / rw Liquid flux after reboiler Gvu = Gx = Gv Vvu = Vo * Gvu * (To + tvu) / To Parameters for rectification and striping part of the column

Average concentration of liquid phase for rectification part Xh = (Xd + Xf) / 2 Average concentration of liquid phase for striping part Xl = (Xf + Xw) / 2 Average temperature of liquid phase for rectification part Average temperature of liquid phase for for striping part Average concentration of steam phase for for rectification part Yh = (R / (R + 1)) * Xh + Xd / (R + 1) mol parts Average concentration of steam phase for for striping part Yl = ((R + F)/(R +1)) * Xl - ((F - 1)/(R +1)) * Xw F =( Xd - Xw)/(Xf - Xw) Mol weight of liquid fluxes Mlh = Xh*M1 + (1-Xh)*M2 Mll = X *M1 + (1-X )*M2
l l

tll tlh

mol parts

(for rectification part) (for striping part)

Mass concentration in liquid fluxes Xh(-) = (M1/Mlh) * Xh X (-) =


l

(for rectification part) (for striping part)

(M1/Mll)

*X

Liquid phase densities 1 / rlh =( Xh(-) / r1) + (1 - Xh(-)) / r2 2 / rll =( Xl(-) / r1) + (1 - Xl(-)) / r2 Mol weight of steam fluxes Mvh = Yh * M1 + (1 - Yh) * M2 (for rectification part)

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Mvl = Yl * M1 + (1 - Yl) * M2 Steam phase densities rvh = (Mvh/Vo) * To / (To + tvh) rvl = (Mvl/Vo) * To / (To + tvl)

(for striping part)

(for rectification part) (for striping part)

Dynamic viscosity of liquid fluxes lg mlh = Xh * lg m1 + (1 + Xh) * lg m2 (for rectification part) lg mll = Xl * lg m1 + (1 + Xl) * lg m2 (for striping part)

Steam velocity Wvh = Wvl = C * SQRT(rlh / rvh) C * SQRT(rll / rvl)

Flow rates of steams Vvh = Vvl = Vo * Gv * (To + tvh) / To Vo * Gv * (To + tvl) / To

Column diameters Dch = Dcl (Vvh / (0.785 * Wvh))^0.5 (Vvl Wvl))^0.5 (rectification part) = / (0.785 * (striping part) Column height H= (n - 1) * h + h1 + h2 + h3 h - plate spacing (distance between two plates); h1 - distance between column bottom and bottom plate; h2 - distance between the striping and rectification parts; h3 - distance between the top of the column and the top plate Heat Balance

Condenser - heat balance rd = Xd(-) * r1 + (1 - Xd(-)) * r2 Qd = Gd(-) * ( R + 1) * rd Reboiler - heat balance cd = Xd(-) * c1 + (1 - Xd(-)) * c2 cw = Xw(-) * c1 + (1 - Xw(-)) * c2 cf = Xf(-) * c1 + (1 - Xf(-)) * c2

distillate specific enthalpy of vaporisation, kJ/kmol necessary heat quantity, kW or W

specific heat capacity specific heat capacity specific heat capacity

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Qk = 1.03 * (Qd + Gd(-) * cd * td + Gw(-) * cw * tw - Gf(-) * cf * tf) Gstk.(-) = Qk / (rst * (1 -j)) j = 5 % or 0,05 heating steam expanse for reboiler

Bottom product cooler Dtbig = Dtsmall = Dtav = Dtav = DtavH20 = tavw = tw - tfinalH2O tw' - t0H2O (Dtbig-Dtsmall)/2,3.lg(Dtbig/Dtsmall) (Dtbig+Dtsmall)/2 (tfinalH2O + t0H2O)/2 Dtav + DtavH20

if (Dtbig/Dtsmall) > 2 if (Dtbig/Dtsmall) <= 2

cw = Qw =

c1 * Xw(-) + (1 - Xw(-)) * c2 Gw(-) * cw * (tw - tw')

at temperature

Top product cooler QD = Gd(-) * cD * (td - tw') cD = c1 * Xd(-) + (1 - Xd(-)) * c2 Feed heater Gstf(-) = cf = Qf = Gf(-) * cf * (tf - tf') / (rst * (1 - j)) c1 * Xf(-) + (1 - Xf(-)) * c2 Gf(-) * cf * (tf - tf')

at temperature

Overall steam expense Gst(-) = Gstk(-) + Gstf(-) st - index for saturated water steam

Cooling water expense for condensate VH2OD = Qd / (cH2O * (tfinalH2O - t0H2O) * rH2O) Cooling water expense for distillate VH2OOD = QD / (cH2O * (tfinalH2O - t0H2O) * rH2O) Cooling water expense for bottom product VH2OOK = QW / (cH2O * (tfinalH2O - t0H2O) * rH2O)

Outlet/Inlet diameters d= ((V / (0.785 * W))0,5 m3/s m/s

V - volume expense W - flow speed Reboiler calculation

Ftowards = Dtav = Ktowards

Qk / (Dtav * Ktowards) tst - tw approximately expected value

Both fluids change their agregate states. The heating vapor gives rise to boiling of the liquid into the pipes and continuously condenses on the external pipe surface. The second fluid (boiling

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Equations external pipe surface. The second fluid (boiling bottom product) rises along the height of the pipes as a vapor mixture, leaves the reboiler and enters the column beneth the bottom plate of the striping part of the column. This vapor is formed in the internal pipe space.

Heat flux from heating steam to wall (pipe) Qcond = acond * (tst - twall1) * F Qcond/F = qcond = acond * (tst - twall1) (tst - twall1) = Dtcond acond = At = 2.04 * (At / ((H * Dtcond)1/4) ((l3 *r2 * r) / m)1/4

Heat flux through wall Qwall = ((twall1 - twall2) * F) / S rwall Qwall / F = ((((twall1 - twall2) * F) / S rwall) / F) = Dtwall = twall1 - twall2 S rwall = (d / lwall) + rdeposit1 + rdeposit2 2 rdep1 = rdep2 = 1/5800 m K/W d= 2x10-3 m

qwall

(wall thickness)

Heat flux from wall to boiling liquid Qboil = aboil * (twall2 - tw) * F Qboil / F = qboil = aboil * Dtboil Dtboil = twall2 - tw aboil = (b3 * l2 * r * Dtboil2) / (m * s * Tw) l = l1 * Xw(-) + (1 - Xw(-)) *l2 lgm = Xw(-) * lgm1 + (1 - Xw(-)) * lgm2 s = s1 * Xw(-) + (1 - Xw(-)) *s2 b= 0.075 * (1 + 10 *((rw / rvw) - 1)-0.6667)

Kcalc = Fcalc =

1 / ((1/acond(last iteration)) + Srwall + (1/aboil(last iteration))) Qk / (Dtav * Kcalc)

Condenser calculation

tav2 - average temperature of the heated fluid - water For other temperature calculation see Bottom product cooler section Ftowards = n / z(calc) = Re = Qd / (Ktowards * Dtav) (4 * VH2OD * rH2O) / (p * d * Re * mH2O) (4 * VH2OD * rH2O) / (p * d * (n/z) * mH2O) = (calculated)

The saturated organic vapor changes its agregate state. This fluid which leaves the top of the column and completely condenses in the external pipe space gives its heat to the cooling water. The second fluid (cooling water) flows in the internal pipe space.

Heat flux from saturated organic steam to wall (pipe) Qcond = acond * (td - twall1) * F td - twall1 = Dtcond qcond = Qcond / F = acond * (td - twall1)

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acond =

(2.04 * At) / (h * Dtcond)1/4


3 2 1/4

(h = tube length,

At = ((l *r * r) / m) lgmD = lgm1*Xd + lgm2 * (1-Xd) lD = l1*Xd(-) + l2 * (1-Xd(-)) Heat flux through wall Qwall = (twall1 - twall2) * F * (1 / Srwall) Qwall / F = qwall = (twall1 - twall2) * (1 / Srwall) twall1 - twall2 = Dtwall S rwall = (d / lwall) + rdeposition1 + rdeposition2 Heat flux from wall to cooling liquid (water) Q2 = a2 * (twall2 - twall2) * F Q2 / F = a2 * (twall2 - twall2) = a2 * Dt2 Dt2 = (twall2 - twall2) Nu2 = 0.021 * eL * (Re0.8) * (Pr20.43) * (Pr2/Pwall2)0.25 if Re > 10000 Pr2 = (c2 * m2) /l2 twall1 = tD - Dtcond Kcalc = 1 / ((1/acond(last iteration)) + Srwall + (1/a2(last iteration))) Fcalc = Qd / (Dtav * Kcalc) Bottom product cooler calculation

Dtbig = Dtsmall = tav1 = Ftowards =

tw - tfinalH2O tw' - t0H2O tav2 + Dtav Qw / (Ktowards * Dtav)

n/z= (4 * VH2Oow * rH2O) / (p * d * Re * mH2O) For tubular heat exchanger d= 48x4 mm (recommendable value for standard internal diameter) D= 80x4 mm (recommendable value for standard external diameter) Small slice w= Re(small) = de = d de = D - d w= Re(large) = Vw / (0.785 * (D2 - d2)) (w * de * row) / mow VH2Oow / 0.785 * d2 (w * de * rH2O) / mH2O Large slice

No changes of the agregate states for both fluids are made. The bottom product flows in the external pipe space.

1/rOW = [X(-)W/r1] + [1-X(-)W]/r2] lg mOW = Xw * lg m1 + (1 + XW) * lg m2 Nu1 = 0.021 * eL * (Re0.8) * (Pr10.43) * (Pr1/Pwall1)0.25 Pr1 = (c1 * m1) /l1 at temperature twall1 Q1 = Q1 / F = a1 * (tav1 - twall1) * F a1 * (tav1 - twall1)

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(tav1 - twall1)

c1 = c' * Xw(-) + (1 - Xw(-)) * c'' lg m1 = Xw * lg m'+ (1 + XW) * lg m'' l1 = l' * Xw(-) + l'' * (1 - Xw(-)) Prwall1 = (cwall1 * mwall1) /lwall1 ; at temperature twall1 a1 = (Nu1 * l1) / d Heat flux through wall Qwall = (twall1 - twall2) * F * (1 / Srwall) Qwall / F = qwall = (twall1 - twall2) * (1 / Srwall) twall1 - twall2 = Dtwall S rwall = (d / lwall) + rdeposition1 + rdeposition2
Re(small) = (VH2Oow.rH2O)/(0.785.de.mH2O.(n/z)standard

de =(D2 - (n/z)standard.d2) / (D + (n/z)standard.d w= Vw / (0.785.(D2 - (n/z)standard.d2)) Re(large) = (w * de * row) / mow 1 / row = Xw(-) / r1 + (1 - Xw(-)) / r2 lg mow = Xw * lg m1 + (1 + Xw) * lg m2 Heat flux from wall to cooling fluid Q2 = a2 * (twall2 - tav2) * F Q2 / F = a2 * (twall2 - tav2) = q2 Dt2 = (twall2 - tav2) q2 =a2 * Dt2 Nu2 = 0.021 * eL * (Re0.8) * (Pr20.43) * (Pr2/Pwall2)0.25 Pr2 = (c2 * m2) /l2 at temperature tav2 Prwall2 = (cwall2 * mwall2) /lwall2 ; at temperature twall2 a2 = (Nu2 * l2) / d c1wall = c' * Xw(-) + c'' * (1 - Xw(-)) lg m1wall= lgm'*Xw + lgm'' * (1-Xw) l1wall = l'*Xw(-) + l'' * (1-Xw(-)) Kcalc = 1 / ((1 / a1) + Srwall + (1 / a2) Fow = n= Qw / (Kcalc * Dtav) Fow /( p * d * L) number of elements

Feed heater calculation The feed mixture does not change its agregate state. Conversly, the heating saturated water vapor condenses and gives its heat to the feed.

Ftowards = lg mf = n/z=

Qf(-) / (Ktowards * Dtav) lgm1*Xf(-) + lgm2 * (1-Xf(-)) (4 * Gf(-)) / (p * d * Re * mf)

number of pipes per pass

Tanks for initial and final products

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Vf = VD = Vw =

(Gf(-) *24 * 3600) / (rf * 0.8) (GD(-) *24 * 3600) / (rD * 0.8) (Gw(-) *24 * 3600) / (rw * 0.8)

m3.24 h m3.24 h m3.24 h

Number of plates in rectification column

R min = (Xd -B max)/B max

R = GR / Gd = 1.3 * R min + 0.3 B = Xd / (R+1) Relative volatility ah = (Y*h * (1 - Xh)) / (Xh * (1 - Y*h)) a = (Y* * (1 - X )) / (X * (1 - Y* ))
l l l l l

(for rectification part) (for striping part)

Capacity coefficient of plate (corrected) hh(corrected) = hh(1+D) hl(corrected) = hl(1+D) Real number of plates All plates n = nh + nl nh = nth / hh nl = ntl / hl

Plate by plate method Y* - equilibrium concentration Y - concentration of more volatile component in vapor phase on i plate X - concentration of more volatile component in liquid phase on i plate

F =( Xd - Xw)/(Xf - Xw) YF = (R / (R + 1)) * Xf + Xd / (R + 1) Y* = a.Xi / (Xi.(a-1)+1) Yi+1= Yi + h.(Y* - Yi) Xi+1 = Yi+1.(R + 1) + (F - 1).Xw / (R + F) Xi+1 = Yi+1.(R + 1) - Xd / R Possibility for calculation up to 150 plates

mol parts mol parts mol parts mol parts mol parts

(for striping part) (for rectification part)

Plate 1 - bottom plate (always) Plate with a notification "feeding" is the feeding plate (at first apperiance in the table only).

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Plate with a notification "top" is the top plate (at first apperiance in the table only). Total number of plates - corresponding to the top plate number. Warning - all table data after the first "top" notification is senseless.

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n and the top plate

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e states. The ng of the liquid into denses on the nd fluid (boiling

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nd fluid (boiling height of the pipes eboiler and enters plate of the vapor is formed in

d organic vapor agregate state. This aves the top of the completely condenses al pipe space gives its ooling water. The (cooling water) flows in

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o changes of the gregate states for both ids are made. The ottom product flows in e external pipe space.

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ure does not change ate. Conversly, the ted water vapor d gives its heat to the

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