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AISC Connection Design for NonAISC Sections using the STAAD.Pro/RAM.

Connection Link

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

6 March 2008

STAAD.Pro section database contains sections from seventeen different countries. If a new section profile is introduced in the market or a very old steel section is missing in the section database, the user has the power to modify the existing section profile tables by using the Tools>Modify Section Database menu command. STAAD.Pro 2007 was released with the new STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link. The intent of this link was to target the U.S market specifically because RAM.Connection currently only supports connection design as per the AISC code. It was bought to our attention that several STAAD.Pro users wanted to use the RAM.Connection tool to design connections for their international projects using non-AISC sections as per the AISC code. The purpose of this document is to provide a temporary solution to this problem. In the future, the STAAD.Pro/RAM link will be able to design the connections for the European sections as per the AISC code. There are three databases that the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link user must be aware of: 1. The STAAD.Pro section database stored as mdb files in the C:\SPro2007\STAAD\Sections directory. The STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link database stored in C:\SPro2007\STAAD\RamConnection\Sec directory. RAM.Connection database

One of the ways to resolve this problem is to define the missing section in the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link database which is a simple text file. Example: 1. Suppose you had the following STAAD.Pro model:
STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 06-Mar-08 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 10 0; 3 10 10 0; 4 10 0 0; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 4.176e+006 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 0.489024 ALPHA 6.5e-006 DAMP 0.03 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY EUROPEAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST HD260x172 CONSTANTS MATERIAL STEEL ALL SUPPORTS 1 4 FIXED LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1 MEMBER LOAD 2 UNI GY -0.1 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL PARAMETER 1 CODE EC3 CHECK CODE ALL FINISH

2.

3.

These databases are independent of each other and each one has their own fuctions. If a section is added to the STAAD.Pro section database, the changes will not be reflected in the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection database. The RAM.Connection link will issue a Unable to Create Joint. Only American Steel Tables are allowed. message box if a user tries to design a connection using sections that are defined in the STAAD.Pro database but are not present in the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link database.

Note that this file contains a HD260x172 section from the European steel profile table. 2. Analyze the model using the Analyze->Run Analysis menu. 3. Now try to design the connection for beam #2 and column #3 using the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link.

4. When you try to create a joint in the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link, you will notice the following message: Unable to Create Joint. Only American Steel Tables are allowed. 5. Close STAAD.Pro. 6. Open the W.sec file using notepad. 7. We will notice the following:
Figure 2: New section added in W.sec file.

d = 209 mm = 11.417323 in bf = 268 mm = 10.551181 in tw = 18 mm = 0.708661 in tf = 32.5 mm = 1.279528 in k = 35 mm = 1.377953 in k1 = 10 mm = 0.393701 in A = 34.04 in2

Figure 1: W.sec file in Notepad.

This table contains all the AISC wide flange sections that the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link supports. We will attempt to add the HD260x172 section from the European steel profile table to this database. 7. Go to the end of the file and insert the following line:
W260x172CHD 11.42 1.38 False 10.55 0.39 False 0.71 34.04 False 1.28 In

Figure 3: Section parameters in the W.sec file.

8. The section in the STAAD.Pro input file should be renamed from HD260x172 to W260x172CHD and this section should be included in the STAAD.Pro section database. You may use MS-Access to open this database or use the Tools->Modify Section Database menu command in STAAD.Pro. 9. Open STAAD.Pro and open the section database. 10. Add the following section to the AISC section database under W-Sections: Section Name: W260X172c STAAD Name: W260x172CHD Ax=34.04 in2

d= 11.417 in bf= 10.551 in tf = 1.280 in tw = 0.709 in IZ = 752.23 in4 Ix = 17.27 in4 cT= 1.18 in Iy = 251.06 in4 Zx = 154.02 in3 Zy = 72.74 in3 t = 17 in k = 1.38 in k1 = 0.39 in 11. Change the following lines from:
MEMBER PROPERTY EUROPEAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST HD260x172

to
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 3 TABLE ST W260x172CHD

13. Try to design the connection using the STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link. You will notice that the new W260x172CHD sections are now recognized by RAM.Connection.

Figure 4: AISC Connection design for a non-AISC section using STAAD.Pro/RAM.Connection link.

Please note that this is a temporary solution and is not appropriate for large scale projects. Alternatively, an engineer may also use the RAM.Connection stand-alone mode to do the same.

Base Plate Modeling in STAAD.Pro 2007


By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

24 March 2007

Introduction: Base plates are normally designed using codebase procedures (e.g. AISC-ASD). Engineers often run into situations where there are no codes available to design a particular type of a base plate or there are instances where base plate were simply over designed in the past and the engineer has to check the design of this old base plate based upon new loadings and make modifications as required. In these situations, an engineer may opt to do a finite element analysis on the base plate. STAAD.Pro 2007 is equipped with a lot of mesh generation and loading tools. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how engineers can analyze base plates using STAAD.Pro 2007. We would like to thank Mr. Indranil Roy Chowdhury, P.Eng. from Hartford Installations, Missisauga, Ontario for allowing us to publish this document. Please note that this document assumes that the user has basic knowledge of STAAD.Pro and Finite Element Analysis. Exercise Problem: We would like to create the following base plate geometry in STAAD.Pro. This base plate was used to support a tank leg. The tank leg pipe diameter is 0.9ft and the thickness of the pipe is 0.5 in thick. 1.
Figure 3: Elevation view of base plate stiffener

Figure 2: Plan view of tank base plate

Open a new STAAD.Pro file using the space option and the units of ft and kip.

Figure 4: File creation dialog box Figure 1: Isometric sketch of tank base plate

2. 3.

Give an appropriate file name. Click on the Next button and then click on the Finish button on the following screen.

The STAAD.Pro interface will appear as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 7: The Base_Plate grid is shown in the Graphics Window.

7.

Draw the outline of the base plate using beam elements. Press the Snap Node/Beam button in the Data Area.

Figure 5: STAAD.Pro user interface

4.

Create a new grid. Click on the Create button in the data area. The Linear input box will appear as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 8: Outline beams created using the grid system.

8.

Now we have to create the pipe section/base plate and the stiffener/base plate interface. Click on the Create button in the Data Area.

9.

10. Select the Radial grid option and enter the input parameters as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 6: Linear grid box

5. 6.

Input the parameters as shown in Figure 6. Click on the Ok button. You will notice the Base_Plate Entry in the Data Area.

Figure 9: Circular grid layout for base plate/stiffener and column/stiffener interface.

11. Click the Ok button. 12. Turn on the stiffeners grid and the radial grid will appear in the STAAD.Pro graphics window as illustrated in Figure 10.

purpose of finite element analysis we should always try to maintain the aspect ratio of the elements. In this case, we performed the translational repeat on the beam elements because we wanted to do a plate infill and create the plate elements. We simply broke the 2.5 long pipe into 5 sections because we knew that the pipe circumference is broken down into eight 0.5 lengths.
Figure 10:Stiffners grid in the STAAD.Pro Graphics window.

13. Draw the base plate/stiffener column/stiffener interface using stiffeners grid.

and the

Figure 13:Translational Repeat Command.

19. Now we need to create the top portion of the stiffener. You can do this by creating a new stiffener grid at 2.5 elevation.
Figure 11 Base plate/stiffener and column/stiffener interface drawn using the Stiffeners grid.

20. Click on the Geometry->Snap/Grid Node>Beam menu command. 21. Click on the Create button in the Data Area. 22. Turn on the stiffeners grid and the radial grid will appear in the graphics window as illustrated in Figure 14.

14. Select the beam elements that represent the column/base plate interface. 15. Select the Geometry->Translational Repeat menu command. 16. The 3D Repeat dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12:Translational Repeat Command.

Figure 14:Stiffners grid in the STAAD.Pro Graphics window.

17. Enter the values in the 3D Repeat dialog box as shown in Figure 12. 18. Click the Ok button. The pipe connected to the base plate will be displayed. For the

23. Click on the Copy button in the Data Area. Type Stiffener_top as the name for the new stiffener grid.

29. Select the four base nodes of the stiffeners as illustrated in Figure 18.

Figure 15: Copy grid option.

24. You will notice a Stiffener_top entry in the Data Area. Turn on the Stiffener_top grid. 25. Click on the edit button in the Data Area. 26. The Radial grid options dialog box will appear. Enter the parameters as shown in Figure 16.
Figure 18: Four bottom nodes of the stiffener plates selected.

30. Click on Geometry->Translational Repeat menu command.

Figure 19: Translational repeat on the bottom four nodes.

31. Enter the values in the 3D Repeat dialog box as shown in Figure 19.
Figure 16:Stiffners grid in the STAAD.Pro Graphics window.

32. Click the Ok button.

27. Click on the Ok button. 28. Draw the top edges of the stiffeners as highlighted in Figure 17.

Figure 20: Vertical edges of plate stiffeners created.

33. Click on Geometry->Add Beam->Add Beam from Point to Point menu command and draw the sloping edges of the stiffeners as shown in Figure 21.
Figure 17:Top edges of stiffeners created using the Stiffener_top grid.

Figure 23: Unwanted elements selected in the graphics window. Figure 21: Sloping edges of plate stiffeners created.

34. We would like to use the Plate Infill command to create the plate elements for the pipe. We will use the Generate Surface Meshing Tool to generate the mesh for the stiffeners. The Parametric Meshing Tool will be used to generate the mesh for the base plate. Select the plan view of the geometry that we have created. 35. Rubberband the beam elements that represent the pipe section. You will end up picking up some unwanted elements also.

38. Select the Select->By Inverse->Inverse Beam Selection menu command. 39. The elements that represent the pipe section will be highlighted. 40. Right click in the graphics window and select the New View option. 41. Select the Display View in Active Window option. 42. Select the isometric view option. 43. Select all the beam elements as shown in Figure 24. You could use the Ctrl+A shortcut keys on your keyboard to select all the beam elements.

Figure 22: Rubberband the elements that represent the pipe section.

36. Click on the View->View Selected Objects Only menu command. 37. Now in the plan view, you will only see the elements that represent the pipe and some stiffener elements. Select all the unwanted elements in the graphics window as shown in Figure 23.

Figure 24: Unwanted elements selected in the graphics window.

44. Select the Geometry->Create Infill Plates menu command. The dialog box shown in Figure 25 will appear.

51. Enter that inputs in the Insert Node/Nodes dialog box as shown in Figure 25. 52. Get a good isometric view of one of the stiffener plates. 53. Rubberband the stiffener plate elements as shown in Figure 26.

Figure 25: Message Box - 40 plates are created.

46. Click on the Ok button and you will notice that new plate elements are created between the areas bounded by the beam elements. 47. Click on the View->Whole Structure menu command. 48. We will break the sloping part of the stiffeners into five parts. Select the sloping part of the stiffeners in the graphics window as shown in Figure 26.

Figure 26: Stiffener plate selected

54. Click on View->View Selected Objects Only menu command. 55. Select the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing menu command.

Figure 26: Sloping edges of stiffeners are selected.

49. Click on the Geometry->Insert Node menu command. 50. The Insert Node/Nodes dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 27.

Figure 27: Node Points for Generate Surface Meshing command

56. You will notice that your mouse cursor has changed. Select the nodes on the edge of the stiffener plate in clockwise or counterclockwise fashion as indicated in Figure 27. Select the node that you started off from when you are done.

Figure 25: Insert Node dialog box

59. Select the Plates cursor and select all the newly created plate elements in the graphic window. 60. Click on Geometry->Circular Repeat menu Command. 61. The 3D Circular dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 31.

Figure 28: Sloping edges of stiffeners are selected.

57. The Define Mesh Region dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 28. Enter 1 for all rows in the Div. column as illustrated in Figure 29. We are telling STAAD.Pro to avoid dividing each of the divided edges into smaller pieces.

Figure 31: Meshing for stiffeners.

62. Enter the inputs in the 3D Circular dialog box as shown in Figure 31. 63. Click the Ok button. You will notice that all the stiffener plates have been created as shown in Figure 32.

Figure 29: Number of edge divisions set to 1.

58. Click on the Ok button. You will note that the meshing for the stiffener has been created as shown in Figure 30.

Figure 32: Meshing for stiffeners.

64. Select the View->Whole Structure menu command. 65. We will need to divide the base plate edges into 12 parts. Select the four base plate edges and select the Geometry->Insert Node menu command.

Figure 30: Meshing for stiffeners.

74. The Mesh Parameters dialog box will appear as illustrated in Figure 35.

Figure 33: Meshing for stiffeners.

66. The Insert Node/Nodes dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 33. 67. Enter that inputs in the Insert Node/Nodes dialog box as shown in Figure 33. 68. We will draw the base plate using the Parametric Meshing Tool. Click on the Geometry->Parametric Meshing control tab on your left. 69. Click on the Add button in the Data Area. The New Mesh Model dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 34.

Figure 33: Meshing for stiffeners.

75. Set the inputs as shown in Figure 33 and click the Ok button. 76. Click on the No button for the following dialog box. 77. You will see a mesh preview. This preview mode lets the user identify any problems in the FEM model. In Figure 34, we can see that there is a plate connectivity problem at the pipe/base plate interface.

Figure 34: Meshing for stiffeners.

70. Type a mesh name as shown in Figure 34 (i.e. BasePlate). 71. Click on the Ok button. 72. You will notice that the mouse cursor will change. 73. Select the four corner nodes in the clockwise or counter-clockwise fashion and select the starting node once you have selecting four nodes.

Figure 34: Meshing for stiffeners.

78. You can resolve this issue by only generating the mesh for regions marked as R1 and R2 and then doing a circular repeat on the mesh.

Note that we do not have any connectivity problems in this case. 82. Click on the Setup control tab on the left. 83. Select the Select->Plates Parallel to->XZ menu command. 84. Click on Geometry->Circular Repeat menu command. Enter the inputs as shown in Figure 38.

Figure 35: Mesh generation by regions.

79. We have not documented all these steps in detail in this document. 80. Parametric meshing Type A for B1 (see Figure 36).
Figure 38: Circular repeat for Base Plate

85. Click on the Ok button. 86. Select the Select->Plates Parallel to->XZ menu command.

87. Click on View->View Selected Objects Only menu command. 88. Select the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing menu command. Click on the nodes shown in Red in Figure 39.
Figure 36: Mesh generation by regions Region R1

81. Click on the Merge Mesh button.

Figure 39: Node outline for the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing menu command

89.

Figure 37: Mesh generation by regions Region R2

The Define Mesh Region dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 40. Enter 1 for all rows in the Div. column as illustrated in Figure 29. We are telling STAAD.Pro to

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avoid dividing each of the divided edges into smaller pieces.

97. Check if the model is ok from the plate to plate connectivity point of view by clicking on Tools->Check for improperly connected plates menu command. Property Assignment: 98. We will assign 0.5, 0.4 and 0.6 thickness to the pipe, stiffeners, and base plates respectively. 99. In a 3D model, it is sometimes difficult to extract a particular section and assign a property to it. For example, it is difficult to select the pipe section out of the 3D model we have and assign the appropriate thickness to it. One could assign plate elements to groups when the geometry is being created. In the case of this example, we know that the number of plates along the circumference = 8 and number of divisions along the height of the pipe= 5. Hence, the number of plates used to create the pipe = 8x5=40 plate elements. Click on Select -> By List -> Plates menu command. 100. The Select Plates dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 42.

Figure 40: Number of edge divisions set to 1.

90. Click on the Ok button. 91. Select the View->Whole Structure menu command. 92. Press the Esc key on your keyboard to cancel the Generate Surface Meshing command. 93. Select the beams cursor and press the Ctrl+A key to select all the beams. 94. Press the delete key on your keyboard and press Ok on the following dialog box. 95. Right click in the graphics window and select the 3D Rendering option.

Figure 42: Rendered view of the base plate geometry.

101. The first plate numbering starts from 117. Hence, to select the first fifty plates in the model, we will need to provide the range of 117 to 167 in the Enter List input box.
Figure 41: Rendered view of the base plate geometry.

96. Close the rendered mode by simply clicking on the Setup control tab on the left.

102. Click on the Select Listed Entities button in the Select Plates dialog box.

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103. You will notice that the pipe elements will be selected in the Graphics window as illustrated in Figure 43.

111. Press the F2 key on your keyboard. A yellow dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 45.

Figure 45: Unit converter tool

112. Type 0.5 in in the input box and press the Enter key on your keyboard.
Figure 43: Pipe plate elements selected in the graphics window.

113. You will notice that STAAD.Pro will automatically convert 0.5 in to 0.041667 ft. 114. Click on the Assign button. 115. Click on the Close button. 116. Click on the whitespace in the graphics window to get rid of the plate selection. 117. We will now assign the properties to the base plate. 118. Select the Select->Plates Parallel to->XZ menu command. 119. Click on the Thickness button in the Properties dialog box. 120. The Plate Thickness dialog box will appear as illustrated in Figure 46.

104. Click on the Close button. 105. Click on General control tab on the left. 106. The Properties dialog box will appear in the Data Area. 107. Click on the Thickness button in the Properties dialog box. 108. The Plate Thickness dialog box will appear as illustrated in Figure 44.

Figure 44: Plate Thickness Dialog Box

109. Select Steel in the Material selection box. 110. We know that the pipe thickness is 0.4 but the input system in the Plate Thickness dialog box is in ft. We can use the unit converter to convert 0.5 to ft. Click in the Node 1 input box.

Figure 46: Plate Thickness Dialog Box

121. Select Steel in the Material selection box.

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122. We know that the base plate thickness is 0.6 but the input system in the Plate Thickness dialog box is in ft. We can use the unit converter to convert 0.6 to ft. Click in the Node 1 input box. 123. Press the F2 key on your keyboard. A yellow dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 47.
Figure 48: Plate Thickness Dialog Box

133. Select STEEL in the Material selection box. 134. We know that the stiffener thickness is 0.4 but the input system in the Plate Thickness dialog box is in ft. We can use the unit converter to convert 0.4 to ft. Click in the Node 1 input box. 135. Press the F2 key on your keyboard. A yellow dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 49.

Figure 47: Unit converter tool

124. Type 0.6 in in the input box and press the Enter key on your keyboard. 125. You will notice that STAAD.Pro will automatically convert 0.6 in to 0.05 ft. 126. Click on the Assign button. 127. Click on the Close button. 128. Click on the whitespace in the graphics window to get rid of the plate selection. 129. We will now assign the properties to the stiffener plates. 130. Select the Select->By Missing Attributes>Missing Properties menu command. 131. Click on the Thickness button in the Properties dialog box. 132. The Plate Thickness dialog box will appear as illustrated in Figure 48.

Figure 49: Unit converter tool

136. Type 0.4 in in the input box and press the Enter key on your keyboard. 137. You will notice that STAAD.Pro will automatically convert 0.4 in to 0.033333 ft. 138. Click on the Assign button. 139. Click on the Close button.

140. Click on the whitespace in the graphics window to get rid of the plate selection. 141. Right click in the graphics window and select the 3D Rendering option. You will be able to see the plate thickness in the 3D Rendered mode as illustrated in Figure 50.

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Figure 52: Adding new node

Figure 50: 3D Rendering with plate thickness

149. Click on the General->Spec control tab on the left. 150. Click on the Node button. 151. The Node Specification dialog box will appear. Enter the master node number in the Master Node selection box (e.g. 658 in this example as noted in Step# 148 above).

142. Close the rendered mode by simply clicking on the Setup control tab on the left. 143. We will need to create a node at the top at (3,2.5,3) to which we will apply a point load. This node will distribute the loading to the column node points.

144. Click on the Geometry control tab on the left. 145. You will notice the Nodes Table in the data area as illustrated in Figure 51. Close the Snap Node/Beam dialog box if it is open.

Figure 52: Adding new node

152. Click on the Add button. 153. Select the plan view of the structure. 154. Using the Nodes cursor, select all the nodes at the top of the FEM model as illustrated in Figure 53.
Figure 51: Nodes Table

146. Scroll down to the end of the Nodes Table. 147. You will notice a blank cell at the end. 148. Type in coordinates of the new node as shown in Figure 52. This node is the Master Node. Remember this node number. The node number used in this example is 658.
Figure 53: Top nodes of the FEM model selected

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155. Select the View->View Selected Objects only menu command. 156. Unselect the four extra stiffener nodes. Your node selection should look as illustrated in Figure 54.

163. Open the General->Support control tab on the left. 164. Click on the Create button. The Create Support dialog box will appear. 165. Select the Foundation tab in the Create Support dialog box. 166. Enter the inputs as illustrated in Figure 56

Figure 54: Top nodes of the FEM model selected

157. Select the Assign button in the Data Area. 158. Check the Highlight Assigned Geometry box in the Specifications dialog box and select the SLAVE RIGID MASTER entry. 159. You will note that the Master node is indicated double circles and the attached slave nodes are highlighted in red as shown in Figure 55.
Figure 56 Support Input Parameters

167. Click the Add button. 168. Select the Support 2 entry in the supports dialog box in the Data Area. 169. Select the Select->Plates Parallel to->XZ menu command.
Figure 55: Master node highlighted with double blue circles in the STAAD.Pro interface

170. Select the Assign To Selected Plates option in the Supports dialog box. 171. Click on the Assign button. 172. Click on the whitespace in the graphics window to get rid of the plate selection.

160. The Master/Slave node specification was assigned so that we can apply a moment and axial force value at the master node and that moment will be distributed to the pipe section as forces using the rigid diaphragm action. 161. Select the View->Whole Structure menu command. Support Conditions: 162. Let us assume that the base plate is resting on compacted soil with a sub-grade modulus of 144 kip/ft2/ft.

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Loading: 173. Select the General->Load control tab on the left. 174. Click on Load Case Details tree item in the Data Area. 175. Click the Add button. 176. The Add New: Load Cases dialog box will appear. Enter Dead Load + Wind Load in the Title text box as shown in Figure 57. 181. Select the Nodal Load->Node tree item on the left. 182. Enter the nodal loads (i.e. -25 kips Fy, -0.2 kip-ft Mx) as shown Figure 58.

Figure 58: Nodal Load Definition

183. Click the Add button. Button.


Figure 57: Load Definition

Click the Close

177. Click the Add button. button.

Click the Close

184. Select the entry for the nodal load in the Dead Load + Wind Load tree item. 185. Select the nodes cursor. 186. Select the master node in the graphics. 187. Select the Assign to Selected Nodes option in the Data Area. 188. Click on the Assign button. 189. The nodal load will be displayed in the graphics window as shown in Figure 59.

178. Select the Dead Load + Wind Load tree item in the Data Area. 179. Click the Add button. 180. The Add New: Load Items dialog box will appear. Select the Selfweight tree item on the left and click on the Add button.

Figure 59: Nodal Load Figure 58: Load Definition

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Analysis Results: Specifying Analysis Type: 194. Click on the Postprocessing tab at the top. 190. Select the Analysis/Print control tab on the left. The Analysis/Print Commands dialog box will appear. 195. Click on the Ok button on the Results Setup box. 196. Click in the white space of the graphics window. Press Shift+S to turn off the supports. 197. Exaggerate the displacement scale. You will be able to see the displacement of the base plate as shown in Figure 62.

Figure 60: Analysis/.Print Commands

191. Select the All option on the left and click on the Add button. 192. Click the Close button. 193. Select the Analyze->Run Analysis menu command. The STAAD Analysis and Design dialog box will appear and show you the progress of the Finite Element Analysis calculations.

Figure 62: Displacement Diagram

198. You will be able to see the deflection values in the Displacement Table on the right. Click on the Nodes tab if the displacement tables are not visible. 199. Let us say that you were only interested in the displacement results for the base plate.
Figure 61: Analysis/.Print Commands

200. Right click on the Displacement Table on the right and select the Results Setup option.

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201. Select the Range tab. Select the Property option. 202. Select P2:Plate Thickness in the Property selection box. 203. Click the Ok button. 204. Select the Summary tab in the displacement table. 205. You will notice that STAAD.Pro had reported the maximum and minimum deflections for all the node points connected to the base plate. The maximum displacement is -0.094 in for node#10.

207. Select Base Pressure in the Stress Type selection box. 208. You will be able to see the Base Pressure diagram as shown in Figure 65.

Figure 65: Base Pressure Diagram

Figure 63: Displacement Table

206. Select the Plate tab on the left. The Diagrams dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 64.

209. This base pressure can be compared with the soil bearing capacity. If the soil bearing capacity is exceeded, you may have to increase the base plate dimensions or increase the size of the plates, provide more stiffeners etc. In this case, the maximum base pressure is 0.007 ksi. If the allowable base pressure is 0.017 ksi, this base plate design in ok from the serviceability check point of view. 210. Select the Plate tab on the left. The Diagrams dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 64. 211. Select Max Absolute in the Stress Type selection box. 212. Click on the Ok button. 213. You will be able to see the stress distribution diagram as illustrated in Figure 66.

Figure 64: Displacement Table

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Existing Model was modified to add more stiffeners (Approx. 20 min to modify the existing model):

Figure 66: Stress Distribution Diagram

214. You can compare these values with the allowable steel stress. In this case, the stress in the steel is about 12 ksi. Recommended Exercises: Try to increase the moment until you see some uplift. What is the best way to see if your base plate is experiencing uplift? Try increasing the thickness of the stiffeners. How does this affect the base pressure distribution? Try a thinner base plate. What if you want to put in more stiffeners?

Figure 66: Uplift Conditions

19

STAAD.Pro Input File


STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 24-Mar-08 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 6; 2 0 0 0; 3 6 0 0; 4 6 0 6; 5 2.53596 0 3.46404; 6 3 0 3.65625; 7 3.46404 0 3.46404; 8 3.65625 0 3; 9 3.46404 0 2.53596; 10 3 0 2.34375; 11 2.53596 0 2.53596; 12 2.34375 0 3; 13 2.10138 0 3.89861; 14 1.66681 0 4.33319; 15 1.23223 0 4.76777; 16 2.10138 0 2.10138; 17 1.66681 0 1.66681; 18 1.23223 0 1.23223; 19 3.89861 0 2.10138; 20 4.33319 0 1.66681; 21 4.76777 0 1.23223; 22 3.89861 0 3.89861; 23 4.33319 0 4.33319; 24 4.76777 0 4.76777; 25 2.53596 0.5 3.46404; 26 3 0.5 3.65625; 27 3.46404 0.5 3.46404; 28 3.65625 0.5 3; 29 3.46404 0.5 2.53596; 30 3 0.5 2.34375; 31 2.53596 0.5 2.53596; 32 2.34375 0.5 3; 33 2.53596 1 3.46404; 34 3 1 3.65625; 35 3.46404 1 3.46404; 36 3.65625 1 3; 37 3.46404 1 2.53596; 38 3 1 2.34375; 39 2.53596 1 2.53596; 40 2.34375 1 3; 41 2.53596 1.5 3.46404; 42 3 1.5 3.65625; 43 3.46404 1.5 3.46404; 44 3.65625 1.5 3; 45 3.46404 1.5 2.53596; 46 3 1.5 2.34375; 47 2.53596 1.5 2.53596; 48 2.34375 1.5 3; 49 2.53596 2 3.46404; 50 3 2 3.65625; 51 3.46404 2 3.46404; 52 3.65625 2 3; 53 3.46404 2 2.53596; 54 3 2 2.34375; 55 2.53596 2 2.53596; 56 2.34375 2 3; 57 2.53596 2.5 3.46404; 58 3 2.5 3.65625; 59 3.46404 2.5 3.46404; 60 3.65625 2.5 3; 61 3.46404 2.5 2.53596; 62 3 2.5 2.34375; 63 2.53596 2.5 2.53596; 64 2.34375 2.5 3; 65 2.29289 2.5 3.70711; 66 3.70711 2.5 3.70711; 67 3.70711 2.5 2.29289; 68 2.29289 2.5 2.29289; 69 1.23223 0.5 4.76777; 70 1.23223 0.5 1.23223; 71 4.76777 0.5 1.23223; 72 4.76777 0.5 4.76777; 73 1.44437 0.9 4.55563; 74 1.6565 1.3 4.3435; 75 1.86863 1.7 4.13137; 76 2.08076 2.1 3.91924; 77 3.91924 2.1 3.91924; 78 4.13137 1.7 4.13137; 79 4.3435 1.3 4.3435; 80 4.55563 0.9 4.55563; 81 3.91924 2.1 2.08076; 82 4.13137 1.7 1.86863; 83 4.3435 1.3 1.6565; 84 4.55563 0.9 1.44437; 85 2.08076 2.1 2.08076; 86 1.86863 1.7 1.86863; 87 1.6565 1.3 1.6565; 88 1.44437 0.9 1.44437; 89 1.54515 0.351884 4.45485; 90 2.02763 0.325968 3.97237; 91 2.2451 0.422251 3.7549;

92 2.09795 0.766686 3.90205; 93 2.16752 1.32224 3.83248; 94 1.83028 0.874107 4.16972; 95 1.73638 0.555583 4.26362; 96 2.26142 1.64076 3.73859; 97 4.45485 0.351884 4.45485; 98 3.97237 0.325968 3.97237; 99 3.7549 0.422251 3.7549; 100 3.90205 0.766686 3.90205; 101 3.83248 1.32224 3.83248; 102 4.16972 0.874107 4.16972; 103 4.26362 0.555583 4.26362; 104 3.73859 1.64076 3.73858; 105 4.45485 0.351884 1.54515; 106 3.97237 0.325968 2.02763; 107 3.7549 0.422251 2.2451; 108 3.90205 0.766686 2.09795; 109 3.83248 1.32224 2.16752; 110 4.16972 0.874107 1.83028; 111 4.26362 0.555583 1.73638; 112 3.73858 1.64076 2.26141; 113 1.54515 0.351884 1.54515; 114 2.02763 0.325968 2.02763; 115 2.2451 0.422251 2.2451; 116 2.09795 0.766686 2.09795; 117 2.16752 1.32224 2.16752; 118 1.83028 0.874107 1.83028; 119 1.73638 0.555583 1.73638; 120 2.26141 1.64076 2.26142; 121 0 0 5.5; 122 0 0 5; 123 0 0 4.5; 124 0 0 4; 125 0 0 3.5; 126 0 0 3; 127 0 0 2.5; 128 0 0 2; 129 0 0 1.5; 130 0 0 1; 131 0 0 0.5; 132 0.5 0 0; 133 1 0 0; 134 1.5 0 0; 135 2 0 0; 136 2.5 0 0; 137 3 0 0; 138 3.5 0 0; 139 4 0 0; 140 4.5 0 0; 141 5 0 0; 142 5.5 0 0; 143 6 0 0.5; 144 6 0 1; 145 6 0 1.5; 146 6 0 2; 147 6 0 2.5; 148 6 0 3; 149 6 0 3.5; 150 6 0 4; 151 6 0 4.5; 152 6 0 5; 153 6 0 5.5; 154 5.5 0 6; 155 5 0 6; 156 4.5 0 6; 157 4 0 6; 158 3.5 0 6; 159 3 0 6; 160 2.5 0 6; 161 2 0 6; 162 1.5 0 6; 163 1 0 6; 164 0.5 0 6; 165 1.55364 0 4.76777; 166 1.87506 0 4.76777; 167 2.19647 0 4.76777; 168 2.51788 0 4.76777; 169 2.83929 0 4.76777; 170 3.16071 0 4.76777; 171 3.48212 0 4.76777; 172 3.80353 0 4.76777; 173 4.12494 0 4.76777; 174 4.44636 0 4.76777; 175 0.308057 0 5.69194; 176 0.616115 0 5.38389; 177 0.924172 0 5.07583; 178 5.07583 0 5.07583; 179 5.38389 0 5.38389; 180 5.69194 0 5.69194; 181 1.71435 0 5.39205; 182 4.28565 0 5.39205; 183 2.67859 0 5.38635; 184 3.64283 0 5.38168; 185 1.39294 0 5.14196; 186 2.03576 0 5.14196; 187 4.60706 0 5.14196; 188 3 0 5.13969; 189 3.96424 0 5.13783; 190 1.30322 0 5.58886; 191 4.69678 0 5.58886; 192 2.11471 0 5.57502; 193 3.07476 0 5.56984; 194 2.67859 0 5.05618; 195 2.37348 0 5.22126; 196 1.71435 0 5.0584; 197 3.32141 0 5.05789; 198 4.28565 0 5.05748;

20

199 3.64283 0 5.04636; 200 0.629598 0 5.70543; 201 0.946326 0 5.53109; 202 5.3704 0 5.70543; 203 5.05367 0 5.53109; 204 2.40952 0 5.51915; 205 2.67503 0 5.71813; 206 3.21787 0 5.3234; 207 3.39744 0 5.59244; 208 3.72578 0 5.7265; 209 3.96262 0 5.48713; 210 4.20873 0 5.72699; 211 1.1623 0 5.32811; 212 4.8377 0 5.32811; 213 1.84254 0 5.22522; 214 2.01894 0 5.36876; 215 1.88027 0 5.55851; 216 1.59706 0 5.67487; 217 1.98335 0 5.76753; 218 2.18457 0 5.26702; 219 2.23379 0 5.05739; 220 2.45606 0 5.0094; 221 2.06323 0 4.93215; 222 1.89667 0 5.01705; 223 1.6699 0 5.22522; 224 1.47656 0 5.36607; 225 1.55496 0 5.10526; 226 1.43168 0 4.937; 227 1.60168 0 4.93095; 228 2.57069 0 5.22126; 229 2.75093 0 5.22126; 230 2.91646 0 5.3922; 231 2.84334 0 5.08238; 232 2.78377 0 4.92581; 233 2.85945 0 5.60235; 234 2.99604 0 5.77774; 235 4.41349 0 5.22477; 236 4.59319 0 5.3772; 237 4.44881 0 5.57904; 238 4.5651 0 5.77849; 239 4.24013 0 5.22477; 240 4.09868 0 5.3531; 241 4.15751 0 5.53892; 242 4.0161 0 5.67845; 243 4.12653 0 5.10402; 244 4.00696 0 4.93646; 245 3.82865 0 5.00385; 246 3.77444 0 5.1943; 247 3.60333 0 5.21402; 248 3.43166 0 5.34295; 249 3.48374 0 5.09736; 250 3.4378 0 4.93279; 251 4.17583 0 4.92897; 252 4.45707 0 5.05897; 253 4.62698 0 4.92891; 254 4.37259 0 4.91628; 255 2.67859 0 4.17716; 256 3.32141 0 4.17716; 257 3 0 4.40687; 258 2.35717 0 4.40687; 259 3.64283 0 4.40687; 260 2.03576 0 4.47998; 261 3.96424 0 4.47998; 262 2.67859 0 4.49433; 263 3.32141 0 4.49433; 264 1.71435 0 4.57759; 265 1.84372 0 4.42561; 266 4.28565 0 4.57759; 267 4.15628 0 4.4256; 268 2.54913 0 4.33574; 269 2.34971 0 4.09213; 270 2.59469 0 3.82312; 271 2.50292 0 4.5056; 272 2.32631 0 4.60936; 273 2.88076 0 3.94229; 274 2.15558 0 4.60183; 275 2.19617 0 4.44209; 276 2.23899 0 4.25222; 277 2.80804 0 4.33574; 278 2.98076 0 4.16421; 279 3.15946 0 3.9502; 280 2.85426 0 4.5056; 281 3.03086 0 4.60936; 282 3.15066 0 4.4875; 283 3.15938 0 4.29015; 284 3.45087 0 4.33574; 285 3.62241 0 4.06358; 286 3.49708 0 4.5056; 287 3.67369 0 4.60936; 288 3.79351 0 4.4875; 289 3.88508 0 4.62454; 290 4.04996 0 4.62087; 291 4.76777 0 4.44636; 292 4.76777 0 4.12494; 293 4.76777 0 3.80353; 294 4.76777 0 3.48212; 295 4.76777 0 3.16071; 296 4.76777 0 2.83929; 297 4.76777 0 2.51788; 298 4.76777 0 2.19647; 299 4.76777 0 1.87506; 300 4.76777 0 1.55364;

301 5.07583 0 0.924173; 302 5.38389 0 0.616115; 303 5.69194 0 0.308058; 304 5.39205 0 4.28565; 305 5.39205 0 1.71435; 306 5.38635 0 3.32141; 307 5.38168 0 2.35717; 308 5.14196 0 4.60706; 309 5.14196 0 3.96424; 310 5.14196 0 1.39294; 311 5.13969 0 3; 312 5.13783 0 2.03576; 313 5.58886 0 4.69678; 314 5.58886 0 1.30322; 315 5.57502 0 3.88529; 316 5.56984 0 2.92524; 317 5.05618 0 3.32141; 318 5.22126 0 3.62652; 319 5.0584 0 4.28565; 320 5.05789 0 2.67859; 321 5.05748 0 1.71435; 322 5.04636 0 2.35717; 323 5.70543 0 5.3704; 324 5.53109 0 5.05367; 325 5.70543 0 0.629598; 326 5.53109 0 0.946326; 327 5.51915 0 3.59048; 328 5.71813 0 3.32497; 329 5.3234 0 2.78213; 330 5.59244 0 2.60256; 331 5.7265 0 2.27422; 332 5.48713 0 2.03738; 333 5.72699 0 1.79127; 334 5.32811 0 4.8377; 335 5.32811 0 1.1623; 336 5.22522 0 4.15746; 337 5.36876 0 3.98106; 338 5.55851 0 4.11974; 339 5.67487 0 4.40294; 340 5.76753 0 4.01665; 341 5.26702 0 3.81543; 342 5.05739 0 3.76621; 343 5.0094 0 3.54394; 344 4.93215 0 3.93677; 345 5.01705 0 4.10333; 346 5.22522 0 4.3301; 347 5.36607 0 4.52344; 348 5.10526 0 4.44504; 349 4.937 0 4.56832; 350 4.93095 0 4.39832; 351 5.22126 0 3.42931; 352 5.22126 0 3.24907; 353 5.3922 0 3.08354; 354 5.08238 0 3.15666; 355 4.92581 0 3.21623; 356 5.60235 0 3.14055; 357 5.77774 0 3.00396; 358 5.22477 0 1.58651; 359 5.3772 0 1.40681; 360 5.57904 0 1.55119; 361 5.77849 0 1.4349; 362 5.22477 0 1.75987; 363 5.3531 0 1.90132; 364 5.53892 0 1.84249; 365 5.67845 0 1.9839; 366 5.10402 0 1.87347; 367 4.93646 0 1.99304; 368 5.00385 0 2.17135; 369 5.1943 0 2.22556; 370 5.21402 0 2.39667; 371 5.34295 0 2.56834; 372 5.09736 0 2.51626; 373 4.93279 0 2.5622; 374 4.92897 0 1.82417; 375 5.05897 0 1.54293; 376 4.92891 0 1.37302; 377 4.91628 0 1.62741; 378 4.17716 0 3.32141; 379 4.17716 0 2.67859; 380 4.40687 0 3; 381 4.40687 0 3.64283; 382 4.40687 0 2.35717; 383 4.47998 0 3.96424; 384 4.47998 0 2.03576; 385 4.49433 0 3.32141; 386 4.49433 0 2.67859; 387 4.57759 0 4.28565; 388 4.42561 0 4.15628; 389 4.57759 0 1.71435; 390 4.4256 0 1.84372; 391 4.33574 0 3.45087; 392 4.09213 0 3.65029; 393 3.82312 0 3.40531; 394 4.5056 0 3.49708; 395 4.60936 0 3.67369; 396 3.94229 0 3.11924; 397 4.60183 0 3.84442; 398 4.44209 0 3.80383; 399 4.25222 0 3.76101; 400 4.33574 0 3.19196; 401 4.16421 0 3.01924; 402 3.9502 0 2.84054;

21

403 4.5056 0 3.14574; 404 4.60936 0 2.96914; 405 4.4875 0 2.84934; 406 4.29015 0 2.84062; 407 4.33574 0 2.54913; 408 4.06358 0 2.37759; 409 4.5056 0 2.50292; 410 4.60936 0 2.32631; 411 4.4875 0 2.20649; 412 4.62454 0 2.11492; 413 4.62087 0 1.95004; 414 4.44636 0 1.23223; 415 4.12494 0 1.23223; 416 3.80353 0 1.23223; 417 3.48212 0 1.23223; 418 3.16071 0 1.23223; 419 2.83929 0 1.23223; 420 2.51788 0 1.23223; 421 2.19647 0 1.23223; 422 1.87506 0 1.23223; 423 1.55364 0 1.23223; 424 0.924173 0 0.924173; 425 0.616115 0 0.616115; 426 0.308058 0 0.308058; 427 4.28565 0 0.607951; 428 1.71435 0 0.607951; 429 3.32141 0 0.613653; 430 2.35717 0 0.618317; 431 4.60706 0 0.858035; 432 3.96424 0 0.858036; 433 1.39294 0 0.858035; 434 3 0 0.860314; 435 2.03576 0 0.862171; 436 4.69678 0 0.411144; 437 1.30322 0 0.411144; 438 3.88529 0 0.424982; 439 2.92524 0 0.430157; 440 3.32141 0 0.943817; 441 3.62652 0 0.778735; 442 4.28565 0 0.941604; 443 2.67859 0 0.942109; 444 1.71435 0 0.942515; 445 2.35717 0 0.95364; 446 5.3704 0 0.294575; 447 5.05367 0 0.468908; 448 0.629598 0 0.294575; 449 0.946326 0 0.468909; 450 3.59048 0 0.480853; 451 3.32497 0 0.281874; 452 2.78213 0 0.676604; 453 2.60256 0 0.407558; 454 2.27422 0 0.2735; 455 2.03738 0 0.512869; 456 1.79127 0 0.273009; 457 4.8377 0 0.671886; 458 1.1623 0 0.671886; 459 4.15746 0 0.774778; 460 3.98106 0 0.631245; 461 4.11974 0 0.441488; 462 4.40294 0 0.325134; 463 4.01665 0 0.232466; 464 3.81543 0 0.732979; 465 3.76621 0 0.942609; 466 3.54394 0 0.990603; 467 3.93677 0 1.06785; 468 4.10333 0 0.982949; 469 4.3301 0 0.774778; 470 4.52344 0 0.633926; 471 4.44504 0 0.894739; 472 4.56832 0 1.063; 473 4.39832 0 1.06905; 474 3.42931 0 0.778735; 475 3.24907 0 0.778735; 476 3.08354 0 0.607803; 477 3.15666 0 0.917623; 478 3.21623 0 1.07419; 479 3.14055 0 0.397649; 480 3.00396 0 0.222263; 481 1.58651 0 0.775233; 482 1.40681 0 0.622799; 483 1.55119 0 0.420956; 484 1.4349 0 0.221507; 485 1.75987 0 0.775233; 486 1.90132 0 0.646903; 487 1.84249 0 0.461076; 488 1.9839 0 0.321553; 489 1.87347 0 0.895982; 490 1.99304 0 1.06354; 491 2.17135 0 0.996152; 492 2.22556 0 0.805696; 493 2.39667 0 0.785979; 494 2.56834 0 0.657052; 495 2.51626 0 0.902635; 496 2.5622 0 1.06721; 497 1.82417 0 1.07103; 498 1.54293 0 0.941026; 499 1.37302 0 1.07109; 500 1.62741 0 1.08372; 501 3.32141 0 1.82284; 502 2.67859 0 1.82284; 503 3 0 1.59313; 504 3.64283 0 1.59313;

505 2.35717 0 1.59313; 506 3.96424 0 1.52002; 507 2.03576 0 1.52002; 508 3.32141 0 1.50567; 509 2.67859 0 1.50567; 510 4.28565 0 1.42241; 511 4.15628 0 1.57439; 512 1.71435 0 1.42241; 513 1.84372 0 1.5744; 514 3.45087 0 1.66426; 515 3.65029 0 1.90787; 516 3.40531 0 2.17688; 517 3.49708 0 1.4944; 518 3.67369 0 1.39064; 519 3.11924 0 2.05771; 520 3.84442 0 1.39817; 521 3.80383 0 1.55791; 522 3.76101 0 1.74778; 523 3.19196 0 1.66426; 524 3.01924 0 1.83579; 525 2.84054 0 2.0498; 526 3.14574 0 1.4944; 527 2.96914 0 1.39064; 528 2.84934 0 1.5125; 529 2.84062 0 1.70985; 530 2.54913 0 1.66426; 531 2.37759 0 1.93642; 532 2.50292 0 1.4944; 533 2.32631 0 1.39064; 534 2.20649 0 1.5125; 535 2.11492 0 1.37546; 536 1.95004 0 1.37913; 537 1.23223 0 1.55364; 538 1.23223 0 1.87506; 539 1.23223 0 2.19647; 540 1.23223 0 2.51788; 541 1.23223 0 2.83929; 542 1.23223 0 3.16071; 543 1.23223 0 3.48212; 544 1.23223 0 3.80353; 545 1.23223 0 4.12494; 546 1.23223 0 4.44636; 547 0.607951 0 1.71435; 548 0.607951 0 4.28565; 549 0.613653 0 2.67859; 550 0.618317 0 3.64283; 551 0.858035 0 1.39294; 552 0.858036 0 2.03576; 553 0.858035 0 4.60706; 554 0.860314 0 3; 555 0.862171 0 3.96424; 556 0.411144 0 1.30322; 557 0.411144 0 4.69678; 558 0.424982 0 2.11471; 559 0.430157 0 3.07476; 560 0.943817 0 2.67859; 561 0.778735 0 2.37348; 562 0.941604 0 1.71435; 563 0.942109 0 3.32141; 564 0.942515 0 4.28565; 565 0.95364 0 3.64283; 566 0.294575 0 0.629598; 567 0.468908 0 0.946326; 568 0.294575 0 5.3704; 569 0.468909 0 5.05367; 570 0.480853 0 2.40952; 571 0.281874 0 2.67503; 572 0.676604 0 3.21787; 573 0.407558 0 3.39744; 574 0.2735 0 3.72578; 575 0.512869 0 3.96262; 576 0.273009 0 4.20873; 577 0.671886 0 1.1623; 578 0.671886 0 4.8377; 579 0.774778 0 1.84254; 580 0.631245 0 2.01894; 581 0.441488 0 1.88027; 582 0.325134 0 1.59706; 583 0.232466 0 1.98335; 584 0.732979 0 2.18457; 585 0.942609 0 2.23379; 586 0.990603 0 2.45606; 587 1.06785 0 2.06323; 588 0.982949 0 1.89667; 589 0.774778 0 1.6699; 590 0.633926 0 1.47656; 591 0.894739 0 1.55496; 592 1.063 0 1.43168; 593 1.06905 0 1.60168; 594 0.778735 0 2.57069; 595 0.778735 0 2.75093; 596 0.607803 0 2.91646; 597 0.917623 0 2.84334; 598 1.07419 0 2.78377; 599 0.397649 0 2.85945; 600 0.222263 0 2.99604; 601 0.775233 0 4.41349; 602 0.622799 0 4.59319; 603 0.420956 0 4.44881; 604 0.221507 0 4.5651; 605 0.775233 0 4.24013; 606 0.646903 0 4.09868;

22

607 0.461076 0 4.15751; 608 0.321553 0 4.0161; 609 0.895982 0 4.12653; 610 1.06354 0 4.00696; 611 0.996152 0 3.82865; 612 0.805696 0 3.77444; 613 0.785979 0 3.60333; 614 0.657052 0 3.43166; 615 0.902635 0 3.48374; 616 1.06721 0 3.4378; 617 1.07103 0 4.17583; 618 0.941026 0 4.45707; 619 1.07109 0 4.62698; 620 1.08372 0 4.37259; 621 1.82284 0 2.67859; 622 1.82284 0 3.32141; 623 1.59313 0 3; 624 1.59313 0 2.35717; 625 1.59313 0 3.64283; 626 1.52002 0 2.03576; 627 1.52002 0 3.96424; 628 1.50567 0 2.67859; 629 1.50567 0 3.32141; 630 1.42241 0 1.71435; 631 1.57439 0 1.84372; 632 1.42241 0 4.28565; 633 1.5744 0 4.15628; 634 1.66426 0 2.54913; 635 1.90787 0 2.34971; 636 2.17688 0 2.59469; 637 1.4944 0 2.50292; 638 1.39064 0 2.32631; 639 2.05771 0 2.88076; 640 1.39817 0 2.15558; 641 1.55791 0 2.19617; 642 1.74778 0 2.23899; 643 1.66426 0 2.80804; 644 1.83579 0 2.98076; 645 2.0498 0 3.15946; 646 1.4944 0 2.85426; 647 1.39064 0 3.03086; 648 1.5125 0 3.15066; 649 1.70985 0 3.15938; 650 1.66426 0 3.45087; 651 1.93642 0 3.62241; 652 1.4944 0 3.49708; 653 1.39064 0 3.67369; 654 1.5125 0 3.79351; 655 1.37546 0 3.88508; 656 1.37913 0 4.04996; 657 3.00001 0 3.219; 658 3 2.5 3; ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL 117 5 6 26 25; 118 6 7 27 26; 119 7 8 28 27; 120 8 9 29 28; 121 9 10 30 29; 122 10 11 31 30; 123 11 12 32 31; 124 12 5 25 32; 125 25 26 34 33; 126 26 27 35 34; 127 27 28 36 35; 128 28 29 37 36; 129 29 30 38 37; 130 30 31 39 38; 131 31 32 40 39; 132 32 25 33 40; 133 33 34 42 41; 134 34 35 43 42; 135 35 36 44 43; 136 36 37 45 44; 137 37 38 46 45; 138 38 39 47 46; 139 39 40 48 47; 140 40 33 41 48; 141 41 42 50 49; 142 42 43 51 50; 143 43 44 52 51; 144 44 45 53 52; 145 45 46 54 53; 146 46 47 55 54; 147 47 48 56 55; 148 48 41 49 56; 149 49 50 58 57; 150 50 51 59 58; 151 51 52 60 59; 152 52 53 61 60; 153 53 54 62 61; 154 54 55 63 62; 155 55 56 64 63; 156 56 49 57 64; 173 89 69 15; 174 90 91 92; 175 93 92 33; 176 94 73 95; 177 89 95 73; 178 96 41 49; 179 49 57 65; 180 49 65 76; 181 96 75 93; 182 94 92 93; 183 92 25 33; 184 91 25 92; 185 91 13 5; 186 90 95 14; 187 93 75 74; 188 96 76 75; 189 93 33 41; 190 89 14 95; 191 94 74 73; 192 91 5 25; 193 90 13 91; 194 96 49 76; 195 96 93 41; 196 94 93 74; 197 94 95 92; 198 89 15 14; 199 89 73 69;

200 90 14 13; 201 90 92 95; 202 97 72 24; 203 98 99 100; 204 101 100 35; 205 102 80 103; 206 97 103 80; 207 104 43 51; 208 51 59 66; 209 51 66 77; 210 104 78 101; 211 102 100 101; 212 100 27 35; 213 99 27 100; 214 99 22 7; 215 98 103 23; 216 101 78 79; 217 104 77 78; 218 101 35 43; 219 97 23 103; 220 102 79 80; 221 99 7 27; 222 98 22 99; 223 104 51 77; 224 104 101 43; 225 102 101 79; 226 102 103 100; 227 97 24 23; 228 97 80 72; 229 98 23 22; 230 98 100 103; 231 105 71 21; 232 106 107 108; 233 109 108 37; 234 110 84 111; 235 105 111 84; 236 112 45 53; 237 53 61 67; 238 53 67 81; 239 112 82 109; 240 110 108 109; 241 108 29 37; 242 107 29 108; 243 107 19 9; 244 106 111 20; 245 109 82 83; 246 112 81 82; 247 109 37 45; 248 105 20 111; 249 110 83 84; 250 107 9 29; 251 106 19 107; 252 112 53 81; 253 112 109 45; 254 110 109 83; 255 110 111 108; 256 105 21 20; 257 105 84 71; 258 106 20 19; 259 106 108 111; 260 113 70 18; 261 114 115 116; 262 117 116 39; 263 118 88 119; 264 113 119 88; 265 120 47 55; 266 55 63 68; 267 55 68 85; 268 120 86 117; 269 118 116 117; 270 116 31 39; 271 115 31 116; 272 115 16 11; 273 114 119 17; 274 117 86 87; 275 120 85 86; 276 117 39 47; 277 113 17 119; 278 118 87 88; 279 115 11 31; 280 114 16 115; 281 120 55 85; 282 120 117 47; 283 118 117 87; 284 118 119 116; 285 113 18 17; 286 113 88 70; 287 114 17 16; 288 114 116 119; 357 172 173 244; 358 223 213 181; 359 214 213 186; 360 222 166 221; 361 196 222 213; 362 226 227 225; 363 220 194 228; 364 188 231 232; 365 204 228 183; 366 229 231 188; 367 194 229 228; 368 220 195 219; 369 228 229 183; 370 218 204 192; 371 192 214 218; 372 169 232 168; 373 195 228 204; 374 200 164 175; 375 185 224 211; 376 178 187 253; 377 157 158 208; 378 226 185 15; 379 226 165 227; 380 213 223 196; 381 214 215 181; 382 224 185 225; 383 222 196 166; 384 216 162 190; 385 181 215 216; 386 224 216 190; 387 161 217 160; 388 211 190 201; 389 181 213 214; 390 230 183 229; 391 187 252 253; 392 243 244 251; 393 252 187 235; 394 251 244 173; 395 236 235 187; 396 239 235 182; 397 252 235 198;

23

398 179 203 178; 399 180 154 202; 400 179 202 203; 401 180 202 179; 402 15 165 226; 403 191 212 203; 404 235 236 182; 405 249 250 199; 406 199 250 171; 407 206 193 230; 408 188 197 206; 409 197 249 248; 410 159 205 234; 411 201 177 211; 412 247 199 246; 413 171 250 170; 414 182 240 239; 415 239 198 235; 416 155 156 238; 417 210 237 238; 418 207 193 206; 419 207 208 158; 420 242 209 241; 421 208 242 157; 422 246 199 245; 423 201 200 176; 424 219 195 218; 425 177 201 176; 426 201 190 163; 427 154 155 202; 428 182 241 240; 429 155 203 202; 430 236 212 191; 431 205 204 183; 432 160 204 205; 433 183 230 233; 434 233 234 205; 435 216 217 162; 436 206 248 207; 437 208 207 184; 438 158 159 234; 439 209 208 184; 440 167 219 221; 441 209 184 246; 442 241 209 240; 443 237 182 236; 444 156 157 210; 445 225 227 196; 446 1 175 164; 447 178 212 187; 448 178 203 212; 449 163 200 201; 450 163 164 200; 451 218 214 186; 452 214 192 215; 453 192 217 215; 454 204 218 195; 455 215 217 216; 456 162 163 190; 457 217 192 160; 458 161 162 217; 459 160 192 204; 460 219 218 186; 461 221 219 186; 462 167 168 220; 463 220 219 167; 464 234 233 193; 465 222 221 186; 466 166 167 221; 467 213 222 186; 468 224 223 181; 469 225 196 223; 470 196 227 166; 471 216 224 181; 472 211 224 190; 473 224 225 223; 474 225 185 226; 475 168 194 220; 476 172 244 245; 477 177 185 211; 478 177 15 185; 479 166 227 165; 480 220 228 195; 481 231 229 194; 482 230 193 233; 483 229 188 230; 484 206 230 188; 485 194 232 231; 486 232 169 170; 487 232 194 168; 488 188 232 170; 489 198 254 252; 490 183 233 205; 491 160 205 159; 492 4 154 180; 493 207 234 193; 494 207 158 234; 495 212 236 187; 496 236 191 237; 497 238 237 191; 498 241 237 210; 499 238 191 155; 500 210 238 156; 501 155 191 203; 502 243 198 239; 503 209 189 240; 504 243 240 189; 505 237 241 182; 506 241 210 242; 507 157 242 210; 508 208 209 242; 509 240 243 239; 510 243 189 244; 511 245 244 189; 512 246 245 189; 513 245 199 172; 514 209 246 189; 515 247 246 184; 516 248 247 184; 517 249 199 247; 518 207 248 184; 519 197 248 206; 520 248 249 247; 521 250 249 197; 522 250 197 170; 523 172 199 171; 524 170 197 188; 525 243 251 198; 526 175 176 200; 527 253 174 24; 528 253 252 254; 529 251 254 198; 530 178 253 24; 531 253 254 174; 532 173 254 251; 533 173 174 254;

534 169 281 170; 535 14 165 15; 536 286 263 284; 537 166 260 274; 538 166 265 260; 539 275 272 274; 540 271 272 258; 541 280 262 277; 542 255 277 268; 543 6 273 270; 544 277 255 278; 545 281 169 280; 546 282 283 263; 547 271 268 262; 548 258 269 268; 549 255 269 270; 550 165 14 264; 551 255 270 273; 552 23 174 266; 553 263 171 170; 554 281 280 257; 555 259 284 285; 556 169 168 262; 557 171 286 287; 558 173 289 290; 559 266 174 173; 560 258 276 269; 561 24 174 23; 562 266 267 23; 563 288 289 287; 564 171 263 286; 565 271 258 268; 566 262 268 277; 567 281 282 170; 568 263 283 284; 569 265 264 14; 570 280 277 257; 571 172 287 289; 572 258 275 276; 573 265 276 260; 574 290 266 173; 575 288 259 285; 576 287 286 259; 577 22 267 261; 578 260 276 275; 579 255 268 269; 580 274 260 275; 581 6 270 5; 582 258 272 275; 583 262 168 271; 584 168 272 271; 585 274 272 167; 586 283 279 256; 587 277 278 257; 588 13 270 269; 589 13 5 270; 590 166 274 167; 591 166 264 265; 592 278 255 273; 593 265 13 276; 594 265 14 13; 595 276 13 269; 596 279 278 273; 597 256 284 283; 598 273 6 279; 599 7 279 6; 600 169 262 280; 601 173 172 289; 602 282 281 257; 603 282 257 283; 604 170 282 263; 605 257 278 283; 606 279 283 278; 607 285 284 256; 608 286 284 259; 609 279 285 256; 610 288 285 261; 611 7 285 279; 612 7 22 285; 613 288 287 259; 614 171 287 172; 615 22 261 285; 616 288 261 289; 617 290 289 261; 618 22 23 267; 619 261 267 290; 620 266 290 267; 621 168 167 272; 622 166 165 264; 636 298 299 367; 637 346 336 304; 638 337 336 309; 639 345 292 344; 640 319 345 336; 641 349 350 348; 642 343 317 351; 643 311 354 355; 644 327 351 306; 645 352 354 311; 646 317 352 351; 647 343 318 342; 648 351 352 306; 649 341 327 315; 650 315 337 341; 651 295 355 294; 652 318 351 327; 653 323 153 180; 654 308 347 334; 655 301 310 376; 656 146 147 331; 657 349 308 24; 658 349 291 350; 659 336 346 319; 660 337 338 304; 661 347 308 348; 662 345 319 292; 663 339 151 313; 664 304 338 339; 665 347 339 313; 666 150 340 149; 667 334 313 324; 668 304 336 337; 669 353 306 352; 670 310 375 376; 671 366 367 374; 672 375 310 358; 673 374 367 299; 674 359 358 310; 675 362 358 305; 676 375 358 321; 677 302 326 301; 678 303 143 325; 679 302 325 326; 680 303 325 302;

24

681 24 291 349; 682 314 335 326; 683 358 359 305; 684 372 373 322; 685 322 373 297; 686 329 316 353; 687 311 320 329; 688 320 372 371; 689 148 328 357; 690 324 178 334; 691 370 322 369; 692 297 373 296; 693 305 363 362; 694 362 321 358; 695 144 145 361; 696 333 360 361; 697 330 316 329; 698 330 331 147; 699 365 332 364; 700 331 365 146; 701 369 322 368; 702 324 323 179; 703 342 318 341; 704 178 324 179; 705 324 313 152; 706 143 144 325; 707 305 364 363; 708 144 326 325; 709 359 335 314; 710 328 327 306; 711 149 327 328; 712 306 353 356; 713 356 357 328; 714 339 340 151; 715 329 371 330; 716 331 330 307; 717 147 148 357; 718 332 331 307; 719 293 342 344; 720 332 307 369; 721 364 332 363; 722 360 305 359; 723 145 146 333; 724 348 350 319; 725 4 180 153; 726 301 335 310; 727 301 326 335; 728 152 323 324; 729 152 153 323; 730 341 337 309; 731 337 315 338; 732 315 340 338; 733 327 341 318; 734 338 340 339; 735 151 152 313; 736 340 315 149; 737 150 151 340; 738 149 315 327; 739 342 341 309; 740 344 342 309; 741 293 294 343; 742 343 342 293; 743 357 356 316; 744 345 344 309; 745 292 293 344; 746 336 345 309; 747 347 346 304; 748 348 319 346; 749 319 350 292; 750 339 347 304; 751 334 347 313; 752 347 348 346; 753 348 308 349; 754 294 317 343; 755 298 367 368; 756 178 308 334; 757 178 24 308; 758 292 350 291; 759 343 351 318; 760 354 352 317; 761 353 316 356; 762 352 311 353; 763 329 353 311; 764 317 355 354; 765 355 295 296; 766 355 317 294; 767 311 355 296; 768 321 377 375; 769 306 356 328; 770 149 328 148; 771 3 143 303; 772 330 357 316; 773 330 147 357; 774 335 359 310; 775 359 314 360; 776 361 360 314; 777 364 360 333; 778 361 314 144; 779 333 361 145; 780 144 314 326; 781 366 321 362; 782 332 312 363; 783 366 363 312; 784 360 364 305; 785 364 333 365; 786 146 365 333; 787 331 332 365; 788 363 366 362; 789 366 312 367; 790 368 367 312; 791 369 368 312; 792 368 322 298; 793 332 369 312; 794 370 369 307; 795 371 370 307; 796 372 322 370; 797 330 371 307; 798 320 371 329; 799 371 372 370; 800 373 372 320; 801 373 320 296; 802 298 322 297; 803 296 320 311; 804 366 374 321; 805 180 179 323; 806 376 300 21; 807 376 375 377; 808 374 377 321; 809 301 376 21; 810 376 377 300; 811 299 377 374; 812 299 300 377; 813 295 404 296; 814 23 291 24; 815 409 386 407; 816 292 383 397;

817 292 388 383; 818 398 395 397; 819 394 395 381; 820 403 385 400; 821 378 400 391; 822 8 396 393; 823 400 378 401; 824 404 295 403; 825 405 406 386; 826 394 391 385; 827 381 392 391; 828 378 392 393; 829 291 23 387; 830 378 393 396; 831 20 300 389; 832 386 297 296; 833 404 403 380; 834 382 407 408; 835 295 294 385; 836 297 409 410; 837 299 412 413; 838 389 300 299; 839 381 399 392; 840 21 300 20; 841 389 390 20; 842 411 412 410; 843 297 386 409; 844 394 381 391; 845 385 391 400; 846 404 405 296; 847 386 406 407; 848 388 387 23; 849 403 400 380; 850 298 410 412; 851 381 398 399; 852 388 399 383; 853 413 389 299; 854 411 382 408; 855 410 409 382; 856 19 390 384; 857 383 399 398; 858 378 391 392; 859 397 383 398; 860 8 393 7; 861 381 395 398; 862 385 294 394; 863 294 395 394; 864 397 395 293; 865 406 402 379; 866 400 401 380; 867 22 393 392; 868 22 7 393; 869 292 397 293; 870 292 387 388; 871 401 378 396; 872 388 22 399; 873 388 23 22; 874 399 22 392; 875 402 401 396; 876 379 407 406; 877 396 8 402; 878 9 402 8; 879 295 385 403; 880 299 298 412; 881 405 404 380; 882 405 380 406; 883 296 405 386; 884 380 401 406; 885 402 406 401; 886 408 407 379; 887 409 407 382; 888 402 408 379; 889 411 408 384; 890 9 408 402; 891 9 19 408; 892 411 410 382; 893 297 410 298; 894 19 384 408; 895 411 384 412; 896 413 412 384; 897 19 20 390; 898 384 390 413; 899 389 413 390; 900 294 293 395; 901 292 291 387; 915 421 422 490; 916 469 459 427; 917 460 459 432; 918 468 415 467; 919 442 468 459; 920 472 473 471; 921 466 440 474; 922 434 477 478; 923 450 474 429; 924 475 477 434; 925 440 475 474; 926 466 441 465; 927 474 475 429; 928 464 450 438; 929 438 460 464; 930 418 478 417; 931 441 474 450; 932 446 142 303; 933 431 470 457; 934 424 433 499; 935 135 136 454; 936 472 431 21; 937 472 414 473; 938 459 469 442; 939 460 461 427; 940 470 431 471; 941 468 442 415; 942 462 140 436; 943 427 461 462; 944 470 462 436; 945 139 463 138; 946 457 436 447; 947 427 459 460; 948 476 429 475; 949 433 498 499; 950 489 490 497; 951 498 433 481; 952 497 490 422; 953 482 481 433; 954 485 481 428; 955 498 481 444; 956 425 449 424; 957 426 132 448; 958 425 448 449; 959 426 448 425; 960 21 414 472; 961 437 458 449; 962 481 482 428; 963 495 496 445;

25

964 445 496 420; 965 452 439 476; 966 434 443 452; 967 443 495 494; 968 137 451 480; 969 447 301 457; 970 493 445 492; 971 420 496 419; 972 428 486 485; 973 485 444 481; 974 133 134 484; 975 456 483 484; 976 453 439 452; 977 453 454 136; 978 488 455 487; 979 454 488 135; 980 492 445 491; 981 447 446 302; 982 465 441 464; 983 301 447 302; 984 447 436 141; 985 132 133 448; 986 428 487 486; 987 133 449 448; 988 482 458 437; 989 451 450 429; 990 138 450 451; 991 429 476 479; 992 479 480 451; 993 462 463 140; 994 452 494 453; 995 454 453 430; 996 136 137 480; 997 455 454 430; 998 416 465 467; 999 455 430 492; 1000 487 455 486; 1001 483 428 482; 1002 134 135 456; 1003 471 473 442; 1004 3 303 142; 1005 424 458 433; 1006 424 449 458; 1007 141 446 447; 1008 141 142 446; 1009 464 460 432; 1010 460 438 461; 1011 438 463 461; 1012 450 464 441; 1013 461 463 462; 1014 140 141 436; 1015 463 438 138; 1016 139 140 463; 1017 138 438 450; 1018 465 464 432; 1019 467 465 432; 1020 416 417 466; 1021 466 465 416; 1022 480 479 439; 1023 468 467 432; 1024 415 416 467; 1025 459 468 432; 1026 470 469 427; 1027 471 442 469; 1028 442 473 415; 1029 462 470 427; 1030 457 470 436; 1031 470 471 469; 1032 471 431 472; 1033 417 440 466; 1034 421 490 491; 1035 301 431 457; 1036 301 21 431; 1037 415 473 414; 1038 466 474 441; 1039 477 475 440; 1040 476 439 479; 1041 475 434 476; 1042 452 476 434; 1043 440 478 477; 1044 478 418 419; 1045 478 440 417; 1046 434 478 419; 1047 444 500 498; 1048 429 479 451; 1049 138 451 137; 1050 2 132 426; 1051 453 480 439; 1052 453 136 480; 1053 458 482 433; 1054 482 437 483; 1055 484 483 437; 1056 487 483 456; 1057 484 437 133; 1058 456 484 134; 1059 133 437 449; 1060 489 444 485; 1061 455 435 486; 1062 489 486 435; 1063 483 487 428; 1064 487 456 488; 1065 135 488 456; 1066 454 455 488; 1067 486 489 485; 1068 489 435 490; 1069 491 490 435; 1070 492 491 435; 1071 491 445 421; 1072 455 492 435; 1073 493 492 430; 1074 494 493 430; 1075 495 445 493; 1076 453 494 430; 1077 443 494 452; 1078 494 495 493; 1079 496 495 443; 1080 496 443 419; 1081 421 445 420; 1082 419 443 434; 1083 489 497 444; 1084 303 302 446; 1085 499 423 18; 1086 499 498 500; 1087 497 500 444; 1088 424 499 18; 1089 499 500 423; 1090 422 500 497; 1091 422 423 500; 1092 418 527 419; 1093 20 414 21; 1094 532 509 530; 1095 415 506 520; 1096 415 511 506; 1097 521 518 520; 1098 517 518 504; 1099 526 508 523;

1100 501 523 514; 1101 10 519 516; 1102 523 501 524; 1103 527 418 526; 1104 528 529 509; 1105 517 514 508; 1106 504 515 514; 1107 501 515 516; 1108 414 20 510; 1109 501 516 519; 1110 17 423 512; 1111 509 420 419; 1112 527 526 503; 1113 505 530 531; 1114 418 417 508; 1115 420 532 533; 1116 422 535 536; 1117 512 423 422; 1118 504 522 515; 1119 18 423 17; 1120 512 513 17; 1121 534 535 533; 1122 420 509 532; 1123 517 504 514; 1124 508 514 523; 1125 527 528 419; 1126 509 529 530; 1127 511 510 20; 1128 526 523 503; 1129 421 533 535; 1130 504 521 522; 1131 511 522 506; 1132 536 512 422; 1133 534 505 531; 1134 533 532 505; 1135 16 513 507; 1136 506 522 521; 1137 501 514 515; 1138 520 506 521; 1139 10 516 9; 1140 504 518 521; 1141 508 417 517; 1142 417 518 517; 1143 520 518 416; 1144 529 525 502; 1145 523 524 503; 1146 19 516 515; 1147 19 9 516; 1148 415 520 416; 1149 415 510 511; 1150 524 501 519; 1151 511 19 522; 1152 511 20 19; 1153 522 19 515; 1154 525 524 519; 1155 502 530 529; 1156 519 10 525; 1157 11 525 10; 1158 418 508 526; 1159 422 421 535; 1160 528 527 503; 1161 528 503 529; 1162 419 528 509; 1163 503 524 529; 1164 525 529 524; 1165 531 530 502; 1166 532 530 505; 1167 525 531 502; 1168 534 531 507; 1169 11 531 525; 1170 11 16 531; 1171 534 533 505; 1172 420 533 421; 1173 16 507 531; 1174 534 507 535; 1175 536 535 507; 1176 16 17 513; 1177 507 513 536; 1178 512 536 513; 1179 417 416 518; 1180 415 414 510; 1191 544 545 610; 1192 589 579 547; 1193 580 579 552; 1194 588 538 587; 1195 562 588 579; 1196 592 593 591; 1197 586 560 594; 1198 554 597 598; 1199 570 594 549; 1200 595 597 554; 1201 560 595 594; 1202 586 561 585; 1203 594 595 549; 1204 584 570 558; 1205 558 580 584; 1206 541 598 540; 1207 561 594 570; 1208 566 131 426; 1209 551 590 577; 1210 177 553 619; 1211 124 125 574; 1212 592 551 18; 1213 592 537 593; 1214 579 589 562; 1215 580 581 547; 1216 590 551 591; 1217 588 562 538; 1218 582 129 556; 1219 547 581 582; 1220 590 582 556; 1221 128 583 127; 1222 577 556 567; 1223 547 579 580; 1224 596 549 595; 1225 553 618 619; 1226 609 610 617; 1227 618 553 601; 1228 617 610 545; 1229 602 601 553; 1230 605 601 548; 1231 618 601 564; 1232 176 569 177; 1233 175 121 568; 1234 176 568 569; 1235 175 568 176; 1236 18 537 592; 1237 557 578 569; 1238 601 602 548; 1239 615 616 565; 1240 565 616 543; 1241 572 559 596; 1242 554 563 572; 1243 563 615 614; 1244 126 571 600; 1245 567 424 577;

26

1246 1248 1250 1252 1254 1256 1258 1260 1262 1264 1266 1268 1270 1272 1274 1276 1278 1280 1282 1284 1286 1288 1290 1292 1294 1296 1298 1300 1302 1304 1306 1308 1310 1312 1314 1316 1318 1320 1322 1324 1326 1328 1330 1332 1334 1336 1338 1340 1342 1344 1346 1348 1350 1352 1354 1356 1358 1360 1362 1364 1366 1368 1370 1372 1374 1376 1378 1380

613 565 612; 1247 543 616 542; 548 606 605; 1249 605 564 601; 122 123 604; 1251 576 603 604; 573 559 572; 1253 573 574 125; 608 575 607; 1255 574 608 124; 612 565 611; 1257 567 566 425; 585 561 584; 1259 424 567 425; 567 556 130; 1261 121 122 568; 548 607 606; 1263 122 569 568; 602 578 557; 1265 571 570 549; 127 570 571; 1267 549 596 599; 599 600 571; 1269 582 583 129; 572 614 573; 1271 574 573 550; 125 126 600; 1273 575 574 550; 539 585 587; 1275 575 550 612; 607 575 606; 1277 603 548 602; 123 124 576; 1279 591 593 562; 2 426 131; 1281 177 578 553; 177 569 578; 1283 130 566 567; 130 131 566; 1285 584 580 552; 580 558 581; 1287 558 583 581; 570 584 561; 1289 581 583 582; 129 130 556; 1291 583 558 127; 128 129 583; 1293 127 558 570; 585 584 552; 1295 587 585 552; 539 540 586; 1297 586 585 539; 600 599 559; 1299 588 587 552; 538 539 587; 1301 579 588 552; 590 589 547; 1303 591 562 589; 562 593 538; 1305 582 590 547; 577 590 556; 1307 590 591 589; 591 551 592; 1309 540 560 586; 544 610 611; 1311 424 551 577; 424 18 551; 1313 538 593 537; 586 594 561; 1315 597 595 560; 596 559 599; 1317 595 554 596; 572 596 554; 1319 560 598 597; 598 541 542; 1321 598 560 540; 554 598 542; 1323 564 620 618; 549 599 571; 1325 127 571 126; 1 121 175; 1327 573 600 559; 573 125 600; 1329 578 602 553; 602 557 603; 1331 604 603 557; 607 603 576; 1333 604 557 122; 576 604 123; 1335 122 557 569; 609 564 605; 1337 575 555 606; 609 606 555; 1339 603 607 548; 607 576 608; 1341 124 608 576; 574 575 608; 1343 606 609 605; 609 555 610; 1345 611 610 555; 612 611 555; 1347 611 565 544; 575 612 555; 1349 613 612 550; 614 613 550; 1351 615 565 613; 573 614 550; 1353 563 614 572; 614 615 613; 1355 616 615 563; 616 563 542; 1357 544 565 543; 542 563 554; 1359 609 617 564; 426 425 566; 1361 619 546 15; 619 618 620; 1363 617 620 564; 177 619 15; 1365 619 620 546; 545 620 617; 1367 545 546 620; 541 647 542; 1369 17 537 18; 652 629 650; 1371 538 626 640; 538 631 626; 1373 641 638 640; 637 638 624; 1375 646 628 643; 621 643 634; 1377 12 639 636; 643 621 644; 1379 647 541 646; 648 649 629; 1381 637 634 628;

1382 624 635 634; 1383 621 635 636; 1384 537 17 630; 1385 621 636 639; 1386 14 546 632; 1387 629 543 542; 1388 647 646 623; 1389 625 650 651; 1390 541 540 628; 1391 543 652 653; 1392 545 655 656; 1393 632 546 545; 1394 624 642 635; 1395 15 546 14; 1396 632 633 14; 1397 654 655 653; 1398 543 629 652; 1399 637 624 634; 1400 628 634 643; 1401 647 648 542; 1402 629 649 650; 1403 631 630 17; 1404 646 643 623; 1405 544 653 655; 1406 624 641 642; 1407 631 642 626; 1408 656 632 545; 1409 654 625 651; 1410 653 652 625; 1411 13 633 627; 1412 626 642 641; 1413 621 634 635; 1414 640 626 641; 1415 12 636 11; 1416 624 638 641; 1417 628 540 637; 1418 540 638 637; 1419 640 638 539; 1420 649 645 622; 1421 643 644 623; 1422 16 636 635; 1423 16 11 636; 1424 538 640 539; 1425 538 630 631; 1426 644 621 639; 1427 631 16 642; 1428 631 17 16; 1429 642 16 635; 1430 645 644 639; 1431 622 650 649; 1432 639 12 645; 1433 5 645 12; 1434 541 628 646; 1435 545 544 655; 1436 648 647 623; 1437 648 623 649; 1438 542 648 629; 1439 623 644 649; 1440 645 649 644; 1441 651 650 622; 1442 652 650 625; 1443 645 651 622; 1444 654 651 627; 1445 5 651 645; 1446 5 13 651; 1447 654 653 625; 1448 543 653 544; 1449 13 627 651; 1450 654 627 655; 1451 656 655 627; 1452 13 14 633; 1453 627 633 656; 1454 632 656 633; 1455 540 539 638; 1456 538 537 630; 1457 657 9 8; 1458 657 6 5; 1459 657 8 7; 1460 657 10 9; 1461 657 11 10; 1462 657 12 11; 1463 657 5 12; 1464 657 7 6; ELEMENT PROPERTY 117 TO 156 THICKNESS 0.041667 357 TO 622 636 TO 901 915 TO 1180 1191 TO 1464 THICKNESS 0.05 173 TO 288 THICKNESS 0.033333 DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 4.176e+006 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 0.489024 ALPHA 6.5e-006 DAMP 0.03 END DEFINE MATERIAL CONSTANTS MATERIAL STEEL ALL <! STAAD PRO GENERATED DATA DO NOT MODIFY !!! PARAMETRIC MODEL B2 MESH PARAM 144 2 MESH ORG 1 2 3 BOUNDARY 19 15 1 14 1 13 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 22 1 23 1 24 1 174 1 173 1 172 1 171 1 170 1 169 1 168 1 167 1 166 1 165 1 GENERATED NODES 255 TO 290 GENERATED PLATES ALL END

27

!> END GENERATED DATA BLOCK <! STAAD PRO GENERATED DATA DO NOT MODIFY !!! PARAMETRIC MODEL B1 MESH PARAM 144 2 MESH ORG 11 15 27 BOUNDARY 31 15 1 165 1 166 1 167 1 168 1 169 1 170 1 171 1 172 1 173 1 174 1 24 1 178 1 179 1 180 1 4 1 154 1 155 1 156 1 157 1 158 1 159 1 160 1 161 1 162 1 163 1 164 1 1 1 175 1 176 1 177 1 GENERATED NODES 181 TO 254 GENERATED PLATES ALL END !> END GENERATED DATA BLOCK SUPPORTS 357 TO 622 636 TO 901 915 TO 1180 1191 TO 1463 1464 PLATE MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 144 PRINT COMPRESSION SLAVE RIGID MASTER 658 JOINT 57 TO 64 658 LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE Dead Load + Wind Load SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 658 FY -25 MX -0.2 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL FINISH

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When we generate the spring supports for a raft foundation using the command "listof-joints Elastic mat Dir YONLY SUB 10000" we get instability warnings in FX, FZ and MY directions at certain joints. Why?
The Elastic Mat instability messages have to do with the Y option versus the YONLY option. The Y option automatically fixes the FX and FZ directions at all mat joints whereas the YONLY option does not. Without any support in the FX and FZ directions, your structure is unstable in these directions and MY as well. You could switch to the Y option or perhaps fix FX, FZ and MY at one joint near the center. Since STAAD automatically applies very small springs at one joint to stabilize an unstable structure, you could ignore the messages if there are no FX, FZ, or MY loadings and if the displacements are small in those directions.

I tried to model a concrete foundation using solid elements, basically following the approach described in example 24 of the examples manual. However, I got this warning stating "more than 12 DOF with zero stiffness". Can anyone please advise me what are the technical reasons for this and how I can possibly handle this warning?
A solid element by its basic nature does not have rotational degrees of freedom at its nodes. So, at all points on the structure where the only entities connected are solid elements, there is no rotational stiffness

have analyzed a structure and find that there are instability messages in the .anl (output) file, as follows :
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 26 DIRECTION = FX PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.3274384E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 127 ***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY

**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL, STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR IS 1.000E-09

THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.

What is the significance of such messages?

An instability is a condition where a load applied on the structure is not able to make its way into the supports because no paths exist for the load to flow through, and may result in a lack of equilibrium between the applied load and the support reaction.

There is some explanation available in Section 1.18.1 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual for the typical cause of instabilities. You will find it under the heading "Modeling and Numerical Instability Problems".

If there are instability messages, does it mean my analysis results may be unsatisfactory?
There are many situations where instabilities are unimportant and the STAAD approach of adding a weak spring is an ideal solution to the problem. For example, sometimes an engineer will release the MX torsion in a single beam or at the ends of a series of members such that technically the members are unstable in torsion. If there is no torque applied, this singularity can safely be "fixed" by STAAD with a weak torsional spring.

Similarly a column that is at a pinned support will sometimes be connected to members that all have releases such that they cannot transmit moments that cause torsion in the column. This column will be unstable in torsion but can be safely "fixed" by STAAD with a weak torsional spring.

Sometimes however, a section of a structure has members that are overly released to the point where that section can rotate with respect to the rest of the structure. In this case, if STAAD adds a weak spring, there may be large displacements because there are loads in the section that are in the direction of the extremely weak spring. Another way of saying it is, an applied load acts along an unstable degree of freedom, and causes excessive displacements at that degree of freedom.

If there are instability messages, are there any simple checks to verify whether my analysis results are satisfactory?
There are 2 important checks that should be carried out if instability messages are present.

a) A static equilibrium check. This check will tell us whether all the applied loading flowed through the model into the supports. A satisfactory result would require that the applied loading be in equilibrium with the support reactions.

b) The joint displacement check. This check will tell us whether the displacements in the model are within reasonable limits. If a load passes through a corresponding unstable degree of freedom, the structure will undergo excessive deflections at that degree of freedom.

One may use the PRINT STATICS CHECK option in conjunction with the PERFORM ANALYSIS command to obtain a report of both the results mentioned in the above checks. The STAAD output file will contain a report similar to the following, for every primary load case that has been solved for :

***TOTAL APPLIED LOAD ( KG METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1 ) SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = -817.84 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0.00

SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGINMX= 291.23 MY= 0.00 MZ= -3598.50

***TOTAL REACTION LOAD( KG METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1 ) SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.00 SUMMATION FORCE-Y = 817.84 SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0.00

SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGINMX= -291.23 MY= 0.00 MZ= 3598.50

MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENTS ( CM /RADIANS) (LOADING 1) MAXIMUMS AT NODE X = 1.00499E-04 25 Y = -3.18980E-01 12 Z = 1.18670E-02 23

RX= 1.52966E-04 5 RY= 1.22373E-04 23 RZ= 1.07535E-03 8

Go through these numbers to ensure that

i) The "TOTAL APPLIED LOAD" values and "TOTAL REACTION LOAD" values are equal and opposite. ii) The "MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENTS" are within reasonable limits

What does a zero stiffness warning message in the STAAD output file mean?
The procedure used by STAAD in calculating displacements and forces in a structure is the stiffness method. One of the steps involved in this method is the assembly of the global stiffness matrix. During this process, STAAD verifies that no active degree of freedom (d.o.f) has a zero value, because a zero value could be a potential cause of instability in the model along that d.o.f. It means that the structural conditions which exist at that node and degree of freedom result in the structure having no ability to resist a load acting along that d.o.f. A warning message is printed in the STAAD output file highlighting the node number and the d.o.f at which the zero stiffness condition exists. Examples of cases which give rise to these conditions : Consider a frame structure where some of the members are defined to be trusses. On this model, if a joint exists where the only structural components connected at that node are truss members, there is no rotational stiffness at that node along any of the global d.o.f. If the structure is defined as STAAD PLANE, it will result in a warning along the MZ d.o.f at that node. If it were declared as STAAD SPACE, there will be at least 3 warnings, one for each of MX, MY and MZ, and perhaps additional warnings for the translational d.o.f. These warnings can also appear when other structural conditions such as member releases and element releases deprive the structure of stiffness at the associated nodes along the

global translational or rotational directions. A tower held down by cables, defined as a PLANE or SPACE frame, where cable members are pinned supported at their base will also generate these warnings for the rotational d.o.f. at the supported nodes of the cables. Solid elements have no rotational stiffness at their nodes. So, at all nodes where you have only solids, these zero stiffness warning messages will appear. These are warnings and not errors because : The reason why these conditions are reported as warnings and not errors is due to the fact that they may not necessarily be detrimental to the proper transfer of loads from the structure to the supports. If no load acts at and along the d.o.f where the stiffness is zero, that point may not be a trouble-spot. What is the usefulness of these messages : A zero stiffness message can be a tool for investigating the cause of instabilities in the model. An instability is a condition where a load applied on the structure is not able to make its way into the supports because no paths exist for the load to flow through, and may result in a lack of equilibrium between the applied load and the support reaction. A zero stiffness message can tell us whether any of those d.o.f are obstacles to the flow of the load.

Is it possible to quickly find out the total number of nodes & beams in a model?.
Yes. On the left side of the screen, click on the Setup page. On the right side of the screen, click on the button called "More". Another place to get this from is the button that looks like a question mark. It is called Info. See the figure below.

How do I stop the Auto Save screen from appearing over and over again in Staad.Pro?
From the File menu of the main program screen, select "Open Backup Manager". The dialog box that comes up has a facility to turn off the Autosave feature as seen in the next figure.

How can I define a built up section whose cross section shape is not that of any standard rolled section?
You have to specify its properties using the User Table-General section. You can find the details in section 5.19 of the Technical Reference Manual as shown next. Refer to the section titled General

I am trying to cut a rectangular hole in an arbitrary triangular region in space which has been meshed with plates. Is there a way to orient the construction grid (for the "snap node/plate" feature) to align with three pre-defined nodes (i.e. the corners of the triangle) to simplify removal of the rectangular feature inside? The angle of the triangle is very odd and I am concerned about the nodes defining the rectangle being slightly out of plane if I try to set the construction grid manually

based on the coordinates and angle of the triangle.


Using STAAD's graphical tools, it is quite difficult to insert an opening after the plate has been meshed, unless your plate elements are aligned in a manner that exactly matches the boundary of the opening. The process is far less painful if the hole is specified before the meshing process commences. To do that, please have a look at the solution described later in this section under the topic "Generation of a plate element mesh for an irregular slab with holes/openings" Alternatively, you may use Parametric Models option as described in section 2.3.6.11 titled Geometry | Create Parametric Models

One issue that I have encountered is that if I go into the load function and realize that I have the wrong units specified, I cannot change the units by going back to the geometry menus and selecting the correct units to use. When I enter the loading menus again, the units have not changed. Is there another way to change the units once you enter the loading functions?
From the Edit menu, choose Edit Input Command File. Scroll down till you see commands like LOAD 1 or

LOAD 2 Prior to the load case which has the units error, add the appropriate unit as shown UNIT POUND FEET For example UNIT KIP FEET LOAD 1 SELF Y -1.0 MEMBER LOAD 1 TO 25 UNI GY -0.2 UNIT POUND LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD 33 FX 400 UNIT KNS METER LOAD 3 MEMBER LOAD 45 UNI GY -3.0

When using the foundation support, I am required to give the subgrade modulus and supply a direction. I have always used Y as the direction. However, I am interested in knowing what would occur if I choose Yonly. Is there some type of weak spring placed in X & Z directions, is it completely restrained, or is it somewhere in between?

If X or Y or Z is specified for direction, then, a) a spring support is generated in that direction b) the other two translational directions are fully restrained c) the associated rotational degre of freedom is fully restrained d) the other 2 rotational degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained Example : plate-list PLATE MAT DIR Y SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is fixed FY gets a spring FZ is fixed MX is free MY is fixed MZ is free If XONLY or YONLY or ZONLY is specified, then, a spring support is generated in that direction. All the remaining 5 degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained. Example : plate-list PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is free FY gets a spring FZ is free MX is free MY is free MZ is free

The "View - View Selected Objects Only" option requires two clicks to work.Why ?

This error was present in the American edition of STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004. For finding the Release and build number, go to Help - About STAAD.Pro. It has been corrected in Build 1005.US.REL. In case you still need to use the version that had the problem, you could do the following to get around the problem : a) Go to the View menu and choose "View Selected Objects Only" again. b) Click the right mouse button, choose "New View" followed by one of the 2 options it offers.

I am using STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004.US also known as the second edition. When I try to add plates using the new feature in the Geometry menu called "Create infill plates", I encounter the message "No closed polygon found to fill in with plates, please check beam selection".What am I doing wrong?
This was an in build 1004 and has been rectified in the US Build 1005. If you need to use build 1004, you can use the same facility from its icon which is shown below.

I have a rather large frame building consisting of several floors. I want to look

at individual floors by themselves without the rest of the structure cluttering up the view. Can you tell me how to do that?
Method 1 : a) Orient the view of your model in such a way as to make it convenient to extract using a mouse, the portion you want to view separately. This can be done from View | Orientation, or by clicking on the icons available for this. b) From the select menu, select the Geometry cursor. Then, using your mouse, create a window around the region you wish to view. That region will be highlighted. c) Click the right mouse button and select New View. Or, from the View menu, select New View. Set the button on "Create a new window for the View", and click on OK. The region will now be displayed in a separate window. Once in this window, you can change the viewing angles using View | Orientation, or through the orientation icons, or simply by pressing the up, down, left or right arrow keys on the keyboard.

Method 2 : This method involves cutting a section using the Tools - Cut section option. Details are available in Section 2.3.4 of the STAAD.Pro Graphical Environment Manual, which can be accessed from Help - Contents.

How do I access online help in STAAD.Pro? The F1 key does not bring up any help screens.
The F1 key for help is currently not operational in STAAD. We are working on implementing this for one of the forthcoming releases.

To obtain online help in STAAD, you can do one of the following: From the Help menu, if you click on Contents, if will bring up all the STAAD manuals. You can search for specific information, or go through the topic list to select the items you want. From Help, if you click on Multi Media help, it will bring up a set of movies which will explain the procedure for creating a model. If you click on the Start button on your Windows desktop, select Programs, choose STAAD.Pro 2001 followed by STAAD.Pro Online Documentation, it will bring up the same set of information as the one you can access from step (1) above.

How can I convert single line input to multiple line input? The program currently converts my joint coordinate and member incidence data from multiple line to single line input.
Start STAAD.Pro. Select File - Configure.

Click on the tab called Input File Format

If you want Single line format, switch on the check boxes. If you want Multiple line format, keep them "unchecked".

Click on Accept.

Then from the File menu, open your STAAD input file. When you Save the file from the Graphical screen, the data will be saved in the format you chose in the step above.

How do I merge 2 staad models?

Start STAAD.Pro. Open the first file. Keep it open. STAAD another instance of STAAD.Pro. Open the second file. Stay in this file. Go to the Select menu, and Select All Geometry. From the Edit menu, select Copy. Go back to the screen of the first file. From the Edit menu, select Paste.

You will be prompted to specify the X, Y and Z distances by which to move the structure of the second file before it gets copied to the first structure. Specify those values and click on OK.

Overview
I understand that one should use the REPEAT LOAD command and not the LOAD COMBINATION command when analysing a model for cases where the MEMBER TENSION or MEMBER COMPRESSION command has been used. Talking about load combinations, in Section 5.35 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual, notes Item (2) mentions that the LOAD COMBINATION command is inappropriate for a PDELTA analysis, and that one should use REPEAT LOADs instead. This appears to be true for NON-LINEAR analysis also. Why?

Primary Load Cases


A primary load case is one where the load data is directly specified by the user in the form of member loads, joint loads, temperature loads, element pressure loads, etc. It is characterized by the fact that the data generally follow a title which has the syntax

LOAD n

where "n" is the load case number. For example,

LOAD 3

MEMBER LOAD

2 UNI GY -3.4

JOINT LOAD

10 FX 12.5

LOAD 4

ELEMENT LOAD

23 PR GY -1.2

LOAD 5

TEMPERATURE LOAD

15 17 TEMP 40.0 -25.0

Combination Load Case


Here, the user does not directly specify the load data, but instead asks the program to add up the results of the component cases - which are defined prior to the combination case after factoring them by the user specified factors. It is characterized by the title which has the syntax

LOAD COMBINATION n

where "n" is the case number of the combination load case.

LOAD COMBINATION 40

3 1.2 4 1.6 5 1.3

REPEAT LOAD Type


A Repeat Load type is a Primary load case. That is because, when the program runs into this command, it physically creates the load data for this case by assembling together the load information from all the component load cases (after factoring them by the respective load factors) which the user wants to "REPEAT". Thus, when you specify

LOAD 10

REPEAT LOAD

4 1.4 5 1.7

STAAD creates a physical load case called 10 whose contents will include all of the data of load case 4 factored by 1.4, and all of the data of load case 5 factored by 1.7. If we use the same data used in the definition of the primary load case above, STAAD internally converts the REPEAT LOAD case 10 to the following :

LOAD 10

ELEMENT LOAD

23 PR GY -1.68

TEMPERATURE LOAD

15 17 TEMP 68.0 -42.5

What is the difference between a REPEAT LOAD case and LOAD COMBINATION?
The difference lies in the way STAAD goes about calculating the results - joint displacements, member forces and support reactions. For a load combination case, STAAD simply ALGEBRAICALLY COMBINES THE RESULTS of the component cases after factoring them. In the example shown above, it

gathers the results of load case 3, factors them by 1.2,

gathers the results of load case 4, factors them by 1.6,

gathers the results of load case 5, factors them by 1.3,

and adds them all together. In other words, in order to obtain the results of load 10, it has no need to know what exactly is it that constitues load cases 3, 4 and 5. It just needs to know what the results of those cases are. Thus, the structure is NOT actually analysed for a combination load case. With a REPEAT LOAD case however, the procedure followed is that which occurs for any other primary load case. A load vector {P} is first created, and later, that load vector gets pre-multiplied by the inverted stiffness matrix.

[Kinv] {P}

to obtain the joint displacements. Those displacements are then used to calculate the member forces and support reactions. Thus, the structure IS analysed for that load case {P}.

Why should the difference in the way STAAD treats a REPEAT LOAD case vs. a COMBINATION LOAD case matter?
Normally, if you are doing a linear static analysis - which is what a PERFORM ANALYSIS command does - it should make no difference whether you specify REPEAT or COMBINATION. However, if you are doing a PDELTA analysis, or a NONLINEAR analysis, or cases involving MEMBER TENSION and MEMBER COMPRESSION, etc., it matters. That is because, in those situations, the results of those individual cases acting simultaneously IS NOT the same as the summation of the results of those individual cases acting alone. In other words,

(Results of Load A) + (Results of Load B) is not equal to (Results of Load (A+B)) Take the case of a PDelta analysis. The P-Delta effect comes about from the interaction of the vertical load and the horizontal load. If they do not act simultaneously, there is no P-Delta effect. And the only way to make them act simultaneously is to get the program to compute the displacement with both loads being present in a single load case. A REPEAT LOAD case achieves that. A COMBINATION load case does not.

In the output file, I see the following message


** WARNING ** A SOFT MATERIAL WITH (1.0 / 1.750E+01) TIMES THE STIFFNESS OF CONCRETE ENTERED. PLEASE CHECK. Please explain to me in plain English what StaadPro is trying to tell me. STAAD checks to see if the E (Modulus of Elasticity) assigned to members and elements is comparable to the values of steel, aluminum, concrete or timber. If it falls below or above the range of these materials, warning messages similar to the one you encountered are displayed. This is done to notify the user in case he/she is not aware of this fact, or if he/she may have specified the value in an incorrect unit system. If you believe that your E is specified correctly, you may ignore the message. Else, correct the number.

In STAAD.Pro, you are providing Steel, Concrete and Aluminum as standard materials with built-in default values. Why isn't timber included? I am looking for the Modulus of Elasticity and Density of Douglas Fir.
Unlike the 3 materials mentioned in your question, timber comes in several varieties, with each variety having its own unique set of material properties. Douglas Fir alone comes in several varieties, as explained below. The American Wood Council and the American Forest & Paper Association publish a document called the "Supplement NDS for Wood Construction", 1997 edition. It provides design values for structural sawn lumber and glued laminated timber. There is also a category called Visually Graded Decking. Under each category, Douglas Fir comes in various species or combination of species. Under each species, there are various commercial grades. Each of those grades have a unique value of E, ranging from 1000 ksi to 1900 ksi. If the category, species, and commercial grade is known, the E value can be read from the tables in this document. The American Wood Council and the American Forest & Paper Association also publish a document called the "ASD Manual for Engineered Wood Construction". In the 1999 edition of this document, Table 8A, page 15 contains the specific gravity of Douglas Fir as ranging from 0.46 to 0.5.

I am analysing a plane frame. I specify a prismatic section with IX. The analysis stops with the error message that I need to specify IZ. What is the need to specify IZ?

For plane frames with no beta angle, what is needed is IZ, not IX. IX is the torsion constant. IZ is the moment of inertia about the Z axis. Members of a plane frame with a beta angle of zero will bend about the Z axis, which explains the need for IZ. They are not prone to twisting, and that is why IX is not needed. Table 1.1 from the Technical Reference manual, which shows the properties required for various types of structures, is reproduced below.

What is the purpose of the "member release" command? What is the basis for the terms MX, MY and MZ in this command?
By default, STAAD assumes the connection between any 2 members to be fully capable of transmitting all 3 forces and all 3 moments from one member to the other. This is usually achieved in practice by moment resistant connections, such as between a concrete beam and a concrete column which are monolithically cast. If you want the connection to be of the type which does not permit one or more forces/moments to be transmitted, use member releases. A shear connection is such an

example. The degrees of freedom FX through MZ that you release are based on the local axis of the member at whose end the release is specified. See section 5.22.1 and the figures in Section 1.19 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference manual for additional information.

Can you please explain the concept behind member offsets?


When creating a model consisting of beams and columns, generally, the START or END face of the member is assumed to be located at the nodal point. In other words, the distance from the respective node to the start or end face of the member is treated as zero. Thus, for example, if member 47 is defined as being connected between nodes 12 and 13, then, the start face of the member is located at node 12, and the end face at node 13.

This assumption may not always reflect the true physical condition on the structure. For example, when a beam meets a column, the common node between the beam and column is usually defined as being at the shear center (centerline for symmetrically shaped) of the column.

But, physically, the start face of the beam is not at that node, but at half the column depth away from the node. One may choose to ignore this "shift" if the column depth is negligible in comparison to the span of the beam. However, if one wishes to take advantage of the high stiffness that the half-depth region of the column offers, he/she may consider this using the member offset command. The member offset is a way of declaring that the region, whose length is defined by the offset, is a rigid zone. Hence, if the offset values in X, Y and Z coordinates are a, b and c, the length of that region is d=sqrt(a*a + b*b + c*c). The face of the member is then assumed to be "d" away from the node.

The member end forces that STAAD reports are at the face of the member, not at the node, when an offset is specified. If the offset is applied at the base of a column, then the member end force may not be equal in magnitude to the corresponding support reaction terms. If one is interested in checking static equilibrium based on the free body diagram at that support, the member end forces must be transferred from the member face to the support node taking into consideration the rigid link defined by the offset.

Shouldn't there be a way to set the MEMBER TENSION attribute once for the model and have the program always look back on that line for the list of members which have been assigned this property? Obviously, the same goes for MEMBER TRUSS.

In fact, that is exactly what STAAD is designed to do already. There is no need to keep respecifying the MEMBER TENSION command, unless you want to specify a different list of such members. So, specify it once for the first analysis, and you don't have to specify it again. Same goes for the MEMBER TRUSS command.

The STAAD graphical interface is showing a steel column in my model in an incorrect orientation. I have checked my input file (and also by double clicking on the actual member) and all of my columns consistently start at the lower node and go in the +y direction, all have a beta of 0, and all have the same member property. I have the exact same data for this graphicallyincorrect column as the one below it that shows up the correct orientation. Yet another column shows a slightly skewed column orientation as if I had assigned it something other than 0 or 90 degrees, and I know for a fact that I haven't done this.
a - Is the graphical interface a reliable representation of my input? b - If yes, can you think of some other possible sources of this particular error? If you look at the coordinates of the columns which appear to be oriented in the wrong way, chances are that you will find the Z coordinate of the 2 ends to be different by a very minute value, such as 0.001. For example, one end may have a Z value of 5.999 while the other end may be at 6.000. If so, you could do the following to correct it. Select the Geometry-Beam page along the left side of the screen, and it will display the node coordinates in the tables on

the right hand side. In those tables, make the necessary correction so both ends of the column have the same Z coordinate. The potential cause of this difference in coordinates is the following. The program has something called a Base Unit system. You can find this by starting the program, and before opening any file, go to the File menu, select Configure, and see if it says "English" or "Metric". If the model you are going to create is in Metres and KNs, you ought to have the base units in Metric. If the model you are going to create is in Feet and Kips, you ought to have the base units in English. Mixing unit systems causes the program to perform internal unit conversions which can result in loss of digits because the built-in conversion factors have only upto 8 digits of accuracy. In fututure versions of STAAD, there will be a feature which will enable you to select the "offending" column and make the Z coordinate of its 2 ends to be equal so it becomes truly vertical.

I have a beam member for which I have assigned a single angle from the American steel table. When I look at the member properties output for that member, the values that STAAD reports for moments of inertia Iz and Iy do not match the values I see in the AISC steel publication for that angle section.
The numbers reported in the STAAD output for Iz and Iy are the moments of inertia about the principal axes of the single angle. The values in the AISC publication that you are comparing them with are most probably the values about the geometric axes. That is very likely the cause of the mis-match.

I understand that one should use the REPEAT LOAD command and not the LOAD COMBINATION command when analysing a model for cases where the MEMBER TENSION or MEMBER COMPRESSION command has been used. Talking about load combinations, in Section 5.35 of the STAAD Technical Reference Manual, notes Item (2) mentions that the LOAD COMBINATION command is inappropriate for a PDELTA analysis, and that one should use REPEAT LOADs instead. This appears to be true for NONLINEAR analysis also. Why?
Before we can explain why, we first need to understand a few facts about loads in STAAD. There are two types of load cases in STAAD : Primary load cases, and Combination load cases.

Primary load cases A primary load case is one where the load data is directly specified by the user in the form of member loads, joint loads, temperature loads, element pressure loads, etc. It is characterized by the fact that the data generally follow a title which has the syntax LOAD n where "n" is the load case number. For example,

LOAD 3 MEMBER LOAD 2 UNI GY -3.4 JOINT LOAD 10 FX 12.5

LOAD 4 ELEMENT LOAD 23 PR GY -1.2

LOAD 5 TEMPERATURE LOAD 15 17 TEMP 40.0 -25.0 Combination load case Here, the user does not directly specify the load data, but instead asks the program to add up the results of the component cases - which are defined prior to the combination case after factoring them by the user specified factors. It is characterized by the title which has the syntax LOAD COMBINATION n where "n" is the case number of the combination load case. LOAD COMBINATION 40

3 1.2 4 1.6 5 1.3 What is a REPEAT LOAD type, and Which category does is belong to? A Repeat Load type is a Primary load case. That is because, when the program runs into this command, it physically creates the load data for this case by assembling together the load information from all the component load cases (after factoring them by the respective load factors) which the user wants to "REPEAT". Thus, when you specify LOAD 10 REPEAT LOAD 4 1.4 5 1.7 STAAD creates a physical load case called 10 whose contents will include all of the data of load case 4 factored by 1.4, and all of the data of load case 5 factored by 1.7. If we use the same data used in the definition of the primary load case above, STAAD internally converts the REPEAT LOAD case 10 to the following : LOAD 10 ELEMENT LOAD 23 PR GY -1.68 TEMPERATURE LOAD 15 17 TEMP 68.0 -42.5 What is the difference between a REPEAT LOAD case and LOAD COMBINATION? The difference lies in the way STAAD goes about calculating the results - joint displacements, member forces and support reactions. For a load combination case, STAAD simply ALGEBRAICALLY COMBINES THE RESULTS of the component cases after factoring them. In the example shown above, it

gathers the results of load case 3, factors them by 1.2, gathers the results of load case 4, factors them by 1.6, gathers the results of load case 5, factors them by 1.3, and adds them all together. In other words, in order to obtain the results of load 10, it has no need to know what exactly is it that constitues load cases 3, 4 and 5. It just needs to know what the results of those cases are. Thus, the structure is NOT actually analysed for a combination load case. With a REPEAT LOAD case however, the procedure followed is that which occurs for any other primary load case. A load vector {P} is first created, and later, that load vector gets pre-multiplied by the inverted stiffness matrix. [Kinv] {P} to obtain the joint displacements. Those displacements are then used to calculate the member forces and support reactions. Thus, the structure IS analysed for that load case {P}.

Why should the difference in the way STAAD treats a REPEAT LOAD case vs. a COMBINATION LOAD case matter? Normally, if you are doing a linear static analysis - which is what a PERFORM ANALYSIS command does - it should make no difference whether you specify REPEAT or COMBINATION. However, if you are doing a PDELTA analysis, or a NONLINEAR analysis, or cases involving MEMBER TENSION and MEMBER COMPRESSION, etc., it matters. That is because, in those situations, the results of those individual cases acting simultaneously IS NOT the same as the summation of the results of those individual cases acting alone. In other words, (Results of Load A) + (Results of Load B) is not equal to (Results of Load (A+B)) Take the case of a PDelta analysis. The P-Delta effect comes about from the interaction of the vertical load and the horizontal load. If they do not act simultaneously, there is no P-Delta effect. And the only way to make them act simultaneously is to get the program to compute

the displacement with both loads being present in a single load case. A REPEAT LOAD case achieves that. A COMBINATION load case does not.

Is there a way to obtain the average stress at a node where several plate elements meet?
Presently, STAAD only reports the nodal stresses of the individual elements meeting at the node. In the Plate page of the post-processing mode, the lower table on the right hand side of the screen contains the element nodal stresses. However, the average value from all such plates connected to the node is not reported.

Averaging is straightforward at joints that are only connected to one plane of plate elements and the loading is a normal pressure. However transverse shear will jump at a line if a line load is applied; so a single average would be inappropriate for that stress only. Similarly for stresses across a line of beams or walls or a line of bending moments; etc.

If two walls and a floor meet at a joint there are 3 planes that should be treated separately. Also averaging should be separate for the same surface on either side of a wall to account for the stress discontinuity. At the common joint there would be 12 sets of stresses (4 plates on each of 3 surfaces).

So averaging can be interrupted due to certain loadings, plates in other planes, and other members.

Further complexity occurs for contours and corner stresses if a shallow curved surface is being averaged. Most likely the inplane stresses should be averaged separately from the bending stresses, without coordinate transformations, since the flat plate faceted surfaces are trying to simulate a smooth surface.

The above considerations are not easily automated. REI hopes to implement at least some simple cases in a near future release.

In the plate element stress results, what do the terms TRESCAT and TRESTAB stand for? How are they calculated?
TRESCA is 2.0 times TMAX. TMAX is the maximum inplane shear stress on a plate element. TMAX = 0.5 * max[abs((s1 - s2)) , abs((s2 - s3)) , abs((s3 - s1))] where s1 and s2 are the inplane principal stresses and the 3rd principal stress, s3, is zero at the surface. TRESCAT is the value for the top surface of the element. TRESCAB is on the bottom. Top and bottom are in accordance with the direction of the local Z axis. See the link

http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1549

for more information on the meaning of TOP and BOTTOM surfaces for plates.

Example problem 18 in the examples manual shows the calculation of TMAX

I am modelling a concrete slab using plate elements. I am looking for the moments in the slab at the center of each element. I noticed that the output gives the bending moments per unit width. What is the per unit width? Would that be the thickness of the plate element?
For Mx, the unit width is a unit distance at the center of the element, parallel to the local Y axis.

For My, the unit width is a unit distance at the center of the element, parallel to the local X axis.

Attached is a diagram to clarify this. It is taken from section 1.6.1 of the Technical Reference manual.

I have modeled a 40" x 40" column base plate with (4) 12" dia. pipe columns on it (equally spaced in both directions). How do I tell STAAD that the base plate will be on a concrete pedestal (f'c = 4.0 ksi)? My first guess is to assign supports at the mesh intersections:
SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 4 Any suggestions? Your guess is a good one. You can model the support as an elastic mat foundation. To do that, you first need to know the subgrade modulus of concrete. One of the methods by which the modulus can be computed is using the following equation:

Ks = Es / B ( 1 - PoissonRation * PoissonRatio )

( Reference: Foundation Analysis and Design ( Fifth Edition ) by Joseph E. Bowels Page 503 , Equation 9-6a )

In addition, if you want to make sure the concrete pedestal takes only compressive force, then specify the SPRING COMPRESSION command for those joints in the direction KFY.

An example of this is

SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT YONLY SUBGRADE 987

SPRING COMPRESSION 1 TO 529 KFY

If you have any anchor bolts attached to the baseplate, they can be modeled as spring supports (tension only).

An example of this is

SUPPORTS 1000 TO 1004 FIXED BUT MX MY MZ KFY 5467

SPRING TENSION 1000 TO 1004 KFY

How do you assign properties to solids?


You do not have to assign any properties for solid elements. For solids, the only information required is their geometry (node numbers and their coordinates), and material constants (E, Poisson, etc.). You may refer to example problem 24 in the examples manual if you want details.

I would like to change the direction of the local Z axis of an element so that it points in the opposite direction. How do I do it?
From the Select menu at the top, select the Plates Cursor. Then select the element for which you want the Z axis direction changed. From the Commands menu, select Geometric Constants followed by Plate Reference Point and give the coordinates of this point. Choose the Local Axis direction to point towards or away from the Reference Point. The Assign option should be set to "To Selection". Click on OK.

Is it possible to apply a concentrated force on the surface of an element? The point where the load acts is not one of the nodes of the element, as a result of which I cannot use the JOINT LOAD option.
Yes, it is possible to do this. In Section 5.32.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual, if you look at the syntax of the element pressure loading, you will find the following :

element-list PRESSURE direction x1 y1 x2 y2

In this syntax, (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) represent the corners of the region (on the element) over which the PRESSURE load is applied. However, if you omit the terms (x2,y2), the load will be treated as a concentrated force acting at the point (x1,y1), where x1 and y1 are measured as distances, from the centroid of the element, along the local X and Y axes, of the point of action of the load.

Thus, if you want to apply a 580 pound force along the negative global Z direction at a distance away from the centroid of (1.3,2.5)feet along the local X & Y axes of element 73, you can specify the following commands

UNIT POUND FEET LOAD 1 CONCENTRATED LOAD ON WALL ELEMENT LOAD 73 PR GZ -580.0 1.3 2.5

How can I find the maximum shear stress on my plate element model?
Since there are several types of shear stress results we can get from STAAD, the expression "maximum shear stress" needs to be clarified. So, let us first see what the choices are :

SXY - For any given element, this is the in-plane shear stress on the element and acts along the plate local X-Y axes directions.

TMAX - This is the maximum inplane shear stress on the element and is a composite of SXY and the stress resulting from torsion MXY.

SQX - This is the out-of-plane shear stress on the X face at the centroid of the element.

SQY - This is the out-of-plane shear stress on the Y face at the centroid of the element.

All of these results can be obtained in a report form, with additional options like sorting done in ascending or descending order for a user-defined set of elements and a user-defined set of load cases. As an example, do the following for getting a report of TMAX sorted in the order from maximum to minimum for all plates for load cases 4 and 5.

Go to the post-processing mode. Select all plates. From the Report menu, select Plate Results - Principal stresses. Select TMAX, and set the sorting order from High to Low. Switch on "Absolute values" also to perform sorting based on Absolute values. Click on the Loading tab, and select just cases 4 and 5. Click on OK. A report will be displayed. Click the right mouse button inside the table, and select Print.

The plate element results contain a term called TMAX. Is TMAX the best representation of the total stresses resulting from the torsion on the element?
Among the various stresses resulting from the torsional moment MXY, the only stress which is considered in TMAX is the shear stress. There are other stresses such as warping normal stresses which do not get represented in TMAX.

TMAX is the maximum inplane shear stress on an element for a given load case. It represents inplane shear stresses only. It contains contributions from the direct inplane shear stress SXY as well as the shear stress caused by the torsional moment MXY. Example 18 in

the examples manual shows the derivation of TMAX from SXY and MXY.

While on the subject of shear stresses, one must note that the plate is also subjected to outof-plane shear stresses SQX and SQY, which do not have any representation in TMAX.

In the post processing mode - Results menu - Plate Stress Contour, there are two options called Max Top and Max Bottom. Are these direct stresses or flexural stresses?
These are the principal stresses SMAX and SMIN. Principal stresses are a blend of axial stresses (also known as membrane stresses SX and SY), bending stresses (caused by MX and MY) and inplane shear stresses (SXY). Since the bending stresses have distinct signs for the top and bottom surfaces of the element, the principal stresses too are distinct for top and bottom. The derivation for principal stresses is shown in example 18 of the STAAD Examples manual.

Can STAAD be used in designing a mat foundation?


The answer to the question is Yes. The following are the major steps involved in the modelling and design of mat foundations using STAAD.

1) The mat foundation has to be modelled using finite elements. If the length and width of the mat are atleast 10 times larger than its thickness, plate elements can be used. If not, one may use 8 noded solid elements. The remainder of the structure involving the beams, columns and slabs also has to be modelled along with the mat. If beams share a common boundary with the mat and slabs, to ensure the proper transfer of load between the beams and the mat & slabs, the mat & slabs have to be divided into several elements, the beams have to be divided into several members, and the elements and members must share common nodes.

2) Generally, the supports for the mat are derived from the subgrade reaction of the soil. Using this attribute, and the influence area of each node of the mat, the spring constant for the supports may be derived. STAAD contains an automatic spring support generation facility for mat foundations. One may refer to Section 5.27.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual for details on this type of support generation.

3) Soil spring supports generally tend to be effective against resisting compressive forces only. They are ineffective in resisting uplift. This type of a unidirectional support requires those springs to be assigned an attribute call SPRING COMPRESSION.

4) The loads on the mat and the rest of the model have to be specified. Then, the structure has to be analysed. This will generate the plate stresses and corner forces needed to design the mat.

5) You can then use the program's concrete design ability to design the individual elements which make up the mat. The only tedious aspect of this is that the program can presently design individual elements only. The task of taking the reinforcement values from each element and assembling the reinforcement picture of the overall mat has to be done by you manually. You may wish to look the information posted at the following links for details on the issues involved in designing individual elements.

http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1549

http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1791

http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1792

We suggest you take a look at example problem number 27 in the STAAD.Pro examples manual for guidance on analysing mat foundations. In that example, the aspects explained in steps 1,2, 3 and 4 above are illustrated. Example problems 9 and 10 discuss concrete design of individual plate elements.

When modelling plate elements, should the individual elements satisfy any minimum requirements for the ratio of the length of their side to their thickness?
No, they do not have to. However, for the overall slab or wall, if the span in either direction is less than 10 times its thickness, then the slab or wall becomes more like a solid than like a plate; and thick plate theory may not be adequate. In that case, 8-noded solid elements may be necessary.

I have a model where supports are defined at the nodes of some of the plate elements in the structure. If I divide the support reaction values by the thickness, length etc., of the side of the elements adjacent to the support, shouldn't the values match the ELEMENT NODAL STRESSES? I am aware of the fact that element stresses are in the local axis system of the element, and support reactions are in the global axis system, and am making the required transformations before making the comparison.
The element nodal stresses are obtained as the value of the stress polynomial at the coordinates of those joints. Stresses in an element are most accurately determined only at the center of the element (in the middle of the joint displacement locations used in calculating that stress). The stress values calculated at the nodes will only be approximate (only the displacements of the joints from this one element are used in calculating the stress).

Stresses at a joint would be improved if the stresses from the other elements at the joint (on the same surface) were averaged. Consequently, the comparison you suggest is not feasible.

A better alternative would be to compare the forces at the node rather than the stresses at the node. However, to do so, you will require version 2001 of STAAD.Pro.

In STAAD.Pro 2001, the output for the command

PRINT ELEMENT FORCES

consists of the 3 forces and 3 moments at each of the nodes of the elements, reported in the global axis system. Thus, the output will consist of FX,FY,FZ,MX,MY,MZ with the 3 forces having units of force (not stress) and the 3 moments have units of moment (not moment per unit width). If you add up the values at the nodes of those elements which are connected to the support, those values must be equal to the support reaction.

Another consideration is the way in which element loads are evaluated and used. Staad computes the equivalent forces at the corner joints (same total force, center of force, and direction). The remainder of the analysis and results are as if you had applied the loads as joint loads rather than as element loads. Two exceptions, temperature loads are applied internally to the element and plate releases will affect the load distribution to the joints.

Say you have a wall with uniform pressure. Half of the load on the elements along the base will be applied directly to the base, the other half is applied to the line of joints at the top of these elements. So the internal transverse shears are too high at the top of the element. The transverse shears are OK at the center and too small at the base. The same will be true for the element force output of transverse forces. However, the reactions will have the entire force. A finer mesh in general, and near the base in particular, will improve the element stress and load distribution.

How do I display the deflection diagram and the displacement values on that diagram?
The first step to viewing these results is to perform the analysis of the model successfully. Select Analyze from the Staad.Pro top menu bar followed by the Analysis option. A dialog box by the name Select Analysis Engine will appear. Click on the Run Analysis button of this dialog box. After the analysis of the file is completed, click on the Done button. The next step is to go to the Post Processing mode to view the deflection values graphically. To enter into the Post Processing mode, select Mode from the top menu bar and select Post Processing. Remember that if your analysis is not successfully completed (for reasons such as errors in your input data), you will not be able to access the Post Processing mode. By default, the deflection diagram always opens up in the post processing screen of Staad.Pro. From the top menu bar, choose Results - View value. Under Ranges, choose All. (The All button means the deflection diagram will be annotated for all nodes.) Under the Node tab, you will see the options Global X, Global Y, Global Z and Resultant. Make the appropriate choice. Click on the Annotate button. Then click on the close button. If you would like to see the diagram annotated for a different load case, select that load case from the load selection box.

After running the analysis, I go to the View menu, select Tables | Node Displacements, and select the load cases for which I want to see the values. The values are displayed in inch units. I want them in "cms" units.

Changing the units using Tools | Set Current Unit doesn't seem to make a difference.
The unit system in which results are displayed on the tables is set using the facilities available under the View - Options menu. These are known as the display units. To set the display units for the node displacements, please do the following : In the View menu, select Options - Structure units. In the category called Displacement, select the units you desire and click on OK.

I want to print out a picture which consists of a truss I have modeled with the STAAD. I want the output forces labeled right on each member. This is very similar to what would be put on to a plan sheet. Can STAAD do this or must I print out a report to get these forces?
First, you have to ask STAAD to Annotate the drawing with the axial forces. For this, please go to the post processing mode after you have analyzed the structure. Click on the "Beam" tab on the left side and then click on the sub-tab labeled "Forces." Click the right mouse button on the screen and select "Structure Diagrams." From the "Loads and Results" tab, click on "Axial" under the "Beam Forces" heading. Uncheck the "bending zz" box and click "Apply" followed by "OK." Maximize the screen and then go to the "Results" pull down menu and select "View Value..."

Click on the "Beam Results" tab and then check the box under the "Axial" heading labeled "Ends." Click "Annotate" and then "Close." The axial loading values should be displayed on your screen.

When I annotate beam moments on my diagrams, I can't seem to 1) change the font by adjusting the Beam Labels option and 2) turn off the unit being written on every single number.
Annotation labels, although applied to beams, nodes, plates and solids, are not altered by the associated options (i.e View | Options | Beam Labels). In order to change the display of the annotations, go to View | Options from the main menu and choose the Annotation tab. To remove the display of the units for each annotation, simply choose the option "123.4" instead of "123.4 kN" under the Style list box in the Annotation tab. This will write the unit in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen for force, length and moment. If the units are not shown, go to View | Structure Diagrams and choose the Labels tab. Check on the option "Show Diagram Info" under the General box.

Why are my annotations for maximum bending moment or shear values not showing up in the post-processing mode?
In order to see the annotation (from Results->View Value in the post-processing mode) for a particular force or moment, the corresponding diagram must be on. For example, if one was to select maximum bending under the Beam Results tab, the bending moment diagram must be on (either MX, MY and/or MZ). Also, under the Ranges tab, make sure that the "None" option is not selected. Obviously, this would not annotate anything if it were selected. As a

final note, once the annotations are visible, the size and font can be changed from the Annotation tab under View->Options in the main menu.

If I have a moment vector along the local positive Z axis does it have a twisting action going to the right along the positive direction of the axis?
If a member is drawn with its longitudinal axis (local-X) from left to right, and the local Z axis coming out of the page towards you, a positive MZ would cause tension on the top fiber, and a negative MZ would cause tension on the bottom fiber.

What are the sign conventions for moments in a 3-D structure?


The sign conventions are as follows: Axial (FX) : Positive = Along local X axis, Negative = Opposite to local X axis Shear-Y (FY) : Positive = Along local Y axis, Negative = Opposite to local Y axis Shear-Z (FZ) : Positive = Along local Z axis, Negative = Opposite to local Z axis Torsion (MX) : Positive = Along local X axis, Negative = Opposite to local X axis Moment-Y (MY) : Positive = Along local Y axis, Negative = Opposite to local Y axis Moment-Z (MZ) : Positive = Along local Z axis, Negative = Opposite to local Z axis For axial forces,

Positive at the start node indicates compression at the start node. Positive at the end node indicates tension at the end node. Negative at the start node indicates tension at the start node. Negative at the end node indicates compression at the end node.

After performing the analysis, I enter the post-processing mode to view the member end force values. I click on the Beam page on the left side of the screen and see the values listed on the tables on the right hand side. Unfortunately, the moment values are in kip-inch units, even though my current units are set to feet and pounds. What do I have to do to get the values to show up in pound-feet units in the tables?
The unit system in which results are displayed on the tables is set using the facilities available under the View - Options menu. These are known as the display units. To set the display units for the bending moments and torsional moments, please do the following : In the View menu, select Options - Force units. In the category called Moment, select the units you desire and click on OK.

What is the purpose of the Beam - Graphs page on the left side of the screen?
This is another way to display the bending, shear and axial force diagrams on the screen. In the post processing mode, select the Beam page from the left side of the screen. Then select graphs.

The right side portion of the screen will display the Bending diagram (MZ), shear diagram (FY) and the axial force diagram (FX) with values. In the drawing area, if you select a member by clicking on it, MZ, FY and FX of that member will be displayed on the right hand side. To display the diagrams of another member, select that member.

How do I display the bending moment diagram and the values on that diagram, or shear forces or axial forces?
First you must Analyze the file. Select Analyze from the Staad.Pro top menu bar. Select the Analysis option. After this, click on Run Analysis at the bottom of the small window dialog box. After the analysis of the file is completed, click on the Done button. Next, we go to the Post Processing mode to view the forces and results graphically. To enter into the Post Processing mode, select Mode from the top menu bar and select Post Processing. Remember that if your analysis is not complete, you will not be able to access the Post Processing mode. By default, the deflection diagram always opens up in the post processing screen of Staad.Pro. To view the Bending Moment Diagrams, select the Beam page from the left side. From the top menu bar, choose Results - View value. Under Ranges, choose All. (The All button means the Bending moment diagram will be displayed for all members.) Under the Beam Results tab, you will see the options Bending, Shear, Axial, Displacement and Stresses. Make the appropriate choice. Click on the Annotate button. Then click on the close button.

How does Staad "direct" a spring to determine if it is in compression or tension?


For the purpose of defining the sense of the force in the SPRING TENSION/SPRING COMPRESSION facility, the following rules are adopted in STAAD : A support reaction force is considered TENSILE if it is opposite to the positive direction of the axis under consideration. Another way of putting it is that, for this condition, the displacement along that axis of the support node is in the same direction as the positive direction of that axis. A support reaction force is considered COMPRESSIVE if it is along the positive direction of the axis under consideration. Another way of putting it is that, for this condition, the displacement along that axis of the support node is in the direction opposite to the positive direction of that axis. These rules are applicable for global axis supports, as well as inclined axis supports. Hence, use the center of the circular pipe as the REFERENCE POINT for the INCLINED supports. The local X axis for the inclined supports will then point from the perimeter towards the center of the circle. The supports around the circumference can then be assigned COMPRESSION only springs. .

What is the difference between a LOAD COMBINATION and a REPEAT LOAD?


The difference lies in the way STAAD goes about calculating the results - joint displacements, member forces and support reactions. For a load combination case, STAAD simply ALGEBRAICALLY COMBINES THE RESULTS of the component cases after factoring them. In other words, for example, in order to obtain the results of load 10, it has no need to know what exactly constitutes load cases 3, 4 and 5. It just needs to know what the results of those cases are. Thus, the structure is NOT actually analysed for a combination load case. With a REPEAT LOAD case however, the procedure followed is that which occurs

for any other primary load case. A load vector {P} is first created, and later, that load vector gets pre-multiplied by the inverted stiffness matrix.

In a structure which has wall panels in addition to other things, is it possible to temporarily disable some of the outer panels and analyse just the rest of the structure consisting of interior beams, columns, and slabs?
STAAD has an INACTIVE MEMBER command. This command can be used with beam/columns as well as plate elements. The members and elements subjected to this condition will have their stiffness, as well as any applied loading on them, ignored. This means, only the remainder of the structure will be treated as being active. So, what you can do is use the INACTIVE MEMBER command in conjunction with CHANGE to create a multiple analysis model. In this manner, a single STAAD input file can represent various stages of construction of the structure. Take a look at example 4 in the Examples manual. Although that example illustrates the procedure using just beams, the same can be used with plates included in the structure.

What's the difference between ELASTIC MAT and PLATE MAT for spring support generation?
With the ELASTIC MAT you enter a list of joints from which STAAD will attempt to form a perimeter which encloses an overall area. This is done with a convex hull algorithm. Lastly, areas are assigned to each joint. If the convex hull rules are met, the algorithm works well. However for mats with irregular edges or holes, the algorithm may not do what the user expects and one may end up with springs with unreasonable spring constant values.

Since many mat foundation problems have plates defining the entire mat, we have added the PLATE MAT option where you enter a list of plates that entirely define the mat. Roughly 1/4th of the area of each plate is assigned to each joint in the plate in the same manner as uniform pressure or self weight is distributed. So if you have the foundation support entirely defined by plates, then use the PLATE MAT option. Otherwise use the ELASTIC MAT option. With this option please observe the rules listed in the Tech Ref Manual. Avoid convex angles. You may have to subdivide the region into several sub-regions with several ELASTIC MAT commands. Add "PRINT" to the end of the command to see the areas assigned to each joint where a support is generated.

The output from my STAAD run contains the warning message :


THIS STRUCTURE IS DISJOINTED. IGNORE IF MASTER/SLAVE OR IF UNCONNECTED JOINTS. Is STAAD telling me that my structure is in several pieces? This is referred to in STAAD as Multiple structures. The outline below explains the process for identifying the disparate components and merging them so they form a single structure. One of the consequences of having multiple structures, namely, structural instabilities, is also discussed.

Warning message in output file: "This structure is disjointed", accompanied by several instability warnings.
The error message, "this structure is disjointed..." is caused by multiple structures in the model. Multiple structures exist when one portion of the model does not have any way of transferring forces to another portion. It is possible to create a model that visually appears to be a single structure, but upon closer inspection it is revealed that the model contains two or

more unconnected structures. Instability warnings may also appear in the output file, due to the fact that the structure appears to be properly supported when, in fact, it is not. What do we mean by member connectivity? What determines whether two members are connected so that one can transfer loading to another? Consider two lines that intersect in 3D space, with the starting point of one line lying on the longitudinal axis of the other line. The fact that the end of one member lies on the axis of another is not sufficient to ensure connectivity. Connectivity is insured only when intersecting members are divided into segments that meet at a single, common node. ("Common node" means a single node number. Two separate node numbers, both having the same X,Y,Z coordinates is called a duplicate node situation. You can test for duplicate nodes in the model by pulling down the Tools menu and selecting the Check Duplicate command, then select the Nodes command from the Check Duplicate sub-menu).

I am using STAAD.Pro 2002. When the STAAD Analysis and Design engine is running, you can't minimize the box that shows the activities in progress - it is always on top. I like to start the "run analysis" then go on to work on something else while it is running. It is not very convenient having the box on top of everything. How can i fix that?
If you click on the top left corner of that box, you will find an option called "Do not Stay on Top". Switch that on. You can then make that window recede behind other windows.

I need to specify a cable member. Can I give it the proper properties using user define tables?

The only property that a cable requires is the cross section area. So any property type which can enable the program to obtain the area would be acceptable. A few examples are : As a PRISmatic section with the diameter specified using the term YD : MEMBER PROPERTY 1 PRIS YD 1.0 or As a PRISmatic section with the Area specified using the term AX MEMBER PROPERTY 1 PRIS AX 0.35 or As a PIPE section with the outer and inner diameters specified using the terms OD & ID MEMBER PROPERTY 1 TA ST PIPE OD 1.1 ID 0.0 If you wish to specify it as a user defined section using a user table, that would be acceptable too.

My STAAD outout file contains the warning message :


**WARNING** THE POISSON'S RATIO HAS NOT BEEN SPECIFIED FOR ONE OR MORE MEMBERS/ELEMENTS/SOLIDS. THE DEFAULT VALUE HAS BEEN SET FOR THE SAME. What does this message mean?

The Poisson's ratio is one of the fundamental material properties required to perform the analysis of a structure. It is generally used to obtain the value of G (Modulus of Rigidity) using the relationship E=2G(1+Poisson) where E is the Young's modulus If you have failed to specify the Poisson's ratio, STAAD attempts to "guess" the value of that term based on the value defined for E. For example, if E is in the neighbourhood of 29000 ksi (steel), Poisson's will be chosen to be about 0.30. If E is in the neighbourhood of 3150 ksi (concrete), Poisson's will be chosen to be about 0.17. If you would like to see what value has been chosen by the program, you may specify the command PRINT MATERIAL PROPERTIES after all the CONSTANTs have been provided. The Poisson's ratio will be reported in the output file along with some of the other CONSTANTs. It is best to specify a value explicitly instead of having the program estimate a value on its own.

After I launch the analysis, the program completes some of the processes, and then comes up with the message :

*** STAADPro ERROR MESSAGE *** ** Read/write Error in Unit No. 17 ++ Calculating Joint Displacements. 16:24:21

What does this error mean, and what can I do to avoid it? This is very likely due to the fact that you have run out of disk space, particularly on the drive which is being used for the SET TEMP environment variable in NT and 2000 operating systems. Since this is usually the C: drive, you need to increase the free space available on the C drive, or whichever is being used for SET TEMP.

I need to analyze a frame whose members have been rotated about the local z axis. Is there anyway to model this situation using STAAD? Can you input a point and define the orientation of the local axis of that point? Or is there some other way to model this situation?
We presume you mean that the member is rotated about the local "X" axis and not the local "Z" axis. When you use STAAD's default coordinate system, the local "X" is the longitudinal axis of the member, and local Z is generally the major axis of the member. So, changing the orientation of a member involves rotation about the local "X" axis, and not the local "Y" or local "Z" axes. There are a couple of ways to change the orientation. a) By specifying an angle using the BETA command. This is explained in Sections 1.5.2, 1.5.3 and 5.26.2 of the Technical Reference Manual. You may also refer to example 1 of the Examples manual for a sample problem which shows the usage of the command. b) Using the REFERENCE POINT method. This too is explained in Sections 1.5.2, 1.5.3 and 5.26.2 of the Technical Reference Manual. In the STAAD.Pro GUI, you may click the right mouse button, select Labels, and switch on Beam Orientation to get a visual representation of the directions the local X and Y axes point to.

Graphically, you can specify the BETA angle from 2 places : If you go to the General - Property page on the left side of the screen, you will find the Properties dialog box on the right side and it contains a tab called Beta Angle through which the value can be specified. If you go to the Commands menu on top of the screen, choose Geometric Constants - Beta Angle. Graphically, you can specify the REFERENCE POINT by going to the Commands menu on top of the screen, and choosing Geometric Constants - Member Reference Point.

Is IX the St. Venant's Torsional Constant or is it the Polar Moment of Inertia?


IX is generally known just as the Torsion Constant. For a circular cross section, the torsion constant equals the Polar moment of inertia. For non-circular cross sections, it usually is less than the polar moment of inertia. If you have the AISC publication T114, you will see it referred to in that document using the expression J. If you have the textbook "Roark's Formulas for Stress & Strain, 6th edition, Warren C.Young, McGraw-Hill", you will find it being referred to using the expression K in section 9.2 of the book.

How does one get a report indicating whether the applied loads are in equilibrium with the support reactions?
There is an option which can be provided along with the PERFORM ANALYSIS command for getting this information. It is called PRINT STATICS CHECK. It is explained in Section 5.37 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual. The sample below shows how this is done. LOAD 3 LATERAL FORCES JOINT LOAD 4 6 8 10 FX 12.5

LOAD COMBINATION 10 1 1.2 2 1.4 3 0.9 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK PRINT ANALYSIS RESULTS UNIT NEWTON MMS START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE BRITISH FYLD 425 ALL FC 35 ALL DESIGN COLUMN 45 57 END CONCRETE DESIGN FINISH If you prefer to use the graphical method for specifying this option, this is how it can be done. In the Modelling mode, click on the Commands menu from the top of the screen. Select Analysis | Perform Analysis. A Perform Analysis dialog box will be displayed. Set the radio button on Print Statics Check. Click on OK. Save the file and run the analysis. Then view the output file. (This can be done from File | View | Output file | STAAD Output). If you scroll down to the region where the PERFORM ANALYSIS command is specified, the equilibroum report will be available after that command.

How can I check whether the story drift of the floors are within allowable limits?
If you have STAAD.Pro 2001 Build 1005 or Build 1006, you can specify a command called PRINT STORY DRIFT in your input file. Run the analysis. Then check your output file, The drift for each story will be reported. You will have to manually verify that this is within your allowable limits.

I have a structure with supports marked as elastic foundation. I am getting an error message "Error 0550" when I run the analysis. What could be the cause of this?
There are a few reasons why you will run into this error : 1) The ELASTIC MAT command is meant for generating support spring constants for the support nodes of plate elements. The feature does not work in the case where the support spring generation is requested at nodes which aren't connected to any plate. STAAD attempts to find the tributary area of each node for which the elastic mat command is specified. It determines this area on the basis of the "influence area" of the nodes. If those nodes are attached to a non-plate entity such as a beam, the corresponding nodes do not have an "influence area". 2) The plates might be inclined to the global horizontal plane (XZ). Presently, the feature works satisfactorily only if the plate is truly horizontal. An inclined plate or a vertical plate cannot presently be handled by this feature.

I want to use the Master/slave command to model a rigid diaphragm in STAAD.Pro 2001. The problem is two columns separated by 40 ft. One column goes from joints 1 to 2 and the second column goes from joints 3 to 4. I wish to have a rigid link between joint 2 and joint 4. The program gives an error of multiple structures. What additional connections do I have to do to tie these joints together?

You would need to split the columns into 2 members each. There is a limitation that a master joint cannot have supported directions or be connected to a member or element that is connected to a support; similarly, the slave joints may not have supported directions or be connected to a member or element that connects to a support.

I am going to incorporate into my model, rock anchors which will be installed down the center of the pipe piles. In case you are not familiar with these, they are a thread rod attached to the top of the pile, go down the center and are anchored into the rock and are used to take the uplift forces in the pier. I was planning on using the post tensioning command. Is this correct?
If the prestressing force is applied after the piles are driven into the soil and the pile cap is cast, the load type you may want to apply in analysing the model is the one involving the MEMBER PRESTRESS command. That is because, there is a small anomaly in STAAD in the definition of the terms PRESTRESS and POSTSTRESS. The way STAAD defines these terms and the way they are conventionally defined are opposite to each other. You will find an explanation of this anomaly in Section 1.16.5 of the STAAD.Pro Technical reference manual under items 4 and 5. If you want an example which demonstrates the usage of these commands, please refer to example problem 6 in the STAAD.Pro Examples manual.

When I try to analyse a model which contains the ELASTIC MAT command for generation of soil spring supports, I encounter an error message :

Error 0550* support joints are collinear. If you look under the "Notes" item of Section 5.27.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual, you will find that the program attempts to put together a closed surface from the joint-list that accompanies each ELASTIC MAT command. When you specify the commands in the following manner : SUPPORTS 1 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 2 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 3 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 4 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 5 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 6 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 7 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 8 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 9 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259 it fails to find a closed surface, because a single joint does not form a closed surface. Based on the type of model you have, you can replace those multiple ELASTIC MAT commands with a single command as follows : SUPPORTS 1 TO 625 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 259

Do you have any thumb rule/ formula for estimating the time required for solving a structure involving plates elements?
Run times depend on many factors. For static analysis without master/slave, the run time for large problems is dominated by the triangular factorization time.

Triangular Factor. Time = '[ (Fac) * (6 * no. of joints / 1000) * (bandwidth /100)**2 ] / 3600 in hours. The bandwidth is printed with problem statistics. Fac is a computer dependent factor. Use Fac = 0.20 if you have 1.5GHz with 1 GB memory and 9600 SCSI drives. Use Fac = 0.70 if you have 1.0GHz with 256 MB memory and 7200 drives. Use Fac = 1.50 if you have 0.5GHz with 128 MB memory and 5400 drives. As an example: 500Mhz, high bandwidth Triangular Factor. Time = '[ (1.50) * (6 * 23000 / 1000) * (9000 /100)**2 ] / 3600 = 466 hours = 19.4 days 1000MHz Faster computer, more supports, lower bandwidth: Triangular Factor. Time = '[ (0.70) * (6 * 22000 / 1000) * (5000 /100)**2 ] / 3600 = 64.1 hours = 2.67 days

I have to analyse a structure for temperature load. The temperature difference is 600 deg C. (from 0 deg C to 600 deg C). Which value of alpha I shall use, (i.e. alpha for 0 deg or alpha for 600 deg) for the analysis? Can I use an alpha value for the mean temperature?
The following answer was supplied by Ray : Since STAAD is linear for material behavior, an alpha that results in the desired strain and displacement would be best. You can enter any positive value for alpha. The units of the alpha value must be the same as the temperature change units since STAAD does not explicitly enter temperature units.

Can I carryout a machine foundation analysis using STAAD PRO (Embedded Block foundation and Pile foundation)?
The answer is Yes. The piles have to be modelled as columns. If the machinery sits on a slab, that will be modelled using plate elements. The supports for the model are going to be the resistance (based on subgrade modulus) offered by the soil, which may be modelled as springs. The dynamic loads due to the machinery will be modelled as forcing function loading, either as discrete time-force pairs as shown in example 16, or as a sinusoidal loading as shown in example 22.

Attached is a portion of my STAAD output file which contains an error messsage as shown :
30. LOAD 1 (1.4DL + 1.7LL) 31. SELF Y -1.4 32. MEMB LOAD 33. 11 TO 16 UNI Y -2.8 34. 11 TO 16 UNI Y -5.1 35. START CONCRETE DESIGN

**WARNING - UNEXPECTED COMMAND IN LOAD DATA CHECK SPELLING AND ORDER OF DATA IN CASE NO. 1 COMMAND= START CONCRETE DESIGN CHECK RESULTS CAREFULLY, LOADS MAY HAVE BEEN LOST ***STAAD.Pro WARNING*** ANALYSIS NOT PERFORMED - SO ABOVE COMMAND CAN NOT BE PROCESSED. *********** END OF THE STAAD.Pro RUN *********** Can you explain what it means?

You are following up your load instructions with a concrete design statement. (Notice that after 11 TO 16 UNI Y -5.1, you are specifying START CONCRETE DESIGN). There is no instruction for performing the analysis. A concrete design cannot be done until after the analysis has been performed. So, you need to specify the command PERFORM ANALYSIS in between those 2 lines, as in,

11 TO 16 UNI Y -5.1 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK START CONCRETE DESIGN

What is the procedure used by STAAD.Pro in computing the stiffness matrix of a tapered beam?
1. Define the static deflection curves of a beam due to unit displacement at each of its 12 degrees of freedom while maintaining the displacements at the remaining 11 degrees of freedom as 0. These curves are usually referred to as shape functions. 2. Using the principle of virtual work, calculate each term of the stiffness matrix. This is an integral involving E (modulus of elasticity), I (moment of inertia for the applicable axis), and the product of the second derivative of the two shape functions which are relevant to the specific stiffness matrix term being generated. The integration is performed over the full length of the member.

Simpson's method is used in performing the integration. STAAD uses 100 integration points over the member length. The moment of inertia is calculated at the start and end of each integration point.

While using the "Master Slave" command to define a rigid diaphragm in a framed multi-storeyed structure, what criteria should one adopt to determine the "Master node"?
For an ordinary static analysis, any of the joints in a master/slave system can be the master joint. A second point to understand about the Staad.Pro 2001 input is that the command

SLAVE ZX MASTER j JOINT joint-spec

should be used for ordinary floor rigid diaphragms (assuming they are parallel to the ZX axes). This command sets the ZX plane to behave rigidly for inplane actions; while out-ofplane shear and bending will behave flexibly. The command

SLAVE RIGID MASTER j JOINT joint-spec

should be used if the master/slave connections behave rigidly in all directions and rotations. For a natural frequency calculation and dynamic analysis, the master joint should be the joint nearest to the c.g. of the masses associated with the master/slave joints. If the c.g. is well off the structure as in an L shaped structure with narrow wings, you may want to add a joint at the c.g. just for the purpose of being the master; [remember to connect that joint to another joint with a dummy (low E value) member if it is not already connected].

I am analyzing a simply supported beam, which is 20 feet long. There is a concentrated force acting at the mid-span point of the beam. In one case, I model it as a single member and apply the load at midspan using the member load option. In another case, I model it as 2 separate members, each 10 ft long, and apply the load at the central node using the JOINT LOAD option. The member cross section is a W12X26 from the American steel table. When I look at the deflection at the 10 ft point, using the PRINT SECTION DISPLACEMENT command for case (a) and the PRINT JOINT DISPLACEMENT command for case (b), the values do not match. Why?
The difference is due to shear deformation. When STAAD computes the displacement at a node using the stiffness method, the bending stiffness coefficients in the stiffness matrix include the contribution from 1. flexural deformation 2. shear distortion if the shear areas are part of the user specified member property input.

As a result, the joint displacements consist of the pure bending component plus the shear deformation component.

When you ask for intermediate section displacements along a member span, STAAD calculates these using the moment area method from * the joint translation and rotation (which includes the shear deformation component as explained above) * flexural deformation of the member (the shear deformation component is not considered here)

In other words, in the implementation of the moment area method, only the term (a) contains shear deformation where as term (b) does not. This is an error in the program, albeit a small one. If shear deformation is eliminated from all of the above calculations, this discrepancy will be removed. Shear deformation is part of the above calculations only when the shear areas AY and AZ are non-zero values. When member properties are specified using methods such as defining sections from the built-in steel tables, or by specifying them as PRISMATIC sections with a DEPTH and WIDTH value, STAAD internally calculates the shear area before proceeding with the stiffness matrix assembly. The user may nullify the effect of shear deformation by doing one of the following : * Provide the properties using the PRISMATIC attribute, and specify just AX, IX, IY and IZ, as in,

1 PRI AX 21 IX 35.4 IY 45.3 IZ 85.75

In this case, since AY and AZ are not specified, shear deformation will not be calculated. * Provide a very large value for the shear areas AY and AZ, thereby minimizing the shear deformation, as in

1 PRI AX 21 IX 35.4 IY 45.3 IZ 85.75 AY 1E10 AZ 1E10

In this case, the large shear area will result in negligible shear deformation.

Can I design a stringer using STAAD.Pro?


To answer your question, we would like to offer some insight into how the capabilities of a structural engineering software are related to the type of sections you wish to analyze and design. Typically, almost all structural engineering programs have 2 parts to them :

* Analysis - Computing forces and moments in beams, columns, plates, etc., nodal displacements, support reactions. * Design - Checking the adequacy of a section for a beam or column to carry the forces induced into that member from the applied loads on the structure.

For analysis, these programs do not care about the shape of the cross section. Regardless of what the shape is, the programs simply look for 4 pieces of information : Area, Moments of Inertia about the 2 principal axes, Torsional Constant. If shear deformation calculation is desired, the shear areas should be provided too. However, to help you avoid the chore of specifying these 4-6 values, these programs also allow you to specify the section as one of the standard shapes built into the program, and then internally calculate these 4 quantities using the property calculation rules for that shape. So, if the shape you wish to have analyzed is one such standard shape, you can simply define it in that way, as for example, the flange width, flange thickness, web depth and web thickness for an I shape.

However, if the shape of your section does not conform to one of the built-in shapes that the program supports, you will have to type in these 4-6 property values using a property type usually called PRISMATIC. For design however, shape does matter. That is because, all design codes are written to allow design of only certain specific shapes, due to the fact that buckling of elements of the cross section plays a major role in determining the capacity of the section. Usually, these shapes are limited to I shapes, T shapes, Channels, Angles, Double angles, Z shapes, Rectangular tube shapes, Circular pipe shapes, etc. So, the answer to your question is :

Analysis - Yes. Design - Depends on the shape of the section, and the code according to which it should be designed.

In the member end forces output, why are two values being reported for axial forces? Also, why is it that sometimes the numerical values of these two are the same and sometimes they are not?
There are two values because member end force output consists of the forces and moments at the start node as well as at the end node of the member. At the start node, a positive value of the axial force indicates axial compression, and a negative value indicates axial tension. At the end node, a positive value indicates axial tension, and a negative value indicates axial compression.

Generally, if the values at the start and at the end are not the same in magnitude, it is due to a load acting along the local X axis of the member. A typical example of this is a column (vertical member) subjected to selfweight loading. The difference in magnitude of the axial forces at start and end should be equal to the load acting along the local X axis of the member.

When I try running the analysis on STAAD.pro 2001, I get the error message error message as "Fatal Error: Cannot start analysis Engine". However, when tried with another machine with Win 95/98. The same software is working fine without giving any error.
The error is usually caused by the fact that the paging file size which has been set in Windows NT or Windows 2000 is not large enough to run the program. STAAD.Pro 2001 requires a lot more resources (physical + virtual memory) than its predecessors. 1. You can determine whether this is true by doing the following. Make sure you are logged in with Administrative privileges before you attempt any of the following steps. Using Windows Explorer, locate the file "sprostaadus.exe" which should be present in the folder "\spro2001\staad\sprostaad". Run that file by double clicking on it. If it comes up with a message that the paging file size is not large enough, that is an indication of the problem mentioned in step 1 above. 2. If the above is true, you can remedy the error by doing the following: In Windows, go to Start - Settings - Control Panel - System - Advanced Select performance options. The total paging file size for all drives will be listed in a window. Increase it. You may need to go upto 200 MB, and perhaps spanning across multiple drives.

Exit those settings dialog boxes, and try running the program again. Chances are it should work this time.

I have a continuous beam, and all members have the same E and same properties. I run it once with one set of member properties. I double the depth of the members and run it a second time. The results of the second run (midspan moment, reactions, etc.) do not match those from the first run. Shouldn't the results stay the same as the EI remains constant for both the beams?
The difference is due to shear deformation. Instead of specifying properties as YD and ZD (which would trigger a shear deformation calculation), provide the values as AX, IX, IY and IZ and check the results. They should stay the same. Or, if you are running STAAD.pro 2004 or later, specify the command SET SHEAR on the second line of your input file. This will forcibly switch off shear deformations from the calculations. Now, changing just YD or ZD should have no effect on the results.

During the analysis of a large model, the analysis engine stops with the error message
*** STAAD.Pro ERROR MESSAGE *** ** Read/write ERROR in Unit No. 17 *** ERRORS IN SOLVER *** Even though the hard disk may have plenty of free space, the problem might be caused by the fact that the disk is formatted with the FAT32 format. This format has a file size limit of 4.2GB. So although there is enough disk space, the single file size limit is exceeded for the STAAD solved matrix file (.L17). You can determine the type of formatting in effect for your drive by going through the following simple steps. On your Windows Desktop, go to My Computer. Select the drive which serves as the repository for your SET TEMP settings on your machine. If there is only one hard drive on the machine, it will be that drive. Right click on the drive and select Properties Make sure the file system is NTFS Make sure there is enough Free space If the above also indicates FAT32, you need to find a computer that has its disk formatted with the NTFS format (which does not have a file size limit). Most new Windows XP based computers have the NTFS format.

Is it possible to specify a displacement and then have STAAD analyze a frame to give me a corresponding load (the load that

would have been required to produce that displacement)?


You first need to know the pattern or arrangement of the loading which will eventually cause the displacement you wish to see. This is because, there can be millions of loading arrangements which cause that amount of displacement at that node, so one needs to have an idea of which of those patterns is the one that one wants. By pattern, we are talking of details like, is the load going to consist of concentrated forces at nodes, or distributed and trapezoidal loads on members, or pressures on plates, etc. For example, any of these loads will cause a certain amount of displacement at a node along a certain direction.

So, a unit load analysis would be the best approach for solving this kind of a problem. That means, all the components of the loading pattern would be represented by unit loads. Let us say that by applying a member load of 100 pounds/ft, you get 0.4 inches of displacement along global X at node 43. So, if the final desired displacement at node 43 along X is say, 1.2 inches, the applied load should be simply (1.2/0.4)*100 = 300 pounds/ft.

I am applying a UBC seismic load on a bridge. The analysis engine reports an error message which says that:
EITHER NA OR NV FACTOR HAS NOT BEEN SPECIFIED WHILE SEISMIC ZONE HAS BEEN SPECIFIED AS 4. This is due to the fact that, for your model, STAAD looks at the data under the DEFINE UBC LOAD command and concludes that you intend to analyse the structure per the UBC 1997 code. It then checks whether all the required parameters have been specified for that code, and detects that NA and NV are missing. You perhaps have an input similar to the one below :

DEFINE UBC LOAD ZONE 0.4 I 1 RWX 12 RWZ 12 STYP 1.2 PX 0.2626 PZ 0.2626

For Zone 4, Na and Nv are two of the fundamental parameters necessary to calculate the base shear. If you look at Tables 16-Q and 16-R on pages 2-34 & 2-35 of the UBC 1997 code, you will find that for Zone 4, the coefficients Ca and Cv are dependent on Na and Nv.

So, specify the NA and NV parameters, so that the commands look similar to the one below :

DEFINE UBC LOAD ZONE 0.4 I 1 RWX 12 RWZ 12 STYP 1.2 NA 1.6 NV 1.6 PX 0.2626 PZ 0.2626

I would like to create a REPEAT LOAD case whose constituent load cases are themselves REPEAT LOAD cases. Is this allowed?
You can do this if you have STAAD.Pro version 2002 or later. An example of this is shown below.

LOADING 1 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0

LOAD 2 REPEAT LOAD 1 1.0 JOINT LOAD 4 5 FY -15. ; 11 FY -35.

LOAD 3 REPEAT LOAD 2 1.0 MEMB LOAD 8 TO 13 UNI Y -0.9 ; 6 UNI GY -1.2

LOAD 4 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0 JOINT LOAD 4 5 FY -15. ; 11 FY -35. MEMB LOAD 8 TO 13 UNI Y -0.9 ; 6 UNI GY -1.2

PERF ANALY LOAD LIST 3 4 PRINT ANAL RES FINISH

In the above example, load case 3 repeats load case 2, which in turn repeats load case 1.

After determining the lateral loads using Staad UBC seismic analysis in a first file, I note down the lateral loads computed at each joint. In a second separate file with the same frame model, I apply the lateral loads from the first file combining them with the gravity loads and perform the analysis. I consider this procedure of mine very tedious in case of a 3D high rise building most specifically in view of the first file. Is there any shorter procedure for this? Please take note that I am using the Command File Editor.
There is absolutely no need for you to take the lateral load data from the output of the first file, and insert it as input into the second file. In STAAD, once the lateral loads due to UBC or

IBC are generated, they are automatically available for combining with gravity loads, or any other loads for that matter. Consequently, there are 2 ways in which this combination can be achieved, and each is demonstrated below :

Method 1 : Generate the lateral load in one load case. Specify the gravity load in another load case. Then, combine the two in a load combination case.

LOAD 1 - GENERATE LATERAL LOADS DUE TO UBC ALONG X UBC X 1.0

LOAD 2 - SPECIFY GRAVITY LOADS SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0 MEMBER LOAD 1 TO 25 UNI GY -1.2 JOINT LOAD 10 39 FY -10.0

LOAD COMBINATION 3 - COMBINE THE LATERAL AND GRAVITY LOADS IN ONE CASE 1 1.0 2 1.0

Method 2 : Create a single load case in which the lateral forces are generated, and gravity loads are specified.

LOAD 1 - LATERAL LOADS + GRAVITY LOADS UBC X 1.0 SELFWEIGHT Y -1.0 MEMBER LOAD 1 TO 25 UNI GY -1.2 JOINT LOAD 10 39 FY -10.0

I am trying to analyse a structure which consists of a large dia pipe supported at discrete points. I am unable to get STAAD to analyse this for UBC loads.
When the UBC committee came up with the recommendations for analysing structures subjected to earthquakes, the type of structures they had in mind were conventional style buildings where the base of the model, namely, the points where the supports are located is at the lowest elevation with respect to the rest of the model. If you look at the UBC procedure, it involves computation of the base shear, which then has to be distributed over the height of the building, so that one can then calculate the inter-story shears. A certain amount of the weight gets lumped at the highest point of the building, and the rest gets distributed along the height. In other words, the principle is that a mass at any height of the building is subjected to an acceleration and the force caused by the acceleration is represented by a concentrated force where the mass is located. The summation of all such forces at a given floor cause the columns beneath that floor to be subjected to a shear force. When you talk of a model like a pipe which is defined as line members attached to several collinear nodes, all of which are at the same elevation, the UBC rules become impossible to apply. The fact is, to analyse your structure for seismic effects, you do not even need the elaborate procedure of the UBC code. You can take the selfweight, and any imposed loads on the pipe, and apply them along a horizontal direction like X or Z with a factor, and you will get what is normally expected in a seismic analysis. So, you just have to have LOAD 2 SELF X n where n is a number like 1.5, which represents that there is a net force of 1.5 times the weight of the structure acting along the X direction due to an earthquake. For better handling

of the distributed loads, you might want to consider defining several nodes along the length of the pipe, between supports.

I am modelling a steel building consisting of columns and beams. The floor slab is a non-structural entity which, though capable of carrying the loads acting on itself, is not meant to be an integral part of the framing system. It merely transmits the load to the beam-column grid. There are uniform area loads on the floor (think of the load as wooden pallets supporting boxes of paper). Since the slab is not part of the structural model, is there a way to tell the program to transmit the load to the beams without manually figuring out the beam loads on my own?
STAAD's FLOOR LOAD option is ideally suited for such cases. This is a facility where you specify the load as a pressure, and the program converts the pressure to individual beam loads. Thus, the input required from the user is very simple - load intensity in the form of pressure, and the region of the structure in terms of X, Y and Z coordinates in space, of the area over which the pressure acts.

In the process of converting the pressure to beam loads, STAAD will consider the empty space between criss-crossing beams (in plan view) to be panels, similar to the squares of a chess board. The load on each panel is then tranferred to beams surrounding the panel, using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method.

Additional information on this facility is available in example problem 15 in the examples manual, and section 5.32.4 in the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference manual.

When does one use FLOOR LOAD and when does one use ELEMENT LOAD?
When modelling a grid system made up of horziontal beams and the slabs which span between the beams, we have found that there are 2 approaches that users take : 1) They model the beams only, and do not include the slabs in the model. However, they take into account the large inplane stiffness of the slab by using the master-slave relationship to tie together the nodes of the deck so that a rigid diaphragm effect is simulated for the horizontal plane at the slab level. 2) They model the slabs along with the beams. The slabs are modelled using plate elements. The question that arises is, how does one account for the distributed loading (load per area of floor) which is present on top of the slab? If you model the structure using method (1), the load can be assumed to be transferred directly on to the beams. The slab-beam grillage is assumed to be made up of a number of panels, similar to the squares of a chess board. The load on each panel is then tranferred to beams surrounding the panel, using a triangular or trapezoidal load distribution method. You can do this in STAAD by defining the load intensity in the FLOOR LOAD command. In other words, the pressure load on the slabs (which are not included in the model) are converted to individual beam loads by utilizing the FLOOR LOAD facility. In method (2), the fact that the slab is part of the model makes it very easy to handle the load. The load can be applied on individual elements using the ELEMENT LOAD facility. The connectivity between the beams and elements ensures that the load will flow from the plates to the beams through the columns to the supports.

What is the difference between the LOAD COMB & REPEAT LOAD commands?

The difference lies in the way STAAD goes about calculating the results - joint displacements, member forces and support reactions. For a load combination case, STAAD simply ALGEBRAICALLY COMBINES THE RESULTS of the component cases after factoring them. In other words, for example, in order to obtain the results of load 10, it has no need to know what exactly is it that constitutes load cases 3, 4 and 5. It just needs to know what the results of those cases are. Thus, the structure is NOT actually analysed for a combination load case. With a REPEAT LOAD case however, the procedure followed is that which occurs for any other primary load case. A load vector {P} is first created, and later, that load vector gets pre-multiplied by the inverted stiffness matrix.

I am modelling an elevated silo which will be used for storing grain. The columns which support the structure are modelled as members and the walls of the silo (containment part of the structure) are modelled using plate elements. The silo has vertical and sloping walls. The loads on the structure consist of the weight of the grain contained in the silo. What is the best method for applying the load when the silo is full of grain? As pressure loads on the inside? How should the load be applied on the sloping walls?
There are 2 segments of the tank which have to be individually considered for application of the load. The vertical walls ------------------

The material in the tank, especially if it is a fluid, will exert a lateral pressure on the vertical walls of the tank. This pressure load can be applied on the tank using the ELEMENT PRESSURE load facility. You can use one of 2 options to do this. a) A uniform pressure. If you take any individual element on the wall, if you know the pressure intensity at the top edge, and the pressure intensity at the bottom edge, the average of these 2 intensities can be applied as a constant pressure on the entire surface of the element, as in the following example : 45 PRESSURE -3.5 Since the load is along the local Z axis of the element, you do not have to specify the axis name in the above command since local Z is the default for the axis. The load value must be accompanied by the proper sign (positive or negative) which accounts for whether the load acts along or opposite to the direction of the local Z axis. b) A trapezoidally varying pressure. In case (a) above, we decided to take the average of the pressures at the top and bottom edges, and thus obtain a uniform pressure. However, this is not absolutely necessary. The load can be applied as a trapezoidal load, in which case, the TRAP option is used and the intensities at the top and bottom edges must be specified. An example of that is 45 PRESSURE TRAP Y -4.5 -2.5 In this example, it is assumed that the local Y axis of element 45 is along the vertical direction, and thus the trapezoidal variation is along the local Y. The load itself acts perpendicular to the surface of the element, and hence along local Z. If local Y is in the same sense as global Y, -4.5 indicates the intensity at the lower edge, and -2.5 indicates the intensity at the upper edge. If the vertical wall has many divisions along the vertical direction, there will be several "horizontal rings" of elements. Every element contained in a ring has the same intensity at its top and bottom edge. That means, the top & bottom intensity for each of those rings will have to be manually calculated. There is a facility in the STAAD.Pro GUI to simplify this task. From the top of the screen, select Commands - Loading - Load Commands - Element - Hydrostatic

Trapezoidal, and provide the intensities at the top and bottom edges of the vertical wall. The program will use the linear interpolation method to find the intensity at each intermediate division, and then create the individual element TRAPEZOIDAL loads. The sloping walls ----------------The load on the elements which make up these walls is derived from the weight of the column of material directly above these elements, and acts along the global vertical downward direction. Since the element TRAP load facility that is available in STAAD allows a load to be applied only along the local Z axis, and since local Z is not parallel to any of the global directions, the TRAP load option cannot be used here. Hence, one will have to apply these as uniform pressure loads, the value of which has to be calculated for each sloping element as the average of the intensities at the 4 nodes of that element. There is no generation facility currently available in the program to automate this task.

I modeled a curved beam using cylindrical coordinates and tried to run a moving load over the curved beam. STAAD.Pro is not allowing me to do this. Why?
Moving load on curved beams is not supported by the DEFINE MOVING LOAD command in STAAD.Pro. The STAAD moving load generator assumes: 1)All loads are acting in the negative global vertical (Y or Z) direction. The user is advised to set up the structure model accordingly. 2)Resultant direction of movement is determined from the X, Y and Z increments of movements as provided by the user. However, STAAD.beava, an automated bridge load generator, can handle moving loads for curved or custom-defined bridge decks with beams and plates. It also generates a 3D influence surface based on displacements, support reactions, beam forces or plate stresses

for any point on the bridge. The critical loading patterns and critical vehicle position will be identified as well. STAAD.beava is an integrated module in the STAAD.Pro environment.

What is the significance of the Rw Value in the UBC code?


The UBC 1997 code defines Rw as a Numerical Coefficient representative of the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity of lateral-force resisting systems. It is to be used in the equation for computing base shear. Its values are dependent on the type of lateral-force resisting system in the building, such as whether the system is a Lightframed wall with shear panels or Shear wall made of concrete or a special moment resisting frame, etc. Values of Rw are listed in Tables 16-N and 16-P of the UBC 1994 and 1997 codes.

How is the wind load calculated/generated for a structure in STAAD.Pro ? What is the exposure factor calculated and how is it calculated? In 2002, I hear you can now define your own "panels"? What does this mean?
The DEFINE WIND LOAD command may be used to define the parameters for automatic generation of wind loads on the structure. The user needs to define the intensity and corresponding heights along with the exposure factors. If the exposure factor is not defined, the program takes the default value as 1.0. A value of 1.0 means that the wind force may be applied on the full influence area associated with the joints if they are also exposed to the wind load direction. All loads and heights are in the current unit system. In the list of intensities, the first value of intensity (p1) acts from the ground level up to the first height. The second intensity (p2) acts in the global vertical direction between the first two heights (h1 and h2) and so on. The

program assumes that the ground level has the lowest global vertical coordinate of any joint entered for the structure. The exposure factor (e) is the fraction of the influence area associated with the joint(s) on which the load may act if it is also exposed to the wind load. Total load on a particular joint is calculated as follows. JOINT LOAD = (Exposure Factor) x (Influence Area) x (Wind Intensity). Exposure factor (User specified) = (Fraction of Influence Area) x (influence width for joint).

In STAAD.Pro 2002, the built-in wind load generation facility has been enhanced to allow the user to specify the actual panels of the building which are exposed to the wind. This userlevel control will now allow the user to obtain a more accurate distribution of wind forces, especially when the exposed surface of the building lies in several vertical zones, each reset from the one below or the one above, in terms of the direction of wind force. Further, the basic algorithm for detecting the shape of the panels and the amount of load which should be calculated for the panel corners too has undergone significant improvements. The parameters for definition of the wind load types are described in Section 5.31.3 of the STAAD.PRO Technical Reference Manual. The relevant extracts from Section 5.32.12 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual, where the method for applying wind loading in the form of a data in load cases has been explained, is provided below. Note that areas bounded by beam members (and ground), and exposed to the wind, are used to define loaded areas (plates and solids are ignored). The loads generated are applied only at the joints at vertices of the bounded areas. For example, in the following set of commands: DEFINE WIND LOAD TYPE 1 INTENSITY 0.1 0.12 HEIGHT 100 200 EXP 0.6 JOI 1 TO 25 BY 7 29 TO 37 BY 4 22 23 TYPE 2 INT 0.1 0.12 HEIGHT 100 900 EXP 0.3 YR 0 500 LOAD 1

SELF Y -1.0 LOAD 2 WIND LOAD Z 1.2 TYPE 2 ZR 10 11 LOAD 3 WIND LOAD X TYPE 1 XR 7 8 A minus sign indicates that suction occurs on the other side of the selected structure. If all of the members are selected and X (or Z) is used and the factor is positive, then the exposed surfaces facing in the -x (or -z) direction will be loaded in the positive x (or z) direction (normal wind in positive direction). If X and a negative factor is used, then the exposed surfaces facing in the +x direction will be loaded in the negative x direction (normal wind in negative direction). [If -X is entered and a negative factor, then the exposed surfaces facing in the -x direction will be loaded in the negative x direction (suction). If -X is entered and a positive factor, then the exposed surfaces facing in the +x direction will be loaded in the positive x direction (suction).] A member list or a range of coordinate values (in global system) may be used. All members which have both end coordinates within the range are assumed to be candidates for defining a surface which may be loaded if the surface is exposed to the wind. The loading will be in the form of joint loads (not member loads). 1, 2 or 3 ranges can be entered to form a "layer", "tube" or "box" for selecting members in the combined ranges. Use ranges to speed up the calculations on larger models. It is advisable not to use the SET Z UP command in a model with wind load. A closed surface is generated by the program based on the members in the ranges above and their end joints. The area within this closed surface is determined and the share of this area (influence area) for each node in the list is then calculated. The individual bounded areas must be planar surfaces, to a close tolerance, or they will not be loaded. Hence, one should make sure that the members/joints that are exposed to the wind make up a closed surface (ground may form an edge of the closed surface). Without a proper closed surface, the area calculated for the region may be indeterminate and the joint force values may be erroneous. Consequently, the number of exposed joints should be at least 3.

I am using the moving load generation. The truck that I am specifying is so wide

(dimension perpendicular to direction of traffic) that within the width of one lane of traffic, there are 3 or more parallel beams along the direction of traffic. How does STAAD determine how the truck load should be converted to beam loads?
Based on the data you provide under the DEFINE MOVING LOAD command, each truck is treated as a set of axles. If the WIDTH option is NOT specified, each axle is assumed to be comprised of 1 tire. If the WIDTH option is specified, each axle is assumed to be comprised of 2 tires. The program looks at each tire independently. For any given tire, it looks for one longitudinal beam to the left of the tire, and another longitudinal beam to the right of the tire. Then it distributes the tire weight on those 2 beams as though the tire is located on a simply supported cross beam that spans the two longitudinal members on either side. Thus, even if a lane spans across 3 longitudinal beams or for that matter several beams, the above approach ensures that the tire weights get properly applied on the correct set of beams as concentrated member loads. You can get a listing of these concentrated member loads by using the command: PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA

For moving load generation, does STAAD provide the location of all the moving point loads in terms of member number and distance from the start of the member?
Yes. Please use the PRINT LOAD DATA option with your PERFORM ANALYSIS command and you will get the information in your output file.

How does STAAD consider the moving load over the beams if the load is not applied over a beam exactly?
If a wheel falls inside a panel composed of beams on either side of the wheel running parallel to the direction of movement of the vehicle, the load is distributed on the 2 beams as simply supported reactions. Hence, if the wheel load is 10 kips, and if the distance from the wheel to the beam on the left is 7 ft, and the distance to the beam on the right is 3 ft, the beam on the left gets a 3 kip load, and the beam on the right gets a 7 kip load.

If we have a wind load on a bracing system (perpendicular to the bracing plane), can we apply the wind loading directly to the brace as a uniform load instead of resolving the force into point loads? How does Staad handle this type of loading on members that are declared trusses?
If a transverse load such as a uniform distributed load or a concentrated force is applied on a truss member, STAAD converts it to the equivalent concentrated shears at the 2 ends of the member. The member end force output will show them as shears on the member under the output terms SHEAR-Y or SHEAR-Z depending on the local axis direction the load is applied in. However, if you determine the equivalent end shears and apply them as joint loads instead, and not as a member load, the truss members at that node will not experience any shear force due to that load.

I am using the moving load generation facility to generate a set of load cases for a

truck moving on a bridge. Can STAAD provide the support reactions for the critical position that produces the maximum effects on the system flooring?
This would require that the support reactions for all generated load cases be produced in a report form sorted in a descending order based upon the specific support reaction criteria we are interested in, such as the FY force, or the MZ moment. To get this report, first run the analysis. Go to the Post processing mode. Select the support node(s) at which you want the information you are seeking. From the top of the screen, select Report | Support Reactions. In the dialog box that comes up, select the degree of freedom (FY, MZ, etc.) which should be used as the criteria for sorting. Set the sorting order (high to low or low to high). From the loading tab, select the load cases that you want considered. Click on OK. A report of the results will be displayed in tabular form.

I have some distributed loads on some members of the model. I would like to consider the weights due to these loads in the base shear calculation for UBC load generation. Can you explain the process for doing this?
When analysing a structure for UBC loads, there 2 stages in the input. The first stage is the one where one defines data such as the various parameters (zone factor, importance factor, soil structure interaction factor, etc.) as well as the weights. In terms of the STAAD command language, it is initiated using the DEFINE UBC LOAD command, and an example for this may be found in Example 14 of the STAAD.Pro Examples manual. Graphically, one may assign the data in the following manner.

Select the beam or beams you want to assign the distributed weights to. Next, from the top of the screen, select Commands | Loading | Define Load | Seismic Load. In the Parameters tab, select the type, and enter the relevant values for the parameters. Press the "Save" button. A new tab called "Weights" should come up. Press the "Member Weight" button. For the loading type, choose UNI, enter the distributed weight value, distances to where the load starts and the load ends, and press "OK". Press the "Assign" button to actually assign them to the selected members. Finally, press the "Close" button.

What is JOINT WEIGHT? I'm trying to learn how to use the seismic load generator and I don't see anything explaining what JOINT WEIGHT is or what it is used for.
In the block of commands which fall under the DEFINE UBC LOAD heading or any of the other ones like AIJ, 1893, etc., the weight data which goes into the calculation of the total weight consists of

SELFWEIGHT MEMBER WEIGHT JOINT WEIGHT

If at any of the joints of the structure, there are any weights which you want included in the total weight calculation, you specify them using the JOINT WEIGHT option.

How do I get STAAD to automatically combine static load cases with load cases

generated using the MOVING LOAD generation facility?


You should use the option called ADD LOAD along with the LOAD GENERATION command. Shown below is an example: DEFINE MOVING LOAD TYPE 1 LOAD 20. 20. 10. DISTANCE 10. 5. WIDTH 10. LOAD 1 STATIC LOAD SELF Y -1.0 * GENERATE MOVING LOADS AND ADD THE SELFWEIGHT * LOAD TO EACH GENERATED LOAD CASE LOAD GENERATION 10 ADD LOAD 1 TYPE 1 7.5 0. 0. ZI 10. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA

If using an American code for code check, is there any parameter to define the material factor or is it already included?
The American codes do not have explicit material factors. Instead, they use "strength reduction factors". These strength reduction factors account for unavoidable variations in material strength, design equations, fabrication and erection. For example, in the American steel code LRFD 2001, these factors are : 0.90 for limit states involving yielding 0.75 for limit states involving rupture 0.85 for limit states involving compression buckling For the American concrete code ACI 318-02, some of the values used are Tension-controlled sections - 0.9 Compression controlled sections, members with spiral reinforcement - 0.7 Shear and Torsion - 0.75 Bearing on concrete - 0.65 etc. These are requirements placed by the code. So, we do not have parameters for altering these.

I am performing concrete design for a beam per the ACI code and I encounter an error message : "LOCATION FOR DESIGN FOR SHEAR AT START OF MEMBER 2 IS BEYOND THE MIDPOINT OF MEMBER. DESIGN FOR SHEAR AND TORSION NOT PERFORMED." How can I get around this situation?
STAAD performs concrete design for shear and torsion at locations defined by (d + SFACE) from the start of the member and (d+EFACE) from the end of the member respectively. The basis for this assumption can be found in Section 11.1.3.1 of ACI 318-99. If these locations are beyond the mid-point of the member, that triggers the error message you encountered. In case you are not familiar with the parameters SFACE and EFACE, you will see in Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference Manual in Table 3.1 that these are values which the user may specify to convey to STAAD how far the face of the member is from the nodal point of the member. The default value for SFACE and EFACE is 0.0. "d" is the effective depth of the member. So, this is what you can do. You can set the values for SFACE and EFACE to be negative quantities equal in magnitude to "d". That will result in (d+SFACE) and (d+EFACE) becoming zero, which means that the design will be performed at the nodal points of the member, thereby avoiding the situation of the design point being beyond the mid-point of the member. So, in your input file, under the START CONCRETE DESIGN command, specify these parameters along the following lines :

START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE ACI SFACE -d MEMB 110 EFACE -d MEMB 110 DESIGN BEAM 110 END CONCRETE DESIGN where "d" is the effective depth of the member.

I am doing a footing design in STAAD.Pro 2002. I am unfamiliar with the term "dowel reinforcement". I am guessing that this is a term used by American engineers. Could you explain what that is?
The longitudinal reinforcement in the column must be extended into the footing so that the forces and moments at the base of the column can be properly transferred into the footing. However, since the construction sequence requires the footings to be constructed before the columns, reinforcement is placed in the footing and extends upwards. So when the column is constructed, it becomes part of the column bars. This reinforcement which comes up from the footing into the column is called the dowel reinforcement.

My input file contains 2 load cases - case 1 and 2. For member 43, case 2 produces a larger value of shear force along local Y axis than case 1. However, the concrete design report indicates case 1 as being critical for shear design, and not case 2. How do you explain this?

The definition of the word critical in the shear design output in not on the basis of which among the various load cases has a larger amount of shear force, but which one requires the largest amount of stirrup reinforcement. To answer your question, in all likelihood, you will see this happen when both load cases require the same amount of stirrup steel. Design is carried out for all the load cases. The steel area values for all the cases are then sorted in the ascending order from low to high. If more than one case ends up requiring that highest steel area value (same area required for multiple load cases), the first among those load cases is reported as critical. Another possibility is that torsion in the load case reported as critical may be higher than the one which has the highest shear force. Stirrups are designed for shear and torsion, not just shear.

Why is it that the concrete column interaction diagram is not plotted in the output although track 2 was specified?
If you open the file in the STAAD editor (go to the Edit menu, and choose Edit Input Command File), and go to the end of the file, you will observe the following :

CLB 0.25 MEMB 1 TO 481 DESIGN ELEMENT 1 TO 456 458 TO 481 DESIGN COLUMN 457 TRACK 2 MEMB 457 END CONCRETE DESIGN FINISH The TRACK command has to be specified before the DESIGN commands. In others words, the order of these commands must be the following :

CLB 0.25 MEMB 1 TO 481 TRACK 2 MEMB 457 DESIGN ELEMENT 1 TO 456 458 TO 481 DESIGN COLUMN 457 END CONCRETE DESIGN FINISH If you make this change, you will get the interaction diagram.

I am performing concrete design for a beam per the ACI code. At the start as well as the end nodes of the member, the value "Vu" which is reported in the shear design output does not match the shear force Fy from the member end force output. Why is that?
STAAD performs concrete design for shear and torsion at locations defined by (d + SFACE) from the start of the member and (d+EFACE) from the end of the member respectively. In case you are not familiar with the parameters SFACE and EFACE, you will see in Chapter 3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual in Table 3.1 that these are values which the user may specify to convey to STAAD how far the face of the member is from the nodes of the member. The default value for SFACE and EFACE is 0.0. "d" is the effective depth of the member. The basis for this assumption can be found in Section 11.1.3.1 of ACI 318-95. If you want the shear & torsion design to be performed using the member end forces (the nodal values) and not those at the location mentioned in the previous paragraph, you can set the values for SFACE and EFACE to be negative quantities equal in magnitude to "d". That will result in (d+SFACE) and (d+EFACE) becoming zero, which means that the design will be performed at the nodal points of the member. So, in your input file, under the START CONCRETE DESIGN command, specify these parameters along the following lines :

START CONCRETE DESIGN CODE ACI SFACE -d MEMB 110 EFACE -d MEMB 110 DESIGN BEAM 110 END CONCRETE DESIGN where "d" is the effective depth of the member.

When I perform concrete design on an element, the output contains expressions such as "LONG. REINF.", "TRANS. REINF.", "TOP", "BOTT.", etc. Can you explain what these terms mean?
The design of an element involves determination of the reinforcement for moments Mx and My at the centroid of the element. The reinforcement calculated to resist Mx is called longitudinal reinforcement, and is denoted in the output by the expression "LONG. REINF.". The reinforcement calculated to resist My is called transverse reinforcement, and is denoted in the output by the expression "TRANS. REINF.". The sign of Mx and My will determine which face of the element the steel has to be provided on. Every element has a "top" face, and a "bottom" face, as defined by the direction of the local Z axis of the elements. Mx will cause tension on one of those faces, and compression on the other. A similar effect will be caused by My. The output report of reinforcement provided on those faces contains the terms "TOP" for top face, and "BOTT" for the bottom face. The procedure used by the program to arrive at these quantities is as follows : For each element, the program first scans through all the active load cases, to find the following maxima :

Maximum positive Mx Maximum negative Mx Maximum positive My Maximum negative My The element is then designed for all those four quantities. If any of these moments happen to be zero, or if the reinforcement required to resist that moment is less than the capacity of the element with minimum reinforcement, only minimum reinforcement is provided. For the ACI code, the rules governing provision of reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature are used in calculating minimum reinforcement. The rules applicable for design of a beam for flexure are used in calculating the steel areas. The width used in this calculation is a unit width of the element. For determination of the effective depth, the steel for longitudinal moment is assumed to be the outer layer, and the steel for transverse moment is the inner layer. The output will consist of the steel area required for all of four maximas. As described earlier, they will be reported using the terms LONG, TRANSVERSE, TOP and BOTT.

When I perform concrete design on an element, the output reports reinforcement in terms of "SQ.MM/MM". Can you please explain why?
When you ask for an element design or a slab design using the commands DESIGN ELEMENT .. or DESIGN SLAB .. STAAD designs the element for the moments MX and MY at the centroid of the element. By definition, MX and MY are termed as Moments per Unit width, since that is what they are. They have units of Force-length/length, as in 43.5 KN-mm/mm, or 43.5 KN-m/m. In other

words, if you take a one metre width of the slab at the centroid of the element in question, the moment over that one metre width on that element is equal to 43.5 KN-m. The design of that element hence has to be done on the basis of a unit width. Thus, in order to design an element for a 43.5 KN-m/m moment, one needs to use a one metre width of slab. The reinforcement required for that element is thus reported in terms of unit width of the element. The results are hence in the form Area of steel/unit-width of element, as in, "SQ.MM/MM".

A floor slab has been modeled using 4noded plate elements. The elements are subjected to pressure loading in the vertically downward direction. A concrete design has been performed on the elements. (See below for the reinforcement report for many of those elements.) Why is it that the moments as well as reinforcement are appearing on the top and not on the bottom of the plates?
The reinforcement report for many of those elements looks like the following:

ELEMENT

LONG. REINF (SQ.IN/FT)

MOM-X /LOAD TRANS. REINF MOM-Y /LOAD (K-FT/FT) (SQ.IN/FT) (K-FT/FT)

134 TOP :

5.944

1474.13 / 12

6.914

1679.58 / 12

BOTT:

1.296

0.00 / 0

1.296

0.00 / 0

Solution: In the above output, the word TOP and BOTTOM refer to the "local" top and bottom surfaces of the individual elements, and not in the global axis sense. The local top and bottom surfaces depend on the way an element is defined in its incidence statement. TOP is defined as the surface which coincides with the positive side of the local Z axis. BOTTOM is defined as the surface which coincides with the negative side of the local Z axis. Shown below are two examples in which the element incidence is numbered in two contrasting ways. In the first figure, the local Z axis of the element points in the vertically upward direction. Consequently, the local top and bottom surfaces have the same sense as the global top and bottom.

In the next figure, the local Z axis of the element points in the vertically downward direction. Consequently, the local top and bottom surfaces have the opposite sense as the global top and bottom.

You can verify the direction of the local axes of the elements in your model by doing the following. Click the right mouse button and select Labels. Under the Plate category, switch on Plate Orientation. The local axes will be displayed as shown in these figures above.

For an existing concrete member, I need to compute the capacity of the section. How do I do this?
You can do the following to compute the capacity of the concrete section:

Model the strucuture. Specify the existing profile to the member properties Specify all the required member specification and Support condition Specify the load on the strucutre Specify the Concrete design parameters Specify the parameter MinMain and Maxmain to the provided bar size Do the design Check the results. Adjust the load and redo the design until the reinforcement matches with the provided steel.

Can I change the strength reduction factors in the program? For example: For a tied concrete column, I assume that the current value is 0.70. Can it be changed to 0.65?
The answer is unfortunately no. You can only specify if it is a Tied column or a Spirally Reinforced column.

In concrete design per the ACI code, if the size of the concrete beam member which I am designing is limited and I need to have 2 rows of reinforcement in the top or the bottom of the beam, how do I input this request? Or Does Staad automatically output the data with the second row? have been trying to find this in the Manuals. I have seen LEVELS BUT IT DOES NOT SAY WHAT I NEED.
You do not have to input any special request. As long as the section can be designed as a singly reinforced section (reinforcement in the tension zone only), STAAD will try to fit the bars in upto 2 layers. For each layer, the distance from the bottom of the section is reported. The number of bars required for each layer too is reported. It reports a failure only if more than 2 layers are required.

In concrete design per the ACI code, what does the following expression in the

STAAD output file mean: BAR SIZE CAN NOT BE MATCHED TO MEET ALL REQUIREMENTS
This means that though the program is able to come up with the value of area of steel required, it is unable to comeup with a bar arrangement which will satisfy the area requirement. Usually, this is because either because the MINMAIN and MAXMAIN limits might be too restrictive, or because the resulting bar spacing violates the minimum spacing requirements of the code.

Why does the program give some strange numbers when the joints are generated graphically by e.g. copying. We enter a number that has no decimals (7.00m) and in the input file the coordinate is 7.0001.
In STAAD.Pro, there is a concept called a Base Unit system. There are 2 options under this : The English or Imperial units (Foot Pound, etc.) and Metric units (meter, kg, etc.) The base unit is set at the time of installation of the program. Once it is set, you can see what the setting is, as well as change it, by starting the program, going to the File menu, choosing Configure, and then choosing Base Unit. If your base unit setting happens to be inconsistent with the units in which you create the model, that will cause the type of problem you mention. For example, if the base unit system is English, and you create the model using Meter and Kg unit, it will cause numbers to be not rounded. You can rectify it by setting the base unit to be consistent with your working units through the File-Configure option we just described above.

When I use the Node Dimensioning Tool (Tools | Display Node to Node Dimension), how can I turn off just one dimension line rather than all of them with the Remove Node Dimension option?
You can use the Node to Node Dimension and re-dimension an exisiting dimension line. This will remove only the dimension line that has been re-dimensioned.

I am trying to model a beam connecting to the flange of a column instead of at the center. How is this modeled?
You have to use a facility called member offsets. You "offset" the face of the beam by a distance equal to half the depth of the column cross-section. An example of this can be found in Example # 7 in the STAADPro Examples Manual.

How to model Pile cap attached to batter and vertical piles in STAAD.Pro?
1) The pile cap can be modelled using either plate elements or solid elements. If the thickness of the cap is comparable to its plan dimensions, a solid element model is preferable. If the plan dimensions are much larger than its thickess, plate elements should be a better choice. One drawback of using solid elements is that, by their very nature, they lack rotational degrees of freedom. Consequently, for a monolithic structure such as a concrete pile cap with concrete piles, the rigid connection between piles and the pile cap cannot be properly accounted for, if the cap is modelled using solids. 2) The piles themselves can be modelled using frame members. The supports for the pile come in 2 varieties - skin friction and end bearing. Skin friction action can be accounted for by modelling each pile as several collinear members and specifying a support at each of those common nodes. End bearing action can be modelled using fixed or pinned supports.

The support spring stiffness is obtained by multiplying the soil subgrade reaction by the influence area of the associated support node. A standard text book on pile analysis should be a great source of information on obtaining the spring constant of the supports.

In the new 3D rendered window, how can I view the structure in plan, elevation and isometric view like I can with the other windows? Also, how do I pan across the model?
You can perform rotation and other viewing functions by right-clicking your mouse button and choosing the appropriate viewing tools. Also, you can use the viewing icons in the main toolbar for viewing the model in plan, elevation, isometric, etc. and also to pan and zoom in/out.

When I save a file from the STAAD.Pro GUI, the joint coordinate data and member incidence data are written into the .std file in such a manner that there are several entries per line, separated by semi-colons. I would like it to be written in a way that the joint coordinate data is written as one joint per line and the member incidence data is written as one member per line. Is there some setting in the program to facilitate this?
Close all input files.

From the File menu, select Configure - Input File Format. Switch on the items for which you wish to have the single line format. Click on Accept. Then, choose File - Open - open the input file. Click on Save. This setting will ensure that all desired data will henceforth be saved in the single line format.

Can you please tell me how to transfer data from EXCEL to STAAD-PRO?
The only data which can presently be transferred from Excel to STAAD is the geometry information, namely, joint coordinates, member incidences, plate element incidences, and solid element incidences. To do this, first select the cells in Excel where you have the numbers, and choose Copy from Excel's edit menu. Next, come into the STAAD program. The data may be brought into a new STAAD file or an existing STAAD file. Accordingly, open a new file or an existing file. Select the Geometry page from the left side of the screen, and choose the Beam, Plate or Solid sub-page depending upon the type of information you wish to bring in. If you are looking to bring it into a New file, close the Snap/Node dialog box which is open on the right hand side of the screen. For copying the joint coordinate data, click on the appropriate starting cell in the Node Tables grid on the right side, and type Ctrl+V or select paste from the Edit menu. For beam incidence, plate incidence or solid incidence data, click on the appropriate starting cell in the Beam Tables, Plate Tables or Solid Tables grids on the right side, and type Ctrl+V or select paste from the Edit menu. You should see the numbers you copied from Excel appear in those cells.

How do I graphically display the distance between two nodes?

Go to Tools | Display Node to Node Dimension or click the dimension icon. If you have kept the original toolbar layout, the icon is in the first row, 3rd group from the left, and it looks like a double arrow with 2 parallel verticle lines on either side.

I have a rather large frame building consisting of several floors. I want to look at individual floors by themselves without the rest of the structure cluttering up the view. Can you tell me how to do that?
Method 1 : a) Orient the view of your model in such a way as to make it convenient to extract using a mouse, the portion you want to view separately. This can be done from View | Orientation, or by clicking on the icons available for this. b) From the select menu, select the Geometry cursor. Then, using your mouse, create a window around the region you wish to view. That region will be highlighted. c) Click the right mouse button and select New View. Or, from the View menu, select New View. Set the button on "Create a new window for the View", and click on OK. The region will now be displayed in a separate window. Once in this window, you can change the viewing angles using View | Orientation, or through the orientation icons, or simply by pressing the up, down, left or right arrow keys on the keyboard.

Method 2 : This method involves cutting a section using the Tools - Cut section option. Details are available in Section 2.3.4 of the STAAD.Pro Graphical Environment Manual, which can be accessed from Help - Contents.

How do I access online help in STAAD.Pro? The F1 key does not bring up any help screens.
The F1 key for help is currently not operational in STAAD. We are working on implementing this for one of the forthcoming releases. To obtain online help in STAAD, you can do one of the following: From the Help menu, if you click on Contents, if will bring up all the STAAD manuals. You can search for specific information, or go through the topic list to select the items you want. From Help, if you click on Multi Media help, it will bring up a set of movies which will explain the procedure for creating a model. If you click on the Start button on your Windows desktop, select Programs, choose STAAD.Pro 2001 followed by STAAD.Pro Online Documentation, it will bring up the same set of information as the one you can access from step (1) above.

How can I convert single line input to multiple line input? The program currently converts my joint coordinate and member incidence data from multiple line to single line input.
Start STAAD.Pro. Select File - Configure.

Click on the tab called Input File Format

If you want Single line format, switch on the check boxes. If you want Multiple line format, keep them "unchecked".

Click on Accept.

Then from the File menu, open your STAAD input file. When you Save the file from the Graphical screen, the data will be saved in the format you chose in the step above.

How do I merge 2 staad models?

Start STAAD.Pro. Open the first file. Keep it open. STAAD another instance of STAAD.Pro. Open the second file. Stay in this file. Go to the Select menu, and Select All Geometry. From the Edit menu, select Copy. Go back to the screen of the first file. From the Edit menu, select Paste. You will be prompted to specify the X, Y and Z distances by which to move the structure of the second file before it gets copied to the first structure. Specify those values and click on OK.

Bridge Design using the STAAD.Pro/Beava AASHTO Code

By

IEG Group, Bentley Systems Bentley Systems Inc.

March 12, 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Introduction.1 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis2 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response13 Bridge Design as Per AASHTO...31 Conclusion36

1.0 Introduction
The combination of STAAD.pro and STAAD.beava can make your bridge design and analysis easier. STAAD.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD.beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response. The maximum load response could be any of the following: 1. Maximum plate stresses, moment about the local x axis of a plate (Mx), moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) etc. used to design for concrete deck reinforcement. 2. Maximum support reactions to design isolated, pile cap, and mat foundations. 3. Maximum bending moment or axial force in a member used to design members as per the AASHTO code. 4. Maximum deflection at mid span. These loads that create the maximum load responses can be transferred into STAAD.pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design. Figure 1 shows the bridge design procedure discussed above.

Figure 1: Bridge Design process in STAAD.pro The purpose of this document is to explain these steps in more detail.

2.0 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis


Figure 2 shows a bridge with the dimensions.

Figure 2: Bridge Dimensions

Figure 3: Completed Bridge Model in STAAD.pro

1. Open STAAD.pro with the default units of Kip-Ft and use the Space option.

2. Click the Next button and select the Add Beam mode. Click Finish.

3. The goal of the next few steps is to draw the stick model of the Bridge Structure (i.e. the beams and the girders). Select the X-Z grid option. Create two grid lines in the x direction at 80ft spacing. Create four grid lines in the z direction at 10ft spacing.

4. Click on the Snap Node/Beam button and draw the beams and the girders as shown below. First draw five 160ft girders. Then draw the 40ft beams in the z direction. 5. Click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight. STAAD.pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. To break these beams at the intersection point, click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Intersect.

6. The beams have been created. The columns will now be created using the translational repeat command. Select nodes 6, 14, and 7 using the nodes cursor as shown below. The node numbers may vary depending upon how the model was constructed. Select Geometry->Translational Repeat from the menu. Select the y direction for the translational repeat and select enter a Default Step Spacing of -25ft as shown below.

7. The deck of this bridge structure will be created in the following steps using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. In reality, spacing of beams etc. may not be regular and hence it may become difficult to create the deck of the bridge using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. The Parametric Meshing Mode could become very useful in these circumstances. 8. Select the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing tool from the menu. Select four nodes that outline the 160ft x 40ft deck. Simply click on node 1, 3, 11, and 10 and select node 1 again to complete the command. Select the Quadrilateral Meshing option.

9. 2ft x 2ft element size is adequate for this type of model. Hence input the parameters as shown below.

10. The mesh will be created. To view the mesh properly, you will need to click on the Setup Control Tab on your left. 11. You should note that the girders and beams are automatically broken down into smaller elements. In reality, the girders are physically attached to the deck hence it is ok to mesh them. The concrete beams parallel to the z-axis are not attached to the deck. The load from the deck is transferred to the 40ft steel girders. The load from the girders is then transferred to the concrete beams. Hence, we should merge the beams in the z direction. Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->z from the menu. 12. Select Geometry->Merge Selected Members to merge the split concrete beams. Select each entry and press the Merge button.

13. By merging the beams together, the concrete column to beam connectivity is lost. Hence, click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight. STAAD.pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. To break these beams at the intersection point, click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members>Intersect.

14. The geometry has been created. The properties and specifications have to be assigned. Concrete Deck Steel Girders Parallel to x axis Plate elements - 12in thick Material - Concrete 40ft Beam elements W24X103 Material Steel Offset = 0.5 x Depth of Beam + 0.5 thickness of slab = 0.5 x 2.044167 ft + 0.5 x 1ft = 1.5220835 ft at both ends. 2ft x 2ft Sections Material Concrete Offset = 0.5 x Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0.5 thickness of slab = 0.5 x 2ft + 2.044167 ft + 0.5 x 1ft = 3.544167 ft at both ends. 2ft Circular Sections Material Concrete Offset = Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0.5 thickness of slab = 2ft + 2.044167 ft + 0.5 x 1ft = 4.544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams.

Concrete Beam Parallel to the z axis

Concrete Columns

15. Click on the General->Property control tab on your left and click on the Section Database button. 16. Select the W24x103 section from the American W shape database and click on the Add button. 17. Select the W24x103 section that has been created. Click on the Select the Select>Beam Parallel To->X from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. 18. Select the Define button on the right and select the Circle section profile. Input a 2ft diameter and press the Add button. 19. Select the Rectangle section profile and input 2ft in the YD and ZD input boxes. Press the Add button. Press the Close button. 20. Select the Cir 24 section that has been created. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Y from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. 21. Select the Rect 24.00x24.00 section that has been created. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Z from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. 22. Press the Thickness button the right and input 1ft in the Node 1 input box and press the Add button. 23. Select the newly create Plate Thickness entry in the Properties dialog box. Select all the plates using the Plates Cursor and press the Assign button. 24. Select the Spec sub-control tab on the left. 25. Press the Beam button. Select the Offset tab. Select the start option from the location selection box. Select the local option from the Direction selection box. Input an offset of -1.5220835 in the Y input box. Press the Add button.

26. Press the Beam button. Select the Offset tab. Select the End option from the Location selection box. Select the Local option from the Direction selection box. Input an offset of -1.5220835 in the Y input box. Press the Add button. 27. Assign these specifications to the steel girders parallel to the x-axis. Select the START LOCAL 0 -1.52208 0 specification that has been created. Click on the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. 28. Select the END LOCAL 0 -1.52208 0 specification that has been created. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. 29. Repeat Steps# 25 to 28 for the concrete beams but use a y-offset of -3.544167 ft at both ends. For Step# 28, you will need to select beams parallel to the z-axis. 30. For the columns assign a local x-offset of 4.544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams. 31. Click on the View->3D Rendering in the menu.

32. Select the General->Support tab on the left and click on the Create button in the right hand side Data Area. Click on the Add button (i.e create a fixed support entry).

33. Select the newly created S2 Support 2 entry and using the nodes cursor select nodes 16, 17, and 18. Click on the Assign button.

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34. Select the General->Load tab on the left and click on Load Case Details on the right hand side in the Data Area. 35. Click on the Add button on the right. Input the Dead Load in the Title input box. Select Dead in the Loading type selection box. Press the Add button. Click the Close button.

36. Select the newly created 1: Dead Load entry in the data area. Press the Add button. Select the Selfweight item and press the Add button. 37. Click on the Analysis/Print control tab item on the left and press the Add button. 38. Click on the Analyze->Run Analysis menu. Use the STAAD Analysis option and click on the Run Analysis button. 39. If the analysis completed successfully, you should look at the exaggerated deflected shape of the bridge under the action of selfweight. Try to find out any connectivity problems etc. You can go to the Post-Processing mode by clicking on Mode>Postprocessing command in the menu.

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40. You can look at the bending moment diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Beam>Forces control tab on your left in the Post-Processing mode.

41. You can look at the stress distribution diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Plate control tab on your left. Select the Max Absolute stress type from the Stress Type selection box and click on the Ok button.

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3.0 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response


The purpose of this section is to generate the following AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response: 1. Maximum plate stresses, moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx), moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046 that will be used to design for concrete deck reinforcement. The plates are located at the center of the two spans as shown below.

2. Maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to design pile cap footings using STAAD.foundation.

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3. Maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code.

4. Maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881 to check if the deflection of the girders is less than L/360 = 80ft x 12in/360 = 2.7in.

STAAD.beava will be used to generate the above maximum responses (i.e. the location of the AASHTO HS-20 loading or lane loading on this bridge that will generate the maximum responses listed above). 1. Click on Mode->Bridge Deck Preprocessor menu 2. The first step in STAAD.beava is to generate a deck and define a roadway. The second step is to generate the influence surface and view the influence surface diagrams. The influence surface diagram will give a clear picture of the distribution or stresses, moments, forces, etc. across the bridge as a result of loading a certain place with unit loading. The last step is to use the Load Generator to generate the desired maximum responses and transfer them into STAAD.pro as independent load cases for further analysis and design. 3. To generate a deck and define a roadway, select the Plates Cursor and select all plates in the model. Click on Deck->Create Deck command in the menu. To accept the default name of the deck click the Ok button. In STAAD.beava, you are allowed to create multiple decks and multiple roadways on a single deck. 4. Click on Deck->Define Roadway menu and click the New button. The next few steps will illustrate the creation of lanes on the Deck 1 that has been created. Using the Nodes Cursor, the user may find out the coordinates of the deck as shown below. The origin of the deck is at the top left hand side corner.

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5. The Define Roadway dialog box contains three tabs. Namely, Straight, Curved, and Custom. The Straight option allows users to simply define the outer curb origins and STAAD.beava will calculate the lane widths automatically.

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If the designer has no idea about the lane widths of this bridge, he/she can simply enter the following inputs. The meaning of the Curb A and Curb B Origin input parameters can be best understood from the above figure. The Angle input box simply allows the user to define a roadway which is placed at an angle in the Global XZ-plane.

The Curved tab is used to create a curved lane on any deck.

For example, in this case, if curved lanes were desired, the engineer first has to know the center of the curve. The Angle input parameter will control the starting point of the lanes on the bridge. For Example, if the lane starts at the center of the bridge, the engineer may enter

16

-270 degrees for both Curb A and Curb B. The Angle is measured with respect to the line parallel to the global x axis which passes through the center of the circular lane. In the example shown in the following figure curved lanes have to be generated. Suppose the lanes are only to be generated on the region that lies between 0 and 65.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view). Curb A radius is 10ft and Curb B radius be 100ft.

The engineer needs to provide the following inputs in the Define Roadway dialog box.

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Note that the Curb A radius of 60ft and Curb B radius of 100ft have been provided. The center of the circular lanes is located at x=0 and z=0 with respect to the global coordinate system. The Anticlockwise direction has been provided. STAAD.beava will automatically generate lanes for the deck region that that lies between 0 and 65.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view). Suppose the lanes have to be generated for the entire circular deck. The user may enter in the following inputs. Note that in this case, the start Angle of the Curb A and Curb B are 65.5 degrees and the direction of lane generation is in Clockwise.

The Spacing Between Points input box lets the user control the increment of the moving load on the bridge deck. In the Straight and the Curved tabs discussed above, the numbers of lanes are automatically calculated by STAAD.beava. In this example, there are four 10ft wide lanes. These lanes can be created using the Custom tab.

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6. Click on the Custom tab and enter the following inputs:

7. The first lane has been created. To create the second lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes.

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8. The second lane has been created. To create the third lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes.

9. The third lane has been created. To create the last lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes. Press the Ok button. Press the Close button for the Roadways dialog box.

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The Custom tab allows users to create lanes with/without curbs. For example, the following scenario can be created in this example. The following is just an example and you are not required to test this out on this model.

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10. Click on Loading->Influence Surface Generator. This will generate the influence surface diagrams for the entire deck. This process may take long depending upon the number of plates in the model. 11. Click on the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. One of the maximum response conditions is the maximum absolute stress in plate 967. The engineer can look at the influence surface diagram for this plate using the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. Select Plate Stress for the Diagram Type selection box, Max Absolute for the Stress Type selection box, and plate 967 for the Plate number selection box. Press the ok button. The influence surface diagram should be displayed in the graphics window along with the legend on the left hand side.

12. Click on Vehicle->Database from the menu. This menu will display the vehicle database. Click on AASHTO HS 20-44. You will notice the point loads that are associated with this vehicle in the Vehicle Database dialog box. You may also create your own Vehicle definitions by pressing the New button.

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The Figure shown above explains the input parameters used to create the HS 20-44 vehicle. The Figure shown below explains the definition used to create the third axle which does not have a fixed location. STAAD.beava will place the third axle anywhere between14ft to 30ft whichever location generates the maximum response.

13. Click the Ok button on the Vehicle Database dialog box. Click on Loading->Run Load Generator command in the menu.

14. Select the AASHTO ASD/LFD design code from the Design Code selection box. Select the Ultimate Limit State for the Limit State selection dialog box. Let us instruct STAAD.beava to find the AASHTO HS 20-44 load position/conditions that will generate the maximum plate stresses, moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx), moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046. 15. Click on the AASHTO tab in the Load Generator Tab and select the HS 20-44 in the Loading Class selection box.

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16. Click on the Plate Center Stress tab in the Load Generator Tab. Input the parameters as shown in the following figure.

Please refer to section 1.6.1 Plate and Shell Element of the STAAD.pro Technical Reference Manual for a description of the stress types. The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD.beava find out the AASHTO load positions/conditions on the four lanes that will generate the maximum positive stress on the top side of element 967. The top side of element 967 is shown in the following figure.

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17. The second AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to the design pile cap footings using STAAD.foundation. Select the Support Reactions tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.

The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD.beava to find out the AASHTO loading on the four lanes that will generate the maximum Fy reaction at support #16. 18. The third AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code. Select the Beam End Forces tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.

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19. The Last AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881. Select the Node Displacements tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.

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20. Press the Ok button. You will notice the following dialog box which will summarize the STAAD.beava AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response load locations for the desired responses that we entered above. You may get accurate load positions for each lane using the Lane No. Selection box. Click the Close button.

21. The vehicle positions generating the maximum Response for each desired response can be viewed in the STAAD.pro graphics window. 22. Click on the response selection box located on the top right corner of your screen. You will notice a list of all the desired responses that were entered. Right click on the graphics window and select the Labels command. Select the Deck tab and check the loads and vehicles options. Click the Ok button. You will notice the vehicle positions on the deck.

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23. These loads can be transferred to STAAD.pro as individual load cases for the slab, member, and foundation design using the code check features in STAAD.pro. To transfer these loadings into STAAD.pro, select the Loading->Create Loading in STAAD.pro Model command from the menu. Click on Model->Modeling command to return to STAAD.pro. 24. In the General->Load control tab you will notice that all the AASHTO loadings have been created. These loadings do not include the selfweight of the structure that will be needed for the design. You may simply add the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command to each load case using the STAAD.pro input file editor. You may add this load item to each load case using the STAAD.pro GUI.

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4.0

Bridge Design as Per AASHTO

Steel Design as per AASHTO can be summarized in the following steps: 1. Perform Analysis 2. Code Check 3. Select 4. Grouping 5. Perform Analysis 6. Code Check We have already completed the first step. If the beams pass in Step# 2, the subsequent steps can either be used for optimization or may not be required. If the beams fail after Step#6, the entire design cycle from Step# 1 to Step# 6 have to be repeated. To minimize the number of cycles, one may take advantage of the Ratio design parameter which is not discussed in this manual. For more information on the Ratio design parameter please refer to Section 2.13.1 AASHTO (ASD) of the STAAD.pro Technical Reference Manual. After obtaining the analysis results, we could design the steel beams using the following steps: 1. Members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023 are used to design members as per the AASHTO code and all the load cases that we have created. Hence, in the Modeling Mode, click on the Design->Steel control tab on your left. Select the AASHTO design code in the Data Area. 2. Create a group of members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023 using the Tools->Create New Group menu command. 3. We will accept the default steel design parameters in STAAD.pro except for members 964 and 1043 have to have proper DFF, DJ1and DJ2 parameters assigned for the deflection checks. 4. Select beams 964 and 1043 in the graphics window and click the Define Parameters button in the Data Area. The deflection of beam 964 with respect to nodes 6 and 14 have to be checked. The deflection of beam 1041 with respect to nodes 14 and 7 have to be checked.

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Hence, select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 6 and press the Add button. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. Again, Select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 7 and press the Add button. Select the DFF parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter 360 and press the Add button. This is the L/360 deflection criteria. Click the Close button. Under the Parameter 1 tree item in the Data Area, you will notice the following items with question marks besides them.

These design parameters have to be assigned to members 964 and 1043. The DJ1 6, DJ2 14, and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 964. The DJ1 14, DJ2 7, and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 1043. Select the DJ1 6 parameter in the Data Area. Uncheck the Highlight Selected Geometry check box. Select beam 964 in the graphics window. Select the Assign to Selected beams option and click the Assign button. Similarly, assign the remaining design parameters using the procedure described above. 5. Select the Select->By Group Name command from the menu and select the beam group that we have created. Click the Close button. Click on the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Check Code option in the Design Commands dialog box. Click on the Assign button. Click the Close button. 6. Click on Analyze -> Run Analysis command from the menu. Select the STAAD Analysis option and press the Run Analysis button. After the analysis is completed click on the View Output File option to view the steel design results. On the left hand side, click on the RESULTS tab and click on STEEL DESIGN.

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You will notice that all the beams have failed as per the AASHTO code checks. You can instruct STAAD.pro to perform member selection. After performing the member selection, the selection needs to be applied to all beam members. The offsets have to be manually updated. Close the output file. 7. Let us limit the depth of the girders to 2ft and 2.3ft for the selection. Create and assign the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2.3 design parameter to members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023 using the instructions in Step# 4 discussed above and must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. The After Current check box will enable you to place the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2.3 design parameter at the correct location. 8. Assign the Select and Ratio 0.9 command to members 65, 145, 476, 555, 964, 1043, 1456, 1535, 1944, and 2023. The Ratio 0.9 command must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. The After Current check box will enable you to place the Ratio design parameter at the correct location. Staad.pro has to be instructed that all members in the design group have the same section profile. Select the Check Code entry in the Data Area. Click the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Group option. Select Ax in the Property Specification dialog box and check the After Current check box. Click on the Add button in the Design Commands dialog box. Click the Close button. Select the GROUP AX MEMB design command in the Data Area and click on the Select Group/Deck button. Select the design group that you had created in Step 2. Click the Assign button. After running the analysis, as per Step 6 discussed above, you will notice that there are two sets of steel design results; one for the initial selection and the other for the member selection. In the Post-processing mode, the design results are shown in the Beam->Unity Check Tab.

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9. The last step in the design process is to check if this member selection is ok because of the changes in the force distribution in the entire structure and the proposed new member property proposed by STAAD.pro. Open the General->Properties control tab in the Modeling mode. Select W21X275 and select the Select->Beams parallel to->x command from the menu. Select the Assign to Selected Beams option and click the Assign button. The W24X192 have a depth which is 0.03ft less than that of W24X103. Hence, it is not necessary to change the offsets of the beams and the columns in this case. 10. Using the STAAD.pro editor, comment out the following lines as follows: *RATIO 0.9 ALL *WE SELECTED W21X275 AS PER STAAD.PRO SELECTION. WAS W24X103. *SELECT MEMB 65 145 476 555 964 1043 1456 1535 1944 2023 *GROUP AX MEMB _MIDSPANBEAMS INITIAL SECTION

11. Perform the analysis as per the instructions in Step# 6 and you will notice that the beams are passing.

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5.0

Conclusion

STAAD.pro in combination with STAAD.beava can be used to analyze bridges as per the AASHTO code. STAAD.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD.beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response. These loads that create the maximum load responses can then be transferred into STAAD.pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design. This manual has demonstrated the design of the steel girders. A similar design approach can be used for design of concrete members, slab elements and foundations.

36

CE31F DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS


(Clarke) LEARNING OBJECTIVES (of this section of the course): The student will be able to: Use readily available structural analysis software for the structural modeling and analysis of environmental structures Appreciate various types of tank foundations/bases and appropriately cater for the soil-structure interaction problem in their structural analysis Design environmental structures in consideration of vibratory effects for slabs, beams, anchorages, and buried pipes

SECTIONS 1.0 Computer Modeling of Environmental Structures (STAAD) 1.1 1.2 FEM and STAAD Modeling 1.2.1 Modeling the Nodes 1.2.2 Modeling the Supports

2.0

Foundations for Tank Structures 2.1 2.2 Rigid Mats Flexible Mats

3.0

Design for Vibratory Effects 3.1 3.2 Machine Vibration Earthquake Vibration Effects on Components

1.0

COMPUTER MODELING OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURES (STAAD)

Environmental engineering installations are generally water or wastewater treatment facilities that may be classified as: water or liquid-containing structures, tanks, and basins, conduits, inter-connecting channels, machine and equipment foundations, protective housing, floors, storage rooms, walkways, and stairs. The main structure however is the tank whose walls and covering (if any) may be considered rigid (e.g. concrete), or flexible (e.g. steel sheets; structural plastic). The structural form of the tank is generally the shell element hence the structural design of the tank requires the use of structural shell theory to determine the internal design actions (moments, shears, etc) that must be resisted by the shell material. In many instances, the use of formulae, developed from structural theory, apply only apply to shells of simple geometrical arrangement and may not apply to more practical situations. In such cases, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used. 1.1 FEM and STAAD

In structural analysis, FEM is a technique for determining the design actions within three-dimensional structural members such as the walls, the dome cover, etc, that make up the tank. The technique is an approximate analysis since it is based on numerical analysis. The member is broken down into a set of smaller regions called elements. Each element has a set of joints, called nodes, and the elements are connected together at the nodes. For example, the wall below is divided into 5 rectangular finite elements (triangular elements can also be used). Element number 1 is connected to joints (nodes) 1-2-3-4; element number 2 is connected to joints 2-5-3-6, etc.
1 1 4 4 9 10 3 5 11 2 2 6 5 12 5 3 8 7

The application of computer technology to structural engineering in particular, and the low cost of hardware and software at present, resulted in the easy accessibility of many finite element computer programs to the engineer and is considered a fundamental tool. In the Caribbean region one such popular program is STAAD (STructural Analysis And Design language). The student must refer to sections 1 and 2 of the companion document entitled STAAD Basics to complete their appreciation of section 1.0 (download from http://richardpclarke.tripod.com/ideas/id5.html). A detailed example on the analysis of a tank structure using STAAD is provided. The remainder of this section is specifically with respect to issues encountered in the analysis of environmental structures by computer. 1.2 Modeling

In the previous section, the process of representing the wall by a set of nodes and elements is called modeling. The word modeling therefore means representing. A computer structural model is a representation of the physical structure so that it can then be analysed by the computer program. In structural analysis, it is not just the material that must be modeled, but also the nodes and the supports of the structure. It is important to know the condition of the physical structure (i.e. what kinds of connections and

supports are used) in order to build a model that correctly represents the structure. It is possible to get results from the computer program but those results are incorrect since the model is not a true representation. 1.2.1 Modeling the Nodes

In three dimensions, the node, which is a connection between finite elements, in the most general case, is like a ball that can move in 6 ways called the degrees-of-freedom. The node can slide (i.e. translate) in the three directions, and the node can rotate in the three planes. A node can be either fixed or free. Typically, a finite element computer program initially assumes that all the joints are fixed for all of the 6 degrees-offreedom. If the node is fixed with respect to rotating in the x-y plane say, then this means that when that node rotates, all elements connected to it will also rotate by the same amount. However, if the node is free, then when the node rotates, the rotation will not be passed to the other elements connected to that node. For the wall example above, and for the elements of tank structures in general, the degrees-of-freedom of the nodes are fixed, so it is rarely necessary to model a node as free. But for the supports of the structure, this is not the case. 1.2.2 Modeling the Supports of the Structure

The tank base may be supported directly on the ground, or the base may be supported on a structure below such as a frame which is then supported on the ground (i.e. an elevated tank), or on a set of piles. Any structure must be supported in order to resist the external applied loads and these supports must be suitably arranged and be of a suitable type or the structure will be unstable. In terms of structural modeling, a support is a special type of node a node that connects to the ground. To model the support, the analyst must ask the following question for each degree-of-freedom: for the type of connection to be used, does the connection allow free movement or rotation? For example, if the tank is elevated and supported on a steel frame, the typical column of the frame may be connected to the ground using 4 steel bolts anchored to a footing in the ground.
y x colum base plate hold-down bolt rc footing

weld z x

How do you model this support? The bolts prevent the column, at the connection, from moving in the x and z directions. The footing below the column prevents the column from moving in the y-direction. So the support node must be modeled as fixed with respect to x, y, and z. However, the connection does not prevent the base of the column from rotating independently of the footing for rotation about the z and x-axes. The connection does however prevent independent rotation about the y-axis since the column is welded to the base plate. So for the rotation degrees-of-freedom about the z and x-axes, these must be modeled as free. Making the degree-of-freedom free is called releasing the degree-of-freedom. In STAAD, common types of supports can be modeled by selecting the support type as being pinned (i.e. hinged), or fixed. The rotation degrees-of-freedom are called Mx, My, and Mz for rotation about the x, y and z-axes respectively, and the translation degrees-of-freedom, by Fx, Fy, and Fz for translation along the x, y and z-axes respectively. A tick mark is used by STAAD to signify a free degree-of-freedom, so a pinned and a fixed support would have the following settings (no tick means fixed). SUPPORT TYPE PINNED FIXED Mx My Mz Fx Fy Fz

It is possible to have a support type that is neither pinned nor free, so the analyst must consider each support and model the connection accordingly. If the vertical translation degree-of-freedom (i.e. Fy) is fixed, as it always is for pinned or fixed supports, this means that the ground below the support is considered absolutely rigid. For this to be so, the soil must be incompressible such as for dense cohesionless soil, or very stiff clays. If the soil is compressible, then the deformation of the soil is modeled in STAAD using soil springs of stiffness, K. This is presented in section 2.2 Though releasing of the degrees-of-freedom for nodes was discussed above for supports, such releases may be required in other areas such as if the tank walls are used to support other elements (e.g. pipes, beams for walkways, stairs, etc). In such a case, if the attachment is say by a simple bracket, the node at the end of the member must be released to model the connection between the member and the tank wall. The student is requested do this in STAAD as an exercise. A final comment should now be made on the issue of the FEM for tank modeling. FEM is a complex subject since there are literally hundreds of types of finite elements. The one used in STAAD is called a generalpurpose element since it can be used to accurately model a wide range of types of structural elements and conditions. However, even the selection of the element type is a part of the modeling process, and the analyst must not take the selection of the element for granted. When in doubt, other element types should be investigated and comparisons made. There are also issues of element meshing techniques and automatic mesh generation. The student should consult standard FEM texts to acquaint themselves with these topics.

2.0

FOUNDATIONS FOR TANK STRUCTURES

1. Flexible tank (steel, plastic) on independent rc mat foundation

2. Rigid tank (rc) with walls integrated with rc solid mat foundation

3. Rigid tank with walls integrated with rc cap on piles (concrete, steel, timber)

4. Rigid tank with walls integrated with rc cellular mat foundation

Common arrangements of tank structures in relation to their foundations are shown in figures 1 to 4 above. A tank structure has walls and a base and may or may not have a cover. Flexible tanks have relatively thin walls which may be of steel sheets welded, bolted, or riveted together. Flexible tanks can also be made of structural plastic which can be pre-packaged and delivered to site. For flexible tanks, the base and walls are usually of the same material and the base merely rests on the reinforced concrete (rc) foundation as shown in 1. The tank can be bolted to the foundation along the perimeter to prevent uplift or sliding under horizontal forces. The flexible tank foundation is either a reinforced concrete mat or piles. In the latter case, the piles are connected via a rc slab and the tank base rests on this slab. Rigid tanks are usually of reinforced concrete walls and may be prestressed. If the foundation is a rc mat, the mat usually also serves as the tank base (figure 2). If the foundation is a piled foundation, the rc slab connecting the piles usually serves as the tank base as well (figure 3). There are generally 2 types of mat foundation solid and cellular. A cellular mat is shown in figure 4. A main advantage of the cellular mat is that it is very stiff (i.e. resistant to differential settlement) and contains less steel than the solid mat. The cells can be arranged in one or both directions and can be void or filled with sand. The bottom slab of the cellular mat can be omitted, in which case the mat is a series of T-beams. In terms of cost however, the lower steel requirement may be offset by formwork costs, or the cost of problems due to water intrusion during construction which is likely during the rainy seasons of Caribbean countries. From a structural standpoint, the deformation of the tank base is critical. The tank base is deformable regardless of whether the tank is supported by a mat foundation, or a slab supported by piles. For the case of the former, since the slab itself is deformable, the type of ground below the mat is a critical consideration. This is because if the soil is compressible, the slab will deform significantly under the loads and in doing so, stresses will be transferred into the walls of the tank. The remainder of this section will focus on this situation - the tank base is a solid mat foundation for the tank as a whole.

2.1 Rigid Mats


Q1 Q Q2 Q1 Q Q2

1. Rigid Mat on Soil Ground outside mat not affected

2. Rigid Mat on Piles

3. Deformable Mat on Soil Springs 4. Deformable Mat on Piles

Soil outside mat also settles

5. Deformable mat on elastic solid

If the mat itself (also called a raft) is considered rigid, this means that it does not deform. In this case, the soil reaction is a planar surface - q, which is determined by statics (Figure 1 above). Notice from figure 2, that if the mat is rigid, the resultant is the same as when the mat is supported on the soil. When q is determined, the design actions in the mat (moments and shears) are determined by merely considering strips of the mat as upside-down beams, then applying statics. Since the aim is to use the computer for the analysis calculations, the application of this approach is left as an exercise for the student. The rigid mat approach is the easiest to use and gives suitable results if the type of soil beneath the mat is soft (mud, soft clay, medium clay, peat and organic soils). However, as the stiffness or compactness of the soil increases the method loses accuracy. It tends to lead to significantly underestimated bending moments in the mat near the edges, and overestimated moments in the regions between the wall locations, compared with the actual response in the mat.

2.2 Flexible Mats If the mat is considered deformable, the movement of the soil affects the moments and shears within the mat (hence the tank walls as well). There are two approaches to determining the design actions in the mat: 1. Consider the soil as a series of springs, called Winkler springs, of stiffness K (as mentioned in section 1.2.2; Figure 3 above). 2. Consider the soil as an elastic soild (Figure 5 above). Approach 1 can give significant error due of the distribution of the soil pressure on the underside of the mat, depending on the type of soil below the mat, and regardless of the type of load on the top surface. This happens because the method cannot account for the fact that the soil is a solid body, so there is interaction at all directions through a point. The actual pressure distributions are as indicated below.

Clay

Large mat on sand

Small mat on sand

Approach 2 is the closest to the actual situation but the solution approach is generally impractical for many situations. Considering the pros and cons of the three methods (i.e. rigid mat, Winkler springs, elastic solid), the most appropriate balance of ease of use and accuracy is obtained using the Winkler springs approach, but corrected using factors determined from the more elaborate but accurate elastic solid approach. This situation has occurred mainly due to the improvements of computer technology such as the STAAD computer program. Procedure for Using Winkler Soil Springs in STAAD Analysis of a Tank 1. Determine the modulus of subgrade reaction for the soil, k (kN/m3; available from soil mechanics texts). As an approximation, k is 120 times the allowable bearing capacity of the soil in kN/m2. 2. For each support node, calculate the tributary area for the node. 3. For each support node: (a) multiply k from 1, by the area from 2; this gives the spring stiffness, K kN/m. (b) If the node is a side node (i..e along the edge of the mat) multiply K by 3, but if a corner node, multiply by 6. 4. In STAAD, and for each support node: use the fixed but option and input the K value from 3(b). This procedure gives reasonably accurate results, but for maximum accuracy, refer to ACI 436 which gives a more detailed procedure for determining the correction factors.

The foregoing is with respect to the mat (i.e. tank base) being directly supported on soil, and not for the case where the tank base is considered deformable but supported on piles. For this case, the Winkler springs approach can also be used (in STAAD) but the piles locations should coincide with the support nodes. The value of the spring stiffness is then EA/L where E is the Youngs modulus of the pile material, A, the crosssectional area of the pile, and L, the pile length.

3.0

DESIGN FOR VIBRATORY EFFECTS

With respect to environmental systems in the regional context, vibratory effects occur due to two main sources machine vibration and earthquakes. From a design perspective, the consideration of vibratory or dynamic loading effects is a matter of determining the maximum inertial forces and relative displacements that arise when a structure is externally excited by the vibrating force. This is because of the phenomenon called resonance in which case the magnitude of the external force is magnified relative to if the vibration was not present. The magnification increases as the frequency of the external vibrating force approaches the natural frequency of the structure or element that force is acting on. The natural frequency of the structure or element is the frequency at which it vibrates if given an initial displacement and released to vibrate freely. This is typically calculated using empirical formulae for the structure or element.

F I + FD + F S = F E
The external force FE is resisted by the sum of the inertial force, FI, the internal frictional or damping force, FD, and the stiffness or spring force, FS. If resonance effects are negligible, then FE = FS. But if not, FI acts like an additional external force that must be resisted, hence the magnification. With respect to machine vibrations, the elements of the environmental structure that support the machinery (beam, slab, column) must be able to withstand the dynamic magnification of the weight of the machinery. Environmental structures are typically required to remain functional after an earthquake. The earthquake event induces vibratory motion of the environmental structure in terms of the magnitude and distribution of the inertia forces associated with the mass of the structure, and the masses of the various items (machinery, pipework, etc) that the structure supports. For the former, the focus is the tank structure and its contents, if any, and is outside the scope of this presentation. For the latter, the focus is the force exerted on the supports of the items attached to the structure, and the displacement of these items relative to the structure. These considerations are necessary to ensure that the movement can take place without rupture of the connections, or the pipework, including underground or buried pipes.

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3.1

Machine Vibration

The typical relationship between vibrating machinery and its supporting structure is shown the figure below.
Beam or slab

Vibrating machinery on beam or slab

Centrifugal pumps, fans, centrifuges, blowers, generator engines, and compressors generally have sufficiently high rotational speeds to induce inertial forces that must be considered in the design of their supports and foundations. The vibration arises since no rotating mass is perfectly balanced as there is always some degree of eccentricity between the centre of gravity and the geometric centroid of the mass. The key to successful dynamic design is to insure that the natural frequency of the machinery support structure is significantly different from the frequency of the disturbing force. This is a more cost-effective approach since the maintenance or repair cost of the machine due to the resonance effects is much higher than the cost of adjusting the structures properties. Machine Supported Directly on Suspended Beam or Slab The ratio of the natural frequency of the structure to the natural frequency of the disturbing force, FN/FM, should satisfy the following: (FN/FM) < 0.5 or (FN/FM) > 1.5 (1) (2)

Eq (2) is preferred (i.e. a stiff structure) since (1) implies that at startup and shutdown of the machinery, it will pass through FN. In the general case, the structure may be supporting M masses that vibrate in all three directions (vertical and 2 horizontal). If a mass is vibrating horizontally, the columns supporting the mass will act like beams. To get the natural frequency of the structure for this general case use the following: FN = 1 / [ (
N
1

(1 / F2 i ) )]

(3)

where FN is the structures natural frequency, and Fi is the structures natural frequency for the case of mass i.

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Fi is determined from a formula for a beam that gives the natural frequency depending on the static deflection, D, due to the weight of the mass applied in the direction of the vibration. Note that this same formula is used if the machinery vibration is horizontal since the structures columns then act like cantilevers. For a concentrated load at any point along the span regardless of end conditions (this includes the cantilever case), if the deflection at any point is D (mm), then the natural frequency of the beam in cycles per minute is 947/D. For a beam pinned or fixed at both ends and carrying a uniformly distributed load with mid-span deflection D (mm), the natural frequency of the beam in cycles per minute is 1073/D.

When the Fi is thus determined, substitute in (3) to calculate FN, then check (1) or (2) for each vibrating mass.
If the machinery is installed on an upper floor, the use of vibration isolators is recommended but this should not be considered a substitute for dynamic structural design. Machine Supported on the Ground (Foundation Slab)

The aforesaid technique can also be applied to machines directly supported on the foundation. However, a rule-of-thumb that is frequently used is that if the foundation is comprised of pad footings, use an allowable bearing capacity that is one-half of what would have been used if vibration was not a factor. Also, some equipment manufacturers recommend a minimum ratio of foundation to equipment mass of 4 to 6, but it has been observed that this approach does not always give satisfactory results. For relatively important facilities, the natural frequency of the foundation should be calculated by reference to special publications on the subject. As a final note, the determination of the vibratory effects due to the machinery can be performed using the STAAD computer program described in sections 1.0 and 2.0. Refer to the STAAD Basics handout, especially Example 3.0.

3.2

Earthquake Vibration Effects on Components Attached to Environmental Structures

The figure below displays the typical scenario. The earthquake event induces the vibration of the ground causing the environmental structure (in this case an equipment storage building) to vibrate. However, certain components may be attached to the vibrating structure which in turn also vibrate and experience a peak inertial force Fp. The component, say the vertical pipe shown in the figure, may be supported at several points such as A and B but these points will not move in a synchronized manner. They will move relative to each other and thereby induce stresses within the pipe.

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Component support Component vibration of peak force, Fp

Components attachment (anchor bolt, etc). Pipe

Earthquake vibration Buried Pipe

Coupling Earthquake effects on attachments, buried pipe, and pipe couplings

The design therefore must consider the Fps for each component, and the peak relative displacement between the components supports, for all the components. The FP is used to design the support (i.e. frame, brace, leg, cable, stay, pedestal, etc) for the component, and the attachment (typically anchor bolts) by which the support is connected to the structure. If the relative displacement between the components supports is excessive, the movement must be allowed to take place without damaging the component. For pipes, such as between A and B in the figure, this is typically achieved by using flexible couplings. A coupling is a connection between one segment of a pipe and another. Information on the deformation capacity of a coupling is typically available from the supplier. Fp Calculation: Fp is typically calculated by use of a formula, though it is possible to study the situation more rigorously by structural dynamics. The formula refers to certain constants that depend on the type of component. The following is the IBC 2000 formula and the values of the constants for some components. Fp = A x B/C where, A = 0.4ap SDS Wp B = 1 + 2z/h C = Rp/Ip such that, ap = component amplification factor (from table) Fp = components peak earthquake force centred at its centre of gravity Ip = components importance factor; 1.0 or 1.5

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h = height of the structure above ground (that the component is connected to) Rp = response modification factor (from table) SDS = design spectral response short-period acceleration; assume 0.4 for Caribbean countries Wp = components operating weight z = height of component above ground Fp is not required to be taken as greater than, Fp = 1.6 SDS Ip Wp but must not be less than, Fp = 0.3 SDS Ip Wp The force Fp must be applied independently longitudinally and laterally in combination with service loads associated with the attachment. COMPONENT Stacks Piping systems with elements and attachments of high-deformability Piping systems with elements and attachments of low-deformability Vibration isolated equipment Non-vibration isolated equipment Electrical equipment Electrical bus ducts, conduit, cable trays Relative Displacement Calculation: (a) If the two points are on the same structure A: The earthquake relative displacement, Dp, is calculated by using the following equation. For two connection points one at level x, and the other at level y: Dp = DxA - DyA (b) If one point is on one structure A, and the other point is on another structure, B: Dp = |DxA| - |DyB| The DxA, DyA, and DyB are as determined from the earthquake structural analysis but must be considered in combination with displacements caused by other loads. ap 2.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 Rp 2.5 3.5 1.25 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.5

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At the interface of adjacent structures or portions of the same structure that may move independently, utility lines shall be provided with adequate flexibility to accommodate the anticipated differential movement between the ground and the structure. Component Anchorage: Components must be anchored (component-to-support, or support-to-structure) in accordance with the following: (a) Where component anchorage is provided by shallow expansion anchors (e.g. HILTI bolts), shallow chemical anchors (e.g. lock-set), or shallow cast-in-place anchors (e.g. plate or rod crabs), the value for Rp must be 1.5. (b) Anchors embedded in concrete or masonry must be proportioned to carry the lesser of: - the design strength of the connected part - 1.3 times the force in the connected part due to the prescribed forces - the maximum force that can be transferred to the connected part by the component structural system (c) Determination of forces in anchors must include the expected conditions of installation including eccentricities and prying effects. (d) Determination of force distribution in a group of anchors at one location must include the stiffness of the connected system and its ability to redistribute loads to other anchors of the group due to yielding of anchors. (e) Powder-driven fasteners (i.e. gun applied) must not be used for tension load applications (e.g. hangers) in areas of high seismic hazard. Special Considerations: (a) Tanks: For storage tanks mounted above the ground, the attachments and supports must be designed to meet the Fp but with Rp given by the following: Concrete or welded steel tank 2 Tank supported on braced or unbraced legs 3 For tanks at ground level of diameter greater than 6.1m, or tanks at ground level with height-to-diameter greater than 1.0, the piping connections must be designed to either resist or survive without damage, the following displacements for side-wall connections and bottom penetrations: A vertical displacement of 51mm for anchored tanks A vertical displacement of 305mm for unanchored tanks A horizontal displacement of 203mm for unanchored tanks with a diameter of 12.2m or less.

(b) Piping: Under design loads and displacements, piping must not be permitted to impact other components. Piping must accommodate the effects of relative displacement that can occur between piping support points on the structure or the ground, other mechanical and/or electrical equipment, and other piping.

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Supports for piping need not be designed for Fp if Ip =1.0 (i.e. a non-critical structure) and if - the support is comprised of rod hangars for pipe less than 305mm diameter; the pipe is of high-deformability and less than 75mm diameter for a region of high seismicity. (c) Mechanical Equipment: Expansion anchors must not be used as attachments for mechanical equipment rated above 10 horsepower (7.5 kW) and the equipment is not vibration-isolated, except if the expansion anchor is of the undercut expansion type. Friction-clips must not be used as attachments for mechanical equipment. (d) Buried Pipe: If there is no settlement, liquefaction or fault displacement in which case the soil around the pipe retains its integrity after the earthquake, the pipeline will comply with the soil movement. The results of this are an increase in the axial strain of the pipe, and bending at the pipe connections. Generally, buried pipelines in seismic zones should be flexibly-jointed and the main concern will be in avoiding separation or impact at joints, and limiting the bending stresses at or near points of restraint. The soil vibration causes a strain within the soil that the buried pipe resists by friction. The frictional force is given by, F = 2dHff where d is the pipe diameter, is the soil density, H is the depth below the surface, and ff is the coefficient of friction between the pipe and soil. The axial stress developed in the pipe due to the soil strain is, fa = (2 E F x/A), where E is the Youngs modulus of the pipe material, F is the frictional force between pipe and soil, A, is the pipe cross-sectional area, and x is the extension of the pipe due to the axial strain. The peak axial strain amax is given by, amax = Vmax/C where Vmax is the maximum ground velocity, and C is the velocity of the propagation of the seismic wave through the soil. Over a length of pipe L, x = amax x L. Therefore, the spacing of the flexible joints can be estimated, as well as the required deformation capacity of the joint in order to avoid impact of adjacent pipe segments, and sustain the movement.

1. In STAAD.pro, you may add cover plates to your beam elements as shown in the following figure.

2. You may add cover plates to your beam elements as shown in the following figure using Section Builder Software. Click on Start -> Programs -> STAAD.pro 2006 -> Section Wizard -> Section Builder. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click on the Select Profile button. Expand the ASTM tree item. Expand the W-Wide Flange Beams tree item. Select W10x33 Click on the Ok button. Your W10x33 section will appear in the Section Element dialog box. Click on the Add button to add the section to the Section Wizard window.

8. Now we need to add the top and bottom cover plates. 9. Click on the Select Profile button. 10. Select the plates option. 11. Enter 1.5 inches in the Plate Thickness input box. 12. Enter 12 inches in the Plate Width input box. 13. Click on the Ok button. 14. Your 1.5 x 12 plate will appear in the Section Element dialog box. 15. Notice that node #1 is highlighted in red. Select the Join Node option. In the first selection box, select node #6. You will notice that node #6 is now

highlighted in red. Select node# 11 in the second node selection box. You will notice that node #11 in your Section Wizard window on the W10x33 section will be highlighted. Press the Add button. You will notice that the top cover plate has been added. 16. Notice that node #6 is highlighted in red. Select the Join Node option. In the first selection box, select node #8. You will notice that node #8 is now highlighted in red. Select node# 2 in the second node selection box. You will notice that node #2 in your Section Wizard window on the W10x33 section will be highlighted. Press the Add button. You will notice that the bottom cover plate has been added.

Once you have created your section, you can export the section to STAAD.pro by clicking on File -> Export to STAAD -> General Section. Specify a file name and location. To import and use the newly created section in STAAD.pro, click on 1. Click on Tools->Create User Table. 2. Click on the "New Table" button. 3. Check the "External Table" check box. 4. Click on the "Browse" button and locate your "*.upt" file. 5. Select the "General" section type. 6. Press "Ok" 7. Press "Close" 8. Click on the Geometry tab on your left. 9. Click on "Property" tab. 10. On your right hand side, click on the "User Table" button. 11. Select "Table #" in which your section is placed. 12. Select the section and click the "Add" button. 13. Press "Close" 14. Select the Section in the "Properties" box and select "Use Cursor to Assign" 15. Click on the "Assign" button. 16. You will see that the mouse pointer will change and you will be able to assign the new section.

Modeling Custom Shapes in STAAD.Pro 2007

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

6 February 2008

STAAD.Pro section database contains sections from seventeen different countries. For the U.S., design codes, in addition to the AISC section steel profiles, American Steel Joist, cold formed steel, timber and aluminum databases are also provided with STAAD.Pro. If a new section profile is introduced in the market or a very old AISC section is missing in the section database, the user has the power to modify the existing section profile tables by using the Tools>Modify Section Database menu command. In some instances the user may have an odd section profile that is not contained in the standard section database. These types of sections can be modeled using the General Section feature in STAAD.Pro. A General Section can be defined by clicking on the Tools>Create User Table menu command. The Create User Provided Table dialog box will appear. Using this dialog box, the user may create a table with the General section type as shown in Figure 1.

Unfortunately, profile points from a dxf file cannot be imported into this dialog box. One may import the points into STAAD.Section wizard from a dxf file and then transfer those points to the profile table shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: L section Profile Points

The engineer may type in the profile points in the profile point table shown in Figure 2. Let us type the following points in the section profile table:
Table 1: Section Profile Points

1 2 3 4 5 6

Z (in) 0 0 1 1 4 4

Y (in) 0 10 10 3 3 0

Figure 1: The General Section Table 1 contains a section with the name UPT

After the Compute Section Properties button is clicked, STAAD.Pro will calculate all the section properties as shown in Figure 2. Once the structural geometry is created in STAAD.Pro, the engineer could assign the custom property to the respective members by clicking on the User Table button located in the General -> Property control tab item data area shown in Figure 3. The User Property Table dialog box will appear with the custom sections listed in the table. The engineer has to select the custom section and assign it to the members in his/her STAAD.Pro model.

For example, let us assume that the user wanted to create a custom L shaped section in STAAD.Pro. The user would have to click on the Add New Property button in the Create User Provided Table dialog box and as a result the General dialog box will appear in the STAAD.Pro interface as shown in Figure 2. The user may type in the section properties or may request STAAD.Pro to calculate the section properties if he/she had the profile points ready.

stress diagram for the L-sections as illustrated in Figure 6.

Figure 3: The User Table button in the Properties Dialog box

Figure 6: Combined Axial and Bending Stress Diagrams

Figure 4: The User Property Table

STAAD.Pros 3D rendered mode will be able to render the L-Shapes as shown in Figure 5 using the profile points provided by the user.

Figure 5: L Sections are seen in 3D-Rendered Mode in STAAD.Pro

The engineer will be able to see all the analytical results in the post-processing mode. He/She will be able to see a combined axial and bending

DXF Import in STAAD.Pro 2007

By

Structural Engineering Group Bentley Systems Inc.

December 27, 2007

There are many ways to construct a structural geometry in STAAD.Pro. The structural engineer can create a particular model using the STAAD.Pro interface, use structure wizard, OpenSTAAD, command input file, or Bentley Structural. In some instances, he/she may already have the drawings or geometry ready in a dgn, dwg, or dxf format and may not want to go through the process of redrawing that structure using STAAD.Pro. The purpose of this document is to help out engineers in making this conversion process easier. This document also highlights some of the common mistakes that users make while converting a dxf file format file to a STAAD.Pro analysis model. AutoCAD DXF (Drawing Interchange Format, or Drawing Exchange Format) is a CAD data file format, developed by Autodesk as their solution for enabling data interoperability between AutoCAD and other programs. As AutoCAD has become more powerful, supporting more complex object types, DXF has become less useful. Certain object types, including ACIS solids and regions, are not documented. Other object types, including AutoCAD 2006's dynamic blocks, and all of the objects specific to the verticalmarket versions of AutoCAD, are partially documented, but not at a sufficient level to allow other developers to support them. Hence, one has to keep in mind that having a dxf file does not mean that it should be read by STAAD.Pro without any problems. There is no product in the market that can convert any dxf file model to a STAAD.Pro analytical model without any clean-up. The dxf file has to be cleaned up using the following steps. There are many stages that you can start off with. The following figure illustrates some starting points. Stage 1: Existing CAD drawing with sections drawn. (e.g. a simple HSS section is shown with two lines (i.e. top and bottom flanges in an elevation view) on a 2D drawing Stage 2: Simple stick model where every section is represented by a simple line element.

Stage 3: Simple dxf containing a stick model with polylines, cells (MicroStation), blocks (AutoCAD). Stage 4: A 2D dxf obtained from a 3D structural frame model created using Autodesk Inventor. Figure 1: Possible stages of a RAW dxf file

The following write-up will help you import dxf files into STAAD.Pro. Always make a backup copy of your dxf file before proceeding with the following steps. For Stage 1: 1. Remove all the text, dimension lines, and unwanted views. 2. Need to draw a stick line diagram using simple line elements in the CAD package. If you are drawing a stick model on top of an existing model make sure you use a different layer on top of the existing view in the dxf file. For example, you will need to draw a line representing the centerline of the HSS section. 3. Remove the original elevation not the newly created centerline diagram. Use the layer on/off feature to delete the elements under the unwanted layer. 4. As a result of steps 1-3, you will be left with a simple stick model of the structure 5. Scale the model to match the import unit system (may or may not be necessary) 6. Save the file as a dxf file and close it. Close the CAD package. 7. Open STAAD.Pro and create a new project. 8. Click on File->Import command menu and select the 3D-DXF option in the Import dialog box. 9. Click on the Import button. 10. Select the dxf file and click on the Open button. 11. The DXF Import dialog box will appear. The axis system in your CAD package will be different from the axis system used in the STAAD.Pro model. The Y-Axis usually is the axis of gravity in STAAD.Pro the Z-Axis is usually the axis of gravity in the CAD products. Hence you need to specify which axis is the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro model. If the axis system is the same in the STAAD.Pro model and the dxf file, then select the No Change option. If the Y-Axis is the axis of gravity in the STAAD.Pro model and Z-Axis is the axis of gravity for the CAD model, select the Y Up option button.

For Stage 2: 1. Remove all the text, dimension lines, and unwanted views. You will be left with a simple stick model of the structure 2. Scale the model to match the import unit system (may or may not be necessary) 3. Save the dxf file and close it. Close the CAD package. 4. Open STAAD.Pro and create a new project. 5. Click on File->Import command menu and select the 3D-DXF option in the Import dialog box. 6. Click on the Import button. 7. Select the dxf file and click on the Open button. 8. The DXF Import dialog box will appear. The axis system in your CAD package will be different from the axis system used in the STAAD.Pro model. The Y-Axis usually is the axis of gravity in STAAD.Pro the Z-Axis is usually the axis of gravity in the CAD products. Hence you need to specify which axis is the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro model. If the axis system is the same in the STAAD.Pro model and the dxf file, then select the No Change option. If the Y-Axis is the axis of gravity in the STAAD.Pro model and Z-Axis is the axis of gravity for the CAD model, select the Y Up option button.

For Stage 3: 1. Remove all the text, dimension lines, and unwanted views 2. Need to draw a stick line diagram using simple line elements in the CAD package. Make sure you use a different layer on top of the existing view in the dxf file. Explode all blocks or cells and draw the centerline diagram for the exploded blocks or cells. All polylines and arcs have to be converted to simple line elements. Remove any title blocks. 3. Remove the original elevation 4. As a result of steps 1-3, you will be left with a simple stick model of the structure 5. Scale the model to match the import unit system (may or may not be necessary) 6. Save the file as a dxf file and close it. Close the CAD package. 7. Open STAAD.Pro and create a new project. 8. Click on File->Import command menu and select the 3D-DXF option in the Import dialog box. 9. Click on the Import button. 10. Select the dxf file and click on the Open button. 11. The DXF Import dialog box will appear. The axis system in your CAD package will be different from the axis system used in the STAAD.Pro model. The Y-Axis usually is the axis of gravity in STAAD.Pro the Z-Axis is usually the axis of gravity in the CAD products. Hence you need to specify which axis is the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro model. If the axis system is the same in the STAAD.Pro model and the dxf file, then select the No Change option. If the Y-Axis is the axis of gravity in the STAAD.Pro model and Z-Axis is the axis of gravity for the CAD model, select the Y Up option button.

For Stage 4: 1. Remove all the text, dimension lines, and unwanted views 2. Need to draw a stick line diagram using simple line elements in the CAD package. If you are drawing a stick model on top of an existing model make sure you use a different layer on top of the existing view in the dxf file. 3. Remove the original elevation 4. As a result of steps 1-3, you will be left with a simple stick model of the structure 5. Scale the model to match the import unit system (may or may not be necessary) 6. Save the file as a dxf file and close it. Close the CAD package. 7. Open STAAD.Pro and create a new project. 8. Click on File->Import command menu and select the 3D-DXF option in the Import dialog box. 9. Click on the Import button. 10. Select the dxf file and click on the Open button. 11. The DXF Import dialog box will appear. The axis system in your CAD package will be different from the axis system used in the STAAD.Pro model. The Y-Axis usually is the axis of gravity in STAAD.Pro the Z-Axis is usually the axis of gravity in the CAD products. Hence you need to specify which axis is the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro model. If the axis system is the same in the STAAD.Pro model and the dxf file, then select the No Change option. If the Y-Axis is the axis of gravity in the STAAD.Pro model and Z-Axis is the axis of gravity for the CAD model, select the Y Up option button.

After you import the dxf file into STAAD.Pro, you will need to do some clean-up on the std file. For example; 1. Remove unnecessary lines or objects 2. Click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight menu command. Hint: Try a 1in search radius. 3. Click on the Tools menu command and go through all the checks. (e.g. check for structural integrity, check for duplicate nodes and beams etc.) Using the above steps make sure the model is ok from an analysis point of view. Plate elements have to be drawn as 3D Faces in the dxf file. Before importing a model into STAAD.Pro pay attention to the node coordinates in your dxf file. Solid objects cannot be created in STAAD.Pro using the dxf format. One could create the outline of a solid object using simple line elements. Once the lines are imported into STAAD.Pro, he/she can draw the solid object using the line elements as grid lines. Engineers in the bridge industry place bridge decks in real world GPS coordinates in the dxf file. These deck coordinates will be imported as they are in the STAAD.Pro model. GPS coordinates are very big numbers in the order of 100,000s. If these node coordinates are used as they are in the STAAD.Pro analysis, the accuracy of the results are affected due to round off errors. It is a good idea to move these models to the origin using the move command in the CAD package that is being used.

How to Import Staad Model to Xsteel or Teklastructure

Hadiansyah, ST hadihanifa@gmail.com

One of the features of Teklastructure is its capabilities to import or export to other program, such as SACS, STAAD-Pro, SFrame, SDNF etc. This document will describe step by step on how Staad-pro analysis model imported inside Teklastructure with ease. For some reason this work could fasten the detailing work but in other case, the detailer should check all orientations off all steel members. Lets go to the next step.

First of all you must have the staad model that will be imported by TS. It is recommended that the staad model is already finish and all steel member is properly designed and in term of stress ratio is below 1. Let say that you already have a staad model as shown on the next page A simple small industrial 25x7 m2 and eave height is 3m. The structure utilizing japanese hot rolled section as follow

As shown the structure have size of steel as follow: H150X7X5, H250X125X6, H300X150X6.5 PIP101.6X3.2, Cir 0.016

If you have done with the staad model. Now you can open an empty fresh TS model Lets say that you already have a TS model named Staad to TS Then you can start imported staad model using import FEM. Choose file menu, select import, then FEM. You can select ****.std file from staad. The following picture will describe TS import staad model.

Choose File menu, then select import FEM

1. Select Newthen properties 2. On tab parameter select input file ***.std, then on Type drop down select staad as shown above. 3. Then select OK to all the windows. The conversion file will describe on next page.

As on previous page 4, we already know that the staad file has the following size of steel section: H150X7X5, H250X125X6, H300X150X6.5 PIP101.6X3.2, Cir 0.016. **Section Cir 0.016 will not be imported by TS Now you have to make the conversion file as shown below:

You can make the conversion file with notepad or word-pad Then save it in the TS model folder

Please go back to TS, Import Models windows

Select import model, the propertieson Conversion Tab select the conversion file you have made just now Close the window by select ok. Then select importBoom the TS model should be as the following page

Should be working

Modeling Floor Diaphragms in STAAD.pro 2007

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

6 February 2007

1.0 Introduction:
Based on support calls received by the STAAD.pro Technical Support Group, Engineers are interested in modeling the following types of roof in STAAD.pro. 1. Rigid Floor Diaphragm which assumes that the floor is very rigid to experience any in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. The rigid diaphragm action of floors assumes that the floor is stiff enough to undergo rigid body movement. 2. Semi Rigid diaphragm which assumes that the floor is very rigid to experience any in-plane deformation but no out-of-plane deformation. 3. Flexible diaphragms which assumes that the floor has no rigidity to resist lateral loads. The rigid floor diaphragm assumption may not be appropriate if a relatively narrow building has closely spaced shear walls (i.e. the shear walls are stiffer than the floor diaphragm). In the case of a low rise building, the floor diaphragms may be flexible compared to the shear walls as in light wood framed construction. For long narrow buildings with deep beams the rigid floor diaphragm assumption has to be evaluated carefully. The presence of a slab opening for elevators or stairs can weaken the floor diaphragm action. Wood and metal decks without concrete fills may not be modeled as rigid diaphragms unless the floor system is braced properly. Hence, the use of these options in STAAD.pro requires good engineering decision making based upon the actual site conditions.

2.0 Modeling Rigid Diaphragm Action in STAAD.pro


Let us assume that the top floor of the following 3D frame needs to be modeled using the rigid diaphragm action assumption.

Figure 1: View of 3D steel frame

After the frame model has been created, click on the General->Spec tab on the control tab on your left hand side. Press the Shift+n key on your keyboard to see the node numbers of your structure.

Figure 2: Stick model of the 3D Steel Frame with node numbers

Click on the Node button in the right hand side data area. The following dialog box will open.

Figure 3: Master/Slave specification dialog box

Select Node 5 as the master node. This specification lets the STAAD.pro user create the master node in the floor diaphragm. The master node could be any node on the rigid floor (i.e. nodes 5, 3325, 3329, 7133, or 7123). Click the Add button to add the master node specification in the Specifications dialog box. This specification has to be assigned to all the nodes on the rigid floor. Select the nodes cursor and select nodes 5, 3325, 3329, 7133, and 7123. Choose the Assign to Selected Nodes option and press the Assign button in the Specifications dialog box in the data area. Select the Highlight Selected Geometry checkbox and select the SLAVE RIGID MASTER 5 JOINT entry in the Specifications dialog box in the data area. You will notice the master/slave specification shown in the graphical user interface as shown below.

Figure 4: Graphical representation of Master/Slave specification in STAAD.pro

The double blue circles on node#5 indicate that node 5 is the master node and the nodes marked with the red dot are the slave nodes. To see the effects of this assignment, you have to assign a lateral load. You will notice the difference in the STAAD.pro postprocessing mode as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Deflected shape of the structure before using the master/slave specification (Left). Deflected shape of the structure after using the master/slave specification (Right)

Figure 6: Local deflected shape of beam 3934 that connects node 5 and 10

3.0 Modeling Semi Rigid Diaphragm Action


Some engineers may want to consider their floor diaphragm as rigid in the global XZ plane but flexible about the weak axis of bending of the slab (slab action). In short when lateral loads are applied to the slab system, the slab acts as a rigid body in the global XZ plane but out-of-plane bending will be considered (i.e. the beam elements on the slab will be allowed to bend). This type of slab can be modeled using the XZ option in STAAD.pro. In the General->Spec tab, select the SLAVE RIGID MASTER 5 JOINT option. Click on the Edit button. The Node Specification dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Node Specification Dialog box Rigid Diaphragm Option

Click on the Rigid option and select the ZX direction as the slaved direction. Click on the change button.

Figure 8: Node Specification Dialog box Use of the ZX option

Figure 9 shows the effects of using the XZ master slave option. The beams now are deflecting in the global Y direction.

Figure 9: Deflected shape of the structure using the Rigid master/slave specification (Left). Deflected shape of the structure after using the XZ master/slave specification (Right).

Figure 10: Local deflected shape of beam 3933 that connects node 5 and 3325

Another example of the different master slave options discussed above is well illustrated using the following loading scenario.

Figure 11: Loading diagram to illustrate effects of Master Slave Option

Using a displacement scale of 0.0048 the following displacement diagrams are obtained. The effects of using the master/slave option is clear but the difference between the rigid and XZ master/slave option is not seen.

Figure 12: (Left) Without Master/Slave option, axial deformation is visible in the floor beams. (Center) With the rigid Master/Slave option, there is no axial deformation of the members. (Right) With the XZ Master/Slave option, there is no axial deformation of the members.

To illustrate the difference between the rigid and XZ master/slave option, let us modify the loading diagram as shown below.

Figure 12: Loading diagram to illustrate effects of Master Slave Option

From the following deflection diagrams it is clear that the rigid master/slave option will maintain the slab rigidity in all directions (i.e. all nodes on the slab will lie on the same plane). However, the XZ option will maintain the slab rigidity only in the XZ plane.

Figure 13: (Left) Deflection diagram with the rigid Master/Slave option. (Center & Right) Deflection diagrams with the XZ Master/Slave option

4.0 Modeling Flexible Diaphragm Action


Flexible diaphragm action can be in STAAD.pro using two methods. The engineer in this case could implement one of the following methods to analyze and design the structure: 1. Plate modeling of the slab. 2. Completely ignore the slab and use the floor load generation to take the dead weight of the slab into account. Both these methods are discussed below. Method 1: Suppose a wr=1.5 and hr=1.5 corrugated steel deck is placed on top of the structure shown in Figure 1. Modeling such a steel deck is possible, however, it will become very difficult for the engineers to run the analysis on these types of structures and make changes because of the large size of the models. For example, Figure 14 shows the steel deck modeled using about 7,000 plate elements.

Figure 14: A 1.5 steel deck modeled using plate elements

This model will take about five minutes to perform the analysis. When the deflected shape of the structure is obtained, it is noted that the global X and Y displacement of node#5 is 1.078in and 0.013in respectively. The maximum moment (Mz) in beam 3933 is 54.691 kip-in.

Method 2: In this case, the slab will be ignored however the weight of the slab and the loads acting on the slab will be taken into account using the floor load option. Select the General->Load control tab on your left hand side select the Load Case details in the data area. Click on the Add button. Enter the title of the load case and the loading type. In this case, let us add Dead Load as the Title and Dead as the Loading Type. Click on the Add button and then click on the Close button. To create the floor load, click on the 1:Dead Load entry that has been created in the Load dialog box in the data area. Click on the Add button in the data area. The Add New: Load Items dialog box will appear. Select the Floor Load item. Enter in the parameters as shown in Figure 15. Click the Add button and then click on the Close button.

Figure 15: Floor Load Generation Parameters

Click on the YRANGE 0 0 FLOAD -0.5 GY entry in the data area under the 1:Dead Load entry. The tributary widths and load distribution will be displayed in the graphics window as shown in Figure 16. In the example shown in Figure 16, two nodal loads on 10 kip magnitude are added to the load case to compare results of Method 1 and Method 2.

Figure 16: Floor Load has been generated and applied to the beam members as distributed load.

This model will take about five seconds to perform the analysis. When the deflected shape of the structure is obtained, it is noted that the global X and Y displacement of node#5 is 1.083in and 0.013in respectively. The maximum moment (Mz) in beam 3933 is 77.697 kip-in.

6.0 Conclusion
It is possible to model rigid, semi rigid, and flexible diaphragms in STAAD.pro. Rigid diaphragms are modeled using master/slave option. Semi rigid diaphragms can be modeled using XZ master/slave option. Engineers could do complete plate modeling of a slab to model flexible diaphragms; however, in some cases this approach could become very difficult to manage because of the increasing size of the models. In such cases, an engineer could completely ignore the slab but take the dead weight of the slab into account using the floor load generation method. Again, the use of these diaphragm modeling options in STAAD.pro requires good engineering decision making based upon the actual site conditions.

Mat foundations

Description STAAD has the ability to generate supports for structures like slabs on grade, which also go by the name mat foundations. A mat foundation is a large concrete slab sitting on soil. The support for the structure is the soil itself. The resistance of the soil is represented through a term called Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, the definition of which may be found in many textbooks on foundation analysis. The general approach to solving such problems is to sub-divide the slab into several plate elements. Each node of the meshed slab will then have an influence area or a contributory area, which is to say that soil within the area surrounding that node acts like a spring. The influence area is then multiplied by the subgrade modulus to arrive at the spring constant. Subgrade modulus has units of force per length^3. So, the spring will have units of force/length.

The problem with using this method is that, for irregularly-shaped or large slabs with many nodes, computing the influence area for each node can become quite tedious and time-consuming. The model below exemplifies the problem.

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

This is where the Foundation type of support can be useful. STAAD will calculate the influence areas of all the nodes by itself and derive the spring constants for you. In STAAD, we refer to facility as SPRING SUPPORT GENERATION. STAAD has two options for such supports: a) The ELASTIC MAT option b) The PLATE MAT option The ELASTIC MAT option : When the spring support generation facility was first introduced in STAAD, it was based on this method. In fact, this was the only method available until and including STAAD.Pro 2002 Build 1004. This method calculates the influence area of the various nodes using the Delaunay triangle method.

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

The distinguishing aspect of this method is that it uses the jointlist that accompanies the ELASTIC MAT command to form a closed surface. The area within this closed surface is then determined and the share of this area for each node in the list is then calculated. Hence, while specifying the joint-list, one should make sure that these joints make up a closed surface. Without a proper closed surface, the area calculated for the region may be indeterminate and the spring constant values may be erroneous. Consequently, the list should have at a minimum, 3 nodes. While forming the closed surface, namely, a polygon, the sides of the polygon have to be assembled by lining up points along the edges. The edge detection aspects of this method are very sensitive to out-of-straightness, which may occur if the coordinates of the nodes aren't precise to a significant number of digits. Also, the internal angle formed by 2 adjacent lines connecting 3 consecutive nodes in the list should be less than 180 degrees, which is to say that, the region should have the shape of a convex polygon. Failure to form straight edges and convex polygons can lead to erroneous influence area values and consequently, erroneous spring constants. This is the limitation of this feature. The example below explains the method that may be used to get around a situation where a convex polygon is not available. For the model comprised of plate elements 100 to 102 in the figure below, one wishes to generate the spring supports at nodes 1 to 8. However, a single ELASTIC MAT command will not suffice because the internal angle between the edges 1-8 and 8-7 at node 8 is 270 degrees, which violates the requirements of a convex polygon.

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

So, one should break it up into 2 commands: 1 2 3 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200. 3 4 5 6 7 8 ELASTIC MAT DIREC Y SUBG 200.

Joints 3 and 8 will hence get the contribution from both of the above commands. Because this method uses nodes to generate contours, it may be used whether the mat is defined using plates, or solids. This is the advantage of this method.

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

The PLATE MAT option : If the foundation slab is modeled using plate elements, the influence area can be calculated using the principles used in determining the tributary area of the nodes from the finite element modeling standpoint. In other words, the rules used by the program in converting a uniform pressure load on an element into fixed end actions at the nodes are used in calculating the influence area of the node, which is then multiplied by the subgrade modulus to obtain the spring constant. This feature has been available since STAAD.Pro 2002 Build 1005. The advantage of this method is that it overcomes one of the major limitations of the Delaunay triangle method, which is that the contour formed by the nodes of the mat must form a convex hull. Example SUPPORTS 17054 TO 17081 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000.0 PRINT YR -.01 0.01 PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 5000.0 The first of the above 2 commands instructs STAAD to internally generate supports for the nodes at the corners of plate elements 17054 TO 17081. The second example instructs STAAD to internally generate supports for the nodes at the corners of plate elements which lie in the global XZ plane bound by the YRANGE value of -0.01 and +0.01 length units. Another advantage of the PLATE MAT method is that it enables us to view soil pressure contours beneath the base of the slab. After the analysis, go to the post-processing mode, and click on the Plates page. In the selection box for choosing the type of result to plot, choose base pressures. This is not currently available with the ELASTIC MAT method.

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

Question :

How do I tell STAAD that my soil spring is effective only in COMPRESSION, and should not be considered when it goes into tension? This may be done by using the ELASTIC MAT or PLATE MAT command in conjunction with the SPRING COMPRESSION command. The program iteratively solves the problem so that the final answer reflects the condition corresponding to actual contact between slab & soil. Example problem 27 illustrates this. Is it possible to get a report which shows the influence area generated by STAAD for each support node? Yes. Use the PRINT option available with the ELASTIC MAT or PLATE MAT commands. This will produce a report of the influence areas. An example of such a report is shown below.

Answer :

Question : Answer :

To get a report of the spring constants themselves, use the command PRINT SUPPORT INFORMATION

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

Question : Answer :

Is it possible to find out the base pressure at each node for each load case? Yes. In the post-processing mode, go to the Node Base pressure page. A table will appear along the right side of the screen showing these values. The Summary tab will show the maximum and minimum pressure along with the associated node for each of the 3 global directions. How does subgrade modulus differ from soil bearing capacity? A soil must be capable of carrying the loads it is subjected to, without undergoing a shear failure, or excessive settlements. This capacity is referred to as the soil bearing capacity. The modulus of subgrade reaction is a measure of the stiffness of soil if it were to behave like a spring. It is the relationship between bearing pressure and soil deflection. The modulus of subgrade reaction is the quantity by which the influence area of a support node is multiplied by to get the equivalent spring constant which can be used at the analysis stage. One would provide this as an input item when one wishes STAAD to generate spring supports using the ELASTIC MAT command, as explained in section 5.27.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference manual. At the end of the mat foundation analysis, the maximum soil pressure you get from STAADs soil pressure diagram should be within the limits of the soils bearing capacity. If the actual pressure exceeds the capacity, it is an indication of failure.

Question : Answer :

STAAD.Pro 2004 Training Manual Advanced Topics

Question :

If you have the value for soil bearing pressure, how do you use that to come up with the subgrade modulus that STAAD uses for elastic mat definitions? One doesn't use the bearing capacity of soil to determine the subgrade modulus. Instead, it is a separate attribute of soil. If you have a look at the text book "Foundation Analysis and Design" by Joseph Bowles, you will find a few sections devoted to that topic, with specific values listed for specific types of soil. The basic difference between these 2 attributes is that, bearing capacity (or bearing pressure) is the pressure at which the soil fails, either in shear or compression. It hence has units of force per unit area. Subgrade Modulus on the other hand is a measure of the "spring constant" of soil. It is the distance that a unit area of soil would deflect under a unit load.

Answer :

QUESTION I have modeled a 40" x 40" column base plate with four 12" dia. pipe columns on it (equally spaced in both directions). How do I tell STAAD that the base plate will be on a concrete pedestal (f'c = 4.0 ksi)? My first guess is to assign supports at the mesh intersections: SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 4 This is the first time I've done an analysis of this nature so any suggestions would be greatly appreciated ANSWER Your guess is a good one. You can model the support as an elastic mat foundation. To do that, you first need to know the Subgrade Modulus of concrete. (Your assumption of 4 as the value of that quantity may not be right). One of the methods by which the modulus can be computed is using the following equation: Ks = Es / B ( 1 Poisson Ratio ) ( Reference: Foundation Analysis and Design ( Fifth Edition ) by Joseph E. Bowels Page 503 , Equation 9-6a ) In addition, if you want to make sure the concrete pedestal takes only compressive force, then specify the SPRING COMPRESSION command for those joints in the direction KFY. An example of this is SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT YONLY SUBGRADE 987 SPRING COMPRESSION 1 TO 529 KFY If you have any anchor bolts attached to the base plate, they can be modeled as spring supports (tension only). An example of this is SUPPORTS 1000 TO 1004 FIXED BUT MX MY MZ KFY 5467 SPRING TENSION 1000 TO 1004 KFY

Modeling Floor Diaphragms in STAAD.pro 2006


-DRAFT-

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

18 December 2006

1.0 Introduction:
Based on support calls received by the STAAD.pro Technical Support Group, Engineers are interested in modeling the following types of roof in STAAD.pro. 1. Rigid Floor Diaphragm which assumes that the floor is very rigid to experience any in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. The rigid diaphragm action of floors assumes that the floor is stiff enough to undergo rigid body movement. 2. Semi Rigid diaphragm which assumes that the floor is very rigid to experience any in-plane deformation but no out-of-plane deformation. 3. Flexible diaphragms which assumes that the floor has no rigidity to resist lateral loads. The rigid floor diaphragm assumption may not be appropriate if a relatively narrow building has closely spaced shear walls (i.e. the shear walls are stiffer than the floor diaphragm). In the case of a low rise building, the floor diaphragms may be flexible compared to the shear walls as in light wood framed construction. For long narrow buildings with deep beams the rigid floor diaphragm assumption has to be evaluated carefully. The presence of a slab opening for elevators or stairs can weaken the floor diaphragm action. Wood and metal decks without concrete fills may not be modeled as rigid diaphragms unless the floor system is braced properly. Hence, the use of these options in STAAD.pro requires good engineering decision making based upon the actual site conditions.

2.0 Modeling Rigid Diaphragm Action in STAAD.pro


Let us assume that the top floor of the following 3D frame needs to be modeled using the rigid diaphragm action assumption.

Figure 1: View of 3D steel frame

After the frame model has been created, click on the General->Spec tab on the control tab on your left hand side. Press the Shift+n key on your keyboard to see the node numbers of your structure.

Figure 2: Stick model of the 3D Steel Frame with node numbers

Click on the Node button in the right hand side data area. The following dialog box will open.

Figure 3: Master/Slave specification dialog box

Select Node 5 as the master node. This specification lets the STAAD.pro user create the master node in the floor diaphragm. The master node could be any node on the rigid floor (i.e. nodes 5, 3325, 3329, 7133, or 7123). Click the Add button to add the master node specification in the Specifications dialog box. This specification has to be assigned to all the nodes on the rigid floor. Select the nodes cursor and select nodes 5, 3325, 3329, 7133, and 7123. Choose the Assign to Selected Nodes option and press the Assign button in the Specifications dialog box in the data area. Select the Highlight Selected Geometry checkbox and select the SLAVE RIGID MASTER 5 JOINT entry in the Specifications dialog box in the data area. You will notice the master/slave specification shown in the graphical user interface as shown below.

Figure 4: Graphical representation of Master/Slave specification in STAAD.pro

The double blue circles on node#5 indicate that node 5 is the master node and the nodes marked with the red dot are the slave nodes. To see the effects of this assignment, you have to assign a lateral load. You will notice the difference in the STAAD.pro postprocessing mode as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Deflected shape of the structure before using the master/slave specification (Left). Deflected shape of the structure after using the master/slave specification (Right)

Figure 6: Local deflected shape of beam 3934 that connects node 5 and 10

3.0 Modeling Semi Rigid Diaphragm Action


Some engineers may want to consider their floor diaphragm as rigid in the global XZ plane but flexible about the weak axis of bending of the slab (slab action). In short when lateral loads are applied to the slab system, the slab acts as a rigid body in the global XZ plane but out-of-plane bending will be considered (i.e. the beam elements on the slab will be allowed to bend). This type of slab can be modeled using the XZ option in STAAD.pro. In the General->Spec tab, select the SLAVE RIGID MASTER 5 JOINT option. Click on the Edit button. The Node Specification dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Node Specification Dialog box Rigid Diaphragm Option

Click on the Rigid option and select the ZX direction as the slaved direction. Click on the change button.

Figure 8: Node Specification Dialog box Use of the ZX option

Figure 9 shows the effects of using the XZ master slave option. The beams now are deflecting in the global Y direction.

Figure 9: Deflected shape of the structure using the Rigid master/slave specification (Left). Deflected shape of the structure after using the XZ master/slave specification (Right).

Figure 10: Local deflected shape of beam 3933 that connects node 5 and 3325

Another example of the different master slave options discussed above is well illustrated using the following loading scenario.

Figure 11: Loading diagram to illustrate effects of Master Slave Option

Using a displacement scale of 0.0048 the following displacement diagrams are obtained. The effects of using the master/slave option is clear but the difference between the rigid and XZ master/slave option is not seen.

Figure 12: (Left) Without Master/Slave option, axial deformation is visible in the floor beams. (Center) With the rigid Master/Slave option, there is no axial deformation of the members. (Right) With the XZ Master/Slave option, there is no axial deformation of the members.

To illustrate the difference between the rigid and XZ master/slave option, let us modify the loading diagram as shown below.

Figure 12: Loading diagram to illustrate effects of Master Slave Option

From the following deflection diagrams it is clear that the rigid master/slave option will maintain the slab rigidity in all directions (i.e. all nodes on the slab will lie on the same plane). However, the XZ option will maintain the slab rigidity only in the XZ plane.

Figure 13: (Left) Deflection diagram with the rigid Master/Slave option. (Center & Right) Deflection diagrams with the XZ Master/Slave option

4.0 Modeling Flexible Diaphragm Action


Flexible diaphragm action can be in STAAD.pro using two methods. The engineer in this case could implement one of the following methods to analyze and design the structure: 1. Plate modeling of the slab. 2. Completely ignore the slab and use the floor load generation to take the dead weight of the slab into account. Both these methods are discussed below. Method 1: Suppose a wr=1.5 and hr=1.5 corrugated steel deck is placed on top of the structure shown in Figure 1. Modeling such a steel deck is possible, however, it will become very difficult for the engineers to run the analysis on these types of structures and make changes because of the large size of the models. For example, Figure 14 shows the steel deck modeled using about 7,000 plate elements.

Figure 14: A 1.5 steel deck modeled using plate elements

This model will take about five minutes to perform the analysis. When the deflected shape of the structure is obtained, it is noted that the global X and Y displacement of node#5 is 1.078in and 0.013in respectively. The maximum moment (Mz) in beam 3933 is 54.691 kip-in.

Method 2: In this case, the slab will be ignored however the weight of the slab and the loads acting on the slab will be taken into account using the floor load option. Select the General->Load control tab on your left hand side select the Load Case details in the data area. Click on the Add button. Enter the title of the load case and the loading type. In this case, let us add Dead Load as the Title and Dead as the Loading Type. Click on the Add button and then click on the Close button. To create the floor load, click on the 1:Dead Load entry that has been created in the Load dialog box in the data area. Click on the Add button in the data area. The Add New: Load Items dialog box will appear. Select the Floor Load item. Enter in the parameters as shown in Figure 15. Click the Add button and then click on the Close button.

Figure 15: Floor Load Generation Parameters

Click on the YRANGE 0 0 FLOAD -0.5 GY entry in the data area under the 1:Dead Load entry. The tributary widths and load distribution will be displayed in the graphics window as shown in Figure 16. In the example shown in Figure 16, two nodal loads on 10 kip magnitude are added to the load case to compare results of Method 1 and Method 2.

Figure 16: Floor Load has been generated and applied to the beam members as distributed load.

This model will take about five seconds to perform the analysis. When the deflected shape of the structure is obtained, it is noted that the global X and Y displacement of node#5 is 1.083in and 0.013in respectively. The maximum moment (Mz) in beam 3933 is 77.697 kip-in.

6.0 Conclusion
It is possible to model rigid, semi rigid, and flexible diaphragms in STAAD.pro. Rigid diaphragms are modeled using master/slave option. Semi rigid diaphragms can be modeled using XZ master/slave option. Engineers could do complete plate modeling of a slab to model flexible diaphragms; however, in some cases this approach could become very difficult to manage because of the increasing size of the models. In such cases, an engineer could completely ignore the slab but take the dead weight of the slab into account using the floor load generation method. Again, the use of these diaphragm modeling options in STAAD.pro requires good engineering decision making based upon the actual site conditions.

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STAAD BASICS
- NOTES ON THE EFFECTIVE USE OF STAAD-PRO REL 3.1 -

- FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS -

By R. P. Clarke

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES STATIC LOADS 1.1 SIGN CONVENTION 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS 1.3 EXAMPLE

3 5 6

2.0

CONTINUUM STRUCTURES STATIC LOADS 2.1 2.2 2.3 SIGN CONVENTION FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS EXAMPLE

9 9 11 11

3.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES - DYNAMIC LOADS 3.1 3.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS EXAMPLE

14 14 15

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STAAD BASICS

The following is a description of fundamental considerations for the effective use of STAAD-PRO Release 3.1 for the analysis of structures. It must be mentioned however that since STAAD is a computer program, blind faith should not be placed in STAAD or any other engineering program. This is due to the following factors. (1): The results are only as good as the modeling of the structure in terms of load effects representation, effective structural systems, the connection behavior, and the material idealizations. (2): The procedures used in programs are not transparent to the user. (3): Computer programs usually have bugs. (4): Dependence on software can reduce the engineer's intuition of the actual behavior of the structure. It is therefore strongly recommended that until at least one year's experience of continually using STAAD is obtained, and for important structures, parallel hand calculations for the analysis and design of the structure be done as well. For section 1.0 it is presumed that the reader understands Structural Theory and the Stiffness Matrix Method of Structural Analysis. For section 2.0 it is presumed that the reader understands the fundamentals of Plate Theory, and the Finite Element Method based on the stiffness formulation. For section 3.0 it is presumed that the reader understands Structural Dynamic Analysis by the Lumped Mass Time History Method. 1.0 SKELETAL STRUCTURES STATIC LOADS 1.1 SIGN CONVENTION

It is vital to understand the STAAD coordinate system in order to properly use STAAD. This is needed to ensure that the input data is as intended, and for the interpretation of the analysis results. Coordinate Systems: Since STAAD uses the Matrix Displacement Method of structural analysis, there are 2 Cartesian coordinate systems - the local and the global. The geometry of the structure as a whole is defined by the nodes at the ends of the various structural members, and each node has a unique number. Each member also has a unique number and the topology of the member is defined relative to the node numbers at its ends. This establishes the "MEMBER INCIDENCES" table. The location of each node is defined relative to a global coordinate system. By default, the origin of the global coordinate system is at node number 1.

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The location of points or sections within each structural member is defined relative to the local coordinate system with the origin at the left end node of the member viewed horizontally. Each member has its own local coordinate system.

A. FORCES AT A SECTION OF A MEMBER This applies to the sign of the quantity in the STAAD member stress diagram such as the bending moment diagram. POSITIVE FORCE AT THE SECTION NEGATIVE FORCE AT THE SECTION Bending: Mz Axial: Fx Shear: Fy

B. FORCES ACTING ON A MEMBER'S END In STAAD this is called the "MEMBER END FORCES"

POSITIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER NEGATIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER

Bending: Mz Axial: Fx Shear: Fy Torsion: Mx

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1.2

FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS COMMANDS

Regardless of the structure being analysed, the following are fundamental steps and STAAD command keywords shown in the brackets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Define whether the problem is 2D or 3D (STAAD PLANE or SPACE) Define the length and force units (UNITS) Define the nodes and their locations (JOINT COORDINATES) Define the member and their nodes (MEMBER INCIDENCES) Define the section properties of the members, Ix, etc (MEMBER PROPERTY) Define the mechanical properties of the members such as the Young's modulus, density, etc (CONSTANTS) Define the support conditions (SUPPORTS) Define the load cases (LOAD) Define the loads of each load case as member loads, joint loads, (or code loads) (MEMBER LOAD or JOINT LOAD) Define the load combinations (LOAD COMB) Analyse the structure (PERFORM ANALYSIS) Define the output format (PRINT) Finish the run (FINISH)

These commands are stored automatically in STAAD in a file with the extension .std. This file is formatted as an ASCII text file which means that it can be edited outside of STAAD with a word processor or any other text editor. Therefore, you can also write the input file independantly of STAAD and just refer to it when you enter STAAD to run the analysis. By using the "File" menu STAAD reads the .std file as its input and automatically creates an output file with the extension .anl. This file is also a text file and is useful for including in calculation reports. STAAD also creates certain other output files for its internal use. STAAD creates a database for your analysis, .dbs, and files for the bending moments .bmd, displacements, .dsp, reactions, .rea, amomg others. The aforementioned STAAD commands are incomplete by themselves - they are the keywords of the commands. The complete commands follow a particular syntax to completely describe the problem. The example problem at the end of this section shows the complete syntax for common commands. Though you can use a totally character-based approach with STAAD, the most effective use of STAAD is when you use the PRE-PROCESSOR of STAAD to write the .std for you. The PRE-PROCESSOR is a set of functions within STAAD that you select from the menus of STAAD's GUI. Each of the command keywords presented in brackets

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earlier has an icon or menu that you click on to create the commands in the .std file. From within STAAD you can see the contents of the .std file at any time, and the .anl file as well after analysis. To do this you just click on the icon for each. This puts the file on the screen and you can edit the file from there if you wish.

1.3

EXAMPLE 1:

The following is the .std file - ex1.std, for the analysis of a 3D 1-bay portal frame carrying a slab under an unfactored floor load of 6 kN/m2 and unfactored joint loads of 30 kN at 2 of the upper joints. The command keywords are in BOLD.

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STAAD SPACE EXAMPLE 1 START JOB INFORMATION JOB NAME EXAMPLE 1 JOB CLIENT UWI STUDENTS JOB NO 024 ENGINEER NAME rpc ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-03 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 4.572 0 4.572; 5 4.572 0 0; 6 0 4.572 4.572; 7 4.572 4.572 0; 8 4.572 4.572 4.572; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 5 6 8; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.35 ZD 0.35 5 TO 8 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.35 CONSTANTS E CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8 E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 8 POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 8 DENSITY 24 MEMB 1 TO 8 ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 8 DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8 SUPPORTS 1 3 TO 5 FIXED LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 0 6 FLOAD -6 LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 6 FX 30 LOAD COMB 3 FLOOR PLUS JOINT 1 1.5 2 1.2 PERFORM ANALYSIS FINISH

Note that the above figure shows the loading for the factored loads. Also, by using the FLOOR LOAD command, STAAD automatically calculates the load on the beams supporting the 2-way spanning slab. The self-weight of the members is automatically calculated by STAAD using the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command. If we wanted to know the internal forces at the ends of say the members 1 and 5 included in the output data, we would put the following commands after the "PERFORM ANALYSIS" command:
PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 5

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The output data from the file ex1.anl that corresponds to these commands are as follows:
MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN METE MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

1 2 3

1 2 1 2 1 2

63.40 -50.21 -14.14 14.14 78.13 -58.34

-2.92 2.92 15.02 -15.02 13.64 -13.64

2.92 -2.92 0.00 0.00 4.38 -4.38

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

-4.42 -8.95 0.00 0.00 -6.63 -13.42

-4.42 -8.95 36.31 32.37 36.94 25.42

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

MEMBER END FORCES ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN MEMBER LOAD JT

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE METE AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

1 2 3

6 8 6 8 6 8

2.92 -2.92 14.98 -14.98 22.36 -22.36

25.10 25.10 -14.14 14.14 20.69 54.62

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

8.95 -8.95 -32.37 -32.29 -25.42 -52.16

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

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2.0

CONTINUUM STRUCTURES STATIC LOADS

Continuum structures (plates, slabs, walls, shells, tanks, etc) are modelled in STAAD by using finite elements. The following is with respect to the element of the STAAD library which can be quadrilateral or triangular. Common rules for the use of finite element modelling apply and will not be repeated here and it is presumed that section 1.0 has been covered.

2.1

SIGN CONVENTION

The sign convention is as follows:

Fxy

Fx

Fy MEMBRANE FORCES QX MXY QY MYX QX

MY MX MYX QY

MXY

BENDING MOMENTS & TRANSVERSE SHEAR

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The diagrams above show the positive direction of the forces relative to the following local coordinate system.

Z Top surface L Y K I J X Bottom surface


Hence for axial direct forces: tension is positive, for bending moments: hogging is positive, and for transverse shear: down-to-the-left and up-to-the-right is positive. Note that for non-rectangular and triangular elements, the x-y-z axes are not orthogonal to the edges or surfaces of the element. The x-axis is aligned with a line connecting the mid-points of IL and JK, the z-axis is orthogonal to lines connecting the mid-points of ILJK to those connecting the mid-points of IJ-KL, and the y-axis is orthogonal to the x and z axes so defined. ELEMENT FORCE outputs are available at the centre node of the element, all corner nodes of the element, and at any user-specified point within the element. The items included in the ELEMENT FORCE output are: QX, QY Transverse shear forces stated as force per unit length per unit element thickness. Membrane forces stated as force per unit length per unit element thickness. Bending moments stated as moment per unit length. Principal stresses stated as force per unit area. Maximum in-plane shear stress stated as force per unit area.

FX, FY, FXY

MX, MY, MXY SMAX, SMIN TMAX

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ANGLE

The orientation of the principal plane stated in degrees measured anti-clockwise from the local x-axis.

The top and bottom surfaces are identified on the basis of the direction of the local z-axis.

2.2

FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The fundamental commands for finite element analysis using STAAD closely follow those for the skeletal or frame member analysis. The following are the essential differences: ELEMENT INCIDENCES command. ELEMENT PROPERTY command.

Both frame members and finite elements can be used together in STAAD but the ELEMENT INCIDENCES command must immediately follow the MEMBER INCIDENCES command. The selfweight of the finite elements is converted to joint loads at the connected nodes and is not used as an element pressure load.

2.3

EXAMPLE 2

Analyse an uncovered reinforced concrete tank of dimensions 6.0m x 6.0m x 6.0m with walls and base 200mm thick. The tank is filled with water and rests on rigid ground. The following is the STAAD .std file for a model of the tank.
STAAD SPACE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 10-Feb-04 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT MET KNS JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 1.5 0; 3 0 3.0 0; 4 0 4.5 0; 5 0 6.0 0; 6 1.5 0 0; 7 1.5 1.5 0; 8 1.5 3.0 0; 9 1.5 4.5 0; 10 1.5 6.0 0; 11 3.0 0 0; 12 3.0 1.5 0; 13 3.0 3.0 0; 14 3.0 4.5 0; 15 3.0 6.0 0; 16 4.5 0 0; 17 4.5 1.5 0; 18 4.5 3.0 0; 19 4.5 4.5 0; 20 4.5 6.0 0; 21 6.0 0 0; 22 6.0 1.5 0; 23 6.0 3.0 0; 24 6.0 4.5 0; 25 6.0 6.0 0; 26 6.0 0 1.5; 27 6.0 1.5 1.5; 28 6.0 3.0 1.5; 29 6.0 4.5 1.5; 30 6.0 6.0 1.5; 31 6.0 0 3.0; 32 6.0 1.5 3.0; 33 6.0 3.0 3.0; 34 6.0 4.5 3.0; 35 6.0 6.0 3.0; 36 6.0 0 4.5; 37 6.0 1.5 4.5; 38 6.0 3.0 4.5; 39 6.0 4.5 4.5; 40 6.0 6.0 4.5; 41 6.0 0 6.0; 42 6.0 1.5 6.0; 43 6.0 3.0 6.0; 44 6.0 4.5 6.0; 45 6.0 6.0 6.0; 46 4.5 0 6.0; 47 4.5 1.5 6.0; 48 4.5 3.0 6.0; 49 4.5 4.5 6.0; 50 4.5 6.0 6.0; 51 3.0 0 6.0;

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52 3.0 1.5 6.0; 53 3.0 3.0 6.0; 54 3.0 4.5 6.0; 55 3.0 6.0 6.0; 56 1.5 0 6.0; 57 1.5 1.5 6.0; 58 1.5 3.0 6.0; 59 1.5 4.5 6.0; 60 1.5 6.0 6.0; 61 0 0 6.0; 62 0 1.5 6.0; 63 0 3.0 6.0; 64 0 4.5 6.0; 65 0 6.0 6.0; 66 0 0 4.5; 67 0 1.5 4.5; 68 0 3.0 4.5; 69 0 4.5 4.5; 70 0 6.0 4.5; 71 0 0 3.0; 72 0 1.5 3.0; 73 0 3.0 3.0; 74 0 4.5 3.0; 75 0 6.0 3.0; 76 0 0 1.5; 77 0 1.5 1.5; 78 0 3.0 1.5; 79 0 4.5 1.5; 80 0 6.0 1.5; 81 1.5 0 1.5; 82 1.5 0 3.0; 83 1.5 0 4.5; 84 3.0 0 1.5; 85 3.0 0 3.0; 86 3.0 0 4.5; 87 4.5 0 1.5; 88 4.5 0 3.0; 89 4.5 0 4.5; ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL 1 1 2 7 6; 2 2 3 8 7; 3 3 4 9 8; 4 4 5 10 9; 5 6 7 12 11; 6 7 8 13 12; 7 8 9 14 13; 8 9 10 15 14; 9 11 12 17 16; 10 12 13 18 17; 11 13 14 19 18; 12 14 15 20 19; 13 16 17 22 21; 14 17 18 23 22; 15 18 19 24 23; 16 19 20 25 24; 17 21 22 27 26; 18 22 23 28 27; 19 23 24 29 28; 20 24 25 30 29; 21 26 27 32 31; 22 27 28 33 32; 23 28 29 34 33; 24 29 30 35 34; 25 31 32 37 36; 26 32 33 38 37; 27 33 34 39 38; 28 34 35 40 39; 29 36 37 42 41; 30 37 38 43 42; 31 38 39 44 43; 32 39 40 45 44; 33 41 42 47 46; 34 42 43 48 47; 35 43 44 49 48; 36 44 45 50 49; 37 46 47 52 51; 38 47 48 53 52; 39 48 49 54 53; 40 49 50 55 54; 41 51 52 57 56; 42 52 53 58 57; 43 53 54 59 58; 44 54 55 60 59; 45 56 57 62 61; 46 57 58 63 62; 47 58 59 64 63; 48 59 60 65 64; 49 61 62 67 66; 50 62 63 68 67; 51 63 64 69 68; 52 64 65 70 69; 53 66 67 72 71; 54 67 68 73 72; 55 68 69 74 73; 56 69 70 75 74; 57 71 72 77 76; 58 72 73 78 77; 59 73 74 79 78; 60 74 75 80 79; 61 76 77 2 1; 62 77 78 3 2; 63 78 79 4 3; 64 79 80 5 4; 65 1 6 81 76; 66 76 81 82 71; 67 71 82 83 66; 68 66 83 56 61; 69 6 11 84 81; 70 81 84 85 82; 71 82 85 86 83; 72 83 86 51 56; 73 11 16 87 84; 74 84 87 88 85; 75 85 88 89 86; 76 86 89 46 51; 77 16 21 26 87; 78 87 26 31 88; 79 88 31 36 89; 80 89 36 41 46; ELEMENT PROPERTY 1 TO 80 THICKNESS 0.20 CONSTANTS E 20000000.0 ALL SUPPORTS 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 TO 89 PINNED LOAD 1 ELEMENT LOAD 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 PR 15. 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 PR 30. 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 PR 45. 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 PR 60. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT JOINT DISPLACMENTS LIST 5 25 45 65 PRINT ELEMENT FORCE LIST 9 TO 16 DRAW ROTA X -20 Y 30 Z 20 STR 1 FINISH

The following is part of the STAAD output for the displacements, element forces, stresses, etc, at the locations indicated in the input file.

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63. PRINT JOINT DISPLACMENTS LIST 5 25 45 65


FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE

JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM -----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS

RADIANS)

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

Y-TRANS

Z-TRANS

X-ROTAN

Y-ROTAN

Z-ROTAN

5 25 45 65

1 1 1 1

-0.0029 0.0029 0.0029 -0.0029

-0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0003

-0.0029 -0.0029 0.0029 0.0029

0.0001 0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001

0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

-0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 -0.0001

64. PRINT ELEMENT FORCE LIST 9 TO 16 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE

ELEMENT FORCES FORCE,LENGTH UNITS= KNS MET -------------FORCE OR STRESS = FORCE/UNIT WIDTH/THICK, MOMENT = FORCE-LENGTH/UNIT WIDTH ELEMENT LOAD QX VONT QY VONB MX FX MY FY MXY FXY

9 TOP : BOTT: 10 TOP : BOTT: 11 TOP : BOTT: 12 TOP : BOTT: 13 TOP : BOTT: 14

322.03 2594.11 SMAX= 1631.24 SMAX= 1395.94

24.89 -6.52 2279.42 39.19 SMIN= -1360.09 TMAX= SMIN= -1234.46 TMAX= -104.02 22.55 3841.25 -51.93 SMIN= 2948.25 TMAX= SMIN= -4365.67 TMAX= -101.23 13.25 3607.97 -47.38 SMIN= 1939.18 TMAX= SMIN= -4165.74 TMAX= -88.67 1.04 3580.09 0.30 SMIN= 155.47 TMAX= SMIN= -3654.67 TMAX= -94.45 -5.15 2137.97 -39.19 SMIN= -2319.92 TMAX= SMIN= 142.90 TMAX= -369.04 0.23

6.89 6.55 177.12 58.53 1495.67 ANGLE= -22.0 1315.20 ANGLE= -22.3 27.88 5.06 388.84 28.70 1002.35 ANGLE= -25.9 751.97 ANGLE= -38.1 30.74 -0.05 445.41 -21.84 1558.78 ANGLE= 0.5 1065.81 ANGLE= -0.4 26.72 0.28 354.46 -14.06 2103.71 ANGLE= -0.4 1750.26 ANGLE= -0.9 -9.80 7.19 144.56 145.84 1250.92 ANGLE= 39.1 1031.47 ANGLE= 32.4 -22.18 5.07

32.21 4315.25 SMAX= 4952.95 SMAX= -2861.72 -61.01 4418.73 SMAX= 5056.75 SMAX= -2034.12 -39.29 4287.26 SMAX= 4362.88 SMAX= -154.15 -2.80 2416.03 SMAX= 181.92 SMAX= 2205.83 -76.30

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TOP : BOTT: 15 TOP : BOTT: 16 TOP : BOTT:

3161.16 SMAX= 286.87 SMAX= 3983.43 1 -17.52 3559.42 SMAX= -781.48 SMAX= 4760.39 4.67 3491.73 SMAX= -1219.29 SMAX= 4612.27

4043.74 51.93 SMIN= -3007.95 TMAX= SMIN= -118.04 TMAX= -326.06 -5.54 4387.81 47.38 SMIN= -3885.23 TMAX= SMIN= 877.91 TMAX= -251.97 -8.13 4139.45 -0.30 SMIN= -3937.89 TMAX= SMIN= 1219.73 TMAX=

520.22 27.13 1647.41 ANGLE= 14.3 2050.74 ANGLE= 10.5 -28.81 -0.23 438.41 -37.17 1551.88 ANGLE= -1.3 1941.24 ANGLE= 0.0 -28.50 -0.26 337.72 -17.83 1359.30 ANGLE= -1.2 1696.27 ANGLE= -0.3

********************END OF ELEMENT FORCES********************

3.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES DYNAMIC LOAD 3.1 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The reader must first complete section 1.0. Only Time History dynamic analysis by the application of forcing functions to nodes or members is covered in this section (i.e. not ground motion time history dynamics). There are 2 issues to consider in the use of STAAD for dynamic analysis - how STAAD idealises the distribution of mass and how to apply the forcing function. STAAD distributes the mass via the SELFWEIGHT command. When this is done, the mass is lumped at the nodes. If this is an inadequate model of the mass idealisation, the member concentrated load command CON can be used to tell STAAD that significant masses are located there and their values. Also, the user can split the member into shorter lengths by inserting nodes along the member. In this case, the user can use the JOINT LOAD command to tell STAAD that a significant mass is located there and its mass. The SELFWEIGHT command is placed as the first line (or lines) of the commands under the relevant LOAD command. If the CON or JOINT LOAD commands are used, it is placed after the SELFWEIGHT command. To apply a forcing function in STAAD at the nodes, or at a particular location, you must first define the type of forcing function using the DEFINE TIME HISTORY command. Note that a forcing function can only be applied at a node so if the user wishes to apply the function to a point along a member, a node must be placed there first. You then use the TYPE i FORCE command along with its particular syntax requirements. Finally, under the relevant LOAD command and after the mass idealisation commands (i.e. SELFWEIGHT, CON, JOINT LOAD), you use the TIME LOAD command. You can only use the TIME LOAD command in one load case.

r p clarke 2003 15

3.2

EXAMPLE 3

A one-storey reinforced concrete structure of plan dimensions 10.0m x 4.572m supports several loads: a mass of 120 kN at the mid-span of one of the long beams, point loads of 30kN at the floor level in the long direction, and a floor load of 6.0 kN/m2 . The columns are 0.3m x 0.3m and the beams are 0.45m deep x 0.3m wide. If the mass vibrates at 2.5 Hz for 10 cycles, estimate the amplification factor for the bending moment in the beam under the mass? The following is a STAAD model of the structure, loads, and assumed load factors.
STAAD SPACE EXAMPLE 3 INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 10 0 4.572; 5 10 0 0; 6 0 4.572 4.572; 7 10 4.572 0; 8 10 4.572 4.572; 10 5 4.572 4.572; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8; 10 10 8; 11 6 10; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 0.3 6 TO 8 10 11 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.3 CONSTANTS E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 SUPPORTS 1 3 TO 5 FIXED *INPUT THE TYPE OF FORCING FUNCTION HERE DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 FORCE FUNCTION SINE *THE NEXT LINE IS A FORCE OF AMPLITUDE 120 KN VIBRATING AT 2.5 HZ FOR 10 SEC AMPLITUDE 120 FREQUENCY 2.5 CYCLES 10 ARRIVAL TIME 0 DAMPING 0.05 LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 0 6 FLOAD -6 LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 6 FX 30 10 FY -120 *IN THE NEXT LINE YOU MUST INPUT THE LOAD DUE TO THE MASS THOUGH YOU *USE THE JOINT LOAD CMD IN THE TIME HISTORY CMDs TO TELL STAAD THAT A MASS

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*IS THERE AND IN WHAT DIRECTIONS IT IS CAPABLE OF MOVING LOAD 3 TIME HISTORY LOAD SELFWEIGHT X 1 SELFWEIGHT Y 1 SELFWEIGHT Z 1 *THE JOINT LOAD COMMAND IS USED TO TELL STAAD THE ACTIVE MASS AT A JOINT JOINT LOAD 10 FY 120 TIME LOAD *THE FORCING FUNCTION MUST BE APPLIED TO A JOINT HENCE THE FY 10 FY 1 1 LOAD COMB 4 FLOOR PLUS JOINT 1 1.5 2 1.2 LOAD COMB 5 FLOOR PLUS JOINT PLUS VIBRATION 1 1.5 2 1.2 3 1.0 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11 FINISH

The relevant STAAD output is:


CALCULATED FREQUENCIES FOR LOAD CASE MODE FREQUENCY(CYCLES/SEC) 3 PERIOD(SEC)

1 2 3

3.050 3.796 3.899

0.32782 0.26346 0.25646

MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT -------------------------------------MODE 1 2 3 X Y Z SUMM-X 0.000 99.925 99.925 SUMM-Y 58.691 58.691 58.693 SUMM-Z 0.003 0.003 97.576

0.00 58.69 0.00 99.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 97.57

61. PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11

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MEMBER END FORCES ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN


MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE METE


SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

11

1 2 3 4 5

6 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 6 10

23.95 -23.95 38.45 -38.45 -90.99 90.99 82.06 -82.06 -8.93 -173.04

68.81 0.00 53.82 -53.82 -232.35 232.35 167.79 -64.58 -64.57 -296.93

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 -0.13 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.13

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.03 -0.03 0.34 -0.30 0.03 -0.03 0.37 0.27

73.21 126.05 63.06 206.01 -364.06 -797.72 185.50 436.29 -178.56 1234.01

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

Hence from the output for load 5 and load 4, and at joint 10, the amplification factor is 1234.01/436.29 = 2.82 This relatively high amplification occurs because the forcing function frequency of 2.5 Hz is not far from the natural frequencies of the structure of 3.050 to 3.899 Hz.

Overview
The purpose of this document is to help engineers analyze and design walls for dams using Bentley's STAAD.Pro V8i. STAAD.Pro is the professional's choice for steel, concrete, timber, aluminum and cold-formed steel design of low and high-rise buildings, culverts, petrochemical plants, tunnels, bridges, piles and much more. It is a general purpose structural analysis and design tool. This general purpose nature of STAAD.Pro V8i allows engineers to model and analyze variety of structures but at the same time often leads to the question, How? The intent of this document is to answer how to model a wall of a dam in the STAAD interface. Walls of dams are usually very thick speaking relatively to the other dimensions. These walls are modeled using solid elements in STAAD.Pro V8i.

Hoover Dam (Ref. U. S. Department of the Interior, The Bureau of Reclamation) Creating the Wall Geometry/Structural Analysis The advanced drawing generation tools included in STAAD.Pro can make the model generation task very easy. The wall geometry in STAAD.Pro can be constructed in many ways: 1. STAAD.Pro user interface 2. Structure Wizard 3. Using a DXF import (importing a dxf MicroStation or AutoCAD drawing. Only line or plates can be imported using this technique) 4. OpenSTAAD customization etc. Figure 1 illustrates a wall geometry that was created using the STAAD.Pro interface. This type of wall geometry can be easily created using the solid element tool and the circular repeat command.

Figure 1: Wall FEM model created using STAAD.PRO V8i Hydrostatic Loading STAAD.Pro V8i's automatic hydrostatic load generator will help generate pressure loads on the wall surface as illustrated in Figure 2. The user has the option of applying the pressure loads with respect to the local coordinate axis of the plates or the global coordinate axis of the model. The following two load cases will be created in this example:

Table 1: Wall Loading Loading Components Type Dead Load Self weight of the structure Hydrostatic load applied on the structure + Self weight of the structure

Live Load

Figure 2: Water pressure acting on wall Analysis Results STAAD.Pro V8i will calculate the element stresses at the center and at the joints of the solid element which can help engineers design the walls appropriately. The items that are printed are:

Normal Stresses : SXX, SYY and SZZ Shear Stresses : SXY, SYZ and SZX Principal stresses : S1, S2 and S3. Von Mises stresses

Figure 3: Deflected shape of structure along with SXX normal stress distribution diagram. The integration of the graphical contour plots with the element stress tables help engineers easily find the stress values in any stress concentration area.

Figure 4: Wall opening SXX normal stresses The wall of the dam may be resting on soil. STAAD.Pro V8i's automatic foundation support generator generates spring supports for plate elements based on the sub-grade modules provided by the engineer. These springs could be compression-only springs and as a result of this a true stability analysis can be performed on the structure. The base pressure diagrams presented in Figure 5 are generated due to the soil spring supports underneath the wall. The maximum base pressure can be compared to the soil bearing capacity.

Figure 5: Wall base pressure distribution diagram.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Is there a way to obtain the average stress at a node where several plate elements meet?
Presently, STAAD only reports the nodal stresses of the individual elements meeting at the node. In the Plate page of the post-processing mode, the lower table on the right hand side of the screen contains the element nodal stresses. However, the average value from all such plates connected to the node is not reported. Averaging is straightforward at joints that are only connected to one plane of plate elements and the loading is a normal pressure. However transverse shear will jump at a line if a line load is applied; so a single average would be inappropriate for that stress only. Similarly for stresses across a line of beams or walls or a line of bending moments; etc.

If two walls and a floor meet at a joint there are 3 planes that should be treated separately. Also averaging should be separate for the same surface on either side of a wall to account for the stress discontinuity. At the common joint there would be 12 sets of stresses (4 plates on each of 3 surfaces). So averaging can be interrupted due to certain loadings, plates in other planes, and other members. Further complexity occurs for contours and corner stresses if a shallow curved surface is being averaged. Most likely the inplane stresses should be averaged separately from the bending stresses, without coordinate transformations, since the flat plate faceted surfaces are trying to simulate a smooth surface. The above considerations are not easily automated. REI hopes to implement at least some simple cases in a near future release.

In the plate element stress results, what do the terms TRESCAT and TRESTAB stand for? How are they calculated?
TRESCA is 2.0 times TMAX. TMAX is the maximum inplane shear stress on a plate element. TMAX = 0.5 * max[abs((s1 - s2)) , abs((s2 - s3)) , abs((s3 - s1))] where s1 and s2 are the inplane principal stresses and the 3rd principal stress, s3, is zero at the surface. TRESCAT is the value for the top surface of the element. TRESCAB is on the bottom. Top and bottom are in accordance with the direction of the local Z axis. See the link for more information on the meaning of TOP and BOTTOM surfaces for plates. Example problem 18 in the examples manual shows the calculation of TMAX

I am modelling a concrete slab using plate elements. I am looking for the moments in the slab at the center of each element. I noticed that the output gives the bending moments per unit width. What is the per unit width? Would that be the thickness of the plate element?
For Mx, the unit width is a unit distance at the center of the element, parallel to the local Y axis. For My, the unit width is a unit distance at the center of the element, parallel to the local X axis.

Attached is a diagram to clarify this. It is taken from section 1.6.1 of the Technical Reference manual.

I have modeled a 40" x 40" column base plate with four 12" dia. pipe columns on it (equally spaced in both directions). How do I tell STAAD that the base plate will be on a concrete pedestal (f'c = 4.0 ksi)? My first guess is to assign supports at the mesh intersections:
SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT DIRECT Y SUBGRADE 4 Any suggestions? Your guess is a good one. You can model the support as an elastic mat foundation. To do that, you first need to know the subgrade modulus of concrete. One of the methods by which the modulus can be computed is using the following equation: Ks = Es / B ( 1 - PoissonRation * PoissonRatio ) ( Reference: Foundation Analysis and Design ( Fifth Edition ) by Joseph E. Bowels Page 503 , Equation 9-6a ) In addition, if you want to make sure the concrete pedestal takes only compressive force, then specify the SPRING COMPRESSION command for those joints in the direction KFY. An example of this is SUPPORTS 1 TO 529 ELASTIC MAT YONLY SUBGRADE 987 SPRING COMPRESSION 1 TO 529 KFY If you have any anchor bolts attached to the baseplate, they can be modeled as spring supports (tension only). An example of this is SUPPORTS 1000 TO 1004 FIXED BUT MX MY MZ KFY 5467 SPRING TENSION 1000 TO 1004 KFY

How do you assign properties to solids?


You do not have to assign any properties for solid elements. For solids, the only information required is their geometry (node numbers and their coordinates), and material constants (E, Poisson, etc.). You may refer to example problem 24 in the examples manual if you want details.

I would like to change the direction of the local Z axis of an element so that it points in the opposite direction. How do I do it?
From the Select menu at the top, select the Plates Cursor. Then select the element for which you want the Z axis direction changed. From the Commands menu, select Geometric Constants followed by Plate Reference Point and give the coordinates of this point. Choose the Local Axis direction to point towards or away from the Reference Point. The Assign option should be set to "To Selection". Click on OK.

Is it possible to apply a concentrated force on the surface of an element? The point where the load acts is not one of the nodes of the element, as a result of which I cannot use the JOINT LOAD option.
Yes, it is possible to do this. In Section 5.32.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual, if you look at the syntax of the element pressure loading, you will find the following : element-list PRESSURE direction x1 y1 x2 y2 In this syntax, (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) represent the corners of the region (on the element) over which the PRESSURE load is applied. However, if you omit the terms (x2,y2), the load will be treated as a concentrated force acting at the point (x1,y1), where x1 and y1 are measured as distances, from the centroid of the element, along the local X and Y axes, of the point of action of the load. Thus, if you want to apply a 580 pound force along the negative global Z direction at a distance away from the centroid of (1.3,2.5)feet along the local X & Y axes of element 73, you can specify the following commands UNIT POUND FEET LOAD 1 CONCENTRATED LOAD ON WALL

ELEMENT LOAD 73 PR GZ -580.0 1.3 2.5

How can I find the maximum shear stress on my plate element model?
Since there are several types of shear stress results we can get from STAAD, the expression "maximum shear stress" needs to be clarified. So, let us first see what the choices are : SXY - For any given element, this is the in-plane shear stress on the element and acts along the plate local X-Y axes directions. TMAX - This is the maximum inplane shear stress on the element and is a composite of SXY and the stress resulting from torsion MXY. SQX - This is the out-of-plane shear stress on the X face at the centroid of the element. SQY - This is the out-of-plane shear stress on the Y face at the centroid of the element. All of these results can be obtained in a report form, with additional options like sorting done in ascending or descending order for a user-defined set of elements and a userdefined set of load cases. As an example, do the following for getting a report of TMAX sorted in the order from maximum to minimum for all plates for load cases 4 and 5. Go to the post-processing mode. Select all plates. From the Report menu, select Plate Results - Principal stresses. Select TMAX, and set the sorting order from High to Low. Switch on "Absolute values" also to perform sorting based on Absolute values. Click on the Loading tab, and select just cases 4 and 5. Click on OK. A report will be displayed. Click the right mouse button inside the table, and select Print.

The plate element results contain a term called TMAX. Is TMAX the best representation of the total stresses resulting from the torsion on the element?
Among the various stresses resulting from the torsional moment MXY, the only stress which is considered in TMAX is the shear stress. There are other stresses such as warping normal stresses which do not get represented in TMAX. TMAX is the maximum inplane shear stress on an element for a given load case. It represents inplane shear stresses only. It contains contributions from the direct inplane shear stress SXY as well as the shear stress caused by the torsional moment MXY. Example 18 in the examples manual shows the derivation of TMAX from SXY and MXY.

While on the subject of shear stresses, one must note that the plate is also subjected to out-of-plane shear stresses SQX and SQY, which do not have any representation in TMAX.

In the post processing mode - Results menu Plate Stress Contour, there are two options called Max Top and Max Bottom. Are these direct stresses or flexural stresses?
These are the principal stresses SMAX and SMIN. Principal stresses are a blend of axial stresses (also known as membrane stresses SX and SY), bending stresses (caused by MX and MY) and inplane shear stresses (SXY). Since the bending stresses have distinct signs for the top and bottom surfaces of the element, the principal stresses too are distinct for top and bottom. The derivation for principal stresses is shown in example 18 of the STAAD Examples manual.

Can STAAD be used in designing a mat foundation?


The answer to the question is Yes. The following are the major steps involved in the modelling and design of mat foundations using STAAD. 1) The mat foundation has to be modelled using finite elements. If the length and width of the mat are atleast 10 times larger than its thickness, plate elements can be used. If not, one may use 8 noded solid elements. The remainder of the structure involving the beams, columns and slabs also has to be modelled along with the mat. If beams share a common boundary with the mat and slabs, to ensure the proper transfer of load between the beams and the mat & slabs, the mat & slabs have to be divided into several elements, the beams have to be divided into several members, and the elements and members must share common nodes. 2) Generally, the supports for the mat are derived from the subgrade reaction of the soil. Using this attribute, and the influence area of each node of the mat, the spring constant for the supports may be derived. STAAD contains an automatic spring support generation facility for mat foundations. One may refer to Section 5.27.3 of the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual for details on this type of support generation. 3) Soil spring supports generally tend to be effective against resisting compressive forces only. They are ineffective in resisting uplift. This type of a unidirectional support requires those springs to be assigned an attribute call SPRING COMPRESSION. 4) The loads on the mat and the rest of the model have to be specified. Then, the structure has to be analysed. This will generate the plate stresses and corner forces needed to design the mat.

5) You can then use the program's concrete design ability to design the individual elements which make up the mat. The only tedious aspect of this is that the program can presently design individual elements only. The task of taking the reinforcement values from each element and assembling the reinforcement picture of the overall mat has to be done by you manually. You may wish to look the information posted at the following links for details on the issues involved in designing individual elements. http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1549 http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1791 http://www.reiworld.com/Search.asp?id=SP-1792 We suggest you take a look at example problem number 27 in the STAAD.Pro examples manual for guidance on analysing mat foundations. In that example, the aspects explained in steps 1,2, 3 and 4 above are illustrated. Example problems 9 and 10 discuss concrete design of individual plate elements.

When modelling plate elements, should the individual elements satisfy any minimum requirements for the ratio of the length of their side to their thickness?
No, they do not have to. However, for the overall slab or wall, if the span in either direction is less than 10 times its thickness, then the slab or wall becomes more like a solid than like a plate; and thick plate theory may not be adequate. In that case, 8noded solid elements may be necessary.

I have a model where supports are defined at the nodes of some of the plate elements in the structure. If I divide the support reaction values by the thickness, length etc., of the side of the elements adjacent to the support, shouldn't the values match the ELEMENT NODAL STRESSES? I am aware of the fact that element stresses are in the local axis system of the element, and support reactions are in the global

axis system, and am making the required transformations before making the comparison.
The element nodal stresses are obtained as the value of the stress polynomial at the coordinates of those joints. Stresses in an element are most accurately determined only at the center of the element (in the middle of the joint displacement locations used in calculating that stress). The stress values calculated at the nodes will only be approximate (only the displacements of the joints from this one element are used in calculating the stress). Stresses at a joint would be improved if the stresses from the other elements at the joint (on the same surface) were averaged. Consequently, the comparison you suggest is not feasible.

A better alternative would be to compare the forces at the node rather than the stresses at the node. However, to do so, you will require version 2001 of STAAD.Pro. In STAAD.Pro 2001, the output for the command PRINT ELEMENT FORCES consists of the 3 forces and 3 moments at each of the nodes of the elements, reported in the global axis system. Thus, the output will consist of FX,FY,FZ,MX,MY,MZ with the 3 forces having units of force (not stress) and the 3 moments have units of moment (not moment per unit width). If you add up the values at the nodes of those elements which are connected to the support, those values must be equal to the support reaction. Another consideration is the way in which element loads are evaluated and used. Staad computes the equivalent forces at the corner joints (same total force, center of force, and direction). The remainder of the analysis and results are as if you had applied the loads as joint loads rather than as element loads. Two exceptions, temperature loads are applied internally to the element and plate releases will affect the load distribution to the joints. Say you have a wall with uniform pressure. Half of the load on the elements along the base will be applied directly to the base, the other half is applied to the line of joints at the top of these elements. So the internal transverse shears are too high at the top of the element. The transverse shears are OK at the center and too small at the base. The same will be true for the element force output of transverse forces. However, the reactions will have the entire force. A finer mesh in general, and near the base in particular, will improve the element stress and load distribution

How do I display the deflection diagram and the displacement values on that diagram?
The first step to viewing these results is to perform the analysis of the model successfully. Select Analyze from the Staad.Pro top menu bar followed by the Analysis option. A dialog box by the name Select Analysis Engine will appear. Click on the Run Analysis button of this dialog box. After the analysis of the file is completed, click on the Done button. The next step is to go to the Post Processing mode to view the deflection values graphically. To enter into the Post Processing mode, select Mode from the top menu bar and select Post Processing. Remember that if your analysis is not successfully completed (for reasons such as errors in your input data), you will not be able to access the Post Processing mode. By default, the deflection diagram always opens up in the post processing screen of Staad.Pro. From the top menu bar, choose Results - View value. Under Ranges, choose All. (The All button means the deflection diagram will be annotated for all nodes.) Under the Node tab, you will see the options Global X, Global Y, Global Z and Resultant. Make the appropriate choice. Click on the Annotate button. Then click on the close button.

If you would like to see the diagram annotated for a different load case, select that load case from the load selection box.

After running the analysis, I go to the View menu, select Tables | Node Displacements, and select the load cases for which I want to see the values. The values are displayed in inch units. I want them in "cms" units. Changing the units using Tools | Set Current Unit doesn't seem to make a difference.
The unit system in which results are displayed on the tables is set using the facilities available under the View Options menu. These are known as the display units. To set the display units for the node displacements, please do the following : In the View menu, select Options - Structure units. In the category called Displacement, select the units you desire and click on OK.

I want to print out a picture which consists of a truss I have modeled with the STAAD. I want the output forces labeled right on each member. This is very similar to what would be put on to a plan sheet. Can STAAD do this or must I print out a report to get these forces?

First, you have to ask STAAD to Annotate the drawing with the axial forces. For this, please go to the post processing mode after you have analyzed the structure. Click on the "Beam" tab on the left side and then click on the sub-tab labeled "Forces." Click the right mouse button on the screen and select "Structure Diagrams." From the "Loads and Results" tab, click on "Axial" under the "Beam Forces" heading. Uncheck the "bending zz" box and click "Apply" followed by "OK." Maximize the screen and then go to the "Results" pull down menu and select "View Value..." Click on the "Beam Results" tab and then check the box under the "Axial" heading labeled "Ends." Click "Annotate" and then "Close." The axial loading values should be displayed on your screen.

When I annotate beam moments on my diagrams, I can't seem to 1) change the font by adjusting the Beam Labels option and 2) turn off the unit being written on every single number.
Annotation labels, although applied to beams, nodes, plates and solids, are not altered by the associated options (i.e View | Options | Beam Labels). In order to

change the display of the annotations, go to View | Options from the main menu and choose the Annotation tab. To remove the display of the units for each annotation, simply choose the option "123.4" instead of "123.4 kN" under the Style list box in the Annotation tab. This will write the unit in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen for force, length and moment. If the units are not shown, go to View | Structure Diagrams and choose the Labels tab. Check on the option "Show Diagram Info" under the General box.

Why are my annotations for maximum bending moment or shear values not showing up in the post-processing mode?
In order to see the annotation (from Results->View Value in the post-processing mode) for a particular force or moment, the corresponding diagram must be on. For example, if one was to select maximum bending under the Beam Results tab, the bending moment diagram must be on (either MX, MY and/or MZ). Also, under the Ranges tab, make sure that the "None" option is not selected. Obviously, this would not annotate anything if it were selected. As a final note, once the annotations are visible, the size and font can be changed from the Annotation tab under View->Options in the main menu.

If I have a moment vector along the local positive Z axis does it have a twisting action going to the right along the positive direction of the axis?

If a member is drawn with its longitudinal axis (local-X) from left to right, and the local Z axis coming out of the page towards you, a positive MZ would cause tension on the top fiber, and a negative MZ would cause tension on the bottom fiber.

What are the sign conventions for moments in a 3-D structure?


The sign conventions are as follows: Axial (FX) : Positive = Along local X axis, Negative = Opposite to local X axis Shear-Y (FY) : Positive = Along local Y axis, Negative = Opposite to local Y axis Shear-Z (FZ) : Positive = Along local Z axis, Negative = Opposite to local Z axis Torsion (MX) : Positive = Along local X axis, Negative = Opposite to local Xaxis Moment-Y (MY) : Positive = Along local Y axis, Negative = Opposite to local Y axis Moment-Z (MZ) : Positive = Along local Z axis, Negative = Opposite to local Z axis For axial forces,

Positive at the start node indicates compression at the start node. Positive at the end node indicates tension at the end node. Negative at the start node indicates tension at the start node.Negative at the end node indicates compression at the end node.

After performing the analysis, I enter the post-processing mode to view the member end force values. I click on the Beam page on the left side of the screen and see the values listed on the tables on the right hand side. Unfortunately, the moment values are in kip-inch units, even though my current units are set to feet and pounds. What do I have to do to get the values to show up in pound-feet units in the tables?
The unit system in which results are displayed on the tables is set using the facilities available under the View Options menu. These are known as the display units. To set the display units for the bending moments and torsional moments, please do the following : In the View menu, select Options - Force units. In the category called Moment, select the units you desire and click on OK.

What is the purpose of the Beam - Graphs page on the left side of the screen?
This is another way to display the bending, shear and axial force diagrams on the screen. In the post processing mode, select the Beam page from the left side of the screen. Then select graphs. The right side portion of the screen will display the Bending diagram (MZ), shear diagram (FY) and the axial force diagram (FX) with values. In the drawing area, if you select a member by clicking on it, MZ, FY and FX of that member will be displayed on the right hand side. To display the diagrams of another member, select that member.

How do I display the bending moment diagram and the values on that diagram, or shear forces or Axial forces?
First you must Analyze the file. Select Analyze from the Staad.Pro top menu bar. Select the Analysis option. After this, click on Run Analysis at the bottom of the small window dialog box.

After the analysis of the file is completed, click on the Done button. Next, we go to the Post Processing mode to view the forces and results graphically. To enter into the Post Processing mode, select Mode from the top menu bar and select Post Processing. Remember that if your analysis is not complete, you will not be able to access the Post Processing mode. By default, the deflection diagram always opens up in the post processing screen of Staad.Pro. To view the Bending Moment Diagrams, select the Beam page from the left side. From the top menu bar, choose Results - View value. Under Ranges, choose All. (The All button means the Bending moment diagram will be displayed for all members.) Under the Beam Results tab, you will see the options Bending, Shear, Axial, Displacement and Stresses. Make the appropriate choice. Click on the Annotate button. Then click on the close button.
Is it possible to quickly find out the total number of nodes & beams in a model?.
Yes. On the left side of the screen, click on the Setup page. On the right side of the screen, click on the button called "More". Another place to get this from is the button that looks like a question mark. It is called Info. See the figure below.

How do I stop the Auto Save screen from appearing over and over again in Staad.Pro?
From the File menu of the main program screen, select "Open Backup Manager". The dialog box that comes up has a facility to turn off the Autosave feature as seen in the next figure.

How can I define a built up section whose cross section shape is not that of any standard rolled section?
You have to specify its properties using the User Table-General section. You can find the details in section 5.19 of the Technical Reference Manual as shown next. Refer to the section titled General

I am trying to cut a rectangular hole in an arbitrary triangular region in space which has been meshed with plates. Is there a way to orient the construction grid (for the "snap node/plate" feature) to align with three pre-defined nodes (i.e. the corners of the triangle) to simplify removal of the rectangular feature inside? The angle of the triangle is very odd and I am concerned about the nodes defining the rectangle being slightly out of plane if I try to set the construction grid manually based on the coordinates and angle of the triangle.
Using STAAD's graphical tools, it is quite difficult to insert an opening after the plate has been meshed, unless your plate elements are aligned in a manner that exactly matches the boundary of the opening. The process is far less painful if the hole is specified before the meshing process commences. To do that, please have a look at the solution described later in this section under the topic "Generation of a plate element mesh for an irregular slab with holes/openings" Alternatively, you may use Parametric Models option as described in section 2.3.6.11 titled Geometry | Create Parametric Models

One issue that I have encountered is that if I go into the load function and realize that I have the wrong units specified, I cannot change the units by going back to the geometry menus and selecting the correct units to use. When I enter the loading menus again, the units have not changed. Is there another way to change the units once you enter the loading functions?
From the Edit menu, choose Edit Input Command File. Scroll down till you see commands like LOAD 1 or LOAD 2 Prior to the load case which has the units error, add the appropriate unit as shown UNIT POUND FEET For example UNIT KIP FEET LOAD 1 SELF Y -1.0 MEMBER LOAD 1 TO 25 UNI GY -0.2 UNIT POUND LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD 33 FX 400 UNIT KNS METER LOAD 3 MEMBER LOAD 45 UNI GY -3.0 When

using the foundation support, I am required to give the subgrade modulus and supply a direction. I have always used Y as the direction. However, I am interested in knowing what would occur if I choose Y-only. Is there some type of weak spring placed in X & Z directions, is it completely restrained, or is it somewhere in between?

If X or Y or Z is specified for direction, then, a) a spring support is generated in that direction b) the other two translational directions are fully restrained c) the associated rotational degre of freedom is fully restrained d) the other 2 rotational degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained plate-list PLATE MAT DIR Y SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is fixed FY gets a spring FZ is fixed MX is free MY is fixed MZ is free If XONLY or YONLY or ZONLY is specified, then, a spring support is generated in that direction. All the remaining 5 degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained. Example : plate-list PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is free FY gets a spring FZ is free MX is free MY is free MZ is free

The "View - View Selected Objects Only" option requires two clicks to work.Why ?
This error was present in the American edition of STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004. For finding the Release and build number, go to Help - About STAAD.Pro. It has been corrected in Build 1005.US.REL. In case you still need to use the version that had the problem, you could do the following to get around the problem : a) Go to the View menu and choose "View Selected Objects Only" again. b) Click the right mouse button, choose "New View" followed by one of the 2 options it offers.

I am using STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004.US also known as the second edition. When I try to add plates using the new feature in the Geometry menu called "Create infill plates", I encounter the message "No closed polygon found to fill in with plates, please check beam selection".What am I doing wrong? This was an in build 1004 and has been rectified in the US Build 1005. If you need to use
build 1004, you can use the same facility from its icon which is shown below.

I have a rather large frame building consisting of several floors. I want to look at individual floors by themselves without the rest of the structure cluttering up the view. Can you tell me how to do that?

Method 1 :
a) Orient the view of your model in such a way as to make it convenient to extract using a mouse, the portion you want to view separately. This can be done from View | Orientation, or by clicking on the icons available for this. b) From the select menu, select the Geometry cursor. Then, using your mouse, create a window around the region you wish to view. That region will be highlighted. c) Click the right mouse button and select New View. Or, from the View menu, select New View. Set the button on "Create a new window for the View", and click on OK. The region will now be displayed in a separate window. Once in this window, you can change the viewing angles using View | Orientation, or through the orientation icons, or simply by pressing the up, down, left or right arrow keys on the keyboard.

Method 2 :
This method involves cutting a section using the Tools - Cut section option. Details are available in Section 2.3.4 of the STAAD.Pro Graphical Environment Manual, which can be accessed from Help - Contents.

How do I access online help in STAAD.Pro? The F1 key does not bring up any help screens.
The F1 key for help is currently not operational in STAAD. We are working on implementing this for one of the forthcoming releases. To obtain online help in STAAD, you can do one of the following: From the Help menu, if you click on Contents, if will bring up all the STAAD manuals. You can search for specific information, or go through the topic list to select the items you want. From Help, if you click on Multi Media help, it will bring up a set of movies which will explain the procedure for creating a model. If you click on the Start button on your Windows desktop, select Programs, choose STAAD.Pro 2001 followed by STAAD.Pro Online Documentation, it will bring up the same set of information as the one you can access from step (1) above.

How can I convert single line input to multiple line input? The program currently converts my joint coordinate and member incidence data from multiple line to single line input.
Start STAAD.Pro. Select File - Configure.

Click on the tab called Input File Format

If you want Single line format, switch on the check boxes. If you want Multiple line format, keep them "unchecked". Click on Accept. Then from the File menu, open your STAAD input file. When you Save the file from the Graphical screen, the data will be saved in the format you chose in the step above.

How do I merge 2 staad models?

Start STAAD.Pro. Open the first file. Keep it open.


STAAD another instance of STAAD.Pro. Open the second file. Stay in this file. Go to the Select menu, and Select All Geometry. From the Edit menu, select Copy. Go back to the screen of the first file. From the Edit menu, select Paste. You will be prompted to specify the X, Y and Z distances by which to move the structure of the second file before it gets copied to the first structure. Specify those values and click on OK

STAAD.Pro Knowledge Base


Issue #: SP-1496 Date Posted: 10/26/2001

Description: What does a zero stiffness warning message in the STAAD output file mean? Version: Build No: Solution: Definition of a zero stiffness condition :

The procedure used by STAAD in calculating displacements and forces in a structure is the stiffness method. One of the steps involved in this method is the assembly of the global stiffness matrix. During this process, STAAD verifies that no active degree of freedom (d.o.f) has a zero value, because a zero value could be a potential cause of instability in the model along that d.o.f. It means that the structural conditions which exist at that node and degree of freedom result in the structure having no ability to resist a load acting along that d.o.f.

A warning message is printed in the STAAD output file highlighting the node number and the d.o.f at which the zero stiffness condition exists.

Examples of cases which give rise to these conditions :

Consider a frame structure where some of the members are defined to be trusses. On this model, if a joint exists where the only structural components connected at that node are truss members, there is no rotational stiffness at that node along any of the global d.o.f. If the structure is defined as STAAD PLANE, it will result in a warning along the MZ d.o.f at that node. If it were declared as STAAD SPACE, there will be at least 3 warnings, one for each of MX, MY and MZ, and perhaps additional warnings for the translational d.o.f.

These warnings can also appear when other structural conditions such as member releases and element releases deprive the structure of stiffness at the associated nodes along the global translational or rotational directions. A tower held down by cables, defined as a PLANE or SPACE frame, where cable members are pinned supported at their base will also generate these warnings for the rotational d.o.f. at the supported nodes of the cables.

Solid elements have no rotational stiffness at their nodes. So, at all nodes where you have only solids, these zero stiffness warning messages will appear.

These are warnings and not errors because :

The reason why these conditions are reported as warnings and not errors is due to the fact that they may not necessarily be detrimental to the proper transfer of loads from the structure to the supports. If no load acts at and

along the d.o.f where the stiffness is zero, that point may not be a trouble-spot.

What is the usefulness of these messages :

A zero stiffness message can be a tool for investigating the cause of instabilities in the model. An instability is a condition where a load applied on the structure is not able to make its way into the supports because no paths exist for the load to flow through, and may result in a lack of equilibrium between the applied load and the support reaction. A zero stiffness message can tell us whether any of those d.o.f are obstacles to the flow of the load.

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STAAD.pro 2007 Advanced Analysis Option

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

19 December 2007

The Advanced Analysis Module includes the four major features: 1. Pushover Analysis 2. Steady State Analysis 3. Advanced Solver; and 4. Buckling Load Analysis 1. Pushover Analysis: Pushover Analysis option will allow engineers to perform pushover analysis as per FEMA 356 : 2000 and ATC 40. Pushover analysis is a static, nonlinear procedure using simplified nonlinear technique to estimate seismic structural deformations. It is an incremental static analysis used to determine the forcedisplacement relationship, or the capacity curve, for a structure or structural element.

Figure 1: Capacity Curve for a Structure in STAAD.pro 2006 Pushover Tab The analysis involves applying horizontal loads, in a prescribed pattern, to the structure incrementally, i.e. pushing the structure and plotting the total applied shear force and associated lateral displacement at each increment, until the structure or collapse condition. An example of the capacity curve is shown in Figure1. The displacement diagram after 225 steps and the location of plastic hinges at the 11th step is shown in Figure 3 and 4 respectively.

Figure 2: Node displacements at Step 220 in STAAD.pro 2006 Pushover Tab

Figure 3: Location of Plastic Hinges in STAAD.pro 2006 Pushover Tab

In the current implementation of the pushover analysis, the user can provide hinge properties as per Table 5-6 and 5-7 of the FEMA 356 manual (Generalized Force-Deformation Relationship) and also enter the expected yield stress of steel.

Figure 4: Hinge properties can be defined in the Loads tab in the modeling mode STAAD.pro's pushover analysis is currently only applicable to steel structures. 2. Steady State Analysis: A structure [subjected only to harmonic loading, all at a given forcing frequency and with non-zero damping] will reach a steady state of vibration that will repeat every forcing cycle. This steady state response can be computed without calculating the transient time history response prior to the steady state condition. Ground motion or a joint force distribution may be specified. Each global direction may be at a different phase angle. Output frequency points are selected automatically for modal frequencies and for a set number of frequencies between modal frequencies. There is an option to change the number of points between frequencies and an option to add frequencies to the list of output frequencies.

Figure 5: Steady state analysis inputs in the STAAD.pro input file

Figure 6: Steady state analysis outputs

The results are the steady-state response which is the absolute maximum of displacement (and other output quantities) and the corresponding phase angle after the steady state condition has been reached. In addition, a Harmonic response can be calculated. This response consists of a series of Steady State responses for a list of frequencies. The joint displacement, velocity, or acceleration can be displayed as the response value versus frequency. Load case results are the maximums over all of the frequencies.

Figure 6: Steady state analysis outputs Displacement vs. Frequency charts 3. Advanced Solver: In the STAAD.pro 2007 the user will have three types of solvers: 1. Basic out-of-Core 2. VKI out-of-Core; and 3. VKI in-core VKI solver will be available as part of the Advanced Analysis option VKI in-core solver will be used for models with under 20,000 joints VKI out-of-core solver for models over 20000 joints The VKI in-core solver is 500 to 2,000 times faster than the STAAD solver The VKI out-of-core solver is between 50% and 100% as fast as the VKI in-core solver VKI solver is also good for dynamic analysis, master/slave models, and models requiring iterative solutions.

4. Buckling Load Analysis: STAAD.Pro can now identify the factor by which the loads in the selected load case should be increased (or decreased if less than 1) such that Euler buckling would occur. This buckling method is automatically activated if an Advanced Analysis license is available. When using the Advanced Solver, the corresponding buckling modes are included in the output file. The buckling modes and shapes and table are available to be viewed in the Post Processing Mode in a new Buckling Page.

Figure 7: Buckling Mode Table

Figure 8: Buckling Mode Factor

STAAD Structural Analysis and Design

Instruction Manual
Problem 5-7 page 123 Third Edition Problem 5-7 page 129 Fourth Edition

Applied Statics and Strength of Materials Textbook


Leonard Spiegel and George F. Limbrunner

2006, General Training and Educational (GTE) Services, All rights reserved. Reproduction without prior written authorization is strictly prohibited.

STAAD Instruction Manual

Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction.. Creating A New Structure Generating the Model Geometry.. Saving the Structure. Specifying Supports.. Specifying Loads... Command File Specifying Materials.. Printing Member Information Performing Analysis.. Generating Post Analysis Report... Running Analysis.. Viewing the Output File and Interpreting Results.. Viewing Animated Deflected Shape of the Truss... 2 3 4 6 7 11 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26

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STAAD Instruction Manual

1. Introduction:
STAAD.Pro is software for STructural Analysis and Design from Research Engineers International (www.reiworld.com) STAAD.Pro is used to generate a model of a truss, which can be analyzed using the same software. After modeling and analysis is completed, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) can also be used to view the results graphically. In this manual, example 5-7 from Applied Statics and Strength of Materials book (3rd/4th Edition- Leonard Spiegel and George F. Limbrunner) is solved using STAAD.Pro. The first section of this manual explains how to model the truss shown below.

9-0

Hinge Support

4 bays @10-0 = 40-0

Roller Support

In the second section, after analyzing the model, support reaction and member forces are printed. Using the animation capabilities of STAAD.Pro, a visualization of the deflected shape of the truss is obtained.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

2. Creating a New Structure:


2.1 To create a new structure, Click on File New

2.2 To specify units

Note: Before you proceed, make sure that you have all the toolbars (icons) loaded in the current session of STAAD. Click on View>Toolbars and check all boxes to import all toolbars. Please note that the position of a certain toolbar may be different on your screen. Also, the job info in the right side window is optional.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

3. Generating Model Geometry


3.1 Click on the Geometry tab on the left. Then click on Beam tab next to it. Or Select Geometry Snap Grid/Node Beam

1. Click
here for FRONT view

2. Click on Geometry and Beam tabs.


3. Set No. of grid lines and the grid spacing Click #2,14 Click #4,15 Click #6,16 Click #8,17 7. Click on Close

Click #1, 13*

Click #3,12

Click #5,11

Click #7,10

Click #9 4. Make sure that Snap Node/Beam is active.

5. Start adding members as shown by click numbers.

* After 13, press and hold Control key and then click on #14

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STAAD Instruction Manual

3.2 To view the node and beam numbers Click View> Structure Diagrams and select Labels tab Or Click here

1. Make sure that you are in the Labels tab. 2. Check the Node numbers, Beam numbers and Load values checkboxes.

3. Click on Apply and then OK.

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4. Saving the structure:


Click on File Save as. Select appropriate folder and name the file as Problem 5-7 Myname.std

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5. Specifying supports
Click on General tab on the left side and click on support tab.

2. Make sure that you are in pinned support tab.

3. Click on Create.

1. Click on Add.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

4. Click and Select this node

1. Highlight Support 2 2. Check Use cursor to assign

3. Click on Assign

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STAAD Instruction Manual

Part II: Creating Roller Supports:

3. A roller support is a fixed support without these reactions. So we have to release these reactions. Check these boxes.

2. Select fixed But tab

4. Click on Create.

1. Click on Add. Or if you have closed this dialogue box in the previous step again click on General and Supports tab.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

1. Highlight Support 3.

2. Check Use Cursor to Assign.

3. Click on Assign.

1. Select this node.

2. Click on Close

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STAAD Instruction Manual

6. Specifying Loads:

1. Select General and load tab

2. Type point loads and click on OK.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

1. Click on Nodal.

2. Specify the value of the vertical load as 6 units. 3. Click on Add.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

Again Click on Nodal and repeat this procedure for 8 kips and 10 kips load.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

The truss should look like this

Click on Close.

If the forces and arrowheads look smaller, you may change the scale by which a force is being represented. Click on View> Structure Diagrams and in the scales tab change the point force scale to 1kip per foot.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

7. Command File:
Command file is a history file which records all procedures you have done while designing a truss problem. When an analysis is run, this command file is executed. Please click on Edit Edit Input file to see the contents. Command file and the Graphical User Interface are bi-directional, which means if you make any changes in command file, your truss model will be updated automatically. Any standard text editor such as Notepad or Textpad can also be used to create the command file, but the build in editor of STAAD.Pro offers the advantage of syntax checking as we type the commands.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

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STAAD Instruction Manual

8. Specifying Materials:

1. Select General and Property tab

2. Click on Database

3. Select American.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

1. Select Angle tab.

3. Select L40308.

2. Select Long Leg Back to Back, Double angle. 5. Click on Add.

3. Click on individual members till all members get material R1.

1. Click on Use Cursor to Assign.

2. Click on Assign.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

9. Printing Member Information:


Member information such as element number and its associated nodes can be printed in our final output result file. This can be done without (or before) the actual analysis while being in the modeling stage of truss design.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

10. Performing Analysis:

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STAAD Instruction Manual

11. Generating Post Analysis Report:


11-1 Member forces:

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STAAD Instruction Manual

11-2 Support reactions:

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STAAD Instruction Manual

12. Running Analysis:


Click on Analyze Run Analysis

Select STAAD Analysis

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STAAD Instruction Manual

13. Viewing the Output File and Interpreting Results:

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STAAD Instruction Manual

The axial force in member 1 is 9.43 kips. Tensile or compressive?? Lets have a quick look at our model.

2
Positive direction

1
Member 1 is defined as FROM 1 TO 2. Hence the positive direction of axis is FROM 1 TO 2. At joint 1, force is positive. (Directed towards 2) and at joint 2, force is negative, (directed towards 1) Hence, the force in member 1 is compressive.

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STAAD Instruction Manual

14. Viewing Animated Deflected Shape Of The Truss:

1. Select the animation tab.

2. Check Deflection.

3. Specify these values. You can play with these values to obtain different intermediate shapes as well as speeds. 4. Hit F12 for a full screen display. Press F12 again to return back to normal screen.

End of file

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Design of Offshore Structures using STAAD.Pro and STAAD.Offshore

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

15 January 2007

Design of Offshore Structures using STAAD.Pro and STAAD.Offshore


STAAD.Pro is a general purpose structural analysis and design tool that is being used to design offshore structures. STAAD.Offshore allows users create wave loading and transport loads on offshore structures. It can handle pipes, rectangular/square tubes, and open sections such as Ibeams and channels, or other structural shapes by judicious selection of the wave force coefficients. A typical scenario is an offshore jacket structure as shown in Figure 1. The offshore jacket can be subjected to many types of loads including wave loads and several transport ship motions.

Figure 1: Typical jacket structures

These structures are modeled in STAAD.Pro as shown in Figure 2. Section properties can be assigned using the STAAD.Pro code based section database or the user can create user tables to define custom sections. Once the section properties and supports have been assigned, the STAAD.Pro model can be imported into STAAD.Offshore to perform the wave load generation as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2: STAAD.Pro structural analysis model of an offshore structure

Figure 3: STAAD.Pro structural analysis model imported into STAAD.Offshore for wave load generation

STAAD.Offshore provides the user with options to generate wave loads using eight different wave generation theories. The height of the wave and period of the waves have to be provided in STAAD.Offshore as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: A wave approaching an offshore structure

The user is requested to specify the in-plane (xz plane) approach angle of the waves as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: A wave approaching an offshore structure

STAAD.Offshore requires the user to input the wave positions that need to be considered for the load generation. For example, in Figure 6, the user has requested STAAD.Offshore to perform wave load generation at 00 to 180o with a step of 90o. Hence STAAD.Offshore will generate three load cases (i.e. wave at 00, 90o and 180o).

Figure 6: User requested load generation at 0 to 180 with a step of 90 .

The resultant load cases can be better visualized in STAAD.Pro. STAAD.Offshore wave load cases using the STAAD.Pro interface.

Figure 7 illustrates the

Figure 7: User requested load generation at 0 to 180 with a step of 90 . The wave loads are represented as trapezoidal loads in STAAD.Pro.

There are a number of other inputs required for the wave load generation which include but are not limited to the following: Mudline level Centre of rotation of the structure Water depth Wave kinematics factor There is an option in the program to neglect the overturning moments at the base that are caused by the vertical forces. This allows the vertical wave force effects to be quantified. Wave force coefficients, drag and added mass, which can be specified independently for each member or using a member range. Marine growth and current velocity profiles are specified relative to the still water level, SWL, and are described by a discrete set of data points.

The wave current and wave directions can be in different directions and the combined effect is accounted for. The Transport Load Module in STAAD.Offshore can generate inertia loads due to self weight, joint weights, member point weights, and member segmented linear varying weights based on the distance of the load point from the centre of rotation. For example, one could find out the inertial load acting on an offshore deck or module structure due to a ship motion. Figure 8 shows the different types of ship/vessel motion parameters that can be entered in STAAD.Offshore. These motion parameters will let the user generate response inertia forces on the STAAD.Pro model. The right side of Figure 9 illustrates the inertia force diagram of the offshore deck in the STAAD.Pro model.

Figure 8: Ship/Vessel Translational and Rotational Motion input Parameters.

Motion loads can be generated in all the six degrees of freedom, DOF, and combined to form basic STAAD.Pro load cases. The DOF motions in a load case can be added or subtracted by specifying a directional load factor, e.g. -1.20, 1.0 etc, a factor greater than 1.0 would signify a correction factor being applied to the generated load.

Using directional load factors is possible to form load cases comprising of: heave + roll, or heave - roll and heave + pitch, or heave - pitch, to determine the maximum member forces at all positions within a structure.

Figure 9: Response of the structure due to inertia forces generated using offshore transport module

The wave loads and transport loads generated in the STAAD.Pro model can be combined with other load cases. These load combinations can be used to design the structure as per the American Petroleum Institute (API) design code. The API code is the 21st edition, Dec 2000 (but without the errata and supplements 1 and 2 of 2002 and 2005), is used as the basis of this design (except for tension stress). For tubular members, punching shear may be checked in accordance with the API RP 2A 21th Edition Section 4. Figure 10 shows a typical design output on the right and a color coded diagram that shows the design ratios in a graphical format.

Figure 10: API Design results displayed in STAAD.Pro

STAAD.pro API Punching Shear Checks


STAAD.pro is capable of doing the API punching shear checks. The user has to simply follow the two-step process in the "International Codes Manual" Page 15-14 to perform the API punching shear checks. Step 1: Set LEG parameter to 1.0. (i.e. give the LEG 1.0 command in the input file). Analyze the STAAD.pro input file. After running the analysis, an "APIPUN" file will be created in the project directory. This file can be opened using notepad and the user should see the following inputs in this file:
*BRACE CHORD PUNCH D 31 11 3 39.370 32 16 3 39.370 33 21 3 35.433 33 1 3 39.370 34 22 3 35.433 34 6 3 39.370 35 25 3 35.433 35 11 3 39.370 36 24 3 35.433 T 1.575 1.575 1.181 1.575 1.181 1.575 1.181 1.575 1.181 d 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 29.528 t 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181 GAP FYLD THETAT 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 0.00 36.0 0.0 TW SWAP 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0

...... Step 2: The user has to open the STAAD.pro editor and change the LEG parameter to 2.0 (i.e. replace the LEG 1.0 command in the input file to LEG 2.0) and re-analyze the STAAD.pro input file. STAAD.pro will read the commands in the "APIRUN" file and perform the punching shear checks as per API. Please see the output file to see the details of the API punching shear check calculations.
STAAD.Pro API PUNCHING SHEAR CHECK TO 20th edition. ---------------------------------------------------

JOINT = 13, BRACE = 31, CHORD = 11 ----------------------------------------------DIA. THK. TYP GAP THETA TAU BETA CHORD BRACE PASS 1000.0 750.0 40.0 TY 30.0 0.0

AISC Vpa 58.19 0.750 0.750 12.498 248. 1.00 99.

GAMMA Fy

Inc

API Eqn. 4.1-1 with Ratio = CHORD BRACE Vp (kN & M) (N/mm2) -4764. 2434. 22.9 41. 72. 3.9 55. 105. 5.7 784. 3. 8. 2544. 26. 36. -4022. 40. 53. 830. -488. 24. 21. -1422. 50. 76. 1438. 63. 138. -308. -4.6 1.3 1.2 -13.3 2.7 4.1 13.5 3.4 7.5 -2.9 Qf 0.974 0.960 0.981 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.981 0.972 0.987 1.000

0.61 Vpa UTIL LOAD (N/mm2) Bend Total CASE 1.367 44.0 4.613 146.6 0.01 0.57 1 2.413 78.4 PASS 1.367 4.613 2.413 1.367 4.613 2.413 1.367 4.613 2.413 1.367 45.2 152.7 79.9 45.2 152.7 79.9 44.4 148.4 78.8 45.2 Qq

Axial: IPB: OPB: Axial: IPB: OPB: Axial: IPB: OPB: Axial: IPB: OPB: Axial:

0.00 0.11 PASS

0.00 0.33 PASS

0.01 0.37 PASS

IPB: OPB: Axial: IPB: OPB:

1. 10. 2276. 25. 37.

14. 34. -793. 46. 110.

0.7 1.8 -7.4 2.5 6.0

1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

4.613 2.413 1.367 4.613 2.413

152.7 79.9 45.2 152.7

0.00 0.08 PASS

0.01

0.22

79.9

PASS

Document Information
Document Type: FAQ Product(s): STAAD.Pro Version(s): All Original Author: Bentley Technical Support Group

Is it possible to quickly find out the total number of nodes & beams in a model?.
Yes. On the left side of the screen, click on the Setup page. On the right side of the screen, click on the button called "More". Another place to get this from is the button that looks like a question mark. It is called Info. See the figure below.

How do I stop the Auto Save screen from appearing over and over again in Staad.Pro?
From the File menu of the main program screen, select "Open Backup Manager". The dialog box that comes up has a facility to turn off the Autosave feature as seen in the next figure.

How can I define a built up section whose cross section shape is not that of any standard rolled section?
You have to specify its properties using the User Table-General section. You can find the details in section 5.19 of the Technical Reference Manual as shown next. Refer to the section titled General

I am trying to cut a rectangular hole in an arbitrary triangular region in space which has been meshed with plates. Is there a way to orient the construction grid (for the "snap node/plate" feature) to align with three pre-defined nodes (i.e. the corners of the triangle) to simplify removal of the rectangular feature inside? The angle of the triangle is very odd and I am concerned about the nodes defining the rectangle being slightly out of plane if I try to set the construction grid manually based on the coordinates and angle of the triangle.
Using STAAD's graphical tools, it is quite difficult to insert an opening after the plate has been meshed, unless your plate elements are aligned in a manner that exactly matches the boundary of the opening. The process is far less painful if the hole is specified before the meshing process commences. To do that, please

have a look at the solution described later in this section under the topic "Generation of a plate element mesh for an irregular slab with holes/openings" Alternatively, you may use Parametric Models option as described in section 2.3.6.11 titled Geometry | Create Parametric Models

One issue that I have encountered is that if I go into the load function and realize that I have the wrong units specified, I cannot change the units by going back to the geometry menus and selecting the correct units to use. When I enter the loading menus again, the units have not changed. Is there another way to change the units once you enter the loading functions?
From the Edit menu, choose Edit Input Command File. Scroll down till you see commands like LOAD 1 or LOAD 2 Prior to the load case which has the units error, add the appropriate unit as shown UNIT POUND FEET For example UNIT KIP FEET LOAD 1 SELF Y -1.0 MEMBER LOAD 1 TO 25 UNI GY -0.2 UNIT POUND LOAD 2

JOINT LOAD 33 FX 400 UNIT KNS METER LOAD 3 MEMBER LOAD 45 UNI GY -3.0

When using the foundation support, I am required to give the subgrade modulus and supply a direction. I have always used Y as the direction. However, I am interested in knowing what would occur if I choose Y-only. Is there some type of weak spring placed in X & Z directions, is it completely restrained, or is it somewhere in between?
If X or Y or Z is specified for direction, then, a) a spring support is generated in that direction b) the other two translational directions are fully restrained c) the associated rotational degre of freedom is fully restrained d) the other 2 rotational degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained Example : plate-list PLATE MAT DIR Y SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is fixed FY gets a spring FZ is fixed MX is free MY is fixed MZ is free If XONLY or YONLY or ZONLY is specified, then, a spring support is generated in that direction. All the remaining 5 degrees of freedom are treated as unrestrained.

Example : plate-list PLATE MAT DIR YONLY SUBGRADE 0.4 FX is free FY gets a spring FZ is free MX is free MY is free MZ is free

The "View - View Selected Objects Only" option requires two clicks to work.Why ?
This error was present in the American edition of STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004. For finding the Release and build number, go to Help - About STAAD.Pro. It has been corrected in Build 1005.US.REL. In case you still need to use the version that had the problem, you could do the following to get around the problem : a) Go to the View menu and choose "View Selected Objects Only" again. b) Click the right mouse button, choose "New View" followed by one of the 2 options it offers.

I am using STAAD.Pro 2004 Build 1004.US also known as the second edition. When I try to add plates using the new feature in the Geometry menu called "Create infill plates", I encounter the message "No closed polygon found to fill in with plates, please check beam selection".What am I doing wrong?
This was an in build 1004 and has been rectified in the US Build 1005. If you need to use build 1004, you can use the same facility from its icon which is shown below.

I have a rather large frame building consisting of several floors. I want to look at individual floors by themselves without the rest of the structure cluttering up the view. Can you tell me how to do that?
Method 1 : a) Orient the view of your model in such a way as to make it convenient to extract using a mouse, the portion you want to view separately. This can be done from View | Orientation, or by clicking on the icons available for this. b) From the select menu, select the Geometry cursor. Then, using your mouse, create a window around the region you wish to view. That region will be highlighted. c) Click the right mouse button and select New View. Or, from the View menu, select New View. Set the button on "Create a new window for the View", and click on OK. The region will now be displayed in a separate window. Once in this window, you can change the viewing angles using View | Orientation, or through the orientation icons, or simply by pressing the up, down, left or right arrow keys on the keyboard.

Method 2 : This method involves cutting a section using the Tools - Cut section option. Details are available in Section 2.3.4 of the STAAD.Pro Graphical Environment Manual, which can be accessed from Help - Contents.

How do I access online help in STAAD.Pro? The F1 key does not bring up any help screens.

The F1 key for help is currently not operational in STAAD. We are working on implementing this for one of the forthcoming releases. To obtain online help in STAAD, you can do one of the following: From the Help menu, if you click on Contents, if will bring up all the STAAD manuals. You can search for specific information, or go through the topic list to select the items you want. From Help, if you click on Multi Media help, it will bring up a set of movies which will explain the procedure for creating a model. If you click on the Start button on your Windows desktop, select Programs, choose STAAD.Pro 2001 followed by STAAD.Pro Online Documentation, it will bring up the same set of information as the one you can access from step (1) above.

How can I convert single line input to multiple line input? The program currently converts my joint coordinate and member incidence data from multiple line to single line input.
Start STAAD.Pro. Select File - Configure.

Click on the tab called Input File Format

If you want Single line format, switch on the check boxes. If you want Multiple line format, keep them "unchecked".

Click on Accept.

Then from the File menu, open your STAAD input file. When you Save the file from the Graphical screen, the data will be saved in the format you chose in the step above.

How do I merge 2 staad models?

Start STAAD.Pro. Open the first file. Keep it open. STAAD another instance of STAAD.Pro. Open the second file. Stay in this file. Go to the Select menu, and Select All Geometry. From the Edit menu, select Copy. Go back to the screen of the first file. From the Edit menu, select Paste.

You will be prompted to specify the X, Y and Z distances by which to move the structure of the second file before it gets copied to the first structure. Specify those values and click on OK

AISC/ASCE STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETETION 2009

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STEEL BRIDGES USING STAAD.Pro V8i

By

BENTLEY STRUCTURAL GROUP

30th October 2008

1.0 Introduction
The Student Steel Bridge Competition is sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), and co-sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute, Bentley Systems, Incorporated, the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, the James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, the National Steel Bridge Alliance, the Nucor Corporation, and the Steel Structure Education Foundation. Students design and erect a steel bridge by themselves but may seek advice from faculty and student organization advisers. The purpose of this document is to help students analyze and design their bridge models using Bentleys STAAD.Pro V8i. STAAD.Pro is the professionals choice for steel, concrete, timber, aluminum and cold-formed steel design of low and high-rise buildings, culverts, petrochemical plants, tunnels, bridges, piles and much more. It is a general purpose structural analysis and design tool.

2.0 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis


STAAD.Pro can make your bridge design and analysis task easier. The bridge geometry in STAAD.Pro can be constructed in many ways: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. STAAD.Pro user interface Structure Wizard Using a DXF import (importing a dxf MicroStation or AutoCAD drawing) Bentley Structural ProSteel 3D

In this case the bridge geometry will be created using Structure Wizard. The bridge geometry is shown in Figure 1. The width of the bridge is 2.

Figure 1: Bridge Geometry

A conservative 2.5 x 2.5 steel section will be used for the entire bridge top and bottom cord. All other members will be 2 x 2. Note: If custom cross sections are used for the bridge members, the custom shapes can be modeled as General Sections. You may have to use STAAD.SectionWizard. Alternatively, a General Section can be also created in STAAD.Pro V8i using the instructions on the following link: ftp://ftp2.bentley.com/dist/collateral/Web/Building/STAADPro/Modeling_Custom Shapes in STAAD_PRO.pdf The following three load cases will be created:
Table 1: Bridge Loading

Loading Type Vertical Load 1

Components Self weight of the structure Deck Loading 0.005 kip/sq.ft Distributed Load as shown below: 1.25 kip/(4 members*1.5ft long members) = 0.2083 k/ft load on each member. Assume L1=3ft and L2=12ft (1)

Vertical Load 2

Self weight of the structure Deck Loading 0.005 kip/sq.ft Distributed Load as shown below: 1.25 kip/(4 members*1.5ft long members) = 0.2083 k/ft load on each member. Assume L1=6ft and L2=9ft

Lateral Load

Self weight of the structure Deck Loading 0.005 kip/sq.ft 0.05 kip point Load as shown below

Notes: (1) L1 and L2 are defined in section 8 of STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION - 2009 RULES

3.0 STEP-BY-STEP TUTORIAL


Geometry Generation:
1. Launch STAAD.Pro by clicking on the Start->All Programs->STAAD.Pro V8i->STAAD.Pro icon. The STAAD.Pro V8i introduction screen will appear as shown in Figure 2. Note: Make sure that US Design Codes is checked and has a green light besides it. The US Design Codes is not checked, you will need to check this box and close the STAAD.Pro interface and re-open it again.

Figure 2: STAAD.Pro Introduction Screen

2. Click on File->Configure. The Configure Program dialog box will appear. Make sure that the Base Unit is set to English. Note: If you will be constructing your bridge model in the metric unit system, make sure that you set the base unit system to Metric.

Figure 3: Base Unit System Setup

3. Click on the File->New menu command. The New dialog box will appear. 4. Provide the model options as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: The New Dialog box

5. Click on the Next button. The Where do you want to go Today? Dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 5. 6. Click on the Finish button. 7. The STAAD.Pro V8i user interface will appear as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 5: The Where do you want to go Today? dialog box

Figure 6: STAAD.Pro User Interface

8. You could create the bridge geometry using the grid options shown in Figure 6. Appendix A of this document illustrates the procedure of creating a simple bridge geometry using the grid system. You could also create a bridge geometry using MicroStation XM and export that drawing as a dxf. Appendix B discusses how this can be achieved. In this tutorial, the Structure Wizard will be used to create the bridge geometry. 9. Click on the Geometry->Run Structure Wizard menu command. The Structure Wizard user interface will appear as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Structure Wizard User Interface

10. Double click on the Howe Bridge icon on the left. The Select Parameters dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 8. Note: In this dialog box, you can adjust the bay-to-bay spacing by simply clicking on the icon. Make sure that the summation of the bay-spacing is equal to total length and width that you have specified respectively.

Figure 8: Structure Wizard User Interface

11. Input the parameters in the Select Parameters dialog box as illustrated in Figure 8. 12. Press the Apply button. The structural geometry will appear as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Bridge Structure Geometry in Structure Wizard

13. To transfer the structure to STAAD.Pro, select the File->Merge Model With STAAD.Pro Model menu command. Structure Wizard interface will close and a conformation dialog box will appear.

Figure 10: Confirmation dialog box

14. Click Yes for the conformation dialog box. The Paste Prototype Model dialog box will appear. 15. Click on the Ok button. The bridge geometry will be created in STAAD.Pro as shown in Figure 11. Note: The Y Axis should be the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro models.

Figure 11: Bridge geometry in STAAD.Pro interface

19. The bridge geometry seen in Figure 11 has to be mirrored in the XZ-plane. 20. Select the Beams Cursor from the left hand side.

Figure 12: Beams Cursor

21. Select all the beams in the graphics window. Ctrl + A will select all the beams in the model.

22. Click on Geometry->Mirror command. The Mirror dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 13.

10

Figure 13: The Mirror dialog box

23. Input the mirror parameters as shown in Figure 13. 24. Click the OK button. The structure will be mirrored about the X-Z plane as shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14: Bridge structure is mirrored about the X-Z plane

11

Note: Basic 3D Navigation Tools: Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate structure, the middle mouse roller button to zoom in and out. If you press the roller button and hold it down, you will be able to pan. You may also use the icons in the icon bar. (i.e. )

12

Property Assignment:
25. Click the General tab on the left. 26. Click on the Define button in the data area. 27. Select the Rectangle property item in the Property dialog box and provide the inputs as shown in Figure 15. Note: The unit converter can be launched by pressing the F2 key. If you enter 2 and press the enter key in the unit converter, the text box will display the dimension converted to the default unit system being used in your model. The space is required between the dimension and the unit for the unit converter. For example, 12in will not work but 12 in will work.

Figure 15: Property Definition

28. Click the Add button. 29. Select the Rectangle property item from the left hand side and provide the inputs as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16: Property Definition

13

30. Click the Close button. The property definitions should appear in the Properties dialog box in the Data Area. 31. Select the Rect 2.5x2.5 property in the Properties dialog box in the Data Area. 32. Click on the Select->Select Beams Parallel to->X Axis menu command. 33. Select the Assign to Selected Beams assignment option in the Properties dialog box. 34. Click on the Assign button. The property reference number will appear in the graphics window. 35. Select the Rect 2x2 property in the Properties dialog box in the Data Area. 36. Click on the Select->By Missing Attributes->Missing Property menu command. 37. Click on the Assign button. The property reference number will appear in the graphics window. 38. Click anywhere in the white space in the graphics window to get rid of the member selection. Right click in the Graphics Window and select the 3D Rendering. The rendered view of the structure will appear in a separate window as shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17: 3D Rendered View of the structure

Note: Standard AISC sections are available by clicking the Section Database button on the right. In the American Databases, Pipes and Tubes can be created using the Tubes and Pipes items in the Section Profile dialog box. The American section database can be modified by clicking on Tools->Modify Section Database menu command.

14

Specification Assignment:
39. Click on the General->Specifications control tab on the left. 40. Click on the Beam button in the Specifications dialog box on the right. The Member Specifications dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 18.

Figure 18: Member Specification dialog box

41. Select the Truss tab in the Member Specifications dialog box. 42. Click the Add button. 43. Click the Close button. 44. Select the Elevation View of the structure by clicking on the 45. Select the diagonal bracing members as illustrated in Figure 19. icon.

Figure 19: Diagonal members are selected in the elevation view

15

46. Select the MEMBER TRUSS specification in the Specifications dialog box in the data area. 47. Select the Assign to Selected Beams assignment method and click on the Assign button. Note: Assigning too many releases may make the structure unstable. Pay close attention to how the beam elements will behave in the real structure and the type of connections that are provided at the joints. Always check the Statics Check in the post processing mode to make sure that the structure is in equilibrium for all load cases.

16

Support Assignment:
48. Click on the General->Supports control tab on the left. 49. Click the Create button in the Supports dialog box on the right. The Create Support dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 20.

Figure 20: Create Support dialog box

50. Select the Pinned tab in the Create Support dialog box. 51. Click on the Add button. 52. Click the Cancel button. 53. Select the Nodes Cursor on the left.

Figure 21: The Nodes Cursor

54. Select the S2 Support 2 support in the Supports dialog box in the Data Area.

17

55. Select the Support Nodes as shown in Figure 22.

Figure 22: Nodes selected using the Nodes Cursor

56. Select the Assign to Selected Nodes assignment method in the Supports dialog box and press the Assign button. Press Yes on the confirmation dialog box. The pinned supports should be displayed in the STAAD.Pro graphics window as shown in Figure 22.

18

Figure 23: Pinned supports seen in the STAAD.Pro graphics window

57. Select the Assign to Selected Nodes Assignment Method in the Supports dialog box and press the Assign button. Press Yes on the confirmation dialog box. The pinned supports should be displayed in the STAAD.Pro graphics window as shown in Figure 23.

19

Load Assignment:
58. Click on the General->Loads & Definition control tab on the left. 59. Click on the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. Three load cases have to be created. 60. Click on the Add button in the Load & Definitions dialog box on the right. The Add New: Load Cases dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 24: Add New: Load Cases dialog box

61. Enter Vertical Load 1 in the Title text input box as shown in Figure 24. Press the Add button. 62. Enter Vertical Load 2 in the Title text input box. Press the Add button. 63. Enter Lateral Load in the Title text input box. Press the Add button. 64. Press the Close button. We will now attempt to add the selfweight load to all load cases. 65. Select the Vertical Load 1 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 66. Click on the Add button. The Add New: Load Items dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 25.

20

Figure 25: Selfweight Definition

67. Select the inputs as shown in Figure 25 and press the Add button. 68. Move the Add New: Load Items dialog box to the left so that you can see the Load & Definitions dialog box on the right as shown in Figure 26.

Figure 26: The Add New: Load Items dialog box has been moved to the left.

69. Select the Vertical Load 2 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 70. Select the inputs as shown in Figure 25 and press the Add button. 71. Select the Lateral Load title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 72. Select the inputs as shown in Figure 25 and press the Add button. As a result of the above eights steps, every load item should have SELFWEIGHT Y -1 included.

21

We will now attempt to add the deck load as a floor load of 0.005 ksf to all load cases. If you have bracing underneath the deck, the floor load generation has to be done using the floor group. If your deck is not level, the floor load generation has to be generated using the inclined roof option. 73. Select the Vertical Load 1 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 74. Select the Floor Load item in the Add New: Load Items dialog box. 75. Enter the floor load generation parameters as shown in Figure 27 and press the Add button.

Figure 27: Floor Load generation parameters.

76. Select the Vertical Load 2 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 77. Enter the inputs as shown in Figure 27 and press the Add button. 78. Select the Lateral Load title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 79. Enter the inputs as shown in Figure 27 and press the Add button. As a result of the above eight steps, every load item should have YRANGE command included as shown in Figure 28.

22

Figure 28: Floor Load generation commands

We will now attempt to add the test loads to all load cases as distributed loads. 80. Select the Vertical Load 1 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 81. Select the Member Load->Uniform Force item in the Add New: Load Items dialog box. 82. Input -0.2083 in the W1 input box as shown in Figure 29. 83. Click the Add button. 84. Select the Vertical Load 2 title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 85. Select the Member Load->Uniform Force item in the Add New: Load Items dialog box. 86. Input -0.2083 in the W1 input box as shown in Figure 29. 87. Click the Add button. 88. Select the Lateral Load title in the Load Cases Details tree item on the right. 89. Select the Member Load->Uniform Force item in the Add New: Load Items dialog box. 90. Input -0.025 in the W1 input box. 91. Click the Add button. 92. Select the Nodal Load->Node item in the Add New: Load Items dialog box.

23

93. Input 0.05 in the Fz input box. 94. Click the Add button.

Figure 29: Uniform Load

95. Click the Close button. 96. Select the Selfweight in the Vertical Load 1 data area and select the Assign to View assignment method. 97. Click the Assign button. Click the OK button on the confirmation dialog box. 98. Repeat the above two steps for Vertical Load 2 and Lateral Load. 99. Select the eight beams as shown in Figure 30. You can use the Tools->Display Node to Node Distance menu command to measure the distances as shown in Figure 30. To remove the node dimensions, click on Tools->Remove Dimension menu command. 100. Select the UNI GY -0.2083 kip/ft command in Vertical Load 1 and select the Assign to Selected Beams assignment method. 101. Click the Assign button. Click the OK button on the confirmation dialog box.

24

Note: If you want to remove loads from a member, you could use the Toggle Load check box in the Load & Definitions dialog box.

Figure 30: Location of Uniform Load for Vertical Load 1

102.

Select the eight beams as shown in Figure 31.

103. Select the UNI GY -0.2083 kip/ft command in Vertical Load 2 and select the Assign to Selected Beams assignment method. 104. 105. Click the Assign button. Click the OK button on the confirmation dialog box. Select the two mid-span beams as shown in Figure 32.

106. Select the UNI GY -0.025 kip/ft command in Lateral Load case and select the Assign to Selected Beams assignment method. 107. 108. Click the Assign button. Click the OK button on the confirmation dialog box. Select the Nodes cursor and select mid-span node as shown in Figure 33.

109. Select the FZ 0.05 kip/ft command in Lateral Load case and select the Assign to Selected Nodes assignment method. 110. Click the Assign button. Click the OK button on the confirmation dialog box.

Note: If the loads are too small in the graphics window, right click in the graphics window and choose labels->scales and provide appropriate scales for the loadings.

25

Figure 31: Location of Uniform Load for Vertical Load 2

Figure 32: Location of Uniform Load for Lateral Load 2

26

Figure 33: Location of lateral load application node point for Lateral Load case

27

Analysis:
111. Click on Analysis/Print control tab on the left. The Analysis/Print Commands dialog box will appear. 112. Select the All option in the Perform Analysis tab and press the Add button.

Figure 34: The Analysis/Print Commands dialog box

113.

Click the Close button.

114. Click on Analyze->Run Analysis command. The STAAD Analysis and Design dialog box will appear. 115. 116. You should not have zero errors in the STAAD Analysis and Design dialog box. Select the Go To Post Processing Mode option button and click on the OK button.

28

Results:
117. Select the Node->Displacement tab. The displacement of each and every node can be determined by simply clicking on a node point in the graphics window and looking at the displacement table on the right.

Figure 35: Displacements

118. Select the Node->Reactions tab. The support reaction of each and every support node can be determined by simply clicking on a node point in the graphics window and looking at the support reaction table on the right. Note: Make sure that the Difference row for each load case in the Statics Check Results window is close to zero. A non-zero value usually indicates instability in the structure. You may use the 0.99 MPX 0.99 MPY 0.99 MPZ at the joints to avoid using a completely released joint.

29

Figure 36: Support Reactions

119. Select the Beam->Forces tab. The bending moment diagram will be displayed. The user may turn on the deflection and loading diagrams using the icons.

Figure 37: Beam end and section forces

30

Figure 38: Moment, deflection and load diagram

120. Select the Beam->Stresses tab. The combined axial stress distribution diagram can be seen for any member.

Figure 39: Combined Axial and Bending Diagram

31

121. Select the Beam->Graphs tab. The moment, shear, and axial force diagram can be seen for any member.

Figure 40: Moment, shear, and axial force diagram

122.

Click on the Modeling tab.

123. Right click in the graphical user interface and select Labels. Suppose you wanted to see the members that had a combined axial and bending stress of 500 psi. 124. Select the Force Limits tab and provide the inputs as shown in Figure 41.

125. Click on the Apply button. The beams shown in red in Figure 42 have exceeded the combined axial and bending stress of 500 psi. 126. This procedure can be used to find which members are exceeding the 30 ksi criteria.

32

Figure 41: Force Limits

Figure 42: Combined axial and bending stress contour

33

Experiment with the model and try changing some of the strut connections to partial moment releases. Try changing the section sizes of the members along the x-axis 1 in x 1 in rectangular sections and the rest of the members to 0.75 in x 0.75 in sections. You will note that some bars have exceeded the 30 ksi limit as shown in Figure 43 for the lateral load case. Keep connection design in mind also. Section cross section will be reduced in tension.

Figure 43: Combined axial and bending stress contour

34

Design (Not Applicable to this example):


Note: STAAD.Pro cannot perform code checking on square prismatic steel sections defined in this model. The user could define a general section or create a tube section using the section database to perform the code checking as per the AISC 360-05 code. 127. 128. Click on Design->Steel control tab on the left. Select the AISC 360-05 code in the Current Code selection box in the data area.

129. Click the Define Parameters button in the data area. The Design Parameters dialog box will appear as shown in Figure 35. 130. Select the FYLD design parameter and enter and assign the yield strength of steel to be used for the bridge if not 36 ksi. In the case of this tutorial, the default yield strength (i.e. 36 ksi) will be used. 131. 132. 133. 134. Click on the Close button Click the Commands button. The Design Commands dialog box will appear. Select the Check Code command and press the Add button Assign the Check Code command to all members.

Figure 42: The Design Parameters dialog box

35

4.0 Help, Questions, Comments


There is a lot of help available for STAAD.Pro in electronic format. You may press the F1 key in the STAAD.Pro interface to look the help documents. You may send your STAAD.Pro related questions or comments to support@bentley.com.

36

Finally. Thank you for using Bentley Products and Wish You all the best!

37

APPENDIX A

CREATING BRIDGE GEOMETRY USING STAAD.Pro V8i GRID SYSTEM

1. The goal of the next few steps is to draw the stick model of the bridge structure using the STAAD.Pro V8i drawing grid system. 2. Click the Geometry control tab on the left hand side. On the right hand side of your screen, you should see a Snap Node/Beam dialog box. If you do not see this dialog box, you may view this by simply clicking on Geometry->Snap/Grid Node->Beam menu item.

Figure A1: Snap/Node Beam dialog box

3. Click on the Create button. 4. The Grid Definition dialog box will appear as shown in Figure A2.

39

Figure A2: Grid definition dialog box

5. Input the grid creation parameters as shown in Figure A2. 6. Click the Ok button. 7. The Linear entry will appear in the Snap/Node Beam dialog box. Check the Linear entry and you will notice that the linear grid will appear in the STAAD.Pro graphics window.

Figure A3: Grid Creation

40

8. Click the Snap/Node/Beam button and create the grillage of beams as shown in Figure A4.

Figure A4: Grid Creation

9. Click the Snap/Node/Beam button and create the grillage of beams as shown in Figure A4.

10. Select the Beams Cursor from the left hand side.

Figure A4: Beams Cursor

11. Select all the beams in the graphics window. Ctrl + A will select all the beams in the model.

12. Click on Geometry->Translational repeat command. The 3D Repeat dialog box will appear as shown in Figure A5.

41

Figure A5: 3D Repeat dialog box

13. Input the 3D Repeat parameters as shown in Figure A5. 14. Click the OK button. The bridge geometry will be created as shown in Figure A6.

Figure A6: Translational Repeat

15. Create the vertical diagonal members using the Geometry->Add Beam->Add Beam From Point to Point menu command.

42

Figure A7: Vertical diagonals created using the Geometry->Add Beams menu command

16. Click the Snap/Node/Beam button and create the grillage of beams as shown in Figure A4.

43

APPENDIX B

CREATING BRIDGE GEOMETRY USING STAAD.Pro V8i DXF IMPORT

1. Open MicroStation XM. 2. Open the DGN_Example.dgn file distributed with this tutorial.

Figure B1: Elliptical Base Bridge stick model constructed in MicroStation

3. Click on file File->Export->DGN, DWG, DXF. The Export File dialog box will appear as shown in Figure B2. 4. Select the dxf export option as shown in Figure B2.

45

Figure B2: The Export File dialog box in Microstation

5. Select an appropriate location to save the dxf file. Click the Save button. 6. Close MicroStation. 7. Launch STAAD.Pro by clicking on the Start->All Programs->STAAD.Pro V8i->STAAD.Pro icon. The STAAD.Pro V8i introduction screen will appear. 8. Click on the File->New menu command. The New dialog box will appear. 9. Provide the model options as shown in Figure B3.

Figure B3: The New Dialog box

46

10. Click on the Next button. The Where do you want to go Today? Dialog box will appear as shown in Figure B4. 11. Click on the Finish button.

12. The STAAD.Pro V8i user interface will appear as shown in Figure B5.

Figure B4: The Where do you want to go Today? dialog box

47

Figure B5: STAAD.Pro User Interface

13. Click on File->Import menu command. The Import dialog box will appear as shown in Figure B6.

Figure B6: The Import dialog box

14. Select the 3D DXF import option and click the Import button. 15. The Open dialog box will appear. Select the DGN_Example.dxf file which was created in Step 5. 16. Click on the Open button. The DXF Import dialog box will appear as shown in Figure B7.

48

Figure B7: The Import dialog box

17. Select the Y Up option. The Y Axis should be the axis of gravity in your STAAD.Pro models. 18. Click on the OK button. The Set Current Input Units box will appear. The MicroStation file was created using the foot unit system. Select Foot and KiloPound in the Set Current Input Units box and press the OK button. The bridge geometry will appear as shown in Figure B8.

Figure B7: The Import dialog box

49

Figure B8: Bridge Frame Imported from MicroStation

19. Delete the unwanted lines as highlighted in Red in Figure B8. The STAAD.Pro user must check if the imported model is ok from a structural analysis point of view. The Tools menu command is very useful for checking structural integrity of the imported stick model. For more information about dxf import/export please refer to the whitepaper on the following link: ftp://ftp2.bentley.com/dist/collateral/Web/Building/STAADPro/DXF_Import_into_STAAD_PRO.pdf 20. Click the Snap/Node/Beam button and create the grillage of beams as shown in Figure A4.

21. Select the Beams Cursor from the left hand side.

Figure B9: Beams Cursor

22. Select all the beams in the graphics window. Ctrl + A will select all the beams in the model.

23. Click on Geometry->Translational repeat command. The 3D Repeat dialog box will appear as shown in Figure B10.

50

Figure B10: 3D Repeat dialog box

24. Input the 3D Repeat parameters as shown in Figure B10. 25. Click the OK button. The bridge geometry will be created as shown in Figure B11.

Figure B11: Translational Repeat

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APPENDIX C

STAAD.Pro Input Command File

You may copy the following text into the STAAD.Pro editor to view this model in STAAD.Pro To Launch the STAAD.Pro editor click on Edit->Edit Input Command File menu command. Replace the text in the editor with the following text.

53

STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 29-Oct-08 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 1.5 0 0; 3 3 0 0; 4 4.5 0 0; 5 6 0 0; 6 7.5 0 0; 7 9 0 0; 8 10.5 0 0; 9 12 0 0; 10 13.5 0 0; 11 15 0 0; 12 16.5 0 0; 13 18 0 0; 14 1.5 -2 0; 15 3 -2 0; 16 4.5 -2 0; 17 6 -2 0; 18 7.5 -2 0; 19 9 -2 0; 20 10.5 -2 0; 21 12 -2 0; 22 13.5 -2 0; 23 15 -2 0; 24 16.5 -2 0; 25 0 0 2; 26 1.5 0 2; 27 3 0 2; 28 4.5 0 2; 29 6 0 2; 30 7.5 0 2; 31 9 0 2; 32 10.5 0 2; 33 12 0 2; 34 13.5 0 2; 35 15 0 2; 36 16.5 0 2; 37 18 0 2; 38 1.5 -2 2; 39 3 -2 2; 40 4.5 -2 2; 41 6 -2 2; 42 7.5 -2 2; 43 9 -2 2; 44 10.5 -2 2; 45 12 -2 2; 46 13.5 -2 2; 47 15 -2 2; 48 16.5 -2 2; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 5 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 11; 11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 14 15; 14 15 16; 15 16 17; 16 17 18; 17 18 19; 18 19 20; 19 20 21; 20 21 22; 21 22 23; 22 23 24; 23 2 14; 24 3 15; 25 4 16; 26 5 17; 27 6 18; 28 7 19; 29 8 20; 30 9 21; 31 10 22; 32 11 23; 33 12 24; 34 1 14; 35 13 24; 36 2 15; 37 4 15; 38 4 17; 39 6 17; 40 6 19; 41 8 19; 42 8 21; 43 10 21; 44 10 23; 45 12 23; 46 25 26; 47 26 27; 48 27 28; 49 28 29; 50 29 30; 51 30 31; 52 31 32; 53 32 33; 54 33 34; 55 34 35; 56 35 36; 57 36 37; 58 38 39; 59 39 40; 60 40 41; 61 41 42; 62 42 43; 63 43 44; 64 44 45; 65 45 46; 66 46 47; 67 47 48; 68 26 38; 69 27 39; 70 28 40; 71 29 41; 72 30 42; 73 31 43; 74 32 44; 75 33 45; 76 34 46; 77 35 47; 78 36 48; 79 25 38; 80 37 48; 81 26 39; 82 28 39; 83 28 41; 84 30 41; 85 30 43; 86 32 43; 87 32 45; 88 34 45; 89 34 47; 90 36 47; 91 1 25; 92 2 26; 93 3 27; 94 4 28; 95 5 29; 96 6 30; 97 7 31; 98 8 32; 99 9 33; 100 10 34; 101 11 35; 102 12 36; 103 13 37; 104 14 38; 105 15 39; 106 16 40; 107 17 41; 108 18 42; 109 19 43; 110 20 44; 111 21 45; 112 22 46; 113 23 47; 114 24 48; DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 4.176e+006 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 0.489024 ALPHA 6.5e-006 DAMP 0.03 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY BRITISH 1 TO 22 46 TO 67 PRIS YD 0.208333 ZD 0.208333 23 TO 45 68 TO 114 PRIS YD 0.166667 ZD 0.166667 CONSTANTS MATERIAL STEEL ALL MEMBER TRUSS 36 TO 45 81 TO 90

54

SUPPORTS 1 13 25 37 PINNED LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE VERTICAL LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 2 3 8 9 47 48 53 54 UNI GY -0.2083 LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE VERTICAL LOAD 2 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 4 5 10 11 49 50 55 56 UNI GY -0.2083 LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE LATERAL LOAD FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 6 7 UNI GY -0.025 JOINT LOAD 31 FZ 0.05 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL FINISH

55

APPENDIX D

Experiment - STAAD.Pro Input Command File

STAAD SPACE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 29-Oct-08 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT FEET KIP JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 1.5 0 0; 3 3 0 0; 4 4.5 0 0; 5 6 0 0; 6 7.5 0 0; 7 9 0 0; 8 10.5 0 0; 9 12 0 0; 10 13.5 0 0; 11 15 0 0; 12 16.5 0 0; 13 18 0 0; 14 1.5 -2 0; 15 3 -2 0; 16 4.5 -2 0; 17 6 -2 0; 18 7.5 -2 0; 19 9 -2 0; 20 10.5 -2 0; 21 12 -2 0; 22 13.5 -2 0; 23 15 -2 0; 24 16.5 -2 0; 25 0 0 2; 26 1.5 0 2; 27 3 0 2; 28 4.5 0 2; 29 6 0 2; 30 7.5 0 2; 31 9 0 2; 32 10.5 0 2; 33 12 0 2; 34 13.5 0 2; 35 15 0 2; 36 16.5 0 2; 37 18 0 2; 38 1.5 -2 2; 39 3 -2 2; 40 4.5 -2 2; 41 6 -2 2; 42 7.5 -2 2; 43 9 -2 2; 44 10.5 -2 2; 45 12 -2 2; 46 13.5 -2 2; 47 15 -2 2; 48 16.5 -2 2; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 5 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 11; 11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 14 15; 14 15 16; 15 16 17; 16 17 18; 17 18 19; 18 19 20; 19 20 21; 20 21 22; 21 22 23; 22 23 24; 23 2 14; 24 3 15; 25 4 16; 26 5 17; 27 6 18; 28 7 19; 29 8 20; 30 9 21; 31 10 22; 32 11 23; 33 12 24; 34 1 14; 35 13 24; 36 2 15; 37 4 15; 38 4 17; 39 6 17; 40 6 19; 41 8 19; 42 8 21; 43 10 21; 44 10 23; 45 12 23; 46 25 26; 47 26 27; 48 27 28; 49 28 29; 50 29 30; 51 30 31; 52 31 32; 53 32 33; 54 33 34; 55 34 35; 56 35 36; 57 36 37; 58 38 39; 59 39 40; 60 40 41; 61 41 42; 62 42 43; 63 43 44; 64 44 45; 65 45 46; 66 46 47; 67 47 48; 68 26 38; 69 27 39; 70 28 40; 71 29 41; 72 30 42; 73 31 43; 74 32 44; 75 33 45; 76 34 46; 77 35 47; 78 36 48; 79 25 38; 80 37 48; 81 26 39; 82 28 39; 83 28 41; 84 30 41; 85 30 43; 86 32 43; 87 32 45; 88 34 45; 89 34 47; 90 36 47; 91 1 25; 92 2 26; 93 3 27; 94 4 28; 95 5 29; 96 6 30; 97 7 31; 98 8 32; 99 9 33; 100 10 34; 101 11 35; 102 12 36; 103 13 37; 104 14 38; 105 15 39; 106 16 40; 107 17 41; 108 18 42; 109 19 43; 110 20 44; 111 21 45; 112 22 46; 113 23 47; 114 24 48; DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 4.176e+006 POISSON 0.3 DENSITY 0.489024 ALPHA 6.5e-006 DAMP 0.03 ISOTROPIC CONCRETE E 453600 POISSON 0.17 DENSITY 0.14999 ALPHA 5.5e-006

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DAMP 0.05 END DEFINE MATERIAL MEMBER PROPERTY BRITISH 1 TO 22 46 TO 67 PRIS YD 0.083333 ZD 0.083333 23 TO 45 68 TO 114 PRIS YD 0.0625 ZD 0.0625 CONSTANTS MATERIAL STEEL ALL MEMBER TRUSS 36 TO 45 81 TO 90 SUPPORTS 1 13 25 37 PINNED MEMBER RELEASE 23 TO 35 68 TO 80 91 TO 114 START MPY 0.99 MPZ 0.99 23 TO 35 68 TO 80 91 TO 114 END MPY 0.99 MPZ 0.99 LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE VERTICAL LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 2 3 8 9 47 48 53 54 UNI GY -0.2083 LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE VERTICAL LOAD 2 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 4 5 10 11 49 50 55 56 UNI GY -0.2083 LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE LATERAL LOAD FLOOR LOAD YRANGE -1 1 FLOAD -0.005 GY SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 114 MEMBER LOAD 6 7 UNI GY -0.025 JOINT LOAD 31 FZ 0.05 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL FINISH

58

Structural Analysis and Design of Tank Structures in STAAD.Pro 2007

By

RAM/STAAD Solution Center

6 February 2008

STAAD.Pro 2007 can be used to analyze and design water tanks. Figure 1 shows a steel tank that has been modeled using STAAD.Pro 2007. The geometry of this tank was drawn using the STAAD interface. The commands such as perform circular repeat, create in-fill plates were very helpful in generating the geometry.

allows users to look at steel stress distribution diagrams and deflection diagrams. The deflection diagrams can be exaggerated to verify if there are any connectivity/instability issues in the model. The stress distribution diagrams shown in Figure 2 are displayed with a color legend and the finite element analysis (FEA) results. The engineer can simply click on a high stress zone in the graphics and STAAD.Pro will pin-point the FEA results for the corresponding plate in the results table. The results in the FEA results tables can be filtered. For example, one may only be interested in the results for the combination load cases for plates connected to the foundation. Using a combination of the filter tools and plate grouping options discussed above, one could easily obtain these results and compare them with the allowable stress values. STAAD.pro also provides the user with dynamic analysis capabilities. An engineer may easily find out the various modes and associated frequencies of a steel tank using the MODAL CALCULATION REQUESTED command in STAAD.Pro. The modes shapes will be plotted in the STAAD.Pro user interface as illustrated in Figure 3. An engineer has the option of doing a code based seismic analysis or a full seismic time history analysis on tank structures. The seismic time history analysis could be based on ground motion data (i.e. time vs. ground acceleration) from a past earthquake and STAAD.Pro will be able to calculate the maximum base shears for the support nodes. The time vs. displacement, acceleration, and velocity graphs will be available to the user for each and every node in the model.

Figure 1: Steel Tank geometry in STAAD.Pro Figure 1 also shows the local co-ordinate axis of all the plates in the graphics. In order to define the direction of the water pressure loading on the plates, the user must use the plate local coordinate axis as the reference. In STAAD.Pro, pressure loads on plate elements can be applied with respect to the global and local co-ordinate axis. The orientation of the plate local coordinate axis (i.e. z-axis) for all plates must be pointing towards the center of the tank or away from the center of the tank. When the in-fill plates command is used, it is very likely that the z-axis for some plates is pointing towards the center and some are pointing away from the center. This problem can be easily rectified using the reference point command in STAAD.Pro.

Figure 2: Stress distribution diagram Once all the loads have been applied, the engineer may create groups of plates and assign variable steel plate thickness to them. These groups are very helpful when looking at the stress tables in STAAD.Pro post-processing mode. The post-processing mode in STAAD.Pro

Figure 3: Results of dynamic analysis

In addition to steel plate tanks discussed so far, engineers may also easily model concrete tanks using STAAD.Pro as shown in Figure 4. The hydrostatic load generator in STAAD.Pro was used to load the vertical concrete plate elements. STAAD.Pros concrete element design tool was used to calculate the area of steel required for flexure as per the ACI 2005 code.

constants for each and every node on the plate MAT depending upon the sub-grade modulus of the soil and the influence area of a node point. The user may also opt to specify the springs as compression-only springs and see if the footing will experience any uplift in a seismic or high wind load event. Figure 6 (a) illustrates the wind load generation on a concrete tank as per the ASCE-7-2002 guide. Figure 6 (b) illustrates hydrostatic load generation on the vertical plate elements.

Figure 4: Circular concrete tank Occasionally a water tank as shown in Figure 5(a) may also have steel beams attached to it as illustrated in Figure 5(b). These steel beams can be designed as per the AISC 13th edition code in STAAD.Pro.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

Figure 6: Circular concrete tank Figure 6 (c) illustrates seismic load response on of the structure and Figure 6 (d) shows the resulting base pressure. The engineer may compare these base pressures with the soil bearing capacity. The MAT foundation shown in Figure 6 (d) can be exported out to STAAD.foundation. The engineer will be able to see the MAT rebar layout in the longitudinal and transverse directions for both top and bottom layers in STAAD.foundation. STAAD.Pros tank modeling features discussed above have been used to analyze and design water tanks, tanks used in the water purification and sewage industry, tanks in the nuclear energy production and nuclear waste storage industry.

(b)
Figure 5: Concrete Deck supported by Steel Sections The tank model shown in Figure 5 was constructed on top of a MAT (Raft, slab-ongrade) foundation. This MAT foundation was modeled using plate elements in STAAD.Pro. STAAD.Pro has a spring support generator for MAT foundations modeled as plates. This support generator basically generates spring