Você está na página 1de 33

Analysis

of

Ludwig van Beethoven Sonata No. 3 in A Major for Violoncello and Fortepiano
opus 69
by

Bronwyn Banerdt
May 9, 2011
Content & Form Dr. Kendall Briggs The Juilliard School

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION HISTORY HARMONIC LAYOUT


I. Allegro, ma non tanto II. Scherzo III. Adagio cantabile Allegro vivace

1 3 6 8 12 14 18 20 24 25 27 29

MOTIVES & THEMES


I. Allegro, ma non tanto II. Scherzo III. Adagio cantabile Allegro vivace

CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

Banerdt 1

INTRODUCTION

Banerdt 2

Beethoven's 5 Sonatas for Violoncello and Fortepiano are among the bestloved pieces for cello and piano. The two opus 5 sonatas are the oldest known sonatas for cello and piano with a written-out piano part, making them pivotal works in the history of the cello. The Sonata in A Major, opus 69 is arguably the first major classical work for cello and piano in which the two instruments are given equal importance as solo voices. In fact, the opus 5 sonatas are titled Sonatas for Fortepiano and Violoncello, indicating the cello's subservient role. Indeed not since the time of the Italianate baroque sonatas written by composers such as Boccherini and his contemporaries had the combination of these instruments been explored in any significant way by a major composer. Thus the A Major Sonata represents a significant step forward in the development of the cello as a solo instrument. To this day it remains a favorite among cellists because of its flowing lyricism, conversational nature, and its wide range of register, variety of characters, and depth of emotion.

Banerdt 3

HISTORY

Banerdt 4

Beethoven composed the Sonata No. 3 in A Major for Violoncello and Fortepiano, opus 69 in Vienna between the years 1807 and 1808. This compositional period, known as his middle or Heroic period, is generally understood to begin in 1802 following the writing of the Heiligenstadt Testament, a posthumously discovered document in which Beethoven expresses his despair over his advancing deafness and a strong sense of martyrdom to his art form in a great unburdening cry of grief at his deafness and solitudemingled with apology, self-justification, self-pity, pathos, pride, hints of suicide, and presentiments of death (Kerman 91). Common themes of this compositional period include growth and transcendence, taking a psychological journey on which something must be overcome in order to conclude in triumph. It was also during this period that Beethoven began to execute the sonata form in a large scale, laying down thematic elements that permeate not only individual movements but entire works. Evolving themes, transitions between widely separated passages, actual thematic recurrences from one movement to another, and last but not least, the involvement of extra-musical ideas by means of a literary text, a programme, or (as in Eroica) just a few tantalizing titles (Kerman and Tyson 105). Although not specifically programmatic, the opus 69 cello sonata is a perfect example of this compositional technique, as will be demonstrated later in this paper, as well as the increase in lyricism that also typifies his works of this era. The first performance of the sonata took place in Vienna on March 5, 1809, played by cellist Nikolaus Kraft and pianist Baroness Dorothea von Ertmann at an Akademie held for the benefit of the cellist. Although the inscription is not present in the earliest editions, the work was dedicated to Baron Ignaz von Gleichenstein, a cellist and close friend of Beethovens who assisted the composer with many personal and financial manners. Financial problems plagued Beethoven in the early 1800s, due in great part to his tumultuous relationships with his patrons. He lost his sponsorship from Prince Lichnowsky in 1806 and entertained an offer to become the Kapellmeister in the city of Kassell. He wrote in 1808, The thought that I shall certainly have to leave Vienna and become a wanderer haunts me persistently (Anderson 193). Tumult encapsulated many areas of Beethovens life in the early 1800s. A romantic relationship spanning several years with the Countess Josephine Deym came to an unhappy end in 1807. War was another event that profoundly affected Beethovens state of mind as Napoleons armies approached Vienna. The serenity and lyricim of this sonata is astounding under these circumstances.
It might be thought that Beethoven had conceived it in one of his rare moments of felicity. Instead we read these words in the manuscript: Inter lacrimas et luctum (In the midst of tears and sorrow. (Scherman 694)

The Sonata in A Major was first published by Breitkopf & Hrtel in 1809, in an edition riddled with errors and inconsistencies (including the incorrect

Banerdt 5

designation of the work as Beethovens opus 59 instead of opus 69), many of which remain unresolved to this day. Despite the fact that Beethoven consistently requested for his publishers to send him advance copies of his works for the purposes of proofreading, these requests were rarely granted, much to his extreme consternation. In the case of opus 69, Beethoven sent extensive lists of corrections to Breitkopf & Hrtel for future printings and even proposed publishing the list in the newspaper or for purchase by customers who had already bought the sonata. He wrote to the publisher:
Here is a goodly serving of printers errors, which, since I never in my life trouble myself any longer about things I have already written, were pointed out to me by a good friend This again confirms what I have experienced before, that works published from my own manuscript are the most correctly engraved ones. (Lockwood 32)

However the list was never released to the public, and second editions show only some of the corrections offered by the composer. Of the autograph manuscript, only the first movement is extant, although extensive sketches for all the movements survive. Sketches for opus 69 intermingle with several other works he was working on concurrently, most notably the Violin Sonata in G Major, opus 96 and Leonore Overture No. 1. Other works published between 1808 and 1809 include the 5th and 6th Symphonies, String Quartet, opus 74, and Fortepiano Sonatas, opus 78, 79, and 81a.

Banerdt 6

HARMONIC LAYOUT

Banerdt 7

Overall Form Ludwig van Beethovens Sonata in A Major for Violoncello and Fortepiano, opus 69 consists of three movements in Sonata form:

I. Allegro, ma non tanto


Sonata Allegro

II. Scherzo: Allegro molto


Rondo [ABABA]

III. Adagio cantabile Allegro vivace


Introduction Sonata Allegro The harmonic layout for the entire work:

I
A

II
a

III
e-A

This sonata is very simple in its harmonic structure and form, adhering quite strictly to the conventions of the time. The Tonic key of A is presented fully in the opening measures, and Beethoven never strays far from this key for the duration of the work. The tonality of the second movement demonstrates flexibility between the major and minor modes, but fundamentally reinforces the Tonic key of A. The introduction of the third movement is in the Dominant key of E Major, which can only lead back to the inevitable and triumphant conclusion in A Major. The following pages show a graphic representation of the harmonic layout and phrase structure of each individual movement, followed by explanation and discussion.

Banerdt 8

I. ALLEGRO, MA NON TANTO


Sonata Allegro form

EXPOSITION
THEME: PHRASE: KEY: MM: 1 A
1

I 2 A
7

II 4 A
18

III 3 E
51

3 A
13

5 a e
25

6 e
29

1 E
38

2 E
46

4 E
59

1 E
65

2 E
71

E E A A/f# E
79 89e

RECAPITULATION
THEME: PHRASE: KEY: MM: 1 2 I 3 a 4 a A 1 A 2 A II 3 A 4 A 1 A 2 A III 3 4

A A
152 158

A A D

164 168

175 183 188 196

202 208 216 233

Harmonically and thematically, Exposition Phrases 3 & 4 are exact repetitions of Phrases 1 and 2 , respectively. They do not repeat in the Recapitulation. Instead of modulating to the Dominant (E), as in Exposition Phrase 5 , Recapitulation Phrase 3 stays in the Tonic (A). Exposition Phrase 6 is 6 bars long; Recapitulation Phrase 4 is 8 bars long, featuring one more elaboration upon the same motive. Theme area III Phrase 4 modulates up a Perfect Fourth both times, bringing the Exposition back to Tonic (A) in the Exposition and moving the Recapitulation into the Sub-dominant (D) for the first time in the piece.

Banerdt 9

I. ALLEGRO, MA NON TANTO


Key Relationships in the Exposition The Exposition of the first movement is divided into three main theme areas that are balanced in the Recapitulation. Theme area I consists of six phrases, the first four of which are in A Major. Phrase 5 tonicizes the minor mode of a before moving for the first time into the Dominant key of e. Phrase 6 remains in e and leads into theme area II. Theme area II in the Exposition consists of four phrases and is entirely in E, following the convention that the first statement of the Second Theme should be presented in the Dominant key. Theme area III consists of four phrases, the first two of which are in E. Phrase 3 begins in E, then wanders into A, but is not quite ready to come home to Tonic, and heads back in to E. Phrase 3 finally takes us back from E to Tonic A for the repeat, and the second time into the related minor key of f# to lead into the Development. Key Relationships in the Recapitulation The Recapitulation balances the Exposition perfectly. Theme area I in the Recapitulation consists of only four phrases instead of six as in the Exposition. This is because in the Exposition, Phrases 3 & 4 in the Exposition are precisely motivically and harmonically identical to Phrases 1 & 2 . The repetition serves to reinforce the Tonic in the Exposition, but this is not necessary in the Recapitulation because the Tonic and Dominant have already been firmly established. In the Recapitulation, Phrase 2 moves from a minor back into A Major instead of moving into the Dominant. This gives Beethoven the opportunity to state the Second Theme in the Tonic key, as typically dictated by formal convention of the time. Theme area II in the Recapitulation consists again of four phrases, this time in A major. Theme area III also consists of four phrases restated in the Tonic key of A. The surprise here is that while in the Exposition, Phrase 4 moves up a Perfect 4th from E to A, the Recapitulation moves up a Perfect Fourth from A into the Sub-dominant key of D Major for the first time in the piece. This keeps the balance of the Exposition to the Recapitulation by maintaining consistency in the key relationships while still providing a fresh and surprising change of key.

Banerdt 10

I. ALLEGRO, MA NON TANTO


Sonata Allegro

DEVELOPMENT

D RM Rm T T T D D D

KEY: MM:

A
93

f#
93

e
113

G
120

b
122

f# c#
123 125

f#
140

D
144

A
148

CODA
PHRASE: KEY: 1 D a
232

2 a

3 A

4 A E A
259

5 A

MM:

240

253

280

Exposition Phrase 1 is extended from 6 bars to 8 bars in Coda Phrase 1 . Coda Phrase 3 is Exposition Phrase 1 with the Response in Tonic (A) for the first time. Coda Phrase 4 consists of two 2-bar phraselets that explore the Response to Theme I. Coda Phrase 5 is the final statement of Theme I with NO foray into Dominant (E).

Banerdt 11

I. ALLEGRO, MA NON TANTO


Key Relationships in the Development Although Beethoven moves through ten keys over the course of the journey of the Development, each key bears a significant relationship to the one another as well as the Tonic key and, and these relationships propel the piece back to the inevitable Tonic. The Development begins by moving from A Major into the related minor key of f#. Although some analyses of this piece claim that the Development begins in C# Major, a deeper examination reveals that the C# pedal that runs from mm. 95107 is in fact a very drawn out Dominant-Tonic chord progression presenting V-I in f# minor. This should not be surprising considering that the relationship between Dominant and Tonic is really the subject of the entire work. Beethoven doesnt work directly through the Circle of Fifths. After ten bars in f# minor, he moves into e minor in m. 113, staying in that key for another eight bars. A modulating sequence then brings us through G Major, b minor, and back through f# minor before arriving for a short time in c# minor at m. 125. After a six-bar phrase in that key, two four-bar phrases in f# minor and then D Major bringing us back to A Major for the Recapitulation.

Key Relationships in the Coda The Coda of Mvmt I begins with an eight-bar phrase in D Major following the surprising but proportionate modulation at the end of the Recapitulation. After searching for resolution in this key, we return to a, the minor Tonic mode, in m. 236. We sequence back to A Major, and from there to the end it is Tonic A to Dominant E back to a resounding Tonic A, our inevitable destination.

Banerdt 12

II. SCHERZO: ALLEGRO MOLTO


Rondo

A B A B A coda
MM:
1 109 197 305 393 505

A
THEME: PHRASE: 1 2 KEY: I 3 4 5 1 2 e e II 3 4 a a D G C
49

III 1 2 3 4 5 C a a a a

I (recap) 1 2 a C a

a a C C C a a a
1 8 17

a C C e

MM:

21 25

31 35

39

57

62 67

71

74

82

99

B
PHRASE: KEY: MM: 1 A
109

2 A
125

3 E
141

4 A
153

5 A
161

6 A
177

CODA
THEME I KEY: a MM: 501-519

Banerdt 13 No modification whatsoever is made to Part A or to Part B in any repeat.

II. SCHERZO: ALLEGRO MOLTO


Key Relationships in Part A It is in Part A of the Scherzo that Beethoven really explores the minor mode of the Tonic A. Theme area I is primarily in a minor, but drifts briefly in and out of its relative, C Major, for four phrases. In Phrase 5 , the transitional phrase that begins in m. 25, we modulate into e minor, the Dominant in the key of A. Here we can see that even though this movement is a Rondo in the form A-B-A-B-A-coda, there are sonata-form relationships within the sections. Beethoven brings us to the Dominant in order to introduce the Second Theme in the Dominant key. Theme area II in Part A consists of four phrases. Phrases 1 and 2 are four-bar phrases in the Dominant key of e minor. Phrase 3 is another four-bar phrase that has returnd to the Tonic key of a minor. Phrase 4 takes us for the first time in the entire piece on a proper jaunt through the Circle of Fifths, moving from a minor in m. 43 through D Major and G Major to arrive conclusively in C Major in m. 51. In Theme area III, Beethoven begins to mix up the phrase lengths. Up to this point, all the phrases in Mvmt II have been symmetrical four-bar or eight-bar phrases. Theme area III begins with a six-bar phrase in C Major, then returns to a minor for a four-bar response phrase. Phrase 3 is a four-bar phrase in a minor that stays suspended on V. The next phrase remains in a minor, but lasts only three bars before it is overlapped by Phrase 5 , still in a minor, which lasts 9 bars. Finally in mm. 82 we arrive back in Theme area I for a sort of miniature Recapitulation of an extended Phrase 1 from the beginning of the movement, rounding out Part A in a minor, again with some dips into C Major, but always returning to a. Key Relationships in Part B Part B features only one theme throughout, and it begins with two statements of this theme back in the Major mode of A. Phrase 3 gives us this theme in the Dominant key of E Major, and Phrases 4 and 5 return to the Tonic key of A Major. Key Relationships in the Coda The Coda of this movement is a short irregular length nineteen-bar phrase reminiscent of Theme area I but without forays into the relative Major. The Coda cadences simply, quietly, and finally in a minor.

Banerdt 14

III. ADAGIO CANTABILE ALLEGRO VIVACE


Introduction & Sonata Allegro

EXPOSITION
THEME: PHRASE: KEY: 1 A (D) (A)
19

I 2 A (D) (A)
27

II 3 A E B
34

III 2 E 1 E A/a
71

1 E

MM:

46

61

RECAPITULATION
THEME: PHRASE: KEY: 1 A (D) (A)
112

I 2 A (D) (A)
120

II 3 A E
127

III 2 A 1 A A
167

1 A

MM:

142

159

Exposition Phrase 3 is 12 bars; Exposition Phrase 3 is extended to 15 bars. Exposition & Recapitulation Theme II Phrases 3 are the same for 6 bars, then elaborated upon in the Recapitulation.

Banerdt 15

III. ADAGIO CANTABILE ALLEGRO VIVACE


Key Relationships in the Exposition The Exposition of the third movement returns to the Major mode of Tonic with two statements of an eight-bar primary theme in A Major. In both phrases, Beethoven hints at tonicizing the Sub-dominant at the end of m. 24 and m. 43, but immediately returns confidently to Tonic. Phrase 3 is a transitional phrase that travels through the Circle of Fifths from A Major through E Major to cadence in B Major. For Theme area II, Beethoven humorously takes a step back around the Circle of Fifths to the Dominant key of E Major, as if to say, whoops-a-daisy! Phrase 1 is a bit harmonically unstable, pausing suddenly on ii as if searching to no avail for V, even hinting at B Major but not committing to modulation. We finally find solid ground in Phrase 2 , which is firmly planted in E Major. The final theme area of the Exposition is a wandering transitional phrase lasting six bars that brings us from E Major back to Tonic A Major for the repeat of the Exposition. The second ending version also lasts six bars but cadences in the minor mode of Tonic a minor. Key Relationships in the Recapitulation The first two phrases of the Recapitulation mimic the Exposition exactly with eight-bar phrases in A Major. Phrase 3 is identical except that it moves through only A Major to cadence B Major. Theme area II again leaps up a Perfect Fourth to begin in A Major, stating the secondary theme material once again in the Tonic key, maintaining the same balance of relationships as the Exposition. The final transitional theme of Mvmt III in the Recapitulation lasts again six bars but rests comfortably in A Major to lead into the Coda.

Banerdt 16

III. ADAGIO CANTABILE ALLEGRO VIVACE


Introduction & Sonata Allegro

INTRODUCTION
PHRASE: KEY: 1 E 2 E B E
5

3 E A
9

4 A

MM:

14

DEVELOPMENT
R R D M m T R R R R

KEY: MM:

a
77

d
79

g
80

G
81

g
82

C
87

F
92

C
96

c
104

A
108

CODA
THEME: PHRASE: KEY:

I
1 A

III
2 A

I
3 A D A D
187

I
4 A

I
5 A

MM:

173

181

195

207

Banerdt 17

III. ADAGIO CANTABILE ALLEGRO VIVACE


Key Relationships in the Introduction The Introduction to Mvmt III is a short but very lyrical intermezzo consisting of four phrases of unequal lengths. Phrase 1 is a four-bar phrase in the Dominant key of E Major. This is the first time in the piece that we have truly tonicized any key other than A; this Introduction serves as a brief respite from the insistence of the Tonic of A throughout the sonata. Phrase 2 is also four bars long and takes us from E Major to its Dominant partner, B Major, then back to E Major. Phrase 3 is five bars long and leads to A Major, bearing a Sub-dominant relationship to E Major. Phrase 4 is also five bars long and is in A Major, and evolving in character from Sub-dominant eventually back to the once-again inescapable and inevitable return to A Major as the ultimate Tonic key. Key Relationships in the Development The final Development of the Sonata begins in m. 77 in a minor and winds predictably through the Circle of Fifths to d minor then g minor. In m. 81 it switches modes into G Major but returns almost immediately to g minor. A sequence with an insistent pedal G beginning in m. 82 moves us into C Major then further around the Circle of Fifths to F Major, before returning to C Major in m. 96. After a brilliant eight-bar phrase in C Major, we switch modes into c minor, which leads back once again to its Relative Major, our home Tonic key of A Major, from which we will not stray in any significant way for the rest of the piece. Key Relationships in the Coda The final Coda features five phrases from various theme areas of the Exposition. Phrase 1 is an eight-bar phrase in A Major from Exposition Theme area I. Phrase 2 is the final statement of the six-bar transitional phrase, Theme area III, in A Major. Phrase 3 takes Beethovens final harmonic journey for the sonata, taunting us by traveling from A Major to D Major to A Major to D Major. Phrases 4 and 5 confirm our long-awaited expectation for the ultimate grand climax in A Major.

Banerdt 18

MOTIVES & THEMES

Banerdt 19

MOTIVES
It should be abundantly clear by this point that the innovation in this sonata does not lie in the realm of harmony. It is Beethovens use of motivic material through the sonata that is unprecedented and remarkable. Three main motives form the basis for nearly every theme and phrase in the piece: Motive A

A:

Motive B

A:

Motive C

A:

4 3

These motives are first introduced by the cello alone in m. 1, signifying their importance for the duration of the piece by the simplicity with which they are first stated; Beethoven does not wish to distract from them with polyphony. In his monumental essay regarding the autograph and other original source material for this sonata, Lewis Lockwood writes:
With one stroke, this opening phrase (mm 1-12) establishes certain conditions that bear significantly on the remainder of the movement: it presents the primary motivic material for the movement as components of a self-contained linear segment first associated with the Vcl alone in low register, and it immediately establishes a balanced, complementary relationship between the two instruments for which even a crude outline shows a symmetrical partitioning of the first twenty-four measures, divided into two larger phrases. (Lockwood 68)

Lockwood also remarks upon the significance of the fact that the greatest number of revisions made to the sonata in the manuscript are in the relationships of the piano and cello parts to one another in matters of range and voicing, not in reworking of motivic elements. This tells us that this motivic material is the fundamental basis for the entire sonata. The next few pages attempt to graphically illustrate the use of all motives and themes throughout the sonata and demonstrate their relationships with these basic motives.

Banerdt 20

MVMT I THEMES
Mvmt I Theme I: mm. 1-6

A:

4 3 4 2

7 5

Mvmt I Theme I Response: mm. 7-8

A:

Mvmt I Theme I Cadential Motive: m. 11

A:

4 3

This Cadential Motive connects the material from the Exposition to the Development. Mvmt I Cadenza Motive: m. 24

This short cadenza appears twice: once in the piano in m. 12 and once in the cello in m. 12. This creates balance not only between Phrases 1 and 2 and Phrases 3 and 4 but also between the cello and piano as separate but equal voices.

Banerdt 21

Mvmt I Theme I - Second Statement appears in the minor mode: mm. 25-26

a:

1*

* Scale degrees refer to the treble line of the piano part

Mvmt I Theme II: mm. 38-41

E:

1 3

- -

Mvmt I Theme III: mm. 65-69

E:

(7) 6

3 G#:7

4 3

E: 5

6 5 4

Banerdt 22 The final Exposition Theme is drawn from the Cadential Motive of m. 11. Compare Motives A + B in Mvmt I Motives A + B in Transition to Development: mm. 89-90

B: 7

[ #4

5] 6

Motives A + B in Opening Theme: mm. 1-2

A:

Motives A + B in Development: mm. 95-96

C#: f#:

1 5

5 2

6 3

One reason many analysts may mistakenly define this as C# Major is that one could then apply the same scale degrees as Theme I. However, part of the complexity of this passage is how Beethoven transposes the motives up a Perfect Fifth while maintaining the same relationships. Compare Motive C in Development and Exposition Motive C in Exposition: m. 3

A: 3

Motive C in Development: m. 27

c#: 5

Banerdt 23

Compare Theme II with Motive A and Theme I Response Motive A

Theme II

A:

Theme I Response

A:

Compare Theme I Response with Final Response Theme I Response: mm. 7

A:

Theme I Final Response: mm. 259

A:

4 2 6 7

Theme I Response leads to a Half-Cadence; only by modifying the Final Response by starting on scale degree 3 and inverting it is Beethoven able to finally resolve the Mvmt I home to the Tonic for which it has been searching.

Banerdt 24

MVMT II THEMES

A
Mvmt II A Theme I: mm. 1-4

a:

3 2

Mvmt II Theme I is closely related to Mvmt I Theme I. Beethoven leaps up a Perfect Fourth instead of a Perfect Fifth (Motive A) in this movement, but continues with Motive B, an ascending Major Second. Mvmt II A Theme II: mm. 31-34

B
Mvmt II B Theme I: mm. 1-4

Banerdt 25

MVMT III THEMES


Mvmt III Theme I; mm. 1-4

2 3 5 4 3 4 3 2 #1 2

17675

Mvmt III Scale Motive: mm. 34-35

Mvmt III Theme II: mm. 46-49

Mvmt III Transitional Motive: mm. 74-76

Banerdt 26

Compare Theme I from Mvmts I & III Mvmt I Theme I: mm. 1-4

[ I V

vi ]

Mvmt III Theme I: mm. 1-4

2 3 5 4 3 4 3 2 #1 2

17675

[ I

vi ]

Compare Mvmt III Theme I with its Final Resolution & Mvmt I Theme I Mvmt III Theme I

A:

Mvmt III Theme I Resolution

A:

Mvmt I Theme I

Banerdt 27

A:

Banerdt 28

CONCLUSION

Banerdt 29

Ludwig van Beethoven's Sonata in A Major for Violoncello and Fortepiano, opus 69 is one of the most significant works for cello and piano. Beethoven adheres strictly to the formal and harmonic conventions of the time. The entire work is anchored around the Tonic key of A Major, with departures into the minor mode, a minor, its Relative keys, C Major and f# minor, and the Dominant key of E. The relationship between Tonic and Dominant is explored in exquisite detail both harmonically and melodically. The motivic material that will form the basis of nearly every theme in the entire piece is introduced in the first twelve bars of the piece, then re-imagined throughout each movement of the sonata, creating a unifying thread through both the harmonic and melodic aspects of the piece that seizes the listener with the desire to arrive at the long-awaited resolution. The equality of the voices and the rich lyricism typical of Beethoven's Middle Period make the Sonata in A Major a pillar of the cello repertoire.

Banerdt 30

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Banerdt 31 BIBLIGRAPHY Agmon, Eytan. The First Movement of Beethovens Cello Sonata, Op. 69: The Opening Solo as a Structural and Motivic Source. The Journal of Musicology Vol. 16 No. 3, New Perspectives on Beethoven Sources and Style (1998). Anderson, Emily, trans. and ed. The Letters of Beethoven. Vol. 3 Letter no. 170. London: MacMillan, 1961. Badura-Skode, Paul. A Tie Is a Tie: Reflections on Beethovens Pairs of Tied Notes. Early Music 16 No. 1 (1988). Crawford, Judith Lee Crawford. Beethovens Five Cello Sonatas. Diss. San Jose State U, 1995. Hepokoski, James. Beyond the Sonata Principle. Journal of the American Musicological Society Vol. 55 No. 1 (2002). Kerman, Joseph, and Alan Tyson. The New Grove Beethoven. New York: Norton, 1988. Kerman, Joseph. The Beethoven Quartets. New York: Norton, 1979. Lockwood, Lewis. Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1992. Scherman, Thomas K. and Louis Biancoll, eds. The Beethoven Companion. Garden City: Doubleday, 1972.