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Career Development Growth and development are the integral part of every individuals career.

If an employee can not foresee his path of career development in his current organization, there are chances that hell leave the organization as soon as he gets an opportunity. The important factors in employee growth that an employee looks for himself are: Work profile: The work profile on which the employee is working should be in sync with his capabilities. The profile should not be too low or too high. Personal growth and dreams: Employees responsibilities in the organization should help him achieve his personal goals also. Organizations can not keep aside the individual goals of employees and foster organizations goals. Employees priority is to work for themselves and later on comes the organization. If hes not satisfied with his growth, hell not be able to contribute in organization growth. Training and development: Employees should be trained and given chance to improve and enhance their skills. Many employers fear that if the employees are well rained, theyll leave the organization for better jobs. Organization should not limit the resources on which organizations success depends. These trainings can be given to improve many skills like:

Communications skills Technical skills In-house processes and procedures improvement related skills C or customer satisfaction related skills Special project related skills

Need for such trainings can be recognized from individual performance reviews, individual meetings, employee satisfaction surveys and by being in constant touch with the employees.

In organizational development (or OD), the study of career development looks at:

how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and, how organizations structure the career progress of their members, it can also be tied into succession planning within some organizations.

In personal development, career development is:

" ... the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual." [1] The evolution or development of a career - informed by (1) Experience within a specific field of interest (2) Success at each stage of development - and (3), educational attainment. "... the lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences shaping ones career over the life span. As such, career development involves the persons creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts." [2]

Experience Getting experience can involve anything from taking a class that interests you to joining a club or organization on or off campus. Experiencing something will allow you to distinguish

between your likes and dislikes. Further, this will help you discover where your strengths and/or weaknesses lie. Reflection Reflection is a great way to understand your experiences more fully. Whether using a career log , journal writing, or talking with a career counselor this practice can help you organize your thoughts and create career goals. Career Concept The career you think you want to pursue after graduation. For example, after reflecting on my last two internships, I think I really want to be a pediatrician.

Information Gathering Doing occupational research through our online resources, meeting with alumni through the Zebra Career Advising Network (ZebraCAN) to talk about their career experiences, reading books from our Career Library or observing others doing the job you think you would like to do someday.

What is career development? Career development is the lifelong process of managing progression in learning and work. The quality of this process significantly determines the nature and quality of individuals lives: the kind of people they become, the sense of purpose they have, the income at their disposal. It also determines the social and economic contribution they make to the communities and societies of which they are part.

Why is career development becoming more important? The traditional concept of career was progression up an ordered hierarchy within an organisation or profession. The notion was that people chose a career, which then unfolded in an orderly way. It was an elitist concept: some had a career;many only had a job; some did not even have that.For some time now, however, this traditional concept has been fragmenting. The pace of change, driven by technology and globalisation, means that organisations are constantly exposed to change. They are therefore less willing to make longterm commitments to individuals; where they do, it is in exchange for flexibility about the roles and tasks the individuals will perform. Increasingly, therefore, security lies not in employment but in employability. Individuals who want to maintain their employability have to be willing to regularly learn new skills. So careers are now increasingly seen not as being chosen but as being constructed, through the series of choices about learning and work that people make throughout their lives. Career development in this sense need not be confined to the few: it can, and must, be made accessible to all.

Why does career development matter for public policy? Career development is not only a private good, of value to individuals: it is also a public good, of value to the country as a whole. This is true in three respects. First, it is important for effective learning. If individuals make decisions about what they are to learn in a wellinformed and well-thought-through way, linked to their interests, their capacities and their aspirations, and informed realistically about the opportunities to which the learning can lead, then they are likely to be more successful learners, and the huge sums of public money invested in education and training systems are likely to yield much higher returns. Second, it is important for an effective labour market. If people find jobs and career paths which utilise their potential and meet their own goals, they are likely to be more motivated and therefore more productive, enhancing national prosperity. Third, career development has an important contribution to make to social equity, supporting equal opportunities and promoting social inclusion. It can raise the aspirations of disadvantaged groups and give them access to opportunities that might otherwise have been denied to them.

What support do individuals need to manage their career development? If individuals are to manage their career development effectively, they need support, in three forms: Help in developing their career management skills. High-quality information on the opportunities open to them. Personal support in reviewing the options and converting information into personal action.

Career Development Process:

Self-Knowledge 1. I know what motivates me to excel. 2. I can identify my strongest abilities and skills. 3. I have several major achievements that clarify a pattern of interests and abilities. 4. I know what I both like and dislike in work. 5. I have some ideas about what I want to do during the next [two to three] years. 6. I can list my major accomplishments in action terms.

Knowledge of Employers 7. I know what skills I can offer employers in different occupations. 8. I can clearly explain to employers what I do well and enjoy doing. 9. I can specify why an employer should hire me. 10. When Im ready to find an internship or job, I will be

able to identify and target potential employers. Internship or Job Search Skills/Contacts 11. I can conduct research on different occupations, employers, organizations and communities. 12. I can write different types of effective resumes, internship search letters, and thank-you notes. 13. I can produce and distribute resumes and letters to the right people. 14. I can develop a job referral network. 15. I can prospect for internship or job leads.

Career Development Process


Phase I - Assessing Self & Preferences understanding self, skills, interests & values Phase II - Exploring Options proactively identifying, understanding and matching self to the possibilities Phase III - Developing Skills & Experience building skills, knowledge & reputation Phase IV - Marketing Self obtaining the skills to seek, obtain, maintain and change jobs Phase V - Performing & Planning Next Steps developing the skills to make effective career-related decisions and career transitions

STEPS TO DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT AN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN Here is what should be included in a personal learning plan: Assessment. First, identify your current skills, knowledge, abilities, and interests. A previous article in this series (5) describes the needs assessment process. Goals. Identify the new skills, knowledge, and experiences you would like to acquire and have. Do these goals match your personal and career interests? Are your goals in agreement with your organization's goals, mission and vision? Learning purpose. Identify the gap between the current situation and the desired outcome. This will produce a statement of purpose that should clarify why you want to learn something, and what specific skills, knowledge and abilities you wish to develop. Learning objective(s). Identify what skills, knowledge, and abilities are to be acquired or enhanced. Remember that this is only a plan, not a rigid promise; your plan can and should be revised as your goals change and as learning occurs.

For each objective, identify the following: Target date. Identify when you plan to complete the work for this part of your learning plan. Learning strategies. Describe how you plan to do it, and what process you plan to follow to accomplish your objective. For example, strategies could include: reading and study, interviews and discussions with appropriate people, mill trials, networking and communication, reflecting on your own experiences, classroom study, literature review, synthesizing and writing. Learning resources. Identify what resources you plan to use to help you with this learning process. These resources might include, for example: literature, mentors, co- workers, other professionals for networking, vendors or suppliers, classes, technical conferences, professional association involvement, equipment manuals, laboratory trials, production workers, teachers and instructors, field experience, your supervisors, and a variety of learning technologies including computers, the Internet, and perhaps even your mill's DCS (digital control system). Outcomes and products. List the evidence you will develop to show the accomplishment of your objectives. What deliverables will you have produced by this process? What objects can be used to validate your learning experience? This could include, for example, a log or journal of your studies or observations, a literature review and bibliography, written and oral reports, lists of questions, obtaining specific career objectives, and more. Evaluation plan. Describe the method you will use to validate your deliverables and to evaluate the success of your learning project. In other words, what criteria and means will you use to determine if you were successful in reaching your learning goals? Initial feedback and revision. Before starting to carry-out your individual development plan, confer with your supervisor (instructor, mentor, or HRD-manager if available) for feedback, for another view of your learning needs and strategies. This will help insure that your learning will not only be based on your personal needs but will also be relevant to your organization's goals, results, and profitability. The more independent sources you can use, the better -- seek additional feedback from your co-workers, colleagues, family and friends. Summary of results. After completing the projects in your individual plan, you should evaluate the success of these activities. What insights have you gained? What new understandings do you have? What new skills, abilities and knowledge have you acquired? What experiences did you have, and what did you learn from them? How do you feel about this process? Next steps. You should review the accomplishments and successes of this project with your supervisor (and others, as appropriate). Then update your learning plan for the next cycle. Remember that learning and growth are processes that may, and should, continue indefinitely.

Career Development Theories Career development theories help make sense of experiences. A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that allows you to explain the past and predict the future. As such, theories may provide "direction" and as theories are tested and prove "true", theories may be said to expand knowledge. There are two types of career development theories: structural and developmental.

Two types of theories 1. Structural Theories: focus on individual characteristics and occupational tasks. 2. Developmental Theories: focus on human development across life span. 1.Structural Theories Trait and Factor This theory began with Parsons, who proposed that a choice of a vocation depended upon (1) an accurate knowledge of yourself, (2) thorough knowledge of job specifications, and (3) the ability to make a proper match between the two. He wrote: "In the wise choice of a vocation there are three broad factors: (1) a clear understanding of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, resources, limitation; (2) a thorough knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work; and (3) true reasoning on the relations of these two groups of acts" (Parsons, 1909/1989, p.5). Two major assumptions of trait and factor theory are: (1) that individuals and job traits can be matched, and (2) that close matches are positively correlated with job success and satisfaction. These ideas are still part of our career counseling approach today. John Holland -- Vocational Personalities and Environments This typology theory was developed to organize the voluminous data about people in different jobs and the data about different work environments, to suggest how people make career choices and to explain how job satisfaction and vocational achievement occur. Holland suggested that "people can function and develop best and find job satisfaction in work environments that are compatible with their personalities" (ICDM, 1991, p. 4-4). Holland based his theory of personality types on several assumptions. People tend to choose a career that is reflective of their of their personality. Because people tend to be attracted to certain jobs, the environment then reflects this personality. He classified these personality types and work environments into six types which he labeled realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional (often referred to by the acronym RIASEC). He suggests that the closer the match of personality to job, the greater the satisfaction.

All types are part of each of us. However, one type is usually evidenced most strongly. We may even resemble up to three of the types. Holland developed a hexagon model that illustrates some key concepts: consistency, differentiation, identity, and congruence. A very brief overview of the six personality types, six work-related activities, and sample occupations is presented below. TYPE ACTIVITIES OCCUPATIONS Realistic Working with things, Farmer i.e. tools and machines Carpenter Mechanical Engineer Investigative Working with information Chemist i.e. abstract ideas and theories Artistic Creating things Painter Writer Social Helping people Social Worker Counselor Enterprising Leading others Sales Representative Entrepreneur Conventional Organizing data Night Auditor Secretary "Holland's theory places emphasis on the accuracy of self-knowledge and career information necessary for career decision making" (Zunker, 1994, p.49). Although the theory appears to be applicable to both male and female workers, there is some question of gender bias in that most females frequently tend to score predominately in three personality types: artistic, social, and conventional. Holland suggests that in our sexist society, females will display a greater interest in female-dominated occupations.

Developmental Theories Super's Theory Donald Super (1957) and other theorists of career development recognize the changes that people go through as they mature. Career patterns are determined by socioeconomic factors, mental and physical abilities, personal characteristics and the opportunities to which persons are exposed. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and implement and develop their self-concepts. Career maturity, a main concept in Super's theory, is manifested in the successful accomplishment of age and stage developmental tasks across the life span. Self-concept is an underlying factor in Super's model: "...vocational self-concept develops through physical and mental growth, observations of work, identification with working adults, general environment, and general experiences....As experiences become broader in

relation to awareness of world of work, the more sophisticated vocational self-concept is formed" (Zunker, 1994, p.30). Super's contribution was the formalization of stages and developmental tasks over the life span: STAGE AGE CHARACTERISTICS Growth Birth - 14 of 15 Form self-concept, develop capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs, and form a general understanding of the world of work. Exploratory 15-24 "Try out" through classes, work experience, hobbies. Collect relevant information. Tentative choice and related skill development. Establishment 25-44 Entry skill building and stabilization through work experience. Maintenance 45-64 Continual adjustment process to improve position. Decline 65+ Reduced output, prepare for retirement. People change with time and experience, and progress go through the following vocational development stages: VOCATIONAL AGES GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS & DEVELOPMENTAL TASK Crystallization 14-18 Developing and planning a tentative vocational goal Specification 18-21 Firming the vocational goal Implementation 21-24 Training for and obtaining employment Stabilization 24-35 Working and confirming career choice Consolidation 35+ Advancement in career 4 Although Super originally presented the stages and tasks in a sequential manner, he later added that we cycle and recycle throughout our life span as we adapt to changes in ourselves as well as to the trends in the work place. Understanding these ages and related stages of career development helps the facilitator select appropriate responses and activities. Super and Thompson (1979) identified six factors in vocational maturity: (1) awareness of the need to plan ahead, (2) decision-making skills, (3) knowledge and use of information resources, (4) general career information, (5) general world of work information, and (6) detailed information about

occupations of preference. Super also looked at the different roles we play during our lifetimes and the relative importance we give to those roles at different times in our lives. Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory Much growth takes place as a result of learning and imitating the behavior of others. Krumboltz developed a theory of career decision making and development based on our social learning, or environmental conditions and events, genetic influences and learning experiences. People choose their careers based on what they have learned. Certain behaviors are modeled, rewarded and reinforced.

Decision-Making Theories Some decision-making theories hypothesize that there are critical points in our lives when choices are made that greatly influence our career development. These decision making points are such events as educational choices, entry-level job positions, changing jobs, etc. Other decision-making theories concerned with ongoing choices across the life span. The decisions that we make are influenced by our awareness of the choices that are available to us and our knowledge of how to evaluate them. Others address our complex environment. For example, H.B. Gelatt says, "We make our decisions based upon what is actual and what is actual is never static" (Gelatt, 1991, p. 1). Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories of career development are built around how individuals process, integrate and react to information. The ways in which individuals process information are determined by their cognitive structures. These structures influence how individuals see themselves, others and the environment. Cognitive theories suggest ways to help clients build or refine a hierarchy of thinking skills and decision making skills that influence career development.

Career Management
Sometimes our professions or jobs cause problems that affect not only our working hours but our personal lives. The need to consider a career change is often manifested in job burnout and job stress. If these symptoms or causes become severe enough, you have probably reached a turning point in your life and may need support to help you to move away from uncertainty towards clarity in your career.

A career change should not be made lightly, impulsively or without careful consideration of eight separate factors which are vital to your choice of careers:

Your hard-wired or natural abilities Your skills Your personal style (how you relate to others) Your interests Your values Your goals Your family Where YOU are in your Career Development cycle

Working with a Career Management Coach helps you: Plan your career and establish career goals Deal with redundancy and learn powerful techniques to manage stress Maximise your impact to confidently deal with new situations find out about our next Promote yourself with Confidence Workshop Understand the ideal work environment where you perform at your best - learn more about yourself through the LAB Profile Develop a solid professional network learn more Build a portfolio of CVs, cover letters and online profiles to make a credible first impression at the interview and network stages