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Q. 1 & 2 principles and research 1.

. Social and cultural environment influences behavior a) Asch (1951) state which line is similar to standard line. Participants conformed with wrong answers, because they wanted to gain social approval and not be left out. Social factors! 2. Connectedness and sense of belonging a) Asch (1951) state which line is similar to standard line. Participants conformed with wrong answers, because they wanted to gain social approval and not be left out. 3. We construct our perception on individual and social self a) Johnson (1964) self serving bias. Teaching 2 kids multiply numbers by 10 and 20. Kid B failed on one, succeeded on one. They said it was their good skills in teaching when succeed, and the kid was stupid when fail. (nothing on themselves). Q. 3 how and why research used (observation) 1. Festinger (1956) - cult thought that world would end on 21 December. When day came, nothing happened, blamed it on that god heard their prayers and saved the earth. Q.4 ethical considerations 1. Zimbardo (1973) 24, half guard half prisoner, in prison. They adapted to role, physical abuse and torture lead to exp stopped after 6 days. Showed mental distress. Q.5 situational and dispositional factors in behavior 1. Zimbardo (1973) 24, half guard half prisoner, in prison. They adapted to role, physical abuse and torture lead to exp stopped after 6 days. Showed mental distress. The situation brought this behavior upon them , but also according to Zimbardo we all have evil inside us that can be triggered by the situation. Q. 6 errors in attribution 1. Jones and Harris (1967) Pro-castro essay read essay about Castro and were said that it was obligatory to be pro. Participants 80% rated writer as pro Castro, showed FAE. People overestimate rola of dispositional factors and underestimate role of situational factors in behavior the person DID not choose to write pro Castro.

Q.7 SIT - individuals strive to improve self-image by enhancing self-esteem through achievements or being popular. 1. Tajfel (1981) british schoolboys randomly assigned to 2 groups, however they thought it was due to artwork. They were to rank by points to your group and other group gave more points to your own group. Favoring INGROUP. Q. 9 SLT - learn behavior of models and act like them. 1. Bandura (1961) bobo doll showed children film of adult with bobo doll. Adult was behaving: aggressively, aggressively with reward, aggressively with punish. Children alone with doll 10 min first two equal level of aggressiveness, third lower level. Q.10 compliance techniques low-balling (secures agreement, then reveals hidden cost) 1. Cialdini (1974) people asked to participate in exp. 7 am, 24% agreed. Participants asked if participate 56% agreed. Then found out it was at 7 am 95% showed up. Q. 11 conformity to groups 1. Asch (1951) state which line is similar to standard line. Participants conformed with wrong answers, because they wanted to gain social approval and not be left out. Conformed to group! Q. 13 define culture and cultural norms Culture - set of attitudes, behaviors and symbols shared by a large group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next Cultural norms - Cultural norms are patterns of behavior typical of a specific group normally passed down from generation to generation via observational learning. Q.14 cultural dimensions on behavior Individualism/collectivism- In individualistic cultures, identity is defined by personal characteristics. In collectivistic societies, identity is defined more by the characteristics of the collective groups to which one belongs. 1. Petrova (2007) survey to 3000 US students in participate in survey. Half were Asians. The people who answered the request was higher among Asians. Q. 15 explain emic and etic Emic behaviors that are cultural specific Etic behavior compared across cultures, global.

Emic Manson (1985) about depression, western characteristics to Hopi people, they couldnt find the words to describe depression through these western words. a. Worry sickness b. Unhappiness c. Heartbroken d. Drunken-like craziness e. Disappointment Etic WHO (1993) about depression in Switzerland, Canada, Japan and Iran. 70% agreed to these words: sadness, joylessness, anxiety and a sense of insufficiency .