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ELC003: Renewable Energy Sources

Course Notes

Simon Watson, Ralph Gottschalg, Richard Blanchard

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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Contents

1 Wind Power

7

1.1

Wind Characteristics

7

1.1.1 Introduction

7

1.1.2 Atmospheric Winds

7

1.1.3 Summary of Boundary Layer Equations

8

1.1.4 Log Law for Vertical Wind Profile

9

1.1.5 Simplified Power Law

10

1.1.6 Wind Speed Variation and Averaging

10

1.1.7 The Weibull Distribution

12

1.1.8 Estimation of Weibull Parameters

14

1.1.9 Calculation of Energy Yield

15

1.2

Wind Resource

16

1.2.1 Introduction

16

1.2.2 Measuring Wind Speed at a Site

16

1.2.3 Estimation of Long Term Site Wind Speed

18

1.2.4 Computational Models

19

1.2.5 Wind Flow over Hills

20

1.2.6 Initial Site Assessment

22

1.3

Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

25

1.3.1 Power Available in the Wind

25

1.3.2 Power Fluctuations

25

1.3.3 Extracting Energy From the Wind

26

1.3.4 Aerodynamic Lift and the Aerofoil

32

1.3.5 The Tangential Induction Factor

34

1.3.6 Relationship between Thrust and Torque, and the Lift and Drag forces

35

1.3.7 Relationship between the Angle of Attack and the Lift and Drag Coefficients

37

1.3.8 Performance of a Wind Turbine

1.3.9 Wind turbine types

1.3.10 Electrical generator options

1.4 Notation and Units

1.5 References

2 Hydro Power

2.1 Energy from Water

2.2 Developing a Hydropower Scheme

2.2.1 Resource and Equipment Requirement

2.2.2 Choice of Turbine

2.2.3 Environmental Considerations

2.2.4 Basic Calculation of Energy

2.2.5 Calculation of Power

2.2.6 A Typical Run of River Scheme

2.3 The Measurement of Head

2.3.1 Why is the measurement of Head Important?

2.3.2 The Variation of Head with Flow

2.3.3 Estimation of Net Head

2.3.4 Turbine Setting Losses

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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2

2.4

The Flow Duration Curve

54

2.4.1 Variation of Flow Over a Year

2.4.2 What is a Flow Duration Curve?

2.4.3 Q-Values

2.5

2.6 Introduction to Water Turbines

Glossary

2.6.1 The Development of Water Turbines

2.6.2 Specific Speed

2.6.3 Shape Factor

2.6.4 Impulse Turbines

2.6.5 Reaction Turbines

2.6.6 Draft Tube

2.6.7 Cavitation

2.6.8 Selecting a Turbine for a Particular Site

3 Electrical System Aspects

3.1 Apparent, Real and Reactive Power

3.2 The Balance of Active and Reactive Power

3.3 The Significance of Power Factor

3.4 The Reactive Power of a Capacitor

3.5 P and Q Transfer in Power Networks

3.6 The Generator

3.7 Comparison of Synchronous and Induction Generators

3.8 Connection to the Electricity Network

3.8.1 Power Factor Correction for an Induction Generator

3.9 Soft-Start Units

3.10 Power Quality

4 Tidal Power

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Causes of Tides

4.2.1 Tides in the open ocean

4.2.2 Mechanisms for Tidal Enhancement

4.3 Tidal Barrages

4.3.1 Turbines for Tidal Barrages

4.3.2 Operational Strategies

4.3.3 Choice of Barrage Site

4.3.4 Case Study: La Rance

4.3.5 Other Sites

4.4 Tidal Current Schemes

4.4.1 Turbines for Tidal Current Schemes

4.4.2 The Resource

4.5 Impacts of Tidal Schemes

5 Wave Power

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Wave Climate

5.3 Shore Mounted Technology

5.3.1 Oscillating Water Columns (OWC)

5.3.2 The OWC device on Islay

5.3.3 Limpet

5.3.4 Tapchan

5.3.5 Locations for Shore Mounted Schemes

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5.4

Near Shore Technology

114

5.4.1 Osprey

 

114

5.4.2 The 'Mighty Whale'

115

5.4.3 FWPV

 

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5.4.4 Point Absorber Float Systems

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5.4.5 Pendulor

 

117

5.5

Offshore Technology

117

5.5.1 The Duck

 

117

5.5.2 The Clam

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5.5.3 Pelamis

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6 Solar Power

120

6.1

Solar Characteristics

120

6.1.1 The Solar Spectrum

120

6.1.2 The interaction between radiation and matter

121

6.1.3 The

mechanism of absorption

122

6.1.4 Blackbody Radiation

122

6.1.5 Radiation on earth´s surface

123

6.2

Solar Resource

126

6.2.1 Geometry of the Sun, the Earth and the Collector Plane

126

6.2.2 Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation with Season and Latitude

128

6.2.3 Estimation of the Global Radiation on Tilted Planes

129

6.2.4 Devices for Measuring Global Radiation

132

6.3

Basic principles of Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

132

6.3.1

The crystalline silicon cell

133

6.3.2

The basics of cell operation

134

6.3.3

Cell spectral response

138

6.3.4

Equivalent circuit for cell

139

6.3.5

Maximum Power Point

141

6.3.6

Effects of changes in irradiance and temperature

142

6.3.7

Other types of cell

144

6.3.8

Applications

144

7 Biomass

 

146

7.1

Introduction

146

7.1.1 What is Biomass?

146

7.1.2 Developed Countries

150

7.2 Conversion Routes for Biomass

151

7.3 Biomass as a Fuel

152

7.3.1

Solar Store and the Carbon Cycle

152

7.3.2

Calorific Value and Moisture Content

154

7.4

Biogas

156

7.4.1 Introduction

156

7.4.2 Control of Anaerobic Digestion

157

7.4.3 Biomass to methane

159

7.4.4 Example Domestic Waste Treatment Wanlip 5MW Biogas Plant

159

7.4.5 Bio-hydrogen Production

159

7.5

Introduction to Liquid Biomass Fuels, Biodiesel and Bioethanol

160

7.5.1 Biodiesel

 

160

7.5.2 Transesterification

160

7.5.3 Bioethanol

 

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7.6

Conversion of Biomass 1: Pre-treatment and Direct Combustion

164

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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7.6.1

Resource Base

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7.6.2 Pre-treatment

7.6.3 Direct Combustion of Biomass

7.7 Conversion of Biomass 2: Gasification and Pyrolysis

7.7.1 Gasification

7.7.2 Pyrolysis

7.8 Power Generation from Biomass Fuels

7.8.1 Steam Systems

7.8.2 Combined Heat and Power

7.9 Conclusions

7.10 References

8 Integration of Renewables

8.1 Integrating renewables - the issues

8.2 The operation of power systems

8.2.1 Required Characteristics

8.2.2 Power system hardware

8.2.3 Demand forecasting

8.2.4 Generation scheduling and spinning reserve

8.2.5 Contingency analysis

8.2.6 Optimum economic dispatch

8.3 Plant generation costs and capabilities

8.4 Aggregation

8.5 Penetration levels from variable sources

8.6 Cycling costs

8.7 Reserve costs

8.8 Discarded Energy

8.9 Penalties due to increasing penetration

8.10 100% Renewable Energy Generation

8.10.1 Combining different renewable energy sources

8.10.2 Energy Storage

9 Electricity Trading and Renewable Energy in the UK

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The State Owned ESI

9.3 The Electricity Pool

9.3.1 Overview

9.3.2 The Operation of the Pool and Pool Prices

9.4 Hedging Your Bets

9.5 Deregulation

9.6 The Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation and Renewable Obligation

9.7 The Climate Change Levy

9.8 The New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA)

9.8.1 Background

9.8.2 Buying and Selling Power under NETA

9.8.3 System Sell and System Buy Prices

9.8.4 The Balancing Market

9.8.5 The British Electricity Transmission and Trading Arrangements

9.9 The Impact on Renewable Energy Sources

9.9.1 Overview

9.9.2 Mitigating the Effects of NETA

10 Tutorial Questions

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10.1

Wind Power

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10.1.1 Wind Characteristics and Resource

10.1.2 Wind Turbines

10.2 Hydro Power

10.3 Tidal Power

10.4 Wave Power

10.5 Solar Power

10.6 Biomass Power

10.7 Integration

10.8 Electricity Trading

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1 Wind Power

1.1 Wind Characteristics

1.1.1 Introduction

These lectures deal with the wind resource in general. In particular they will cover the nature of atmospheric winds with emphasis on the lower boundary layer, the long-term probability distribution of wind speeds, and techniques for wind resource assessment. The latter include computational models and measurement based approaches.

1.1.2 Atmospheric Winds

Wind is the large-scale movement of air masses in the earth's atmosphere. It is caused primarily by pressure gradients arising from differential heating of the earth's surface. In a sense therefore it is another form of solar energy. Centripetal and Coriolis forces (see X Figure 1X below), arising from the earth's rotation also effect the air movement.

On a weather map, contours representing a common pressure are called isobars (given in millibars where 1 mbar = 100 Pa and a standard atmosphere is 1013.25 mbar). Clearly, the pressure gradient is perpendicular to the isobars. Because of Coriolis forces and centripetal forces caused by strongly curved isobars, the wind will be deflected from a direction along that of the pressure gradient. The resulting wind is called the gradient wind. For straight or slightly curved isobars, it is also called the geostrophic wind. In the northern hemisphere, winds rotate anti-clockwise into low pressure regions (cyclones), and clockwise out of high pressure regions (anti-cyclones).

The discussion so far has ignored the influence of the earth's surface and the whole issue of turbulent mixing which can be mechanically or thermally driven. The characteristics of this lower layer of the atmosphere, known as the boundary layer, are critical to the exploitation of wind energy.

The wind near the ground is significantly affected by such things as the topography of the ground, including buildings, and the differential heating between land and sea.

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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Figure 1: The Coriolis effect: the two curved lines are of constant latitude, with point

Figure 1: The Coriolis effect: the two curved lines are of constant latitude, with point B located directly south of point A. A parcel of air is moving south from A towards B. If we ignore air friction, the speed of the air will remain constant with respect to the ground. The direction will change, however, because the of the earth’s rotation under the parcel.

1.1.3 Summary of Boundary Layer Equations

Wind speed increases steadily with height, and according to the 'no slip' condition, is zero at ground level. This increase with height is known as wind shear. The wind shear profile depicted in XFigure 2 X is to some extent, dependent on atmospheric stability. Three stability states are defined: stable, neutrally stable and unstable which are dependent on surface heating and cooling.

If a volume of air is displaced vertically (and adiabatically) it will tend to return to its original location if the atmosphere is stable normally caused by cooling of the underlying ground. If it stays at its displaced location the conditions are said to be neutrally stable. In an unstable atmosphere with a significant amount of surface heating, it will continue to move, due to buoyancy forces, in the direction in which it was displaced.

The more unstable the conditions, the greater the mixing with the result that the velocity gradients are lower.

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Figure 2: The lower boundary layer. 1.1.4 Log Law for Vertical Wind Profile A stability

Figure 2: The lower boundary layer.

1.1.4 Log Law for Vertical Wind Profile

A stability dependent form of the wind shear profile with height is given by a log law of the form:

U U(z)= * 1n(z/ z )+ (z/ L ) z z k 0 s s
U
U(z)=
*
1n(z/ z
)+
(z/ L )
z
z
k
0
s
s
0
(1)

where U * is the friction velocity (proportional to the square root of the turbulent shear stress, which is assumed constant in the lower boundary layer); k is the von Karman constant (~0.4); z is the elevation above the ground level; and z o is the surface roughness length. The stability, s is a function of z/L s where L s is known as the Monin-Obukhov length.

s where L s is known as the Monin-Obukhov length. For neutral stability which is usually

For neutral stability which is usually taken to apply to the higher wind speeds associated with wind turbine operation F 1 F, this equation reduces to:

turbine operation F 1 F , this equation reduces to: (2) Since U * is difficult

(2)

Since U * is difficult to evaluate, this formula is usually rewritten in terms of a reference wind speed U(z r ), at reference height, z r :

wind speed U ( z r ), at reference height, z r : (3) 1 At

(3)

1 At relatively high wind speeds turbulent mixing of the air tends to „neutralise‟ any changes in vertical temperature gradient created by surface heating or cooling.

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Guidance in evaluating z o can be found in Reference 1. A useful approximation is:

z o = /30
z o =
/30

(4)

where

a look-up table such as XTable 1X.

is the average height of roughness elements. Alternatively, reference can be made toz o = /30 (4) where a look-up table such as X Table 1 X .

Type of terrain

 

Z

0

Type of terrain   Z 0

Mud Flats, Ice

10

-5 to 3x10 -5

   

Calm Sea

2x10 -4 to 3x10 -4

 

Sand

2x10 -4 to 10 -3

 

0.01

Mown Grass

0.001 to 0.01

   

Low Grass

0.01

to 0.04

0.13

Fallow Field

0.02

to 0.03

 

High Grass

0.04

to 0.1

0.19

Forest and Woodland

0.1 to 1

   

Built up area, Suburb

1 to 2

0.32

City

1 to 4

 

Table 1: Typical values of surface roughness length later), for various types of terrain

1.1.5 Simplified Power Law

z 0

and power law exponent

1.1.5 Simplified Power Law z 0 and power law exponent (see For neutral conditions, present when

(see

For neutral conditions, present when wind speeds are high, a simple power law has been found to provide a reasonable fit to the data. This expression is widely used by engineers, for example when looking at peak wind loads on tall buildings.

U(z) = U(zr)(z / zr ) (5)
U(z) = U(zr)(z / zr )
(5)

where

depends on the surface roughness.loads on tall buildings. U(z) = U(zr)(z / zr ) (5) where Over the height range

Over the height range of 10m to 30m the following expression relating proposed.

of 10m to 30m the following expression relating proposed. to z o has been (6) For

to z o has been

following expression relating proposed. to z o has been (6) For z o in the range

(6)

expression relating proposed. to z o has been (6) For z o in the range 0.0001m

For z o in the range 0.0001m and 1m, accuracy, in determining , of the order of a few percent can be expected. Unlike the log law, there is no physical basis and in general it is not recommended.

1.1.6 Wind Speed Variation and Averaging

Wind speed at a given location is always varying.

year

There are changes in annual mean from

to year; variations with season, with passing weather systems (synoptic), on a daily

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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basis (diurnal) and from second to second (turbulent).

The Van der Hoven spectrum ( XFigure 3X) shows features corresponding to these different time scales. The spectrum represents the strength of the wind speed variation at different timescales. It can be seen that there is significant amount of variation at the 1-minute timescale (turbulent) and at the 4-day timescale (synoptic). A spectral gap, separating turbulent variation from slower variations, is apparent in the range of 10 minutes to 1 hour. This is why the analysis of long term variations and wind statistics are based on 10 minute or 1 hour mean wind speed values.

are based on 10 minute or 1 hour mean wind speed values. Figure 3: The Van
are based on 10 minute or 1 hour mean wind speed values. Figure 3: The Van

Figure 3: The Van der Hoven Spectrum showing the amount of variation in wind speed on a particular time-scale.

Time averaged wind speed values over a time interval T are defined by:

U

wind speed values over a time interval T are defined by: U 1/ T t 0

1/

T

t 0 t 0
t
0
t
0

T / 2

T / 2

U

( )

t

dt

(7)

where U(t) is the instantaneous wind speed at time t.

Despite inter-annual variations, it is conventional to work with annual statistics based on hourly (or ten minute) averaged values. Frequency distributions are calculated based on small wind speed intervals. In X Figure 4 X, a typical wind speed distribution is presented; in this instance 0.5m/s intervals have been used. Three features are obvious: the relative frequencies are only positive for wind speeds greater than or equal to zero (by definition wind speed cannot be negative); there is a peak in the distribution at somewhat less than the mean of the distribution; and there are occasional occurrences of very high winds.

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Relative Frequency

23.25

24.25
25.25

19.25
20.25

17.25
18.25

10.25
11.25

26.25
27.25

13.25
14.25

21.25
22.25

29.25

16.25

28.25

12.25

15.25

1.25
2.25

6.25
7.25

3.25
4.25

0.25

5.25

8.25
9.25

Probability

Frequency distribution of Wind Speed

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00

of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A
of Wind Speed 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 4: A

Wind Speed (m/s)

Figure 4: A typical wind speed distribution

1.1.7 The Weibull Distribution

It has been found that the frequency distribution of wind speeds at most sites can be well represented by the two parameter Weibull probability density function. The probability of the wind speed having a value U is given by

p(U)=(k/C)(U/C )

k-1

exp [-(U/C )

k

]

(8)

where k is known as the shape parameter and C the scale parameter.

Weibull Distribution with C = 9.3m/s and k=1.8

0.1

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4
and k=1.8 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 2 4

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Wind Speed (m/s)

20

22

24

26

28

30

Figure 5: Example Weibull distribution

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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Probability

XFigure 5X shows an example distribution. The cumulative probability distribution associated with this is obtained by integration of the function between zero and some value, V. This gives the probability Q, that the wind speed is less than V as:

probability Q , that the wind speed is less than V as: (9) Since this equation

(9)

Since this equation is easily evaluated it should be used to calculate the probability of the wind speed lying in a particular range by applying it twice at the two values defining the range of interest and differencing the results. Sometimes (1-Q) is plotted; this can be viewed as the reverse cumulative distribution. An example is given in XFigure 6 X.

If the shape parameter, k, takes the value of 2, the Weibull distribution reduces to the well known, one parameter, Rayleigh distribution. There is some physical basis to this simpler form in that it can be derived by assuming wind to be isotropic and uniformly distributed with no prevailing direction and that wind speed variations in orthogonal directions are independently normally distributed.

In general sites do exhibit a prevailing direction and the more flexible, but not physically based, Weibull distribution is applicable.

If the parameters k and C are known for a given site the annual mean wind speed Ua can be calculated from:

where

Ua

=

C.

where U a = C. (1+ 1 k ) is the gamma function, defined to be

(1+

1

k )

where U a = C. (1+ 1 k ) is the gamma function, defined to be

is the gamma function, defined to be

(10)

(y)

(y)

=

e
e

o

-x

x

y-1

dx

(11)

   

Reverse Cumulative Weibull Distribution (C=9.26 and k=1.77)

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

and k=1.77) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 2 4

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Wind Speed (m/s)

24

26

28

30

Figure 6: Reverse cumulative distribution

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1.1.8 Estimation of Weibull Parameters

From the cumulative distribution it is clear that the probability, Q (inverse cumulative) that the wind speed exceeds V is given by:

Q(U > V) = exp [-(V / C ) k ] (12)
Q(U > V) =
exp
[-(V / C )
k
]
(12)

Care should be taken since this is sometimes also referred to as the cumulative Weibull distribution. Taking logarithms twice on both sides gives

1n(-1nQ)=k1n(V)- k1n(C)

(13)

Hence if 1n(-1nQ) is plotted against 1n(V), where Q is calculated from the data for a wide range of values of V, then the result should be approximately a straight line with k as the gradient and an intercept at -k.1n(C).

Linear regression can be used to find the best straight line fit to the data. XFigure 7 X shows the result of such an analysis showing that the Weibull distribution is a reasonable fit to the data.

ln(-ln(Q) ln(V) Slope = k Intercept = -k ln(C)
ln(-ln(Q)
ln(V)
Slope = k
Intercept = -k ln(C)

Figure 7: Linear regression for Weibull parameter fitting

Although widely used, linear regression applied to logarithms and double logarithms of the dependent and independent variables will not provide the best choice of parameters k and C. A more rigorous approach to parameter estimation uses maximum likelihood techniques. These are recommended if it is important to have great accuracy. In many situations however rough estimates of k and C will suffice. In these circumstances the following approximate relations are very useful.

From work by Bowden and others we have the results:

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a n d (14) (15) Provided the ranges indicated are adhered to the accuracy of

and

a n d (14) (15) Provided the ranges indicated are adhered to the accuracy of these

(14)

(15)

Provided the ranges indicated are adhered to the accuracy of these formula is within 1%. Another approximate relation, which does not depend on knowing the mean of U 3 , is:

-1.086 k U
-1.086
k
U

(16)

But note that the standard deviation here is the long-term (say annual) value, and not that associated with turbulence intensity.

value, and not that associated with turbulence intensity. In special cases the wind speed at one

In special cases the wind speed at one point will be approximately proportional to the wind speed at another point. For example if the points are two heights at a given location for which the simple log law (neutral stability) applies, then if U 1 = aU 2 , then k 1 = k 2 and C 1 = aC 2 .

1.1.9 Calculation of Energy Yield

It is straightforward to calculate the energy yield from a wind turbine to be placed on a given site, using the Weibull parameters and the wind turbine power curve.

The average power from the wind turbine, assuming 100% reliability, is given by

the wind turbine, assuming 100% reliability, is given by (17) where P(U) is the power output

(17)

where P(U) is the power output from the wind turbine at wind speed, U and p(u) is the probability given by distribution function. This integral will in general have to be evaluated numerically.

If the record of hourly mean wind speeds from the site is available this can be used directly with the power curve to calculate the energy yield which would have occurred had the turbine experienced that specific wind history.

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1.2 Wind Resource

1.2.1 Introduction

Prediction of the wind resource at a given site is a crucial part of the development of commercial wind energy generation. Without an accurate assessment of the available wind resource no meaningful evaluation of a particular wind generation proposal can be attempted. There are increasing demands for accuracy as project developers' plans will be scrutinised by the banks and other organisations involved in project finance.

At different stages of project development different levels of assessment are appropriate. At the early stages a superficial and low cost appraisal of a site is often undertaken to see if sufficient potential exists to justify a time consuming and potentially costly measurement campaign.

Smaller installations, such as those contemplated by individuals, cannot afford expensive site assessment exercises. Greater reliance is therefore placed on predictions based on computer modelling or other information such as local knowledge.

In all cases, what is being attempted is an estimate of the long-term wind resource; ideally the wind resource over the expected lifetime of the wind turbine/s which could be up to 20 years. Usually it is the long-term past wind resource that is being estimated at the site; the assumption being that the long-term wind resource is not changing.

1.2.2 Measuring Wind Speed at a Site

1.2.2.1 Mast

If a site is being assessed for its long term wind power potential, it is common for a developer to erect a mast on the site instrumented to measure wind speed and direction. Normally anemometers are placed on at least two heights up the mast. This is to allow for an instrument breaking down and also to give some information about the wind speed profile or wind shear (see Section X1.1.3 X). This allows a more accurate extrapolation of wind speed with height. It is also preferable to ensure that at least one of the anemometers is placed at the hub height of the wind turbines to be erected at the site. The axis of the wind turbine rotor is at the hub height. You will learn more about wind turbines in Section X1.3 X. Wind direction is normally measured using a wind vane at at least one height on the mast. A guyed lattice or tubular mast is usually used with the measuring instruments mounted sufficiently far from the mast itself (on booms or otherwise) so as not to be influenced by the mast aerodynamically. A data logger is then used to record measurements at regular intervals, typically 10 minute averages.

1.2.2.2 Instrumentation

For wind site assessment purposes the key parameters to be measured are wind speed and direction. In some instances ambient air temperature and atmospheric pressure are also measured.

The standard transducer for measuring wind speed in wind site assessments is the cup

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anemometer. There are more sophisticated transducers for specialist wind speed measurement, such as hot wire and doppler anemometers, but their particular characteristics are not required for site assessment. Cup anemometers have the advantage of being robust and relatively cheap. Rotation of the cup is sensed and the instrument can be configured to produce either an analogue output (proportional to wind speed) or a pulse train with each pulse representing a fixed amount of rotation, equivalent to a fixed run of wind. The rate of pulsing gives the wind speed. Counting pulses is an attractive approach because the ideal integrated values of the wind run are directly measured.

The time response of cup anemometers is specified in terms of a distance constant, d. This is the length of wind run for the output, in response to a step change in wind, to reach within 1/e of its final value. For a given change in wind speed, δv this gives a time constant equal to d/δv seconds. Unfortunately, cup anemometers respond more rapidly to increases in wind than decreases, as shown in X Figure 8 X. This results in the so-called over-speeding effect which means an overall overestimate of the wind speed. In order to limit this effect a sufficiently fast response anemometer should be used. Generally a 5m distance constant is considered acceptable. A further source of measurement error arises because the cup also responds to some extent to vertical wind components.

also responds to some extent to vertical wind components. Figure 8: Anemometer dynamic response Because cup

Figure 8: Anemometer dynamic response

Because cup anemometers do not respond to changes in the direction of the horizontal component, a separate instrument is required to measure wind direction. This is normally done using a wind vane. A wind vane can either be a potentiometer device where a change in continuous voltage is measured as the vane turns and its resistance changes or by a series of reed switches to give discrete voltage measurements.

Ambient temperature has traditionally been measured using a platinum resistance thermometer or a thermocouple, although simple semiconductor devices can now be used which are sufficiently accurate. Suitable signal conditioning circuitry is supplied with proprietary instruments. Compact commercial pressure transducers are available for the measurement of atmospheric pressure. They come supplied with appropriate signal conditioning. Nowadays a range of low cost commercial data loggers suitable for data collection are available. These are battery powered and store data in ram or on storage cards ready for downloading to a PC at regular intervals. Some loggers are available with modems for data transmission.

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There are many ways of presenting wind data. The wind rose indicates at a glance the strength and directional dependence of long term wind. An example is shown in X Figure 9 X. This figure shows that the wind at this site blows most frequently from the 240-degree direction of the compass. It is normal conventional to talk about the direction from which the wind blows, so that a south-westerly wind is blowing FROM the south-west TOWARDS the north-east.

Strong prevailing South West wind rose

0

40% 330 30 > 20 m/s 30% 300 60 20% 15 - 20 m/s 10%
40%
330
30
> 20 m/s
30%
300
60
20%
15
- 20 m/s
10%
10
- 15m/s
270
0%
90
5
- 10 m/s
240
120
0
- 5 m/s
210
150

180

Figure 9: A typical wind rose for the UK

1.2.3 Estimation of Long Term Site Wind Speed

Data collected at a site can only tells us about the wind over the period of data collection. In order to make estimates of long-term resource some approach to extrapolation is required.

The standard approach used by the wind energy developers is known as Measure-Correlate- Predict (MCP). Data collected at the candidate site is correlated with data over the same time period available from a nearby site for which long term records exist. Usually this is an official meteorological site. There are a number of varying approaches which fall under the category of MCP, many of them involving linear regression. Once the relationships (correlations) between the two sites have been calculated, these are used to appropriately scale the long-term data from the met site. If possible 10 or more years of data is used. The accuracy of the MCP approach is dependent on the quality of the data at the candidate site and the met site, and the duration of the measurements at the candidate site. XFigure 10X shows a schematic of the procedure.

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Figure 10: The Measure-Correlate-Predict procedure. It is generally agreed, due to seasonal variations in the

Figure 10: The Measure-Correlate-Predict procedure.

It is generally agreed, due to seasonal variations in the correlations, that at least 8 months of

data collection is required for accurate predictions (see Reference 2). Often developers will

collect data over one year.

1.2.4 Computational Models

A number of computational models are available to the wind energy analyst to help in site

evaluation. These are now available as commercial software packages. These methods perform some transformation of data available from reasonably nearby met sites so as to map it onto the site of interest so as to account for variations in the topography and major surface features of the two sites. A common approach is to use an MCP analysis to produce the long-

term prediction at the measuring mast on a site and then to use a computational model to produce an area map of the wind speeds around the mast in order to find the best places to put the wind turbines in a wind farm.

WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program) which was developed as part of the European Wind Atlas, is perhaps the best known of the computational models. MS-Micro developed by the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Office has a similar basis. Both models solve the equations of conservation of mass and momentum with several simplifying assumptions for the flow of air over terrain. As mentioned above, a significant amount of energy can be stored in the turbulent part of the wind. The generation and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is not trivial to model. The two models mentioned above use a simple parameterisation of turbulence known as a first order turbulence closure model. Mass consistent models such as NOABL have been used in the past, but as these contain no turbulence model and only solve the equation for conservation of mast they are not as accurate. NOABL has been used to produce a wind map of the UK on a 1km grid. In WAsP,

a flow model is used to calculate the effect of topography and ground level roughness,

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including roughness transitions. It is applied to both the candidate site and the reference site. For a range of directional sectors the solutions are used to extrapolate the reference data upwards through the boundary layer to give the local geostrophic wind regime. This is then transported to the candidate site and then transformed down to the candidate site using the characteristics calculated from the flow solution. Account is also taken of local obstacles.

More complicated models for solving the flow of wind over terrain have been developed in recent years such as CFX and FLUENT. Many of these models solve the full set of Navier- Stokes equations for fluid flow and can provide fairly accurate results for specific sites. However, to produce these results required specialist knowledge to set up the boundary conditions. In addition, these types of models need a significant amount of input data and computing time to produce the wind flow field. Models such as WAsP and MS-Micro, though less accurate, nonetheless produce reasonable results in gentle terrain and are user- friendly. These tend to be favoured by wind farm developers at the present time.

During the project based around the use of WindFarm, you will have the opportunity to see MS-Micro used in conjunction with an MCP analysis of a potential wind farm site.

1.2.5 Wind Flow over Hills

1.2.5.1 Introduction

The computational models above can be used to calculate the effect of wind flowing over non-flat topography. In theory such models can calculate the wind speed at a given point in quite complex topography but need a lot of input data and a certain amount of computing time.

Generally, wind farms are placed on the top of hills to take advantage of the speed-up of the wind that occurs. This is basically due to conservation of mass flow. If you assume the upper level wind is unperturbed by the flow, then the mass flow is restricted by a hill. Therefore the „parcel‟ of wind must flow faster over the hill to conserve mass flow (see X Figure 11X). There are rough „rules of the thumb‟ that can be used to calculate the wind speed on top of geographical features (Reference 3).

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Speed-up of wind on top of hill Slow-down of wind in valley
Speed-up of wind on
top of hill
Slow-down of wind
in valley

Figure 11: CFX calculation of wind speed-up over a hill and wind slow-down in a valley.

1.2.5.2 Simple Guidelines for Wind Speed Changes Over Hills

Consider a hill as shown in XFigure 12 X with height h and half-width measured at half-height of L. An anemometer is placed on a mast at height Δz p above the ground a certain distance away from a hill on flat ground. The anemometer measures a wind speed U 0 . An estimate is required of the wind speed U T at the same height above ground at the top of the hill.

T at the same height above ground at the top of the hill. Figure 12: Hill-top

Figure 12: Hill-top for which an estimate of wind speed is required.

U t can be considered as the sum of the undisturbed wind speed U 0 plus a factor due to the effect of the hill:

U

T

z U 0 z U p p
z
U
0 z
U
p
p

T

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(18)

21

The factor due to the hill is given by:

U SU z T 0 p
U
SU
z
T
0
p

(19)

which is expressed as a speed-up factor ΔS multiplied by the undisturbed wind. The speedup factor is then expressed as:

S S
S
S

max

exp

A z p
A
z
p

and ΔS max is given ny:

as: S S max exp A z p and ΔS m a x is given ny:

max

S S max exp A z p and ΔS m a x is given ny: max

Bh / L

/

L

/ L (20)

(20)

 

(21)

where A and B are empirical constants which depend on the type of topographic feature. Approximate values are proposed in XTable 2 X.

Terrain Type

A

B

2D hills (ridges)

3.0

2.0

3D hills

4.0

1.6

2D escarpments

2.5

0.8

2D rolling terrain

3.5

1.55

3D rolling terrain

4.4

1.1

Table 2: Approximate values for A and B constants used in guideline equations for wind speed changes over topographic features.

This is only a simple guideline and assumes:

Gentle slopes (<0.35) Moderate/strong winds (>6m/s) Horizontal length scales ~1km Uniform roughness Neutral stability

1.2.6 Initial Site Assessment

Before a wind farm developer goes to the expense of erecting a mast to measure wind speed or running a numerical model to get a detailed wind map for a specific area, s/he can turn to regional wind speed maps to get an estimate of the expected wind speed over a wide area. The developer can then concentrate efforts on the area with the largest potential wind power resource. Large scale maps of wind speed have been produced for areas around the world. In the UK, the NOABL model has been used to produce a wind map on a 1km grid using data from a number of Met. Office stations (see XFigure 13X). The WAsP model has been used to transform site specific wind speed measurements at meteorological stations to regional wind speed maps known as the European Wind Atlas (see XFigure 14X).

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Figure 13: A wind speed map of the UK at 10m agl on 1 1km

Figure 13: A wind speed map of the UK at 10m agl on 1 1km grid.

Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources

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Figure 14: The European Wind Atlas. Lecture Notes for Course: ELC003 – Introduction to Renewable

Figure 14: The European Wind Atlas.

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1.3 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

1.3.1 Power Available in the Wind

The power P W in the wind flowing at right angles through an area A can be shown (see Box 1) to be proportional to the cube of the wind speed and is given by:

where

1 P AU 3 w 2 0
1
P
AU
3
w
2
0
the wind speed and is given by: where 1 P AU 3 w 2 0 is

is the density of air, and U 0 is the undisturbed wind speed.

(22)

This equation also shows that power is proportional to the density of the air, varies slightly

is proportional to the density of the air, varies slightly with height and temperature (for 15

with height and temperature (for 15 C at sea level swept area A.

height and temperature (for 15 C at sea level swept area A. = 1.225kgm - 3

= 1.225kgm -3 ), and is proportional to the

Box 1. The derivation of Power Contained in the Wind.

A parcel of air of mass m, moving with velocity U 0 has kinetic energy given by ½ mU 0 2 . If

the density of the flowing air is

by ½ mU 0 2 . If the density of the flowing air is , then

, then the kinetic energy per unit volume of air is given by

½ U 0 2 .
½
U 0 2 .

If we consider an area A perpendicular to the wind direction, as shown below, the volumetric flow rate through A is U 0 A.

U 0 A
U 0
A

The power contained in the wind is the kinetic energy of the air that flows per second through A, ie volumetric flow rate x energy per unit volume:

P

w

1
1

2

energy of the air that flows per second through A, ie volumetric flow rate x energy

AU

3

0

1.3.2 Power Fluctuations

The cubic relationship between wind speed and power has important consequences for the variability in the power output from a wind turbine. X Figure 15 X shows the variation of wind speed and corresponding power output from a 30kW wind turbine over a 5 minute period. We can see that the variations in the wind speed due to turbulence result in extremely large power fluctuations.

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Figure 15: Wind speed over a 5-minute period (measured at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) 1.3.3

Figure 15: Wind speed over a 5-minute period (measured at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)

1.3.3 Extracting Energy From the Wind

A wind turbine is a device for extracting kinetic energy from the wind. To a first approximation, only that mass of air which passes through the rotor disc is affected. If we assume that the affected mass of air remains separate from the air which does not pass through the rotor disc, a boundary can be drawn between the two. This can be extended upstream as well as downstream, XFigure 16X, forming a long stream-tube of circular cross- section.

The stream-tube is an important idea and is used as a model in deriving many important equations regarding the extraction of energy from the air. No air flows across this boundary and so the mass flow rate (i.e. the mass of air flowing through an area per second) will be the same all along the stream-tube. Therefore, as the air slows down the cross-sectional area of the stream-tube must expand to accommodate the slower moving air.

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Figure 16: Energy extracting stream-tube of a wind turbine The turbine first causes the approaching

Figure 16: Energy extracting stream-tube of a wind turbine

The turbine first causes the approaching air gradually to slow down which results in a rise in the static pressure. Across the turbine swept surface there is a drop in static pressure such that, on leaving, the air is below the atmospheric pressure level. As the air proceeds downstream the pressure climbs back to the atmospheric value causing a further slowing down of the wind. This is illustrated in X Figure 17 X.

Thus, between the far upstream and far wake conditions, no change in static pressure exists but there is a reduction in kinetic energy. The changes in velocity and pressure can be explained by considering the energy within the system via the Bernoulli equation.

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Turbine Atmospheric Pressure Distance Distance Wind Speed Pressure
Turbine
Atmospheric
Pressure
Distance
Distance
Wind Speed
Pressure

Figure 17: The pressure distribution and wind speed along the streamtube.

1.3.3.1 The Betz Limit

Wind turbines are capable of converting only a fraction of the kinetic energy contained in the wind into mechanical energy. With a wind turbine there is a wind speed change between the entry and exit of the stream tube of figure 2 for which the conversion efficiency is a maximum. The calculation of this maximum point uses the idea of an actuator disc which is a disc partially transparent to wind flow.

If there were no change in wind speed, the actuator disc is completely transparent and no energy would be extracted and the power from the wind turbine would be zero.

If all the kinetic energy of the wind were abstracted by an opaque actuator disc, the wind velocity downstream would be zero. This is clearly an impossibility since a constant mass flow must be maintained within the stream tube. Thus, a wind turbine cannot completely obstruct the flow of air, and so it can only extract a proportion of the kinetic energy from the wind.

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We define the Power Coefficient, C P , for a wind turbine as the power, P, extracted by the wind turbine divided by the power in the wind, P W contained in an area swept by the rotor if the turbine had not been there i.e.

C p

P

by the rotor if the turbine had not been there i.e. C p P P w

P

w

Substituting P W from Eq. X22X we obtain

C p

P 1 2
P
1
2

3

0

AU

(23)

(24)

The theoretical maximum fraction of wind energy that can be converted into useful energy by a wind turbine is known as the Betz Limit. This turns out to be 59.3%. The Betz Limit, was first formulated in 1919 by Albert Betz a German aerodynamicist. It applies to all types of wind turbines and represents the maximum theoretical limit of power that can be extracted from the wind. See Box 2 for its derivation.

Modern designs of wind turbines for electricity generation operate at C P values of about 0.4 although values approaching 0.5 have been reported. No wind turbine has been designed which is capable of exceeding the Betz limit. Other losses in efficiency for a real turbine arise from the aerodynamic drag on the blades, the swirl imparted to the airflow by the rotor, and power losses in the transmission and electrical systems.

The Betz limit can be derived by considering changes in energy along the stream tube and therefore uses the equation for energy conservation in fluids known as the Bernoulli equation.

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Box 2. The Derivation of the Betz Limit using Momentum theory The analysis of the
Box 2. The Derivation of the Betz Limit using Momentum theory
The analysis of the energy extraction process begins by using simple momentum theory. In
this analysis, the wind turbine aerodynamics are modelled by an actuator disc. This is a disc
which extracts energy from the wind flux by providing a resistance but not fully obstructing
the flow of air. Hence a pressure drop is developed across it.
As air velocities are relatively low, changes in air density are negligible and so the air flow
can be regarded as incompressible. Since kinetic energy has been extracted from the wind by
the turbine, the velocity is reduced, and hence the stream-lines must diverge as they pass
through the rotor disc i.e. the flow through a stream-tube containing the disc has a cross-
sectional area smaller than that of the disc upstream and an area larger than the disc
downstream. This is because the mass flow rate must be constant within the stream tube far
upstream (0), at the rotor (1) and far downstream (2), hence
MassFlowRate
A U
A U
A U
0
0
1
1
2
2
(25)
This is known as the continuity equation and is one of the fundamental equations in
aerodynamics.
We now introduce a quantity called the axial flow induction factor (or inflow factor), a, which
is defined as the fractional decrease in wind velocity from far upstream to the rotor plane i.e.
the velocity at the rotor is reduced by a factor aU 0 . Therefore a is given by
U
U
0
U
U
The air which passes through the disc undergoes an overall change in velocity, ( 0 2 )
and
the rate of change of momentum is equal to the overall change of velocity multiplied by the
mass flow rate i.e. The force along the streamline on the rotor disc is given by the rate of
change of momentum i.e.
Rateof changeof momentum (U
)
A U
(U
U
)
A (1
a)U
0
2
1
1
0
2
1
0
(27)
The force causing this change of momentum comes entirely from the pressure difference
across the actuator disc because the stream tube is otherwise entirely surrounded by air at
atmospheric pressure.

1

(1
(1
a ) U

a)U

0

or

a

U 0
U
0

U

1

(26)

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Therefore: (P 1 P )A (U U ) A (1 a)U 1 1 0 2
Therefore:
(P 1
P
)A
(U
U
)
A (1
a)U
1
1
0
2
1
0
(28)
Where
P 1 and
P 1 are the pressures on the two sides, at the disk.
We now introduce a second fundamental equation of aerodynamics, the Bernoulli Equation,
which is a restatement of the law of conservation of energy. It states that, under steady
conditions, the total energy in the flow of a fluid, comprising of kinetic energy (KE), static
pressure energy (PE) and gravitational potential energy(GE), remains constant provided no
work is done on or by the fluid. Thus for a unit volume of air:
KE + PE + GE = constant
(29)
The Bernoulli Equation is applied separately to the upstream and downstream sections of the
streamtube. Separate equations are necessary because the total energy is different up-stream
and down stream. Applying the equation upstream we obtain
1 U
2
P
gz
1
U
2
P
gz
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
(30)
where P 0 is the upstream pressure (atmospheric pressure).
z
z
)
Assuming the flow to be incompressible ( (
1
U
2 P
0
2 P
1
0
1
) and horizontal (
we obtain
2
0
0
1 2 U
1
1
(31)
Similarly downstream
1
U
2 P
2
2
2
1 2 U
1 2 P
1
(32)
where P 2 is the downstream pressure (atmospheric pressure).
Subtracting Eqs. ( X31X) and ( X32X) noting that P 0 =P 2 , we obtain
P
P
U
2
U
2
)
1
1
1 2 (
0
2
(33)
Combining equation ( X33X) with equation ( X28X) we obtain
U
(1
2a)U
2
0
(34)
This shows that half the axial speed loss in the streamtube takes place upstream of the actuator
disc and half downstream. The force on the air becomes
F
( P
P
)
A
A
2 (1
2
a U
)
2
2
A U
2
a
(1
a
)
1
1
1
1 2 U
1
0
0
1
0
(35)
As this force is concentrated at the actuator disc, the rate of work done by this force (power) is
given by force multiplied by the velocity at the disc, hence
P
FU
2
A U
a(1
a)
2
1
1
0 3
(36)

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The Power Coefficient is: P C p (37) 1 A U 3 2 1 0
The Power Coefficient is:
P
C p
(37)
1
A U
3
2
1
0
where the denominator represents the power available in the wind, in the absence of the
actuator disc, hence
C
4a(1
a)
2
p
(38)
C P can be maximised by differentiating C P with respect to a and setting equal to zero:
dC p
4(1
a)(1
3a)
0
da
(39)
1
The meaningful solution of equation ( X39X) gives a = 3 . Substituting this value of a into
equation ( X38X) gives
C
16
0.593
p
27
(40)
In practice good performance can be obtained for values of a between 0.2 and 0.5.

1.3.4 Aerodynamic Lift and the Aerofoil

When air flows over an aerofoil two forces are generated; lift and drag. Drag is measured parallel to the airflow. The lift force is measured perpendicular to the air flow and it is the lift force that gives rise to shaft torque in a wind turbine to generate power. The lift coefficient is defined as:

to generate power. The lift coefficient is defined as: The drag coefficient is defined as: (41)

The drag coefficient is defined as:

is defined as: The drag coefficient is defined as: (41) (42) where c is the chord

(41)

(42)

where c is the chord length (distance from the blade‟s leading edge to its trailing edge see XFigure 20X).

An important quantity defining how well a particular shape can extract energy from the wind is the ratio of the lift force to the drag force. For good extraction efficiency we want to maximise the lift force and minimise the drag force i.e. we require a high lift to drag ratio.

An aerofoil is a specially designed shape to generate lift forces when moving relative to a

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32

fluid. An aerofoil cross-section is shown in X Figure 18 X.

An important consequence of the Bernoulli Principle is that areas where the wind speed is high are at low pressure, whereas areas where the wind speed is low are at high pressure.

The air hitting the aerofoil flows above and below the aerofoil and meets again at the trailing edge (the sharp point at the back of the aerofoil). The air flowing over the top of the aerofoil is accelerated and this increase in speed causes a decrease in pressure. It is this pressure difference across the aerofoil which produces the lift force perpendicular to the aerofoil and is related by the equation: Lift Force = Pressure difference x Surface Area.

equation: Lift Force = Pressure difference x Surface Area. Figure 18: The Lift and Drag forces

Figure 18: The Lift and Drag forces on a stationary aerofoil

By convention the lift and drag forces are defined as being perpendicular and parallel to the wind direction (not the aerofoil).

The air moving over the aerofoil also produces a drag force in the direction of the air flow. This is an undesirable effect and is minimised as much as possible in high performance wind turbines. Both the lift and drag forces are proportional to the air density, the surface area of the aerofoil and the square of the incident wind speed.

Suppose now we allow the aerofoil to move. This motion will combine with the motion of the air to produce a relative wind direction (i.e. relative to the aerofoil) shown in XFigure 19 X. The lift and drag are perpendicular to and along the relative wind direction.

The useful work that can be extracted from the wind and turned into rotational motion of the wind turbine rotor is due to the force in the direction of the aerofoil motion, which must be maximised. The force perpendicular (i.e. in the direction of the undisturbed wind) is a loading force on the wind turbine and therefore makes no contribution to the power of the turbine and needs to be minimised.

We calculate these forces by resolving the lift and drag components into the tangential force F 1 and the force F 2 in the direction of the undisturbed wind. These forces and the overall performance of the wind turbine depend on the construction and orientation of the blades.

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Figure 19: Lift and drag forces on a moving aerofoil We therefore need to look

Figure 19: Lift and drag forces on a moving aerofoil

We therefore need to look in greater detail at the blade aerofoil geometry and define two angles:

a) The pitch angle

aerofoil geometry and define two angles: a) The pitch angle is the angle between the chord

is the angle between the chord of the blade and the plane of rotation as

shown in figure 6. The pitch angle is a static angle, depending only on the orientation of

the blade.

angle, depending only on the orientation of the blade. b) The angle of attack is the

b) The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line of the blade and the relative wind direction. It is a dynamic angle (i.e. prone to change), because it depends on both the wind speed and the speed of the rotating blade. Any given point on a rotating blade, with angular velocity , will have a speed of r, where r is the distance of that point from the hub. It is clear therefore that the angle of attack for a straight blade will vary along its length.

of attack for a straight blade will vary along its length. Figure 20: Definition of pitch
of attack for a straight blade will vary along its length. Figure 20: Definition of pitch
of attack for a straight blade will vary along its length. Figure 20: Definition of pitch

Figure 20: Definition of pitch angle

vary along its length. Figure 20: Definition of pitch angle , and angle of attack .

, and angle of attack

.
.

1.3.5 The Tangential Induction Factor

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34

We have already seen that the wind turbine blades generate lift and drag forces. We now want to know the relationship between these forces and the corresponding thrust (i.e. the axial force on the wind turbine) and the torque (i.e. the useful force in the tangential direction turning the rotor). Although the axial force has only nuisance value, it is important because it defines the strength of the blades and the support structures

Upstream of the turbine there is no tangential velocity component of the air, since the air flow is purely normal to the wind turbine. However, the forces generated cause the rotor to rotate and hence, due to the conservation of angular momentum, an equal and opposite tangential momentum in the air flow is induced. This appears as a helical wake shown in X Figure 21 X.

This appears as a helical wake shown in X Figure 21 X . Figure 21: Helical

Figure 21: Helical wake induced in the air flow.

The change in tangential velocity of the air is expressed in terms of a tangential flow induction factor a . This has a relatively minor effect on the angle of attach and is ignored in a simplified analysis.

the angle of attach and is ignored in a simplified analysis. 1.3.6 Relationship between Thrust and

1.3.6 Relationship between Thrust and Torque, and the Lift and Drag forces

With information about how the aerofoil characteristic coefficients C L and C D vary with the angle of incidence, it is now possible to determine the forces on the blades for a given values of the axial a. The axial force on the blades is equal to the rate of change of axial momentum of the wind

is equal to the rate of change of axial momentum of the wind Consider a turbine

Consider a turbine with N blades of radius R each with chord c and set pitch angle measured between the aerofoil zero lift line and the plane of the disc. Both the chord length and the pitch angle may vary along the blade span.

Let the blades be rotating at angular velocity Ω and let the wind speed be U 0 . XFigure 22X shows the velocities relative to the blade chord line at radius r.

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35

0

0

Figure 22: Blade element velocities and forces.

The resultant relative velocity W at the blade (ignoring the term a‟) is:

velocity W at the blade (ignoring the term a‟) is: which acts at an angle to

which acts at an angle

blade (ignoring the term a‟) is: which acts at an angle to the plane of rotation,

to the plane of rotation, such that

(43)

acts at an angle to the plane of rotation, such that (43) (44) and r cos(

(44)

and

r cos( ) W
r
cos( )
W

(45)

The angle of incidence

blade, L, normal to the direction of W is therefore

length on each blade, D, parallel to W is therefore length.

length on each blade, D, parallel to W is therefore length. is then given by =

is then given by

= -
=
-

The lift force per unit length on eachD, parallel to W is therefore length. is then given by = - and the drag

and the drag force per unit

D , where c is the chord

1 2
1
2

L

D

W W cC cC

1 2
1
2
per unit D , where c is the chord 1 2 L D W W cC

2

L

unit D , where c is the chord 1 2 L D W W cC cC

2

Resolving along and at right angles to the plane of rotation we obtain:

Loading force (thrust)

F 2 = L cos

Loading force (thrust) F 2 = L cos + D sin = L cos( + )

+ D sin

Loading force (thrust) F 2 = L cos + D sin = L cos( + )

= L cos(

+
+

) + D sin(

+ )
+
)

(47)

Theses are the two fundamental equations from which the loadings on the wind turbine and the torque given to the turbine rotor can be calculated for a given wind speed, rotor speed and pitch angle. F 1 represents the force turning the rotor (this force acting at a given blade radius produces a moment known as the torque) and F 2 is the axial thrust. The torque produces useful work, whereas the axial thrust will try and overturn the turbine and must be resisted by

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36

the blades, tower and foundations.

1.3.7 Relationship between the Angle of Attack and the Lift and Drag Coefficients

From X Figure 23 X it can be seen that, for angles of attack less than about 13 , the coefficient of

lift is proportional to the angle of attack,

between C L and

is proportional to the angle of attack, between C L and . It can be shown
is proportional to the angle of attack, between C L and . It can be shown

. It can be shown theoretically that the relationship

and . It can be shown theoretically that the relationship is C L = 2 .

is C L = 2

.
.

In practice C L =

a value slightly less than 2 .

a

0

2 . In practice C L = a value slightly less than 2 . a 0

, where

C L = a value slightly less than 2 . a 0 , where a 0

a

0

, called the lift-curve slope dC L , is about 0.1/degree, giving

lift-curve slope d C L , is about 0.1/degree, giving d The lift force depends on

d

The lift force depends on two parameters, the angle of attack and the relative velocity between the wind and the blades

The variation of C L and C D with the angle of attack is shown in figure 9 for a typical aerofoil. Such aerofoil characteristics are obtained from wind tunnel tests.

1.6 1.4 C L 1.2 1 C D 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -4 -2
1.6
1.4
C L
1.2
1
C D
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
Angle of Attack (Degrees)
Coefficient

Figure 23: Experimental data of the variation of the lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a particular aerofoil.

A high lift to drag ratio C L /C D is essential for a high efficiency rotor. The peak lift to drag ratio indicates the optimum value of for maximum efficiency of a turbine blade. The peak value generally occurs at values of around 4-6 .

The peak value generally occurs at values of around 4-6 . The lift and drag will
The peak value generally occurs at values of around 4-6 . The lift and drag will

The lift and drag will have optimum values for a single angle of attack only, for a given value of W. It is for this reason that wind turbine blades are twisted so as to maintain a nearly constant angle of attack from hub to tip. All modern blades of large wind turbines are twisted although some smaller blades are not because straight blades are easier and cheaper to

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produce and the cost reduction may more than offset the loss in performance.

cost reduction may more than offset the loss in performance. It can be seen that for
cost reduction may more than offset the loss in performance. It can be seen that for

It can be seen that for small values of , C L increases linearly with and C D is very small. However, for this aerofoil, at an angle of attack of about 13 there is a sudden drop in the value of C L and a sharp rise in the value of C D . This is due to sudden flow separation from the suction side of the aerofoil; this is called stall.

the suction side of the aerofoil; this is called stall. If the angle of attack exceeds

If the angle of attack exceeds a certain critical value (10° to 16°, depending on the Reynolds Number), separation of the boundary layer on the upper surface takes place. This causes a wake to form above the aerofoil, reduces the lift and increases the drag. The flow past the aerofoil has then stalled. A diagram of a stalled aerofoil is shown in X Figure 24 X. A flat plate will also develop lift but will stall at a very low angle of attack because of the sharp leading edge. Arching the plate will improve the stalling behaviour but a much greater improvement can be obtained by giving thickness to the aerofoil together with a well rounded leading edge.

to the aerofoil together with a well rounded leading edge. Figure 24: Diagram showing stalled flow

Figure 24: Diagram showing stalled flow around an aerofoil

1.3.8 Performance of a Wind Turbine

The actual performance of a wind turbine is defined by its power characteristics which are usually presented as the normalised power coefficient, C P plotted against tip speed ratio. This has the advantage of reducing a family of power-rotational speed curves to a single curve. The power coefficient will depend on the relationship between wind speed and speed of rotation of the turbine rotor. The speed of rotation for a WT ranges from a few hundred rpm for small sub-kW machines to a few tens of rpm for very large machines.

The tip speed ratio

tens of rpm for very large machines. The tip speed ratio is defined as: where Ω

is defined as:

for very large machines. The tip speed ratio is defined as: where Ω is the rotational

where Ω is the rotational speed in rads -1 , R is the rotor radius and speed.

U

(48)

0 is the undisturbed wind

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The usual method of presenting the performance of a wind turbine is through the C

The usual method of presenting the performance of a wind turbine is through the C P - curve as this gives a dimension-less graph i.e. the performance of a design will be approximately independent of the size of machine.

The performance of a typical modern three bladed turbine is given in X Figure 25 X, showing the type of losses that arise and how they contribute to the departure from the ideal. We note that the maximum value of C P is only 0.47, significantly less than the Betz limit of 0.59. The difference is caused by drag and tip losses at higher values of and stall losses at lower

values

is not reached because the rotor design will not be act as a perfect actuator disc.

the rotor design will not be act as a perfect actuator disc. . However, even if
the rotor design will not be act as a perfect actuator disc. . However, even if

. However, even if none of the above losses are included the analysis, the Betz limit

0.6 0.5 0.4 No Losses Included 0.3 Tip Losses Only All Losses Included 0.2 Stall
0.6
0.5
0.4
No Losses Included
0.3
Tip Losses Only
All Losses Included
0.2
Stall  Tip Losses 
Drag Losses
0.1
Losses
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Tip Speed Ratio
Power Coefficient

Figure 25: A C p -

Tip Speed Ratio Power Coefficient Figure 25: A C p - curve for a modern wind

curve for a modern wind turbine showing losses.

1.3.9 Wind turbine types

The simplest method of control is stall regulation. The rotor is kept at a nominally fixed speed (through the connection to the grid) and as the wind speed increases the value of falls towards zero, and so therefore does the efficiency of the rotor. In this way the output of the turbine is limited. The pitch angle of the blades does not change and so no moving parts are required. Stall regulation is also able to response to sudden changes in wind speed such as gusts. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a high starting torque and the characteristics of stall are not well understood so that at rated power there can be some degree of variation in the power output.

there can be some degree of variation in the power output. Another common method of control

Another common method of control for fixed speed turbines is to pitch the blades when the maximum output of the turbine has been reached, so as to produce a less efficient characteristic.

It should be clear from the Cp-

efficient characteristic. It should be clear from the Cp- curve that for a fixed speed rotor,

curve that for a fixed speed rotor, wind speed variations will

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give rise to variations in aerodynamic efficiency. In order to maximise the output from the turbine when it is operating below rated power, variable speed operation can be considered, aimed at keeping the operating point as near as possible to Cp max .

In practice, the rotor speed will not be able to follow all the turbulent wind speed variations. The tracking performance will depend on the nature and the rating of the electrical/power electronic connection.

Variable speed operation can also have the advantage of reducing transient drive train loads caused by turbulence. Instead of torque variations due to wind variation being felt directly by the gear box, they are smoothed to some extent through the acceleration and deceleration of the rotor inertia.

Above rated power, the most common control approach is to use blade pitch control to limit the rotor speed. This has the advantage that a fairly slow blade pitch control rate is all that is required.

Variable speed operation of stall regulated wind turbines is, in principal, possible. It is however far from straightforward and so far is not available commercially.

1.3.10 Electrical generator options

For fixed speed operation the two obvious candidate electrical machines are the synchronous generator and the asynchronous or induction generator. The advantages and disadvantages of the two in the context of wind generation, are detailed below.

synchronous generator

advantages

disadvantages: synchronising equipment required, intolerant of torque fluctuations, transient stability can be a problem

: reactive power can be controlled, high efficiency

asynchronous (induction) generator

advantages

allowed, rugged cage rotor design disadvantages: reactive power must be supplied by network

: synchronising not required, small variations in rotor speed are

Overall the ability of the induction generator to allow, through variation of slip, small changes of rotor speed which dramatically alleviate transient drive train loads means that this is the favoured choice. Indeed, synchronous machines are never used for fixed speed applications. Pole switching is sometimes employed to give two speed operation.

For variable speed operation the choice of electrical machines is basically the same, although both the cage and the wound rotor variants of the asynchronous generator are considered, and permanent magnet synchronous generators can be used in addition to the more conventional brushless machines.

Many different arrangements are possible. Wound rotor induction generators have been used with slip energy recovery (either Kramer or Scherbius arrangements). The advantage of these

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approaches is that the rating of the power electronic path can be a small fraction of the overall machine rating. This has not prevented straight application of power electronic variable speed drives to cage machines and synchronous machines. Some large multi-pole synchronous generators have been specially designed for wind turbines. When combined with a variable speed drive, it has been possible to remove the gear box from t he wind turbine altogether. DC machines are not used in wind turbines due to their cost and maintenance requirements.

Whether fixed or variable speed operation is preferable depends on a range of issues, but noise generation and power quality (related to the strength of the grid connection) are two of the most important.

1.4 Notation and Units

Symbol

Quantity

Units

U

0

Undisturbed Wind Speed Density of air = 1.225 Kgm -3

ms -1

Kgm - 3

Kgm -3

P

W

Power contained in the wind

Watts

P

Power

Watts

A

Area

m

2

m

Mass

Kg

C

P

Power Coefficient

None

a

Axial Flow Induction Factor

None

Tangential Flow Induction Factor

None

Q

Torque

Nm

Rotational Speed of Turbine Rads - 1

Rotational Speed of Turbine

Rads -1

W

Wind velocity relative to plane of rotation

ms -1

p

Pressure

Nm -2

C

L

Lift Coefficient

None

C

D

Drag Coefficient Angle of Attack Pitch Angle Angle of relative wind speed ( + )

Rotational turning force on a turbine

Drag Coefficient Angle of Attack Pitch Angle Angle of relative wind speed ( + ) Rotational

None

F 1

F

1

Degrees

Degrees

Degrees

N

 

Axial Thrust on a turbine

N

F

2

µ

Re

Viscosity

Reynolds number

kgm -1 s -1

None

c

Aerofoil Chord Length

m

1.5 References

1. Wind Structure and statistics, by U. Hassan and D M Sykes, Chapter 2 in Wind Energy Conversion Systems, ed L. L. Freris.

2. William Lloyd; Wind Resource Assessment Using Measure-Correlate-Predict Techniques; CREST MSc thesis, 1995. (available in CREST library).

3. J L Walmsley, P A Taylor, J R Salmon, Simple Guidelines for Estimating Wind Speed Variations due to Small-scale Topographic Features An Update, Climatological Bulletin 23(1), 1989, pp 3-14.

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2 Hydro Power

2.1 Energy from Water

Figure 26: The Water Cycle

Power 2.1 Energy from Water Figure 26 : The Water Cycle Ap proximately 70% of the

Approximately 70% of the Earth‟s surface is covered with water. Much of this is seawater, which is part of the water cycle. Weather patterns driven by solar energy take up water from lakes, rivers and the sea and deliver it as precipitation (rain, snow, hail etc.). A large proportion of this precipitation falls on moderate to high ground and either enters the watercourse or becomes runoff, which returns to the sea as rivers. Figure 26 shows this water cycle.

2.2 Developing a Hydropower Scheme

2.2.1 Resource and Equipment Requirement

Hydropower is the extraction of energy from water by the use of turbines to capture the downward flow of water from a high level to a low level and convert it to motive power.

Hydro electricity schemes which use the motive power to drive a generator are generally categorised as either large-scale (>5MWe) or small-scale (<5MWe). XTable 3X illustrates the typical scales with the associated head of water. The total installed capacity of large-scale schemes in the UK amounts to l,360 MWe (1.36GW) with the majority of viable schemes having already been developed.

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Table 3: Typical values of schemes

 

Output

Head

Large Scale

>5MW

50-1000m

Small scale

<5MW

10-1000m

Micro

10-100kW

5-30m

Low head

10-100kW

1-5m

A hydro scheme will consist of:

A suitable rainfall catchment area

A river with a suitable drop in level (vertical distance gives the HEAD)

A water intake above a weir or behind a dam

A pipe, channel or barrage to convey water to the turbine

A turbine, generator and electrical connection

A tailrace to return the exhaust water to the main flow.

Hydroelectric schemes extract energy from water in one of two ways, depending on the geographical location of the water source.

These are described below:

Figure 27 : Run of the River Scheme

Figure 27: Run of the River Scheme

1. Run-of-river (Figure 27) where the flow of water in the river is used directly and since there is no storage, energy can only be extracted as the flow permits. In periods of low flow, the available output is limited.

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Figure 28: Large Scale Hydro Scheme

Figure 28 : Large Scale Hydro Scheme 2. Using a dam (Figure 28) which captures and

2. Using a dam (Figure 28) which captures and stores most of the water until the energy output is needed, or until water is drawn off if the reservoir also serves as a water supply reservoir.

2.2.2 Choice of Turbine

The choice of turbine machine depends upon the head and flow available:

In hilly or mountainous areas where there is a high hydraulic head of water (perhaps up to 1000m), high-speed impulse turbines are used. impulse turbines are used.

In river valleys and low-land areas where there is less head of water (medium heads are usually less than 100m, but sometimes heads can be as low as 2-3m), high speed reaction turbines are more suitable. reaction turbines are more suitable.

High-head schemes will involve the installation of a pipe or penstock either from a reservoir or at high level above natural waterfalls. This will divert part of the river flow through an impulse turbine installed in a plant room at the lower level before being returned to the river. These schemes can incur high civil engineering costs and may require extra measures in relation to land restoration, tree screening and the preservation of visual amenity of the natural waterfall.

Medium-to-low head schemes will generally be developed near to existing weirs on rivers whereby a part of the water flow is diverted by a channel to a turbine situated on one side of the riverbank before being returned to the river at the lower level. Barrage schemes, however, will involve the installation of a turbine or pipe within the wall of the weir with the majority of the water (except in extreme flood conditions) being directed through the turbines.

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The capacity of the generation plant installed will be determined by the net head of water available, the turbine discharge rate, friction losses in any pipework and the efficiency of the turbine and generator. The energy extracted will in turn reflect the variation in flow of water throughout the year in relation to the turbine discharge capacity.

2.2.3 Environmental Considerations

Hydropower schemes need to be developed sensitively to avoid any detrimental environmental effects and would be subject to environmental controls, primarily imposed by the Environment Agency, which has responsibility for the environmental protection of watercourses in England and Wales, covering water resource management, fisheries, conservation, flood defence, navigation and recreation. In certain circumstances, other organisations, such as the Countryside Commission, also have powers of regulation. These

relate specifically to the conservation of species or habitats. Non-water related aspects, such

as buildings and transmission line construction would be regulated by the local and regional

planning authorities where appropriate. Further allowance may need to be made for environmental mitigation measures, such as replanting any ground, hedgerows and trees disturbed during construction and possible screening of any pipes or water channels installed above ground level.

It may be necessary to construct approved fish passes/ladders to allow fish migration and to

fit fish screens and/or fish guidance systems to ensure that fish are not inadvertently drawn into the water intake of the turbines installed.

It is very unlikely that a hydropower scheme will be allowed to use the entire river flow for

generation. A portion of the flow, termed the compensation flow will need to by-pass the turbines to maintain the ecology and aesthetic appearance of the river, to keep the river bed wetted over the majority of its width, and to maintain a visible flow over any waterfalls or weirs. Hydropower schemes can have a beneficial effect in that they aerate the water passing through them and increase the quantity of air in the water downstream. It may be necessary to make some provision to reduce noise levels if water channels or turbines are installed in near proximity to occupied premises.

There are potential drawbacks to some schemes, particularly when the impounding of water behind a dam leads to flooding of a valley. This will affect farming, industry, forestry, wildlife etc as well as displace population. The latter often leads to social and cultural decline of the population involved. There are many examples of population displacement but the largest impact is that of the Three Gorges scheme in China which will involve over one million people. One of the case studies examines the Three Gorges scheme in detail.

2.2.4 Basic Calculation of Energy

Imagine that we wish to raise one litre of water through a vertical height of one metre. The energy or work required to do this is given by the equation

Energy = mgH Joule

m = mass of water

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 ms -2

(49)

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H = vertical lift in metres V= volume of water = density of water in kgm -3

in metres V= volume of water = density of water in kgm - 3 Since the

Since the mass of one litre of water is given by V

for fresh water and for sea water

of water is given by V for fresh water and for sea water is about 1000
of water is given by V for fresh water and for sea water is about 1000

is about 1000 kgm -3 (or as 1m 3 = 1000 litres, is about 1025 kgm -3 (1.025 kgl -1 )

litres, is about 1025 kgm - 3 (1.025 kgl - 1 ) = 1.00 kgl -

= 1.00 kgl -1 )

Then we can say that the energy to raise our litre of water is either

say that the energy to raise our litre of water is either mgH or V gH

mgH or V gH

That is

1/1000*1000*9.81*1 = 9.81 Joules

This simple calculation is fundamental to calculated energy from, water flow, be it related to hydro or tidal power generation. It enables us to calculate how much energy is available in a reservoir, hydro scheme or tidal barrage.

For example, if we know that a reservoir holds 25,000 cubic metres of water at a height of 17 metres above a river then the amount of energy needed to lift the water into the reservoir is calculated using:

V

to lift the water into the reservoir is calculated using: V gH = 25,000 * 1000

gH = 25,000 * 1000 * 9.81 * 17

= 4169250000 Joules or 4.169 GJ

This energy needed to fill the reservoir with water may have come from rainfall in the catchment area filling the reservoir or it may have come from pumping water during times of surplus energy to use the reservoir as an energy storage system.

Whatever the means of the water entering the reservoir, the exploitation of the potential energy stored in the reservoir is the same. The water is allowed to flow from the reservoir through pipes to a turbine. The passage of water causes the turbine to spin, and this in turn drives an electrical generator at several hundred rpm to generate electricity. The overall process is reasonably efficient provided the following: the pipes are internally smooth, without too many bends and have large enough diameters, the turbine is correctly chosen as the right type and specification to suit the head and flow, and the generator is of high efficiency. If all of these conditions are satisfied, then net efficiencies of 80-90% are achievable.

2.2.5 Calculation of Power

We talked about the energy needed to raise one litre of water by one metre. If we release this water at a flow rate of Q m 3 s -1, then the water power, P, is given by

Power = Q gH

Power = Q gH

(50)

So, for example, if we release all of our water in one second, then the flow would be 1ls -1 or

1

1000

m 3 s -1

and

the power would then be

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46

1

1000

* 1000* 9.81*1

= 9.81 Watts

Of course, this power would only last for one second before we ran out of water.

On a more realistic scale, if we release the water from our reservoir at five cubic metres per second (a cubic metre per second is often called a cumec), then the water power would be 5* 1000* 9.81* 17 = 833850 Watts

2.2.6 A Typical Run of River Scheme

A

typical scheme is illustrated in X Figure 29 X. The water supply to the turbine is first collected

at

a weir and carried along a channel with little loss of head into a forebay or holding tank.

The penstock then delivers the water under pressure to the turbine. After passing through the turbine, the water returns to the river course via the tailrace. Inside the penstock, the water

2 ). At the end of the penstock,

loses potential energy (mgH) and gains kinetic energy (

we can equate potential and kinetic energies if we assume that there has been no loss of energy in the pipe.

0.5mv

that there has been no loss of energy in the pipe. 0.5 mv (51) and so

(51)

and so we can calculate the velocity of the water leaving the pipe at its lower end as

v 2gH
v
2gH

(52)

Figure 29: A typical run-of-river hydro scheme.

v 2gH (52) Figure 29: A typical run-of-river hydro scheme. A plan view of a scheme

A plan view of a scheme is shown in X Figure 30 X, and this raises some important practical

issues. Note the inclusion of spillways and silt basins. The variability of rivers in mountainous regions can be very great and in periods of extreme flood, the flow can be ten or one hundred times the average flow. These high flows will carry boulders in addition to the sand/grit that is normally contained in a rapidly flowing river. Obviously, the grit can damage

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47

turbine blades and so silt basins are incorporated in the scheme to avoid it reaching the turbine. The larger boulders and other debris are carried downstream at the weir and do not enter the channel. A trash rack is generally employed to prevent floating items such as logs from entering the penstock.

floating items such as logs from entering the penstock. Figure 30: Civil Works of a Run

Figure 30: Civil Works of a Run of a River Scheme

2.3 The Measurement of Head

2.3.1 Why is the measurement of Head Important?

The gross head is the vertical distance that the water falls through in generating power, i.e. between the upper and lower water surface levels. This is shown in Figure 31.

The power generated from a hydropower scheme is given by

Where:

power generated from a hydropower scheme is given by Where: (53) is the „water to wire‟

(53)

is the „water to wire‟ efficiency –typically (70-80% for a small scheme) is the density
is the „water to wire‟ efficiency –typically (70-80% for a small scheme)
is the density of water (1000kg/m 3 )
g is acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s 2 )

Q

is the flow through the turbine (m 3 /s)

H

is the Net Head (m) i.e. including head losses

Therefore, we can see that the power is proportional to the head and the flow. In general, the physical size, and hence to a large extent cost, of the turbine is governed by its design flow, rather than the hydraulic head. For example, a 100kW scheme at 300m head will require

about 40litres/s whilst at 3m head will require a flow of 4,200litres/s (assuming 80% efficiency).

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Therefore, it is clear that a high head scheme is preferable to a low head scheme and head is, generally speaking, more important than flow (although clearly flow is also important!).

The revenue generated by a scheme is proportional to the energy capture which is proportional to the head. Therefore, an accurate measurement of the head is essential to predict the annual energy capture from a scheme. This measurement is particularly critical for low head schemes.

Figure 31: The hydraulic head

Figure 31: The hydraulic head

2.3.2 The Variation of Head with Flow

It is found with many low head sites that the weir can literately disappear under flood conditions. This gives rise to the paradoxical situation of generating no power at all at very high flows since the head becomes low or disappears. There is generally a decrease in head at high flows since the tailrace tends to rise at a faster rate that the headrace. The variation of head with flow will depend on the actual geometry of the weir and river system.

This loss of head with increased flow, and hence loss of power at high flows, must be taken into account when estimating the annual energy capture at a potential site, otherwise the annual energy capture could be significantly lower than predicted. However, this problem will generally only be significant on low head schemes .

XFigure 32 X shows an actual measured head-flow data from the Dulverton site. We can see that at very low flows, which are usual during the summer months the gross head is about 3.4m. However, as the flow increases we can see that the level of the tailrace rises to a greater extent than the headrace and for the majority of the time the head is between about 3.2 and 2.8m. At high flows (say greater than 15m 3 /s) the tailrace begins to rise very quickly and under flood conditions the tailrace comes up almost to the weir crest and the weir itself is hardly visible anymore.

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Head-Flow Curve for a Small-Scale Hydropower Scheme

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
Gross Head (m)

Flow (m3/s)

Figure 32: Variation of head with flow for the low head site at Dulverton.

2.3.3 Estimation of Net Head

Having established the gross head available, it is necessary to allow for the losses arising from trash racks, pipe friction, bends and valves. In addition to these, certain types of turbine must be set to discharge to atmosphere above the flood level of the tail race and therefore all

of the head cannot be utilised

the head available to drive the turbine.

The gross head minus all these losses is the net head, which is

2.3.3.1 Pipe Losses

The greater the water velocity in the pipe, the higher the frictional losses. In general, assuming the pipe is flowing full, the head lost (h f ) is given by:

Where

Lv h f 2gD
Lv
h f
2gD

(54)

L = length of pipe (m)

v

= mean velocity in the pipe

g

= the gravitational constant = 9.81m 2 /s

D = pipe diameter (m)

pipe friction factor, which depends on the roughness of the internal pipe surface, the pipe diameter and the flow velocity.

=
=

It should be noted that the head losses due to pipe friction increases with increased velocity and decreases with the pipe diameter. However, it should also be noted that as D increases v will decrease for a given flow (since Q = ( D 2 /4)v).

v will decrease for a given flow (since Q = ( D 2 /4)v). Lecture Notes

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Therefore, the frictional losses will be strongly dependent on the diameter of pipe used to transport the water from intake to powerhouse.

2.3.3.2 Turbulence Losses

Water velocity is an important parameter in frictional losses; it is also critical in the turbulence losses associated with trash racks, pipe bends, sudden enlargement or contraction of pipes, valves etc. These losses are denoted by h t and are given by the general equation:

K v 2 h t 2g
K v
2
h
t
2g

(55)

In this way we can quantify the value of K for each loss in the components which will impede water flow (e.g. trash rack, bends etc.). We can then simply add all the losses together and arrive at a total loss of head and hence calculate the net head.

Other losses such as pipe

bends and valves which maybe placed in a system are also of great importance but are not covered here.

Here we will only deal with turbulence losses by the trash rack.

2.3.3.3 Head Loss at a Trash Rack

For the loss of head due to the flow of water through a trash rack is calculated from a formula by Kirchmer.

h

t

from a formula b y K i r c h m e r . h t

K(t / b)

4 3
4
3

2

(v / 2g)sin

0

K i r c h m e r . h t K(t / b) 4 3

(56)

Where

h t = head loss (m)

t

= bar thickness (mm)

b

= width between bars (mm)

v

o = approach velocity (m/s)

g

= the gravitational constant = 9.81m 2 /s

= the gravitational constant = 9.81m 2 /s

=angle of inclination from the horizontal

XFigure 33X illustrates the parameters v 0 and in Equation 4. It should be noted that as the

angle of inclination

is decreased, i.e. the bars become more horizontal, the effective surface

i.e. the bars become more horizontal, the effective surface area will increase and hence the water
i.e. the bars become more horizontal, the effective surface area will increase and hence the water

area will increase and hence the water velocity perpendicular to the trash rack will decrease.

This will significantly reduce the overall frictional losses due to the trash rack.

XFigure 33 X also shows a range of K values for different types of bars that can be used in construction of the trash rack. It can be seen that a significant improvement in head loss can be made by using round or profiled bars.

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Figure 33 : The head loss through a trash rack. Source: [ESHA 1994]. 2.3.4 Turbine

Figure 33: The head loss through a trash rack. Source: [ESHA 1994].

: The head loss through a trash rack. Source: [ESHA 1994]. 2.3.4 Turbine Setting Losses As

2.3.4 Turbine Setting Losses

As we shall see in the next unit, turbines are fundamentally of two kinds, impulse and reaction. In the former case (e.g. Pelton and Turgo) the flow converts all of its kinetic energy into power through jets striking buckets or blades. The spent water then flows away at atmospheric pressure. Accordingly the turbine itself must be kept clear of the tailwater which would otherwise exert a drag on the turbine wheel if a small part of the turbine was submerged. It is therefore necessary to keep the turbine above the highest flood level.

However, this clearly means that some of the available head cannot be utilised. This loss of head is referred to as the turbine setting loss and must be added to the other minor losses to determine the true net head on a reaction turbine. This is shown schematically in Figure 34. Note that this loss does not occur with reaction turbines which operate fully submerged.

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Figure 34: Setting-loss on an impulse turbine

Figure 34: Setting-loss on an impulse turbine

To summarise, all losses with the exception of setting losses are strongly influenced by the water velocity. A general principle is “slow moving water is good”. Keep water velocities low. However, there will clearly be a compromise between reducing velocities and cost since, for example, large diameter pipes are more expensive. In general the velocity of water in pipes should be between 1 and 3m/s. However, an iterative process should yield an optimum solution between minimising losses and the extra cost involved.

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2.4 The Flow Duration Curve

From Eq. X50 X we have seen that the two critical parameters in determining the potential power from a site are the hydraulic head and the flow in the river. However, the flow in the river will tend to vary, and often substantially vary, on a day by day basis. It is of great importance to know what kind of variation there is over a year period. This data is often shown in the form of a flow duration curve. This can be determined:

the form of a flow duration curve. This can be determined: By purchasing flow data from

By purchasing flow data from the Environment Agency Using a software package such as HydrA Measuring the flow yourself

2.4.1 Variation of Flow Over a Year

The flow in a given river will vary greatly throughout the year, generally having high values during the winter months and low values during the summer months in Europe. In general, a small scale hydropower scheme in the UK correctly sized will not be expected to have sufficient water to run continuously throughout the summer months.

XFigure

35 X

shows the

mean daily flow

for the river Barle in Somerset

for the particular year

1980 from January through to December. We can make the following observations:

1. For a couple of months in the summer the flow dropped to very low values, less than 1m 3 /s.

2. The river flooded (over 20m 3 /s for this river) on several occasions.

3. The river level tends to rise fairly quickly but this level reduces gradually i.e. there is a sharp “leading edge” followed by a slow decay. This is a general characteristic of all rivers.

Mean Daily Flow on River Barle (Somerset) Jan - Dec for 1980

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Flow m3/s
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Flow m3/s

Figure 35: The mean daily flow on the river Barle at Dulverton (Somerset) in 1980.

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Since the flow is continually varying we require some method of representing and quantifying this variation. The usual form that this data is presented is in a flow duration curve and is explained below.

2.4.2 What is a Flow Duration Curve?

A flow duration curve represents the flow as a function of percentage of time that a flow is

exceeded. This is best explained by looking at an example. The flow duration curve in XFigure 36 X is generated by the computer program HydrA.

The Y-axis is the flow in m 3 /s and the X-axis is „percentage exceedance probability‟. For example, from this graph we can see that a flow of 0.5m 3 /s is exceeded about 95% of the time, a flow of 2.41m 3 /s is exceeded 50% of the time, the mean flow is 4.83m 3 /s which is exceeded just under 30% of the time, and flows of more than 20m 3 /s are exceeded about 1%

of the time.

This particular FDC is for a rather “flashy river” in Somerset, England. By the term “flashy” we mean that the river is prone to large variations in flow and the river level can rise very quickly in a short period of time.

river level can rise very quickly in a short period of time. Figure 36: A typical

Figure 36: A typical flow duration curve calculated from HydrA

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2.4.3 Q-Values

When we refer to the percentage of time that a flow is exceeded we called it a “Q-value”

For example the flow which is exceeded 95% of the time is referred to as the Q 95 value. The flow which is exceeded 40% of the time is called the Q 40 value etc. Clearly the lower the Q- value the higher the flow e.g. the Q 10 flow will be much greater than the Q 95 flow.

Historically in the UK several Q-values have had particular significance.

Q 95

In general, a reserve flow imposed on a particular hydropower site was historically set at Q 95 i.e. the licensing authority in the UK (previously the National River Authority, now the

Environment Agency) would insist that a flow equal to the Q 95 value must remain in the river at all times. That is to say this amount of water would not to available to the hydropower scheme but must remain flowing over the weir (for example) at all times when natural flows allow. This restriction was perfectly reasonable and ensured that a minimum level of water remained in the river to allow fish passage and protected wildlife.

However, this simple rule appears not be relevant anymore and more stringent and more complex restrictions are often imposed by the Environment Agency.

Q 40

Since the flow in a river is continuously varying, the determination of the optimum size of turbine for a particular site is not trivial. A large turbine will give a higher maximum power,

but will only operate at full power on a small number of days. Conversely a very small turbine will operate throughout most of the year but will not be able to take advantage of the larger potential power capture at higher flows.

Clearly there will be an optimum somewhere between the two. It was found that, in general, taking a turbine design flow equal to the Q 40 value would give a solution close to this optimum (assuming a Q 95 reserve flow). However, since more complex abstraction regimes are being imposed on developers and the fact that the economics of small scale hydropower is generally more difficult, this is no longer really satisfactory.

2.5 Glossary

Compensation flow: water flow that does not pass through the turbine, usually to maintain some flow in the river or over a weir. Control System: controls the speed of the turbine or the electrical output. Draft tube: a gently increasing diameter tube returning water to the river but recovering some energy from it. Forebay: a tank or area where water enters the penstock. Gearbox: changes speed between turbine and generator (not always needed). Generator: produces electricity due to the rotation of the attached turbine. Guide vanes: direct the flow of water onto turbine blades. Leat: a channel that conveys water in open flow i.e. the water is not under pressure. Penstock: a pipe that conveys water under pressure.

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Runner: the rotating part of a turbine that includes the turbine blades. Settling tank or area: allows sediment to sink under gravity rather than entering the penstock and turbine. Spillway: allows excess water to return to the river. Tailwater/tailrace: water leaving the turbine to return to the river. Trashrack: a crude filter to avoid rubbish entering the turbine. Turbine: device-extracting energy from the flow of water. Weir: an artificial waterfall.

2.6 Introduction to Water Turbines

2.6.1 The Development of Water Turbines

In 1832, a French Engineer, Benoit Fourneyron, patented a more efficient water-wheel: in fact, this was the first successful water turbine. The novelty of Fourneyron's design was the vertical axis, the use of guide vanes to direct the water radially outwards onto the runner blades and the fact that the turbine functions completely submerged. The turbine operates because of the reaction of the runner blades. Machines of this type are termed Reaction Turbines. All these features lead to a large flow of water through the turbine, through many guide vanes, and hence a large power capacity, with conversion efficiencies of up to 80%. The runner rotates at high speed and so can be readily used for electrical generation. Having given up its energy, the water falls away into the outflow. The power is controlled by raising or lowering a ring between the guide vanes and the rotor blades.

Another water wheel where it is possible to apply multiple streams or jets of water is the Pelton Wheel (Pelton Wheel Turbine), named after the American Lester Pelton, who patented the concept in 1880.

reservoi

reservoi head Spear valve deflecto runner Figure 37 : Typical arrangement for a Pelton Wheel.
head Spear valve deflecto
head
Spear valve
deflecto
reservoi head Spear valve deflecto runner Figure 37 : Typical arrangement for a Pelton Wheel.

runner

Figure 37: Typical arrangement for a Pelton Wheel.

Figure 37 shows the typical arrangement for a Pelton Wheel. The water feeding the wheel is at high pressure due to the head of hundreds of metres, and it is directed onto the buckets at high velocity through a jet. In this case, we are not concerned with capturing energy from the fact that the water loads one side of the wheel and causes it to rotate but we are able to capture the kinetic energy from the impulse of the water jet on the blades. Hence the generic term of Impulse Turbine for this kind of turbine. The water will give up most of its energy to the buckets and

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therefore drive them at high speed. The difficulty of limited space for water flow can be overcome in the Pelton by using two jets instead of one. This can be further extended to three or four jets to accommodate greater flow.

Another American engineer, James Francis, experimented with inward flow radial machines and this resulted in the modern machines known as Francis turbines which have supplanted the Fourneyron design because of the advantage of collecting the tailwater in the centre and allowing it to exit under gravity. Francis turbines generally operate in the mid pressure range, that is, somewhat lower pressures or heads than the Pelton turbines. Lower pressure reaction turbines have axial flow with large flow cross sections and resemble a ship propeller.

2.6.2 Specific Speed

The speed of the runner blade relative to the water striking it is critical for the efficiency of the turbine. Propeller type turbines run best when their blade tips move faster than the water. In the case of the Kaplan, the blades should move at twice the water velocity, whereas the skirted Francis is most efficient when the two speeds are roughly equal. The Pelton theoretically performs best when its blades are moving at half the water velocity.

When selecting a turbine for a specific situation, factors like head, flow and power must all be considered, but a valuable tool for selecting the most appropriate turbine type is specific speed (N s ). This is related to the output power (P in kW), effective head (H in metres) and rotational speed (n revolutions per minute).

N

s

P n H 5 / 2
P
n
H
5 / 2

(57)

The turbine rotational speed is dictated by the generator speed, and would usually have to be adequate to drive the generator at 1500 or 3000 rpm (with the appropriate number of pole pairs 2 and 1 respectively in these cases) through a gearbox.

Equally, the specific speed can be calculated from the equation,

where

r = radius of water jet or flow R = radius of runner

v

v

B

W

= velocity of blade

= velocity of water

N

s

runner v v B W = velocity of blade = velocity of water N s 500(

500(

v

r

R

v

W

)(

B

)

(58)

)

velocities that govern the specific speed and hence lead to the choice of turbine type. The size of the turbine will be determined by the power requirements. Table 4 shows the specific speed ranges for different types of turbine.

Essentially, then, it is the ratios of water/blade ( r / R ) radii and blade/water (

v

B

/

v

W

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Type of Turbine

Specific speed range

Pelton

one jet