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Physiology and Behaviour Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain (for example, Wernicke, Broca,

Gazzaniga and Sperry).

Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour (for example, the effect of noradrenaline on depression).

Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour.

Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes (for example, effects of jet lag on bodily rhythms, effects of deprivation on neuroplasticity, effects of environmental stressors on reproductive mechanisms). Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour (for example, agnosia, anosognosia, prosapagnosia, amnesia). Evaluate two relevant studies.

Sperry 1968 - Test done on patients who had corpus callosum severed to treat epilepsy Corpus callosum communication between the 2 hemispheres. There are separate visual perception and memory storages for each hemisphere Specifics can be mapped out (e.g. the right hemisphere can solve maths equations Neuron These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. There are also several different types of neurons responsible for different tasks in the human body. Neurotransmitters A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that carries, boosts and modulates signals between neurons and other cells in the body. The effects of Acetylcholine (ACh) on memory Martinez and Kesner (1991) The effects of serotonin on aggression Higley (1996) Hormones Hormones are chemicals that carry messages from organs of your body to your cells. The glands that secrete hormones are part of the endocrine system (e.g. pituitary, thyroid, adrenals and pancreas) and work in large part to keep the bodys natural balance in check. adrenaline fight or flight oxytocin the love hormone melatonin sleep patterns Reticular Formation This part of the brain acts like a firewall it filters the messages from the environment, focussing only on the ones that would have an effect on sleep. E.g. if it is day or night These external messages are called ZEITGEBER The effects of jet lag on bodily rhythms The effects of shift work upon physiological processes

Amnesia is the partial or total loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact. Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone is unable to recall events that occurred before the development of the amnesia. Clive Wearing H.M.

Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, PET, fMRI) in investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour.

CAT - monitors glucose metabolism in brain via injection of radioactive glucose Can record on-going activity like thinking during a task PET Raine et al. (1997) - Brain abnormalities in murderers (see worksheet) fMRI provides 3D image of brain Easier to carry out compared to PET Higher resolution than PET Cannot record on-going activity - just snapshots Twin studies and concordance rates Christiansen 1977 - studied 3586 sets of Danish Twins looking at criminal behaviour. findings concordance rates monozygotic male twins had a concordance rate of 35 % Dizygotic male twins had a concordance rate of 13%. the female monozygotic twins was significantly lower with only 21 % 8% in the female dizygotic twins. This study of Christiansen indicates that there may be some genetic factors in criminal behaviour. However, since the concordance rates were that low other factors could play a significant role. Crime Darwin Darwinism holds that evolution is the product of an ongoing struggle of species to better adapt to their environment. Individual specimen that best adapted survived to reproduce and replace less-suited individuals. This phenomenon was dubbed "survival of the fittest", or natural selection. In this way, Darwin believed that traits of maximum adaptiveness were transferred to future generations of the animal population. Fessler (2006) - Pregnancy disgust Curtis et al. (2004) online questionnaire Labelling / self-fulfilling prophecy an alternative to reasons for criminal/violent behaviour Genetic research designer babies debate, saviour siblings, Eugenics and Stem cell research.

Genetics and Behaviour With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour?

Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour.

Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour. General Learning Outcomes Outline principles that Patterns of behaviour can be inherited define the biological level of analysis. Animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour Cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). Patterns of behaviour can be inherited criminal behaviour - Ishikawa and Raine (2002) Animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour Ralph (1990), Martinez and Kesner (1991), Higley (1996) Cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems Higley (1996), Valzelli & Bernasconi (1979)

Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis (for example, experiments, observations, correlational studies). Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis

Experiments Interviews Observations Correlational studies Field Case Studies Meta-analysis Make reference to studies DDCCPPW Why are they important?