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Let {Xk } be a discrete-time stochastic process which takes on values in a countable set S, called the state space. {Xk } is called a Discrete-time Markov chain (or simply a Markov chain, when the discrete nature of the time index is clear) if P (Xk = ik | Xk1 = ik1 , Xk2 = ik2 , . . .) = P (Xk = ik | Xk1 = ik1 ), where ij S. A Markov chain is said to be time homogeneous, if P (Xk = i | Xk1 = j) is independent of k. We will only consider time-homogeneous Markov chains here. Associated with each Markov chain is a matrix called the probability transition matrix, denoted by P, whose (i, j)th element is given by Pij = P (xk = j | xk1 = i). Let p[k] denote a row vector of probabilities with pj [k] = P (Xk = j). This vector of probabilities evolves according to the equation p[k] = p[k 1] P. Thus, p[0] and P capture all the relevant information about the dynamics of the Markov chain. The following questions are important in the study of Markov chains: Does there exist a so that = P ? If such a exists, it is called a stationary distribution. If there exists a unique stationary distribution, does limk p[k] = for all p[0]? In other words, does the distribution of the Markov chain converge to the stationary distribution starting from any initial state? While the existence of a unique stationary distribution is desirable in the applications studied in these notes, not all Markov chains have a unique steady-state distribution. We will rst present an example of Markov chain which does not have a stationary distribution and then another example where a a stationary distribution exists but the probability distribution over the states does not converge to the stationary distribution in steady-state. Motivated by these examples, we will impose some conditions to guarantee the existence of a stationary distribution to which the Markov chain converges in steady state. Example 1 Consider a trivial two-state Markov chain with states a and b such that the chain remains in the state for time slots k 0. Thus, the transition probability matrix for this Markov 1 0 chain is given by P = . Therefore, P = is true for any distribution and the 0 1 stationary distribution is not unique. The Markov chain in this example is such that if it started in one state, then it remained in the same state forever. In general, Markov chains where one state cannot be reached from some other state will not possess a unique stationary distribution. The above example motivates the following denitions.

n Denition 1 Let Pij = P (Xk+n = j | Xk = i). n 1. State j is said to be reachable from state i, if there exists n 1 so that Pij > 0.

2. A Markov chain is said to be irreducible if a state i is reachable from any other state j.

In these notes, we will mostly consider Markov chains that are irreducible. The Markov chain in Example 1 was not irreducible. Example 2 Again let us consider a two-state Markov chain with two states a and b. The Markov chain behaves as follows: if it is in state a at the current time-slot, then it jumps to b at the next time-slot and vice-versa. Thus, 0 1 P = . 1 0 The stationary distribution is obtained by solving P = which gives = (1/2 1/2) . However, the system does not converge to this stationary distribution starting from any initial condition. To see this, note that if p[0] = (1 0), then p[1] = (0 1) , p[2] = (1 0) , p[3] = (0 1) , p[4] = (1 0) , . . .. Therefore limk p[k] = . The reason that this Markov chain does not converge to the stationary distribution is due to the fact that the state periodically alternated between a and b. Motivated by the above example, the following denitions lead up to the classication of a Markov chain as being either periodic or aperiodic. Denition 2 The following denitions classify Markov chains and their states as periodic or aperiodic: 1. State i is said to have a period di 1 if di is the greatest integer such that Pii (n) 0 if n is not a multiple of di . If Pii = 0 n, we say that di = . 2. State i is said to be aperiodic if di = 1. 3. A Markov chain is said to be aperiodic if all states are aperiodic.

(n)

Lemma 1 Every state in an irreducible Markov chain has the same period. Thus, in an irreducible Markov chain, if one state is aperiodic, then the Markov chain is aperiodic. The Markov chain in Example 2 was not aperiodic. The following theorem states that Markov chains which do not exhibit the type of behavior illustrated in the examples possess a steady-state distribution to which the distribution converges, starting from any initial state. Theorem 1 A nite state space, irreducible Markov chain has a unique stationary distribution and if it is aperiodic, limk p[k] = , p[0].

Example 3 The following example illustrates the computation of the steady-state distribution of a Markov chain. Consider a two-state Markov chain with the state space {a, b, c}. If the Markov chain is in state a, it switches from the current state to one of the other two states, each with probability 1/4, or remains in the same state. If it is in state b, then it switches to state c with probability 1/2 or remains the same state. If it is in state c, it switches to state a with probability 1. Thus, 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 . P = 0 1 0 0 This Markov chain is irreducible since it can go from any state to any other state in nite time with non-zero probability. Next, note that there is a non-zero probability of remaining in state a if (n) the Markov chain starts in state a. Therefore, Paa > 0 for all n and state a is aperiodic. Since the Markov chain is irreducible, this implies that all the states are aperiodic. Thus, the nite-state Markov chain is irreducible and aperiodic, which implies the existence of a stationary distribution to which the probability distribution converges starts from any initial distribution. To compute the stationary distribution , we solve the equation = P, where = (a b c ) , subject to the constraint a + b + c = 1 and a , b , c 0 to obtain = (1/2 1/4 1/4) . If the state space is innite, the existence of a stationary distribution is not guaranteed even if the Markov chain is irreducible as the following example illustrates. Example 4 Let the state space be the set of integers, and dene the Markov chain as follows: Xk+1 = Xk + 1 w. p. 1/3, = Xk 1 w. p. 1/3, = Xk w. p. 1/3. It is easy to verify that this Markov chain is irreducible and aperiodic with probability transition matrix: ... 0 1/3 1/3 1/3 0 0 0 1/3 1/3 1/3 0 0 . P = 0 0 0 0 0 1/3 1/3 1/3 0 ... If a stationary distribution exists, it has to satisfy = P, which can be rewritten as 1 1 1 k = k1 + k + k+1 , 3 3 3 Thus, we have to solve for {k } that satisfy 2k = k1 + k+1 ,

k.

k = 1

k=

k 0,

k.

We will now show that we cannot nd a distribution that satises the above set of equations. Towards this end, note that 2 = 21 0 3 = 22 1 = 2(21 0 ) 1 = 31 20 4 = 61 40 21 + 0 = 41 30 . . . k = k1 (k 1)0 = k(1 0 ) + 1 , k 2 Thus,

then k = 1 , k 2 and

k=0

k > 1,

A little thought shows that the last statement is also true for k < 0. Thus, a stationary distribution cannot exist. Example 4 illustrates that the need for more conditions beyond aperiodicity and irreducibility to ensure the existence of stationary distributions in countable state space Markov chains. Towards this end, we introduce the notion of recurrence and related concepts. Denition 3 The following denitions classify the states of a Markov chain as recurrent or transient: 1. The recurrence time Ti of a Markov chain is dened as Ti = min{n 1 : Xn = i given X0 = i.} (Note that Ti is a random variable.) 2. A state i is said to be recurrent if P (Ti < ) = 1. Otherwise, it is called transient. 3. The mean recurrence time Mi of state i is dened as Mi = E[Ti ]. 4. A recurrent state i is called positive recurrent if Mi < . Otherwise, it is called null recurrent. 5. A Markov chain is called positive recurrent if all of its states are positive recurrent. The next two lemmas and theorem are stated without proof.

Lemma 2 Suppose {Xk } is irreducible and one of its states is positive recurrent, then all of its states are positive recurrent. (The same statement holds if we replace positive recurrent by null recurrent or transient.)

1 Lemma 3 If state i of a Markov chain is aperiodic, then limk pi [k] = Mi . (This is true whether or not Mi < and even for transient states by dening Mi = when state i is transient.)

Theorem 2 Consider a time-homogeneous Markov chain is irreducible and aperiodic. Then, the following results hold: If the Markov chain is positive recurrent, then there exists a unique so that = P and 1 limk p[k] = . Further i = Mi . If there exists a positive vector such = P and i i = 1, then it must be the stationary distribution and limk p[k] = . (From Lemma 3, this also means that the Markov chain is positive recurrent.) If there exists a positive vector such that = P and distribution does not exist and limk pi [k] = 0 for all i.

i i

The following example is an illustration of the application of the above theorem. Example 5 Consider a simple model of a wireless link where, due to channel conditions, either one packet or no packet can be served in each time slot. Let s[k] denote the number of packets served in time slot k and suppose that s[k] are i.i.d. Bernoulli random variables with mean . Further, suppose that packets arrive to this wireless link according to a Bernoulli process with mean ,, i.e., a[k] is Bernoulli with mean where a[k] is the number of arrivals in time slot k and a[k] are i.i.d. across time slots. Assume that a[k] and s[k] are independent processes. We specify the following order in which events occur in each time slot: We assume that any packet arrival occurs rst in the time slot, followed by any packet departure. Packets that are not served in a time slot are queued in a buer for service in a future time slot. Let q[k] be the number of packets in the queue at time slot k. Then q[k] is a Markov chain and evolves according to the equation q[k + 1] = (q[k] + a[k] s[k])+ . We are interested in the steady-stated distribution of this Markov chain. The Markov chain can be pictorially depicted as in Figure 5 where the circles denote the state of the Markov chain (the number of packets in the queue) and the arcs denote the possible transitions with the number on an arc denoting the probability of that transition occurring. For example, Pi,i+1 , the probability that

[htb] Figure 1: Example of a Discrete-time Markov chain. (This gure is missing, we have drawn such a gure many times in class.) the number of packets in the queue increases from i to i + 1 from one time slot to the next is equal the probability that there was an arrival but no departure in the time slot. Thus, Pi,i+1 = (1 ). Similarly, Pii for i > 0 is equal to the probability of no arrival and no departure or one arrival and one one departure in a time slot and thus, Pii = + (1 )(1 ). On the other hand, P00 is simply the probability of no arrival which is equal to 1 . If i > 0, then Pi,i1 = 1 Pii Pi,i+1 . To compute , we have to solve for = P which can be written explicitly as i = i1 Pi1,i + i Pii + i+1 Pi+1,i , 0 = 0 P00 + 1 P10 . The above equations have a simple interpretation: the steady-state probability of being in i is equal to sum of the probability of being in state i in the previous time-slot multiplied by the probability of continuing in the same state and the probability being in another state and making a transition to state i. The above set of equations should be augmented with the constraint i i = 1 to solve for . Using the fact Pii + Pi,i1 + Pi,i+1 = 1, a little thought shows that if we nd that satises i Pi,i+1 = i+1 Pi+1,i , then it also solves (1). Thus, i+1 = which implies i = Since

i0 i

i>0

(1)

i,

(1 ) i , (1 )

i

(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 )

0 .

i

(2)

= 1, we obtain

0

i=0

= 1.

(1) (1)

Thus, the stationary distribution is completely characterized. If , then let 0 = 1 and from (2), it is clear that i i = . Thus, from Theorem 2, the Markov chain is not positive recurrent if . Unlike the above example, there are also many instances where one cannot easily nd the stationary distribution by solving = P. But we would still like to know if the stationary distribution exists. It is often easy to verify the irreducibility and aperiodicity of a Markov chain, but, in general, it is dicult to directly verify whether a Markov chain is positive recurrent from the denitions given earlier. Instead, there is a convenient test called Fosters test or the Foster-Lyapunov test to check for positive recurrence which we state next. Theorem 3 Let {Xk } be an irreducible Markov chain with a state space S. Suppose that there exists a function V : S + and a nite set B S satisfying the following conditions: 1. E[V (Xk+1 ) V (x) | Xk = x] if x B c , and 2. E[V (Xk+1 ) V (x) | Xk = x] M for some M < , if x B, for some M < and > 0. Then the Markov chain {Xk } is positive recurrent.

Proof: We will prove the result under the further assumption that {Xk } is aperiodic. E[V (Xk+1 ) V (Xk ) | Xk = x] IxB c + M IxB = IxB c + M M IxB c = (M + )IxB c + M Taking expectations on both sides, we get E[V (Xk+1 )] E[V (Xk )] = (M + )P (Xk B c ) + M,

N N

k=0 k=0

P (Xk B c ) + M N.

Thus,

N

k=0 N

P (Xk B c ) + M N

(M + )

k=0

M+ N lim sup 1 N 1 N

P (Xk B c ) M +

k=0 N

1 E[V (X0 )] N

P (Xk B c )

k=0 N

M M+ M+

lim inf

P (Xk B)

k=0

Suppose that any state of the Markov chain is not positive recurrent, all states are not positive recurrent since the Markov chain is irreducible. Thus, Mi = , i and limk pi [k] = 0, i. Thus, 1 N limk P (Xk B) = 0 or lim inf P (Xk B) = 0, which contradicts the fact that it is N N k=1 M+ . Next, we present two extensions of Fosters theorem without proof. Theorem 4 An irreducible Markov chain {Xk } is positive recurrent if there exists a function V : S + , a positive integer L 1 and a nite set B S satisfying the following conditions: E[V (Xk+L ) V (x) | Xk = x] IxB c + M IxB for some > 0 and L < for some > 0 and M < .

Theorem 5 An irreducible Markov chain {Xk } is positive recurrent if there exists a function V : S + , a function : S + , and a nite set B S satisfying the following conditions: E[V (Xk+(x) ) V (x) | Xk = x] (x)IxB c + M IxB for some > 0 and M < .

The following theorem provides conditions under which a Markov chain is not positive recurrent. Theorem 6 An irreducible Markov chain {Xk } is either transient or null recurrent if there exists a function V : S + and and a nite set B S satisfying the following conditions: E [V (Xk+1 ) V (x) | Xk = x] 0, x B c

V (x) > V (y) for some x B c and all y B, and E [|V (Xk+1 ) V (Xk )| | Xk = x] M for some M < and x S.

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