AS 1181—1982

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Australian Standard®
Method of measurement of civil engineering works and associated building works

This standard, prepared by Committee CE/14, Measurement of Civil Engineering Quantities, was approved on behalf of the Council of the Standards Association of Australia on 9 February 1982, and was published on 10 May 1982.

The following scientific, industrial and governmental organizations and departments were officially represented on the committee entrusted with the preparation of this standard:
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Association of Consulting Engineers Australia Australian Federation of Construction Contractors Australian Institute of Building Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors Australian Institute of Steel Construction Australian Water and Wastewater Association Department of Housing and Construction Electricity Supply Association of Australia Master Builders Federation of Australia Metal Trades Industry Association National Association of Australian State Road Authorities

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new edit ions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edit ion, and any amendments thereto. Full detail s of all Australi an Standards and related publications wil l be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine ‘The Australian Standard’, which subscribing members receive, and which gives detail s of new publi cati ons, new edit ions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggesti ons for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head offi ce of Standards Australia, are welcomed. Noti fi cati on of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australi an Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 79064.

AS 1181—1982

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Australian Standard®
Method of measurement of civil engineering works and associated building works

First publi shed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second editi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1971 1982

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 2494 4

AS 1181—1982

2

PREFACE
This edition of this standard was prepared by the Association’s Committee on Measurement of Civil Engineering Quantities to supersede the 1971 edition. This edition differs from the 1971 edition in the following principal respects: (a) The standard has been extended to include building trades, so that building works forming part of a civil engineering contract are now dealt with. (b) The section on ‘general principles’ has been revised to provide more flexibility in achieving the principal objectives of any method of measurement, namely, the efficient and accurate preparation of tenders and subsequent valuation of work executed. (c) A number of other amendments in detail have been made throughout the standard (sometimes incorporating changes in principle in the treatment of the item or matter concerned), to allow for coverage of building works or to improve the efficiency of the method of measurement. This standard makes reference to AS 1000, the International System of Units (SI) and its Application.

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© Copyri ght STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Users of Standards are reminded that copyri ght subsists in all Standards Australi a publications and soft ware. Except where the Copyri ght Act all ows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Austr alia may be reproduced, stored in a retri eval system in any form or transmitt ed by any means without pri or permission in wri ti ng fr om Standards Australi a. Permission may be conditi onal on an appropriate royalt y payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial soft ware royalti es should be dir ected to the head off ice of Standards Australi a. Standards Australi a wil l permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Austr alia. Standards Australi a wil l also permit the inclusion of its copyri ght material in computer soft ware programs for no royalt y payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is fr om the current editi on of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identif ied. The use of material in pri nt form or in computer soft ware programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be vari ed by Standards Austr alia at any ti me.

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AS 1181—1982

CONTENTS
Page Section 1. Scope and General 1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Section 2. Preliminaries 2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Section 3. Site Investigation 3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Test Pits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Boreholes and Pumping Test Wells 3.4 Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Tests Including Reports . . . . . . . . 3.6 Site Instrumental Observations . . . Section 4. Site Clearance and Demolition 4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . . 4.3 Classification of Items . . . . . . . . 4.4 Method of Measurement . . . . . . 4.5 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . Section 10. Railway Trackwork 10.1 General and Definitions . . . . . . 10.2 Tracks On or In Concrete Slabs 10.3 Preamble Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . 10.5 Classification of Items . . . . . . . 10.6 Method of Measurement . . . . . 10.7 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . Section 11. Concrete 11.1 General . . . . . . . . . 11.2 In-situ Concrete . . . 11.3 Precast Concrete . . . 11.4 Prestressed Concrete .. .. .. .. .. . . .. Page 24 24 24 24 24 25 25

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Section 12. Brickwork and Blockwork 12.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . 12.3 Classification of Items . . . . . 12.4 Method of Measurement . . . 12.5 Units of Measurement . . . . .

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33 33 33 33 33

Section 5. Excavation and Filling 5.1 Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 6. Tunnels and Shafts 6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive 6.3 Classification of Items . . . 6.4 Method of Measurement . 6.5 Units of Measurement . . . Section 7. Dredging 7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive 7.3 Classification of Items . . . 7.4 Method of Measurement . 7.5 Units of Measurement . . .

13 14

Section 13. Structural Steel and Metalwork 13.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . . . 13.3 Classification of Items . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . 13.5 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . Section 14. Carpentry, Joinery and Ironmongery 14.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . 14.3 Classification of Items . . . . . . . 14.4 Method of Measurement . . . . . 14.5 Units of Measurement . . . . . . .

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Section 8. Piling and Caissons 8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Precast Concrete, Timber and Steel Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Driven Cast-in-place Piles . . . . . . 8.4 Bored Cast-in-place Piles and Caissons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 9. Roads and Paving 9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive 9.3 Classification of Items . . . 9.4 Method of Measurement . 9.5 Units of Measurement . . .

19 19 20 20 21

Section 15. Roofing, Roof Plumbing and Wall Cladding 15.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 15.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . . . 40 15.3 Classification of Items . . . . . . . . . 40 15.4 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . 40 15.5 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . 40 Section 16. Sheetmetal Work and Sanitary Plumbing and Piped Services 16.1 Sheetmetal Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 16.2 Sanitary Plumbing and Piped Services 41 Section 17. Water Mains, Sewerage and Drainage 17.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . 17.3 Classification of Items . . . . . . 17.4 Method of Measurement . . . . 17.5 Units of Measurement . . . . . .

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AS 1181—1982

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Page Section 18. Electrical Conduits 18.1 Price Rates to be Inclusive 18.2 Classification of Items . . . 18.3 Method of Measurement . 18.4 Units of Measurement . . . Section 19. Engineering Services 19.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive 19.3 Classification of Items . . . 19.4 Method of Measurement . 19.5 Units of Measurement . . .
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Section 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5

Page 21. Paving, Tiling and Terrazzo Works General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Price Rates to be Inclusive . . . . . . 48 Classification of Items . . . . . . . . . 48 Method of Measurement . . . . . . . 48 Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . 48

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Section 22. Glazing 22.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Price Rates to be Inclusive 22.3 Classification of Items . . . 22.4 Method of Measurement . 22.5 Units of Measurement . . . Section 23. Painting 23.1 Price Rates to be Inclusive 23.2 Classification of Items . . . 23.3 Method of Measurement . 23.4 Units of Measurement . . .

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Section 20. Plastering 20.1 Price Rates to be Inclusive 20.2 Classification of Items . . . 20.3 Method of Measurement . 20.4 Units of Measurement . . .

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AS 1181—1982

STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA Australian Standard for METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS AND ASSOCIATED BUILDING WORKS SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE 1.2 DE FINITION S
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1.3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

This standard sets out the method of measurement for the preparation of quantities for use with civil engineering contracts. For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions apply: 1.2.1 Bill of quantities—a list of items giving brief identifying descriptions and the measured quantities of work included in a contract. 1.2.2 Schedule of rates—a list of items giving brief identifying descriptions and the measured quantities of work included in a contract for the purpose of obtaining unit prices only. 1.2.3 General conditions of contract—the relevant general conditions of contract included in the contract documents. The terms defined in the relevant general conditions of contract shall bear the same interpretation in this standard. 1.2.4 Daywork —the method of valuing work on the basis of time spent by the workmen, the materials used and the plant employed. 1.2.5 Original surface—the surface before any work has been carried out under the contract. 1.2.6 Commencing surface (in relation to an item in a bill of quantities)—the surface before any work covered by the item has been carried out. 1.2.7 Final surface—the surface indicated on the drawings to which the work described in any item of the bill of quantities is to be carried out. 1.2.8 Curve—any form of curve including a circle. 1.2.9 Range—the limits of a dimension indicated by the upper and lower limits joined by the word ‘to’, e.g. 80 mm to 100 mm. The range is deemed to include the limiting values. 1.3.1 General. Recommendations are made herein covering methods of producing bills of quantities and units of measurement for civil engineering works and projects. While specific recommendations have been made, it is necessary to consider each project on its merits. The great diversity of civil engineering works and of building works and structures directly associated with civil engineering projects makes it impracticable to produce a standard method for selecting or dividing items applicable in its entirety to each project. 1.3.2 Objects of Bills of Quantities. The objects of a bill of quantities are as follows: (a) To provide such information of the quantities of work as to enable tenders to be prepared efficiently and accurately. (b) Where a contract has been entered into, to provide for use of, the priced bill of quantities in the valuation of work executed in accordance with the contract provisions. (c) To form a basis for accurate project planning. 1.3.3 Methods of Measurement. To attain the objects of the bills of quantities, the method of measurement adopted shall aim at the use of the minimum number of items consistent with the need for accurate pricing. The following considerations shall be taken into account: (a) Quantities for works for which the individual cost is insignificant in relation to the overall cost shall not be given as separate items but shall be measured and included in the quantity of the relevant principal item. The description of the principal item shall state that such works are included. It is essential that all such quantities be included and not be eliminated.
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AS 1181-1982, Method of measurement of civil engineering works and associated building works
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