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1 Lesson Objectives Building a Simple Network identify the major components of a computer system and their functionality, and

d list the resources required to install a NIC. distinguish between the processes used to convert between decimal, binary, and hexadecimal numbering systems. identify the main purposes and functions of networking. identify the purpose of major computer components, and calculate conversions between binary, decimal, and hexadecimal numerical systems. distinguish between the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP stack. distinguish between basic computer and networking terms, and between the principles of the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP protocol stack. Ref: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/computer.html Computer:

A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: o It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. o It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: o o o o o Memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. Mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. Input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. Output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.

In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: o o o o o Personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. Workstation : A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. Minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. Mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. Supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Memory: Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as a shorthand for physical memory, which

3 refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical memory onto a hard disk. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory, usually referred to as main memory or RAM. You can think of main memory as an array of boxes, each of which can hold a single byte of information. A computer that has 1 megabyte of memory, therefore, can hold about 1 million bytes (or characters) of information. There are several different types of memory: o RAM (random-access memory): This is the same as main memory. When used by itself, the term RAM refers to read and write memory; that is, you can both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. This is in contrast to ROM, which permits you only to read data. Most RAM is volatile, which means that it requires a steady flow of electricity to maintain its contents. As soon as the power is turned off, whatever data was in RAM is lost. ROM (read-only memory): Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. Unlike RAM, ROM cannot be written to. PROM (programmable read-only memory): A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are nonvolatile. EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory): An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory): An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.

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Mass Storage: Refers to various techniques and devices for storing large amounts of data. The earliest storage devices were punched paper cards, which were used as early as 1804 to control silk-weaving looms. Modern mass storage devices include all types of disk drives and tape drives. Mass storage is distinct from memory, which refers to temporary storage areas within the computer. Unlike main memory, mass storage devices retain data even when the computer is turned off. The main types of mass storage are: o o Floppy disks : Relatively slow and have a small capacity, but they are portable, inexpensive, and universal. Hard disks : Very fast and with more capacity than floppy disks, but also more expensive. Some hard disk systems are portable (removable cartridges), but most are not.

4 o Optical disks : Unlike floppy and hard disks, which use electromagnetism to encode data, optical disk systems use a laser to read and write data. Optical disks have very large storage capacity, but they are not as fast as hard disks. In addition, the inexpensive optical disk drives are read-only. Read/write varieties are expensive. Tapes: Relatively inexpensive and can have very large storage capacities, but they do not permit random access of data.

Mass storage is measured in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,024 kilobytes), gigabytes (1,024 megabytes) and terabytes (1,024 gigabytes). Mass storage is sometimes called auxiliary storage. Input Device: Any machine that feeds data into a computer. For example, a keyboard is an input device, whereas a display monitor is an output device. Input devices other than the keyboard are sometimes called alternate input devices. Mice, trackballs, and light pens are all alternate input devices. Output Device: Any machine capable of representing information from a computer. This includes display screens, printers, plotters, and synthesizers. Central Processing Unit: Abbreviation of central processing unit, and pronounced as separate letters. The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. Two typical components of a CPU are:

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations. The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.

U-NET Reference: Major Hardware Elements of a computer system: Major hardware elements of computers that allow network connectivity include the CPU, the bus, drives, memory components, ports and cards.

Backplane components: o Power cord: cord connecting an electric device to an electrical outlet to provide power to the device o Mouse Port: Port that is designed for connecting a mouse to a PC. o Parallel Port: An interface capable of transferring more than one bit simultaneously, used for connecting external devices, such as printers. o Serial port: An interface that can be used for serial communication in which only one bit is transmitted at a time. o Sound card: An expansion board that handles sound functions. o Video card: A board that plugs into a PC to give its display capabilities. o Network card: An expansion board inserted into a computer to enable connection to a network. o Interface: A piece of hardware, such as modern connector, that allows two devices to be connected together. Drives: There are different types of drives the CD-ROM drive, the floppy disk drive, and the hard disk drive. o CD-ROM drive: A compact disc read only memory drive that can read information from a CD-ROM. o Floppy disk drive: Disk drive that can read and write to floppy disks. o Hard disk drive: Device that reads and writes data on a hard drive. CPU: The CPU is the brain of the computer where most of the calculations take place. The microprocessor is a silicon chip contained within a CPU. BUS: A bus is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. The bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU. The Industry-Standard Architecture (ISA) and the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) are two types of buses. Expansion Slots: These are the openings in computer into which you can insert a circuit board to add new capabilities to the computer. The expansion card is a printed circuit board that provides the added capabilities to the computer. Motherboard: The Motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. The important components on the motherboard are o The power supply is the component that supplies power to the computer. o The system unit is the main part of a PC. It is the term that encompasses the chassis, the microprocessor, the main memory, the bus, and the ports. The system

6 unit does not contain the keyboard, the monitor, or any other external devices connected to the computer. o ROM Read Only Memory is the computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. o PCB Printed Circuit Board is a thin plate on which chips (integrated circuits) and other electronic components are placed. o RAM Random Access Memory has new data written into it as well as stored data read from it. It is also known as read-write memory. A drawback of RAM is that it requires electrical power to maintain data storage. If the computer is turned off or loses power, all data stored in RAM is lost unless the data previously saved to disk. Laptop Vs PC: Laptop computers and notebook computers have become very popular. There are few differences between the two. o The main difference between PCs and laptops is that laptop components are smaller than those found in a PC, they are designed to fit together into a smaller physical space, and they use less power when operated. These smaller components can be difficult to remove. o In a laptop, the expansion slots become Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) card slots, or PC slots, through which NIC, modems, hard drives, and other useful devices (usually the size of a thick credit card) are connected. o PCs are more powerful than laptops, but laptops have the advantage of being portable, which makes it more convenient to work from home and while traveling between offices. Application sharing through networks: Network Interface card: o A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. o Also called a LAN adapter, the NIC plugs into a motherboard and provides port for connecting to the network. The NIC constitutes the computer with the local areas network (LAN). o The NIC communicates with the network through a serial connection, and with the computer through a parallel connection. o When a NIC is installed in a computer, it requires an interrupt request line (IRQ), an input/output (I/O) address, a memory space for the operating system (such as DOS or Windows), and drivers in order to perform its function. o An IRQ is a signal that informs a CPU that an event needing its attention has occurred. An IRQ is sent over a bus line to the microprocessor. o An example of an interrupt request being issued is when a key is pressed on a keyboard, and the CPU must move the character from the keyboard to RAM. o An I/O address is a location in memory used by an auxiliary device to enter or retrieve data from a computer.

7 When selecting a NIC card for a network, one should consider the following: o Type of network: You must choose a NIC to suit the type of network you have, Ethernet NICs are designed for Ethernet LANs. o Type of media: The type of port or connector used by the NIC for network connection is specific to the type of media, such as twisted-pair. o Type of Expansion Slot: With regard to the type of expansion slot to use, one should consider that because PCI slots are faster than ISA slots, the latter are being phased out. To install a NIC, one should know about these issues: o One must know how the network card is configured, including jumpers, plug-andplay software, and erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM). o One must know the network card diagnostics; including the vendor supplied diagnostics and loopback tests (see the documentation that comes with the card). o You must know how to resolve hardware resource conflicts, including IRQ, I/O base address, and direct memory access (DMA), which is used to transfer data from RAM to a device without going through the CPU. Understanding Binary Basics: At the most basic level, computers perform their computations by using 1s and 0s instead of the decimal system. Computers are made up of electronic switches. At the lowest levels of computation, computers depend on these electronic switches to make decisions. Computers react only to electrical impulses, understood by the computer as either on or off states (1s or 0s). Bits, bytes and measurement terms: Computers can understand and process only data that in a binary format, represented by 0s and 1s. These 0s and 1s represent the two possible states of an electrical impulse and referred to as binary digits (bits). Most computer coding schemes use eight bits to represent a number, letter, or symbol. A series of eight bits is referred to as a byte. One byte represents a single addressable storage location. BIT (b): A bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit equals 1 or 0 in the binary format in which data is processed by computers. Bits per second (bps) is a standard unit of measurement for data transmission. Byte (B): A byte is a unit of measure used to describe the size of a data file, the amount of space on a disk or other storage medium, or the amount of data being sent over a network.

8 One byte equals eight bits of data. Bytes per second (BPS) is a standard unit of measurement of the data transmission rate over a network connection. 1byte = 8 bits. Kilobit (Kb): A kilobit is approximately 1000 bits (1024 bits exactly). Kilobits per second (Kbps) is a standard unit of measurement of the data transmission rate over a network connection. 1Kilobit = 1000 bits Kilobyte (KB): 1000 bytes = 8000 bits =1Kilobyte [KBps] Megabit (Mb): 1 million bits = 1 Megabit (Mbps) Megabyte (MB): 1million bytes (1,048,576 bytes exactly) = 8 million bits = 1 Megabyte (MBps) Gigabit (Gb): 1 billion bits = 1 Gigabit (Gbps) Gigabyte (GB): 1 billion bytes = 8 billion bits = 1Gigabyte (GBps) Footnote: it is a common error to confuse KB with Kb and MB with Mb. You should remember to do the proper calculations when comparing transmission speeds that are measured in KBps and those measured with Kbps. For example, modern software usually shows the connection speed in kilobits per second (for example 45Kbps). However, popular browsers display file-download speeds in kilobytes per second, meaning that with a 45-Kbps. Speed Measurement terms commonly used for microprocessors: o Hz: A hertz (hz) is a unit of frequency. It is the rate of change in the state or cycle in a sound wave, alternating current, or other cyclical waveform. It represents one cycle per second and is used to describe the speed of a computer microprocessor. o MHz: A megahertz (MHz) represents one million cycles per second. This is a common unit of measurement of the speed of a processing chip, such as a computer microprocessor. o GHz: A gigahertz (GHz) represents one billion cycles per second. This is a common unit of measurement of the speed of a processing chip, such as a computer microprocessor. PC processors are getting faster all the time. The microprocessors used on PCs in the 1980z typically ran 10MHz (the original IBM PC was 4.77 MHz). Today they are measured in GHz. Understanding Binary Basics: Converting a decimal number to a binary number is one of the most common procedures performed in computer operations.

9 Conversion between decimal and binary: Computers recognize and process data using the binary or base 2, numbering system. The binary numbering system uses only two symbols (0 and 1) instead of the ten symbols used in the decimal numbering system.

Example: Convert 100 to binary 2 100 2 2 2 2 2 50 25 12 6 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

The binary number for 100 is 1100100 Reference from Google: Converting Binary to Decimal Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Get the last digit of the hex number, call this digit the currentDigit. Make a variable, let's call it power. Set the value to 0. Multiply the current digit with (2^power), store the result. Increment power by 1. Set the current Digit to the previous digit of the hex number. Repeat step 3 until all digits have been multiplied. Sum the result of step 3 to get the answer number.


start from the last digit, which is 1, 1*(2^0)

10 multiply that digit with 2^0, note that the power of 0 of any number is always 1 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit, which is 0, multiply that digit with the increasing power of 2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit, which is 1, note that 2^2 means 2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit, which is 1, note that 2^3 means 2*2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) process the previous digit, which is 1, note that 2^4 means 2*2*2*2 11101 (current digit is in bold) here, we stop because there's no more digit to process this number comes from the sum of the RESULTS ANSWER 29 1*(2^4) 16 1*(2^3) 8 1*(2^2) 4


Basically, this is the same as saying: 1*(2^4) + 1*(2^3) + 1*(2^2) + 0*(2^1) + 1*(2^0) or 1*(16) + 1*(8) + 1*(4) + 0*(2) + 1*(1) The reason it's easier to start backward is because:

Counting the number of digits takes extra time, and you might count wrongly. If you don't remember what a particular power-of-2 value, it's easy to calculate it from the previous value. For instance, if you don't remember what the value of 2*2*2 is, then just double the value of 2*2 (which you already have - if you had started backward).

11 Another Example Convert BINARY 1010 to DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION 0*(2^0) 1*(2^1) 0*(2^2) 1*(2^3) ANSWER RESULT 0 2 0 8 10

Is constructing a table like above required? No, it just depends on your preference. Some people are visual, and the table might help. Without a table, it's also easy. If you want to be a speed counter, just remember that the value of the multiplier is always the double of the previous one. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, ... POWER OF 2s 2^0 2^1 = 2 2^2 = 2*2 2^3 = 2*2*2 2^4 = 2*2*2*2 RESULT 1 2 4 8 16

Example Convert BINARY 1010001 to DECIMAL. Again, I'm starting backward here: (1*1) + (0*2) + (0*4) + (0*8) + (1*16) + (0*32) + (1*64) = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 16 + 0 + 64 = 81 BINARY Computers work on the principle of number manipulation. Inside the computer, the numbers are represented in bits and bytes. For example, the number three is represented by a byte with bits 0 & 1 set; 00000011. This is numbering system using base 2. People commonly use a decimal or Base 10 numbering system. What this means is that in Base 10, count from 0 to 9 before adding another digit. The number 22 in Base 10 means we have 2 sets of 10's and 2 sets of 1's.

12 Base 2 is also known as binary since there can only be two values for a specific digit; either a 0 = OFF or a 1 = ON. You cannot have a number represented as 22 in binary notation. The decimal number 22 is represented in binary as 00010110 which by following the below chart breaks down to: Bit Position Decimal 22 or 00010110: All numbers representing 0 are not counted, 128, 64, 32, 8, 1 because 0 represents OFF However, numbers representing 1 are counted, 16 + 4 + 2 = 22 because 1 represents ON Decimal Values and Binary Equivalents chart: DECIMAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 32 64 100 256 512 1000 1024 HEXADECIMAL The other major numbering system used by computers is hexadecimal, or Base 16. In this system, the numbers are counted from 0 to 9, then letters A to F before adding another digit. The letter A through F represents decimal numbers 10 through 15, respectively. The below chart indicates the values of the hexadecimal position compared to 16 raised to a BINARY 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 10000 100000 1000000 1100100 100000000 1000000000 1111110100 10000000000 7 6 5 4 32 10 1 1 1 1 11 11 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

13 power and decimal values. It is much easier to work with large numbers using hexadecimal values than decimal. To convert a value from hexadecimal to binary, you merely translate each hexadecimal digit into its 4-bit binary equivalent. Hexadecimal numbers have either and 0x prefix or an h suffix. For example, the hexadecimal number: 0x3F7A Translates into, Using the Binary chart and the below chart for Hex: 0011 1111 0111 1010

DECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

HEXADECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

BINARY 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

From U learning Hexadecimal: The base 16, or hexadecimal (hex), numbering system is used frequently when working with computers because it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable form. The computer performs computations in binary, but there are instances when the binary output of a computer is expressed in hexadecimal format to make it easier to read. Conversion between binary and hexadecimal:

14 Converting a hexadecimal number to binary and vice versa, is a common task when dealing with the 16-bit configuration register in Cisco routers. That 16-bit binary number can be represented as a four digit hexadecimal number. For example, 0010000100000010 in binary is equal to 2102 in hex. The most commonly way for computers and software to express hexadecimal output is using 0x in front of the hexadecimal number. Thus, whenever you see 0x, you know that the number that follows is a hexadecimal number. For example, 0x1234 means 1234 in base 16. It is referred to base 16 because it uses 16 symbols. Combinations of these symbols can represent all possible numbers. Because there are only 10 symbols that represent digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) and base 16 requires six more symbols, the extra symbols are the letters A, B, C, D, E, F. The A represents the decimal 10, B represents the decimal 11, C represents the decimal 12, D represents the decimal 13, E represents the decimal 14, and F represents the decimal 15. Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 64 128 255 Binary 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00000110 00000111 00001000 00001001 00001010 00001011 00001100 00001101 00001110 00001111 00010000 00100000 01000000 10000000 11111111 Hex 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 10 20 40 80 FF

The position of each symbol (digit) in a hex number represents the base number 16 raised to a power (exponent) based on its position. Moving from right to left, the first position represents 16^0 (or 1), the second position represents 16^1 (or 16), the third position represents 16^2 (or 256), and so on.

15 Network layer 2 MAC addresses are typically written in hex. For Ethernet and Token ring topologies, these addresses are 48 bits, or six octets (one octet is eight bits). Because these addresses consist of six distinct octets, you can write them as 12 hex numbers. 10101010 Octet 11110000 Bit 11000001 11100010 01110111 01010001

Converting binary to hex is easy because base 16 (hexadecimal) is a power of base 2 (binary). Every four digits (bits) are equal to one hexadecimal digit. The figure compares the binary and hexadecimal numbering systems. If there is a binary number that looks like 01011011, you can break it into two groups of four bits: 0101 and 1011. When converting these two groups to hex, they become 5 and B, so the hexadecimal equivalent of the binary 01011011 is 5B. No matter how large the binary number, you always apply the same conversion. First you start from the right of the binary number and break the number into groups of four. If the far left group does not contain four digits, add zero to the left and until there are four digits (bits) in every group. 100100100010111110111110111001001 can be split as follows: 1 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001 As per the rule add three zero to the left, therefore the number becomes 0001 0010 0100 0101 1111 0111 1101 1100 1001 And the Hex number is 1245F7DC9 You can also convert hexadecimal numbers to binary format. To convert from hexadecimal to binary, you convert every hex digit into four binary digits (bits). For example, to convert hex AC (0xAC) to binary, you first convert hex A, which is 1010 binary, and then convert hex C, which is 1100 binary. So the conversion of hex AC is 10101100 binary. NOTE: Make sure you include four binary digits for each hexadecimal character, adding zeros to the left of the number when necessary. Using a PC on a Network This article discusses basic networking technologies and common network applications. It identifies the main purposes and functions of networking. Basic Networking Terminology


Computer networking, like most industries, has its own jargon, which includes technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms. Without a good grasp of the terminology, it will be difficult to understand the concepts and processes involved in networking. The following list of terms and their definitions is intended to be a quick reference that defines some of the most important words, phrases, and acronyms related to computer networking: o A network interface card (NIC), pronounced "nick," is also called the LAN adapter, or just the network interface. This card typically goes into an ISA, PCI, or PCMCIA (PC card) slot in a computer and connects to the network medium. It then connects to other computers through the network media. o Media refers to the various physical environments through which transmission signals pass. Common network media include twisted-pair, coaxial, and fiber-optic cable, and even the earth's atmosphere through which wireless transmission occurs. o A protocol is a set of rules. In the case of a network protocol, it is a set of rules by which computers communicate. The term "protocol suite" describes a set of several protocols that perform different functions related to different aspects of the communication process. o Cisco IOS software which runs on Cisco equipment and devices, is the industryleading and most widely deployed network system software. It delivers intelligent network services for enabling the rapid deployment of Internet applications. Cisco IOS software provides a wide range of functionality, from basic connectivity, security, and network management to technically advanced services. The functionality of Cisco IOS software is the result of a technological evolution. First-generation networking devices could only store and forward data packets. Today, Cisco IOS software can recognize, classify, and prioritize network traffic, optimize routing, support voice and video applications, and much more. Cisco IOS software runs on most Cisco routers and Cisco switches. These network devices carry most of the Internet traffic today. o Network operating system (NOS) usually refers to server software such as Windows NT, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, Novell NetWare, UNIX, and Linux. The term sometimes refers to the networking components of a client operating system such as Windows 95 or the Macintosh OS. o Connectivity devices refer to several different device types, all of which are used to connect cable segments, connect two or smaller networks (or subnets) into a larger network, or divide a large network into smaller ones. The term encompasses repeaters, hubs, switches, bridges, and routers. The following are three categories of networks: o A local-area network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a limited geographic area. This area can be a room, a floor, a building, or even an entire campus.

17 o A metropolitan-area network (MAN) is a network that is larger in size than a LAN and smaller in size than a WAN. This is a network that covers approximately the area of a large city or metropolitan area. o A wide-area network (WAN) is made up of interconnected LANs. It spans wide geographic areas by using WAN links such as telephone lines or satellite technology to connect computers in different cities, countries, or even different continents. Network structure is described in the following two ways: o The logical topology is the path that the signals take from one computer to another. The logical topology may or may not correspond to the physical topology. For instance, a network can be a physical "star," in which each computer connects to a central hub, but inside the hub the data can travel in a circle, making it a logical "ring." o The physical topology refers to the layout or physical shape of the network, and includes the topologies in this table. Table1: Topologies Bus Computers arranged so that cabling goes from one to another in a linear fashion

Ring When there are no clear beginning points or endpoints within a topology, forming a circle Star If the systems "meet in the middle" by connecting to a central hub

Mesh When multiple redundant connections make pathways to some or all of the endpoints Network Applications Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected together on a network.


Network applications Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected together on a network. Some of the more common uses of network applications include using a web browser program to find content from the World Wide Web, or using an e-mail program to send emails over the Internet. Network applications are selected based on the type of work that needs to be done. A complete set of application-layer programs is available to interface with the Internet. Each application program type is associated with its own application protocol. Some examples include: o HTTP is the World-Wide-Web communications protocol used to connect to web servers. Its primary function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit HTML pages to the client browser. o Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) is an application-layer protocol supported by e-mail programs for the retrieval of electronic mail. POP3 is a standard e-mail server commonly used on the Internet. It provides a message storage container that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download their messages. o File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a simple file utility program for transferring files between remote computers, which also provides for basic user authentication. o Telnet is a remote access application and protocol for connecting to remote computer consoles, which also provides for basic user authentication. Telnet is not a graphical user interface but is command-line driven or character mode only. o Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used by network management programs for monitoring the network device status and activities.

19 It is important to emphasize that the application layer is just another protocol layer in the OSI model or TCP/IP protocol stack. The programs interface with application layer protocols.

Sending e-mail E-mail client applications, (such as Eudora, Microsoft Mail, Pegasus, and Netscape Mail) all work with the POP3 protocol. The same principle is true with web browsers. The two most popular web browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Communicator. The appearance of these two web browser programs is very different, but they both work with the application layer HTTP protocol. Electronic mail enables you to send messages between connected computers. The procedure for sending an e-mail document involves two separate processes sending the email to the user's post office, which is a computer running the POP3 server software, and delivering the e-mail from that post office to the user's e-mail client computer, which is the recipient. Computer Networks One of the primary purposes of a network is to increase productivity by linking computers and computer networks, so that people have easy access to information regardless of differences in time, place, or type of computer system.


Components of a network Because companies have adopted networks as part of their business strategy, they typically subdivide and map corporate networks to the corporate business structure. In the figure, the network is defined based on the grouping of employees (users) into a main office and various remote access locations. A main office is a site where everyone is connected via a LAN and where the bulk of corporate information is located. A main office can have hundreds or even thousands of people who depend on network access to do their jobs. It may have several LANs, or it may be a campus that contains several buildings. Because everyone needs access to central resources and information, it is common to see a high-speed backbone in a LAN as well as a data center with high-performance computers or servers and networked applications. A variety of remote access locations connect to the main office or each other using WAN services as follows: o In branch offices, smaller groups of people work and connect to each other via a LAN. To connect to the main office, these users must use WAN services such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Although some corporate information may be stored at a branch office, it is more likely that branch offices have local network resources, such as printers, but have to access information directly from the main office. o A home office is where individuals are set up to work from their own home. Home office workers most likely require on-demand connections to the main office or a branch office to access information or use network resources such as file servers. o Individuals who are mobile users connect to the main office LAN when they are at the main office, at the branch office, or on the road. Their network access needs are based on where they are located.

21 In order to understand what types of equipment and services to deploy in a network and when to deploy them, it is important to understand the business and user needs. The figure shows how to map an organization's business or user requirements to a network.

Computer networks In this example, the business needs may require LAN connectivity within the campus to interconnect the servers and end-user PCs, and WAN connectivity to connect the campus to the remote branch office and telecommuters. The WAN connection to the remote branch office requires a permanent connection, such as a leased line, and the home office connection requires a dial-up connection, such as ISDN.

Summary When working with computer applications, it is important that you are familiar with networking terminology. There are three categories of networks a LAN, a MAN, and a WAN. The physical topology of a network is the physical structure of a network. The logical topology of a network is the path that signals follow through the network. Network applications are software programs that run between different computers connected on a network. Each application type has associated protocols depending on the function of the application. HTTP is used by applications that access the Internet, POP3 is used by applications that access email services, FTP is used by applications that transfer files, Telnet is used by applications that remotely access other machines, and SNMP is used by applications that monitor the operation of the network.

22 Applications interface with protocols in the application layer of the OSI model or TCP/IP stack. By creating a computer network, you enable access between computers regardless of time, place, or type of computer system. Because networks are incorporated into the business strategy of a company, a company's network will usually replicate its business structure. Typically, a network will be subdivided to facilitate the branch, home, and main office of the company as well as its mobile users. Functions of networking: OSI model layers and functions Origins of the OSI reference model: The early development of LANs, MANs, and WANs was chaotic in many ways. The early 1980s saw tremendous increases in the number and size of networks. As companies realized that they could save money and gain productivity by using networking technology, they added networks and expanded existing network as rapidly as new network technologies and products were introduced. By the middle of the 1980s, companies began to experience difficulties from all the expansions they had made. It became more difficult for networks using different specifications and implementations to communicate with each other. The companies realized that they needed to move away from proprietary networking systems, those systems which are privately developed, owned, and controlled. A standard or technology may be o Proprietary means that one company or a small group of companies control(s) all usage of the technology. In the computer industry, proprietary is the opposite of open. o Open means that free usage of the technology is available to the public. To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each other, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched different network schemes. As a result of this research, the ISO created a model that would help vendors create network that would be compatible with, and operate with other networks. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, released in 1984, was the descriptive scheme that the ISO had created. It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability between the various types od network technologies produced by companies around the world. Although other models exist, most network vendors today relate their products to the OSI reference mode, especially when they want to educate customers on the use of their products. It is considered the best tool available for teaching people about sending and receiving data on a network.


The OSI reference model has seven numbered layers, each illustrating a particular network function. This separation of networking functions is called layering. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Physical Layer Data0link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer

The OSI reference model defines the network functions that occur at each layer. More importantly, the OSI reference model facilitates an understanding of how information travels throughout a network. In addition, the OSI reference model describes how data travels from application programs (for example, spreadsheets,) through a network medium, to an application program located in another computer, even if the sender and receiver are connected using different network media. OSI layers and functions: The practice of moving information between computers is divided into seven techniques in the OSI reference model. Each of the seven techniques is represented by its own layer in the model. The seven layers are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Physical Layer Data0link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Session Layer Presentation Layer Application Layer

Dividing the network into seven layers provides the following advantages: o Accelerates evolution: Layering accelerates evolution by providing for effective updates and improvements to individual components without affecting other components or having to rewrite the entire protocol. o Ensures interoperable technology: Layering prevents changes in one layer from affecting the other layers, allowing for quicker development, and ensuring interoperable technology.

24 o Facilitates modular engineering: Layering allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other, thereby facilitating modular engineering. o Reduces complexity: Layering breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts and reduces complexity. o Standardizes interfaces: Layering standardizes network component interfaces to allow multiple-vendor development and support. o Simplifies teaching and learning: Layering breaks network communication into smaller components to make learning easier, thereby simplifying teaching. Each OSI layer contains a set of functions performed by programs to enable data packets to travel from a source to a destination on a network. The functions are as follows Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user. This layer provides network services to the users applications. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model. The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication partners and synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity. Presentation Layer: The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by an application layer of another system. For example, a PC program communicates with another computer, one using extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) and the other using ASCII to represent the same characters. If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format. Session Layer: The session layer establishes, manages and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. It provides its services to the presentation layer. The session layer also synchronizes dialogue between the presentation layers of the two hosts and manages their data exchange. For example, web servers have many users, so there are many communication processes open at a given time. It is important to keep track of which user communicates on which path.

25 In addition to session regulation, the session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer, class of service, and exception reporting of session layer, presentation layer, and application layer problems. Transport Layer: The transport layer segments data from the sending hosts system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving hosts system. For example, business users in large corporations often transfer large files from field locations to a corporate site, Reliable delivery of the files is important, so the transport layer will break down large files into smaller segments that are less likely to incur transmission problems. The boundary between transport layer and the session layer can be thought of as the boundary between application protocols and data-flow protocols. Whereas the application, presentation, and session layers are concerned with application issues, the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues. The transport layer attempts to provide a data-transport service that shields the upper layers from transport implementation details. Specifically, issues such as reliability of transport between two hosts are the concern of the transport layer. In providing communication service, the transport layer establishes, maintains, and properly terminates virtual circuits. Transport error detection and recovery and information flow control are used to provide reliable service. Network Layer: The network layer provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated network. The growth of the internet has increased the number of users accessing information from sites around the world, and it is the network layer that manages this connectivity. Data-Link Layer: The data-link layer defines how data is formatted for transmission and how access to the network is controlled. Physical Layer: The Physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. Characteristics such as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors, and other similar attributes are defined by physical layer specifications. In summary these are the functions of the layers in the OSI model:


o Application network services: The application layer provides network services to any applications requiring access to the network. o Data representation: The presentation layer handles data representation. It ensures data is readable, and formats and structures data. It also negotiates data transfer syntax for the application layer. o Interhost communication: The session layer provides Interhost communication. In doing this it establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. o End-to-end connections: The transport layer facilitates end to end communications. It handles transportation issues between hosts and ensures data transport reliability. It also establishes, maintains and terminates virtual circuits, and provides reliability through fault detection and recovery information flow control. o Data Delivery: The network layer ensures data delivery. It provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems, routes data packets and selects the path to deliver data. o Media access: The data-link layer provides access to the network media. It defines how data is formatted and how access to the network is controlled. o Binary transmission: The physical layer handles binary transmission. It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link. It is responsible for transmitting the data onto the physical media. Reference from GOOGLE:



The protocols defined by ISO based on the OSI 7 layer mode are as follows: Application
ACSE: Association Control Service Element CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol CMIS: Common Management Information Service CMOT: CMIP over TCP/IP FTAM: File Transfer Access and Management ROSE: Remote Operation Service Element RTSE: Reliable Transfer Service Element Protocol VTP: ISO Virtual Terminal Protocol X.400: Message Handling Service (ISO email transmission service) Protocols X.500: Directory Access Service Protocol (DAP)

29 Presentation Layer Session Layer

ISO-PP: OSI Presentation Layer Protocol ASN.1: Abstract Syntax Notation One ISO-SP: OSI Session Layer Protocol ISO-TP: OSI Transport Protocols: TP0, TP1, TP2, TP3, ISO-IP: CLNP: Connectionless Network Protocol CONP: Connection-Oriented Network Protocol ES-IS: End System to Intermediate System Routing Exchange protocol IDRP: Inter-Domain Routing Protocol IS-IS: Intermediate System to Intermediate System

Transport Layer TP4 Network Layer

Data Link

HDLC: High Level Data Link Control protocol LAPB: Link Access Procedure Balanced for X.25

http://www.javvin.com/osimodel.html DATA Communication: All communications on a network originate at a source and are sent to a destination. The information sent on a network is referred to as data or data packets. Of one computer (Host A) wants to send data to another computer (HOST B), the data must first be packaged by a process called encapsulation. The encapsulation process can be thought of as putting a letter inside an envelope, and then properly writing the recipients mail address on the envelope so it can be properly delivered by the postal system. Encapsulation wraps data with the necessary protocol information before network transit. Therefore, as the data moves down through the layers of the OSI model, each OSI layer adds a header (and a trailer if applicable) to the data before passing it down to the lower layer. The headers and trailers contain control information for the network devices and receiver to ensure proper delivery of the data and to ensure that the receiver can correctly interpret the data. When the remote device receives a sequence of bits, the physical layer at the remote device passes the bits to the data-link layer for manipulation.

30 The data-link layer performs the following tasks: o It checks the data-link trailer (the FCS) to see if the data is in error. o If the data is in error, it may be discarded, and the data-link layer may ask for the data to be retransmitted. o If the data is not in error, the data-link layer reads and interprets the control information in the data-link header. o It strips the data-link header and trailer, and then passes the remaining data up to the network layer based on the control information in the data-link header. This process is referred to as de-encapsulation. Each subsequent layer performs a similar de-encapsulation process. Think of de-encapsulation as the process of reading the address on a letter to see if it is for you or not, and then removing the letter from the envelope if the letter is addressed to you. So that data packets can travel from the source to the destination, each layer of the OSI model at the source must communicate with its peer layer at the destination. This form of communication is referred to as peer to peer communication. During this process, the protocols at each layer, exchange information, called Protocol Data Units (PDUs) between peer layers. Data packets on a network originate at a source and then travel to a destination. Each layer depends on the service function of the OSI layer below it. To provide this service, the lower layer uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. It then adds whatever headers the layer needs to perform its function. As the data moves down through Layers 7 through 5 of the OSI model, the additional headers are added. The grouping of data at the Layer 4 (transport) PDU is called segment. The network layer provides a service to the transport layer, and the transport layer presents data to the internetwork subsystem. The network layer moves the data through the internetwork by encapsulating the data and attaching a header to create a packet (the Layer 3PDU). The header contains information required to complete the transfer, such as source and destination logical addresses. The data- link layer provides a service to the network by encapsulating the network layer packet in a frame (the Layer 2PDU). The frame header contains the physical addresses required to complete the data-link functions, and the frame trailer contains the FCS. The physical layer provides a service to the data-link layer, encoding the data-link frame into a pattern of 1sand 0s (bits) for transmission on the medium (usually a wire) at Layer 1. Network devices such as hubs, switches, and routers work at the lower three layers. Hubs are at Layer 1 the physical layer, switches are at Layer 2 the data-link layer, and router are at Layer 3 the network layer. Reference from Google:


Each protocol creates a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) for transmission that includes headers required by that protocol and data to be transmitted. This data becomes the Service Data Unit (SDU) of the next layer below it. This diagram shows a 7 layer PDU consisting of a layer 7 header (L7H) and application data. When this is passed to layer 6, it becomes a layer 6SDU. The layer 6 protocol prepends to it a layer 6 header (L6H) to create a layer 6PDU, which is passed to layer 5. The encapsulation process continues all the way down to layer 2, which creates a layer 2 PDU in this case shown with both a header and footer that is converted to bits and sent at layer 1.

The TCP/IP protocol stack


Although the OSI reference model is universally recognized, the historical and technical open standard of the internet is the TCP/IP protocol stack. The TCP/IP protocol stack has four layers the application layer, the transport layer, the internet layer, and the network access layer. It is important to note that although some of the layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack have the same names as layers in the OSI model, the layers have different functions in each model. Application Layer: The application layer handles high-level protocols, including issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control. The TCP/IP model combines all application related issues into one layer and ensures that this data is properly packaged for the next layer. Transport Layer: The transport layer deals with quality-of-service issues of reliability, flow control, and error correction. One of its protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), provides for reliable network communications. Internet Layer: The purpose of the internet layer is to send source packets from any network on the internetwork and have them arrive at the destination, regardless of the path they look to get there. Network access Layer: The network access layer is also called the host-to-network layer. It includes LAN and WAN protocols, and all the details in the OSI physical and data-link layers. Similarities and differences b/w TCP/IP protocol stack and the OSI reference model: Main Similarities: o Application layers Both have the application layers, though they include different services. o Packet-switched technology - Both assume packet-switched technology, not circuit-switched. (Analog telephone calls are an example of circuit switched.) o Transport and network layers Both have comparable transport and network layers. Main Differences: o Data-link and physical layers TCP/IP combines the OSI data-link and physical layers into the network access layer. o Implementation of standards TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet developed, so the TCP/IP protocol stack gains credibility just because of the wide spread implementation of its protocols. In contrast, networks are not typically built on the OSI model, even though the OSI model is used as a guide.

33 o Presentation and session layers TCP/IP combines the OSI presentation and session layers into its application layer. Reference from Google:

Layer Application
User Interface



Network Components

used for applications specifically written to run over the network allows access to network services that support applications; directly represents the services that directly support user applications handles network access, flow control and error recovery Example apps are file transfer,e-mail, NetBIOSbased applications Translates from application to network format and vice-versa all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion,data encryption / decryption, expanding graphics commands, data compression sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks not always implemented in



Gateway Redirector


"syncs and sessions"

a network protocol establishes, maintains and NetBIOS ends sessions across the network Names Pipes responsible for name recognition (identification) Mail Slots so only the designated parties can participate in RPC the session provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data stream => if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session would connect and reconnect if there was an interruption; recognize names in sessions and register names in history additional connection TCP, ARP, RARP; below the session layer manages the flow control SPX of data between parties across the network NWLink divides streams of data into chunks or packets; the NetBIOS / transport layer of the NetBEUI receiving computer reassembles the message ATP from packets "train" is a good analogy => the data is divided into identical units provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on losses or


packets; flow control & error-handling

Gateway Advanced Cable Tester Brouter

35 duplications provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests retransmission if some packets dont arrive errorfree provides flow control and error-handling translates logical network IP; ARP; RARP, address and names to their ICMP; RIP; OSFP; physical address (e.g. computername ==> MAC IGMP; address) responsible for IPX o addressing o determining routes NWLink for sending o managing network NetBEUI problems such as packet switching, OSI data congestion and routing DDP if router cant send data frame as large as the sourceDECnet computer sends, the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units. At the receiving end, the network layer reassembles the data

addressing; routing

Brouter Router Frame Relay Device ATM Switch Advanced Cable Tester

Data Link
data frames to bits

think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car turns packets into raw bits Logical Link Bridge 100101 and at the receivingControl end turns bits into packets. Switch error handles data frames correction and ISDN Router between the Network and flow control Physical layers manages link the receiving end packages control and Intelligent Hub raw data from the Physical defines SAPs layer into data frames for

36 delivery to the Network layer responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer this layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. It consists of the wiring, the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring, the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media

802.1 OSI Model 802.2 Logical Link Control

NIC Advanced Cable Tester

Media Access Control

communicates with the adapter card controls the type of media being used:

802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet) 802.4 Token Bus (ARCnet) 802.5 Token Ring 802.12 Demand Priority IEEE 802

hardware; raw bit stream

transmits raw bit stream over physical cable defines cables, cards, and IEEE 802.2 physical aspects defines NIC attachments to ISO 2110 hardware, how cable is ISDN attached to NIC defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable

Repeater Multiplexer Hubs

Passive Active

TDR Oscilloscope Amplifier

The 7 Layers of the OSI Model

The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next,

37 starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.

Application (Layer 7)

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and Presentation vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data (Layer 6) to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

Session (Layer 5) Transport (Layer 4) Network (Layer 3)

This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer. This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing. At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking. This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.

Data Link (Layer 2)

Physical (Layer 1)


Reference from Google CISCO: Open System Interconnection Protocols Background The Open System Interconnection (OSI) protocol suite is comprised of numerous standard protocols that are based on the OSI reference model. These protocols are part of an international program to develop data-networking protocols and other standards that facilitate multivendor equipment interoperability. The OSI program grew out of a need for international networking standards and is designed to facilitate communication between hardware and software systems despite differences in underlying architectures. The OSI specifications were conceived and implemented by two international standards organizations: the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector (ITU-T). This chapter provides a summary of the OSI protocol suite and illustrates its mapping to the general OSI reference model. OSI Networking Protocols

39 Figure 30-1 illustrates the entire OSI protocol suite and its relation to the layers of the OSI reference model. Each component of this protocol suite is discussed briefly in this chapter. The OSI routing protocols are addressed in more detail in Chapter 45, "Open System Interconnection (OSI) Routing Protocols." Figure 30-1 The OSI Protocol Suite Maps to All Layers of the OSI Reference Model

OSI Physical and Data Link layers

The OSI protocol suite supports numerous standard media-access protocols at the physical and data link layers. The wide variety of media-access protocols supported in the OSI protocol suite allows other protocol suites to exist easily alongside OSI on the same network media. Supported media-access protocols include IEEE 802.2 LLC, IEEE 802.3, Token Ring/IEEE 802.5, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), and X.25.

OSI Network Layer

The OSI protocol suite specifies two routing protocols at the network layer: End Systemto-Intermediate System (ES-IS) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS).

40 In addition, the OSI suite implements two types of network services: connectionless service and connection-oriented service.

OSI Layer Standards

In addition to the standards specifying the OSI network layer protocols and services, the following documents describe other OSI network layer specifications: ISO 8648This standard defines the internal organization of the network layer (IONL), which divides the network layer into three distinct sublayers to support different subnetwork types. ISO 8348This standard defines network layer addressing and describes the connection-oriented and connectionless services provided by the OSI network layer. ISO TR 9575This standard describes the framework, concepts, and terminology used in relation to OSI routing protocols.

OSI Connectionless Network Service

OSI connectionless network service is implemented by using the Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS). CLNP and CLNS are described in the ISO 8473 standard. CLNP is an OSI network layer protocol that carries upper-layer data and error indications over connectionless links. CLNP provides the interface between the Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) and upper layers. CLNS provides network layer services to the transport layer via CLNP. CLNS does not perform connection setup or termination because paths are determined independently for each packet that is transmitted through a network. This contrasts with Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). In addition, CLNS provides best-effort delivery, which means that no guarantee exists that data will not be lost, corrupted, misordered, or duplicated. CLNS relies on transport layer protocols to perform error detection and correction.

OSI Connection-Oriented Network Service

OSI connection-oriented network service is implemented by using the Connection-Oriented Network Protocol (CONP) and Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). CONP is an OSI network layer protocol that carries upper-layer data and error indications over connection-oriented links. CONP is based on the X.25 Packet-Layer Protocol (PLP) and is described in the ISO 8208 standard, "X.25 Packet-Layer Protocol for DTE."

41 CONP provides the interface between CMNS and upper layers. It is a network layer service that acts as the interface between the transport layer and CONP, and it is described in the ISO 8878 standard. CMNS performs functions related to the explicit establishment of paths between communicating transport layer entities. These functions include connection setup, maintenance, and termination. CMNS also provides a mechanism for requesting a specific quality of service (QoS). This contrasts with CLNS.

Network Layer Addressing

OSI network layer addressing is implemented by using two types of hierarchical addresses: network service access point addresses and network entity titles. A network service access point (NSAP) is a conceptual point on the boundary between the network and the transport layers. The NSAP is the location at which OSI network services are provided to the transport layer. Each transport layer entity is assigned a single NSAP, which is individually addressed in an OSI internetwork using NSAP addresses. Figure 30-2 illustrates the format of the OSI NSAP address, which identifies individual NSAPs. Figure 30-2 The OSI NSAP Address Is Assigned to Each Transport Layer Entity

NSAP Address Fields

Two NSAP Address fields exist: the initial domain part (IDP) and the domain-specific part (DSP). The IDP field is divided into two parts: the authority format identifier (AFI) and the initial domain identifier (IDI). The AFI provides information about the structure and content of the IDI and DSP fields, such as whether the IDI is of variable length and whether the DSP uses decimal or binary notation. The IDI specifies the entity that can assign values to the DSP portion of the NSAP address. The DSP is subdivided into four parts by the authority responsible for its administration. The Address Administration fields allow for the further administration of addressing

42 by adding a second authority identifier and by delegating address administration to subauthorities. The Area field identifies the specific area within a domain and is used for routing purposes. The Station field identifies a specific station within an area and also is used for routing purposes. The Selector field provides the specific n-selector within a station and, much like the other fields, is used for routing purposes. The reserved n-selector 00 identifies the address as a network entity title (NET).

End-System NSAPs
An OSI end system (ES) often has multiple NSAP addresses, one for each transport entity that it contains. If this is the case, the NSAP address for each transport entity usually differs only in the last byte (called the n-selector). Figure 30-3 illustrates the relationship between a transport entity, the NSAP, and the network service. Figure 30-3 The NSAP Provides a Link Between a Transport Entity and a Network Service

A network entity title (NET) is used to identify the network layer of a system without associating that system with a specific transport layer entity (as an NSAP address does). NETs are useful for addressing intermediate systems (ISs), such as routers, that do not interface with the transport layer. An IS can have a single NET or multiple NETs, if it participates in multiple areas or domains.

OSI Protocols Transport Layer

The OSI protocol suite implements two types of services at the transport layer: connectionoriented transport service and connectionless transport service. Five connection-oriented transport layer protocols exist in the OSI suite, ranging from Transport Protocol Class 0 through Transport Protocol Class 4. Connectionless transport service is supported only by Transport Protocol Class 4.

43 Transport Protocol Class 0 (TP0), the simplest OSI transport protocol, performs segmentation and reassembly functions. TP0 requires connection-oriented network service. Transport Protocol Class 1 (TP1) performs segmentation and reassembly, and offers basic error recovery. TP1 sequences protocol data units (PDUs) and will retransmit PDUs or reinitiate the connection if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged. TP1 requires connection-oriented network service. Transport Protocol Class 2 (TP2) performs segmentation and reassembly, as well as multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. TP2 requires connection-oriented network service. Transport Protocol Class 3 (TP3) offers basic error recovery and performs segmentation and reassembly, in addition to multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. TP3 also sequences PDUs and retransmits them or reinitiates the connection if an excessive number are unacknowledged. TP3 requires connection-oriented network service. Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP4) offers basic error recovery, performs segmentation and reassembly, and supplies multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. TP4 sequences PDUs and retransmits them or reinitiates the connection if an excessive number are unacknowledged. TP4 provides reliable transport service and functions with either connection-oriented or connectionless network service. It is based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in the Internet Protocols suite and is the only OSI protocol class that supports connectionless network service.

OSI Protocols Session Layer

The session layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a session protocol and a session service. The session protocol allows session-service users (SS-users) to communicate with the session service. An SS-user is an entity that requests the services of the session layer. Such requests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs), and SSusers are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. Figure 30-4 shows the relationship between the SS-user, the SSAP, the session protocol, and the session service. Session service provides four basic services to SS-users. First, it establishes and terminates connections between SS-users and synchronizes the data exchange between them. Second, it performs various negotiations for the use of session layer tokens, which the SS-user must possess to begin communicating. Third, it inserts synchronization points in transmitted data that allow the session to be recovered in the event of errors or interruptions. Finally, it enables SS-users to interrupt a session and resume it later at a specific point. Figure 30-4 Session Layer Functions Provide Service to Presentation Layer Functions via an SSAP

44 Session service is defined in the ISO 8306 standard and in the ITU-T X.215 recommendation. The session protocol is defined in the ISO 8307 standard and in the ITUT X.225 recommendation. A connectionless version of the session protocol is specified in the ISO 9548 standard.

OSI Protocols Presentation Layer

The presentation layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a presentation protocol and a presentation service. The presentation protocol enables presentation-service users (PS-users) to communicate with the presentation service. A PS-user is an entity that requests the services of the presentation layer. Such requests are made at presentation-service access points (PSAPs). PS-users are uniquely identified by using PSAP addresses. Presentation service negotiates transfer syntax and translates data to and from the transfer syntax for PS-users, which represent data using different syntaxes. The presentation service is used by two PS-users to agree upon the transfer syntax that will be used. When a transfer syntax is agreed upon, presentation-service entities must translate the data from the PS-user to the correct transfer syntax. The OSI presentation layer service is defined in the ISO 8822 standard and in the ITU-T X.216 recommendation. The OSI presentation protocol is defined in the ISO 8823 standard and in the ITU-T X.226 recommendation. A connectionless version of the presentation protocol is specified in the ISO 9576 standard.

OSI Protocols Application Layer

The application layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of various application entities. An application entity is the part of an application process that is relevant to the operation of the OSI protocol suite. An application entity is composed of the user element and the application service element (ASE). The user element is the part of an application entity that uses ASEs to satisfy the communication needs of the application process. The ASE is the part of an application entity that provides services to user elements and, therefore, to application processes. ASEs also provide interfaces to the lower OSI layers. Figure 30-5 portrays the composition of a single application process (composed of the application entity, the user element, and the ASEs) and its relation to the PSAP and presentation service. Figure 30-5 An Application Process Relies on the PSAP and Presentation Service


ASEs fall into one of the two following classifications: common-application service elements (CASEs) and specific-application service elements (SASEs). Both of these might be present in a single application entity.

Common-Application Service Elements

Common-application service elements (CASEs) are ASEs that provide services used by a wide variety of application processes. In many cases, multiple CASEs are used by a single application entity. The following four CASEs are defined in the OSI specification: Association control service element (ACSE)Creates associations between two application entities in preparation for application-to-application communication Remote operations service element (ROSE)Implements a request-reply mechanism that permits various remote operations across an application association established by the ACSE Reliable transfer service element (RTSE)Allows ASEs to reliably transfer messages while preserving the transparency of complex lower-layer facilities Commitment, concurrence, and recovery service elements (CCRSE)Coordinates dialogues among multiple application entities.


Specific-Application Service Elements

Specific-application service elements (SASEs) are ASEs that provide services used only by a specific application process, such as file transfer, database access, and order entry, among others.

OSI Protocols Application Processes

An application process is the element of an application that provides the interface between the application itself and the OSI application layer. Some of the standard OSI application processes include the following: Common management-information protocol (CMIP)Performs networkmanagement functions, allowing the exchange of management information between ESs and management stations. CMIP is specified in the ITU-T X.700 recommendation and is functionally similar to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and NetView. Directory services (DS)Serves as a distributed directory that is used for node identification and addressing in OSI internetworks. DS is specified in the ITU-T X.500 recommendation. File transfer, access, and management (FTAM)Provides file-transfer service and distributed file-access facilities. Message handling system (MHS)Provides a transport mechanism for electronic messaging applications and other applications by using store-and-forward services. Virtual terminal protocol (VTP)Provides terminal emulation that allows a computer system to appear to a remote ES as if it were a directly attached terminal. Review Questions QWhat are the two routing protocols specified in the OSI suite? AEnd System-to-Intermediate System (ES-IS) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). QDescribe the OSI connectionless network protocol. AOSI connectionless network service is implemented by using the Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS). CLNP and CLNS are described in the ISO 8473 standard. QDescribe the OSI connection-oriented network protocol.

47 AOSI connection-oriented network service is implemented by using the ConnectionOriented Network Protocol (CONP) and Connection-Mode Network Service (CMNS). QHow are requests to services at the session layer made within OSI protocols? ARequests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs), and SS-users are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. QDescribe common-application service elements (CASEs). ACommon-application service elements (CASEs) are ASEs that provide services used by a wide variety of application processes. In many cases, multiple CASEs are used by a single application entity. QName some of the media types that the OSI protocol suite supports. AIEEE 802.2 LLC, IEEE 802.3, Token Ring/IEEE 802.5, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), and X.25. QWhy was the OSI protocol suite created? AThe OSI specifications were conceived and implemented by two international standards organizations: the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector (ITU-T). QDescribe the session layer protocols within the OSI protocol suite. AThe session layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a session protocol and a session service. The session protocol enables session-service users (SSusers) to communicate with the session service. An SS-user is an entity that requests the services of the session layer. Such requests are made at session-service access points (SSAPs), and SS-users are uniquely identified by using an SSAP address. QDescribe the presentation layer protocols of the OSI protocol suite. AThe presentation layer implementation of the OSI protocol suite consists of a presentation protocol and a presentation service. The presentation protocol enables presentation-service users (PS-users) to communicate with the presentation service. QWhat are the two types of ASEs? AASEs fall into one of the two following classifications: common-application service elements (CASEs) and specific-application service elements (SASEs). Both of these might be present in a single application entity.