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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.

Solid waste comprises of all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. Solid waste consists of highly heterogeneous mass of discarded materials from commercial, industrial, agricultural and mining activities. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is generally consist of nonhazardous components but sometimes hazardous too such as product packaging, waste cloths, glass and bottles, newspapers, paints, batteries, industrial dust, ash, tyres, metal cans and containers, dead animals, medical waste, abandoned vehicles, insulations, conduits and including sewage and sludge comprising all toxic wastewater and night soils etc. The present generation of Indian MSW is ranged from 100-500g/person respectively in small and large town. Among it only 13-20% is recyclable content.

2.

Seeing the scenario of increase in waste generation, improper utilisation and disposal of waste in the country the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has developed the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, which states that Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is commercial and residential wastes generated in a municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes. These solid wastes are generally disposed off in a low lying area called sanitary landfill areas by the municipal authorities. These rules have specified many compliance for the management of solid waste for the State Committee and Pollution Board, which includes proper segregation of

solid waste into biodegradable waste, recyclable and others i.e., nonrecyclable wastes in stored in coloured bins (Green for biodegradable waste, blue for non-biodegradable waste and black for hazardous waste) at the source of generation and properly treated, recycled and disposed to landfill areas.

3.

For estimating effective management of solid waste and to ensure better human health and safety, this project has been carried out for the four cities in India i.e., Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai and

Dehradun,representing the small, medium and large cities in India. This study has its importance as mentioned in State of the Environment (2001) for India that no State/Nation wise inventorisation available at the city levels to identify and quantify municipal waste and biomedical waste except in few places. Preparation of any waste management plan becomes difficult without such inventories. This project is an initiation to undertake such a challenging job for the Indian cities.

4.

Hence, this project is aimed to collect primary and secondary data for quality, quantity and categorisation of municipal solid waste generated from these cities and also analysed the waste management scenarios in these cities. This is to make strategy for environmental management for sustainable development. Municipal solid waste samples from landfill areas were collected and analysed for heavy metals to understand the toxicity of urban solid waste in these cities. This can also estimate the pollution it likely to cause to the ground and surface water in and around that area. Samples were collected twice from all these four cities in April- July 2002 and September 2002- February 2003 respectively (pre and post monsoon).

5.

The secondary data was collected on quantity of waste generation, physical characterization and categorization of municipal solid waste from these cities. For the primary data analysis was done on the collected municipal solid waste samples and some parameters were studied were as pH, EC, Moisture Contents, Total Carbon, Inorganic Carbon, Organic Carbon, Total Sulphur, Inorganic Sulphur, Organic Sulphur, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, C/N ration and heavy metals like Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and toxic metals like Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg) in pre and post-monsoon samples in all four cities.

6.

The secondary data showed that solid waste gathered from Chennai is 3000 tons/day, followed by Bangalore city 2200 tons/day, then Ahmedabad 1200 tons/day and Dehradun as 200 tons/day. Whereas, the organic matter in municipal solid waste was found in order of Bangalore > Ahmedabad > Dehradun then Chennai. Chennai has been reported with lesser organic matter might be due to higher decomposition of solid waste due to high temperature and followed by Dehradun, as most of the organic part of solid waste is utilised as a manure in kitchen garden. The C/N ration of 20-40 is best to be made compost {Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000}. The average value of C/N ration for premonsoon and postmonsoon samples of Ahmedabad city estimated by experimented samples in laboratory as 11, for Bangalore city as 30, for Chennai city 21, for Dehradun city 21. This can be inferred that Bangalore, Chennai and Dehradun samples are good for composting. The pH value for municipal solid waste should be 5.5-8.5, according to Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000. Comparing these values only Ahmedabad was found with higher

pH value then recommended so it needs to process properly before composting.

7.

On comparing the metals concentration with recommended values, it has been found that Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn were within range. The average values of Pb and Cd were observed above 243 and 14 mg/Kg instead of 100 and 5 mg/Kg (recommended value) for premonsoon and postmonsoon samples and average value of Hg was observed as 2.5 mg/Kg for Chennai city instead of 0.15 mg/Kg recommended value so it can be concluded that in Chennai city some industrial be dumped in landfill areas.

8.

On analysing the waste management scenario in these cities, few suggestions or recommendation made are given below. This should also keep in mind that the proper disposal of urban solid waste is not only necessary for the preservation and improvement of public health but it has an immense potential for resource recovery.

9.

These cities were observed with solid waste dumps at the sides of the roads and in dhalaos, so there is need to study municipal solid waste collection, storage, transportation, segregation and disposal scenario from cradle to grave so that cities can be kept clean. This could be kept in mind that increase in population in the city would increase the quantity of solid waste generation and the existing set up needs to improve to manage the increased solid waste generation in the city. Thus, the policy maker and planners should take care of growth in municipal solid waste in their mind, while planning for its management.

10.

The solid waste should be disposed in appropriate place or landfill site. Criteria for landfill site selection and its development should be carefully adopted. The risk of the contamination of groundwater and surface water due to leachate generation and surface runoff from landfills should be checked. The factors like toxicity of waste, volume of the contaminant in it, the geologic medium underlying the site, the hydrologic conditions in the area and water body near dumping site should be properly investigated. We observed that dumping sites/sanitary landfill sites in Ahmedabad and Dehradun cities are near to river systems, which might results in the surface and ground water contamination. In Ahmedabad, Sabarmati river flows within the 3 Km distance from Pirana landfill site and is surrounded by agricultural areas. Similarly, in Dehradun, Rispana River is close to present dumping site and there are all chances of contamination of river water there. It is necessary to insure that dumping sites should not be present near water system and topography should be such that contaminants should not penetrate in ground water.

11.

It is necessary to study the leachate generation from dumped solid waste, as heavy metals from municipal solid waste could contaminate ground water. There are some models available which can be applied for analysing the movement of heavy metals to ground water or surface water around the landfill area like Darcys law. To apply this model or law is these cities, we have to do lots more survey for it.

12.

In these cities, the effective waste management system should be followed, which includes resource recovery through sorting and recycling i.e., recovery of materials such as paper, glass, metals or recovery of energy through biological, thermal or other processes. Waste

transformation leads to reduction in volume and toxicity, which helps in safe and sustainable disposal in landfills.

13.

The practice of minimisation of generation of solid waste needs in the studied cities. For solid waste management, minimisation of waste generation plays key rules. This can only be possible either educating people about it like using less of plastics or reduce waste disposal by recovering maximum possible recyclable materials from it.

14.

The municipal solid waste should be segregated into organic, inorganic, recyclable and hazardous waste, which has not been observed in Chennai and Dehradun cities. This has been recommended in Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000. In Ahmedabad Excel Compost factory is making compost out of some portion organic solid waste and similarly in Bangalore KCDC and CEE utililising waste for compost. But Excel factory feels that they are not getting proper customer to buy this compost and according to them it is require to popularise this bio-compost.

15.

It has been observed that these sanitary landfill areas are getting mixed municipal solid waste, whereas they do not have leachates collection system and proper lining system. This is also recommended in Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000. The landfills should have non-permeable lining system at the base and walls of waste disposal area. The liner system should be 1.5 mm high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane or equivalent of 90 cm of soil (clay or amended soil) having permeability coefficient not greater than 1x10 7

cm/sec. The highest level of water table should be at least two meter

below the base of clay or amended soil barrier layer.

16.

Beside lining, there is need to give modern approach to sanitary landfill site like one can observe in European Countries. The integrated sanitary landfill site could be constructed as given in project proposal, which is not observed in India and also in these cities.

17.

Two alternatives can be considered for working out the economic value for the solid waste disposal besides land filling of solid waste for these cities, taking all the precaution to avoid environmental damages viz. i. ii. Composting from organic portion of waste Incineration- for non-recyclable portion of waste

18.

A system of penalty of administrative charges or special cleaning charges for those who litter the streets or cause nuisance on the streets may be introduced and power to punish offenders may be given to the local bodies.

19.

There is need to bring all stakeholders i.e., municipal authority, development authority, community, NGOs and waste collectors together to manage solid waste in the city environmentally and economically viable manner. This requires to create awareness about the

environmental aspects and to develop sustainable solid waste management public practices to all stakeholders.