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Arrangement by Raaf Hekkema

Raaf Publications, G.W. Burgerpleln 20, 3021 AV Rotterdam, The Netherlands


. www.raafhekkema.com info®raafhekkema.com

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Capriccio nr. 1 in (written)

E major (orig. E major)

Capriccio nr. 2 in B minor (orig. B minor) Capriccio nr. 3 in G minor (orig. E minor) Capriccio nr. 4 in E minor (orig. C minor)
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Capriccio nr. 5 in E minor (orig. A minor) Capriccio nr. 6 in G sharp minor (orig. G minor) Capriccio nr. 7 in C minor (orig, A minor) Capriccio nr. 8 in G major (orig. E flat major) Capriccio
Capriccio

nr. 9 in C major (orig, E major)


nr. 10 in B minor (orig. G minor)

Capriccio

nr. 11 in F major (orig. C major)

Capriccio nr. 12 in C major (orig. A flat major) Capriccio nr. 13 in A major (orig. B flat major) Capriccio nr. 14 in B major (orig. E flat major) Capriccio nr. 15 in G minor (orig. E minor) Capriccio

nr. 16 in B fLat minor (or;g. G minor) nr. 18 in C major (orig, C major) nr. 19 in G major (orig, E flat major)

Capriccio nr. 17 in F major (orig. E flat major)


Capriccio Capriccio

Capriccio nr. 20 in E flat major (orig. D major) Capriccio nr. 21 in F major (orig. A major)
.......

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Capriccio nr. 22 in E flat major (orig. F major) Capriccio nr. 23 in A flat major (orig. E flat major)

Capriccio nr. 24 in C minor (orig. A minor)

All 24 Caprices have been recorded on CD: Paganini Caprices for Saxophone MDG 619 1379-2

Raaf PUblications, G.W. Burgerplein 20, 3021 AV Rotterdam, The Netherlands www. raafhekkerna. com
info@raafhekkema. com

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The Paganini Caprices arranged for saxophone The nineteenth century not onLy marks the birth of the saxophone, brainchild of the Belgian instrument maker AdoLphe Sax, but it also ushered in the unique phenomenon of the virtuoso-composer. Liszt, Chopin, Paganini and, later, Rachmaninov composed mainly for their own instrument, imposing upon themselves seemingly impossible technical demands. In pushing the limits of the piano and the violin they gave the deveLopment of these instruments a considerable impulse; they influenced one another as weLL as setting the standard for performing musicians to this very day. The saxophone, partly under the influence of jazz, has developed into an instrument with enormous potential as a vehicle for virtuoso music, and in this respect it is not surprising that its introduction coincided with the emergence of the nineteenth-century virtuoso-composer. The possibilities have by no means been exhausted: in recent decades composers have, in collaboration with classical saxophonists, added a Large body of innovative and demanding works to the saxophone repertory. Herein one encounters a wealth of new playing techniques that have emerged from the exploration of new sound possibilities. In these arrangements of the Paganini caprices I have accordingly employed some of these techniques in a traditional, tonal context. Many arrangements already exist of Paganini's celebrated Op. 1 (published in Milan in 1820), incLuding those by Liszt, Chopin and Rachmaninov. There are even versions for wind instruments, but to my surprise I discovered that none of these apply the simple technique of transposition to facilitate issues of range and key. These arrangements often come across as illogical because of the many octave jumps - in particular, raising 'bass' passages an octave - which tend to chop up the melody line. The Caprices are not governed by an overall tonal plan; at most the work seems to benefit from a variety of keys. In any case, the fact that the saxophone is itseLf a transposing instrument changes the key anyway. My first step in preparing the arrangements was thus to transpose a number of the Caprices to a key as suited to the saxophone as the originals are to the violin. In the interest of maintaining Paganini's voice leading, I shifted most of the Caprices a third or fourth higher so that the lowest note on the violin corresponded to the lowest note on the saxophone. After arranging and practicing the predominantly monophonic (single-voice) caprices (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15, 16 and 23) I explored the possibility of simultaneous singing and playing (Nos.. 9, 17, 19, 20 and 21). At times the choice of transposition was influenced by other factors. In No. 14, for example, I opted for the key of B major (the original is E-flat major) because of the unique possibility of playing the chords as multiphonics. No.6, in which I sing the melody line while playing the accompaniment (tremolo thirds), had to be adapted to the range of my singing voice. Those Caprices with a lighter character are played on the soprano saxophone rather than the alto sax. All of the various techniques converge in No. 24, now one of my favourites .. At first I had dismissed some of the remaining Caprices as unworkable. I wanted to avoid letting multiphonics and singing become a predictable, artificial or makeshift way to reproduce double stops: . until now I had applied them specifically as a legitimate facet of the music. The most important . criterion was, after all, that the end result be a logical composition. In numbers 4, 7 and 22,going a step further than simply arranging, I put on my composer's hat. The remaining two Caprices (Nos. 8 and 18) were slightly vexing in that their fundamental concept is a play of thirds. Deciding to complete the set, I arranged these two as well, but even more freely than the rest. So in approximately six years' time a collection has emerged consisting of 24 true saxophone pieces, which still I practice daily to my heart's content - and occasionally tinker with, of course. The novelties Paganini introduced in the early 19 century are now standard elements in every serious violinist's study repertoire. The music has inspired me to explore the limits of my own instrument. For the arranger in me, the trick has been to allow myself the same freedom as the master himself, at times taking a detour from what he literally wrote in order to do justice to the saxophone's potential. Countless people have offered useful advice along the long road to the completion of this arrangement. Special thanks, however, go to two of my mentors: saxophonist Claude Delangle, who provided a few crucial tips, and violinist Rudolf Koelman, himself a gifted Paganini performer, who spent hours, even days, advising me from the perspective of a violinist. Raaf Hekkema, march 2006
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In the following list, between brackets, the instrument on which I prefer to play that particular Caprice. It is also the instrumentation that I used in my recording of aLL 24 Caprices for MDG (MDG 619 1379-2). This is not obligatory. As a rule, Caprices that I play on soprano saxophone can also be played on alto
saxophone, reverse would be a major feat ....

Caprice No.1 (alto saxophone) In this caprice I gave priority to the speed of the arpeggios, changing the staccato to legato; the saxophone itself produces a sufficiently detached effect between slurred notes. The original key of E major is in fact very comfortable on the saxophone, and it lends the piece a beautiful, sonorous sound. The timbre shifts in the last ten measures imitate the 'bariolage' technique on the violin. Caprice No. 2 (soprano saxophone) A study in large intervallic leaps. In this piece Paganini most closely approaches the music of J.S. Bach. Caprice No. 3 (soprano saxophone) Here we miss the octaves - almost unplayable on the violin, by the way - at the beginning and the end. The middle section's extreme virtuosity (particularly well suited to the saxophone) allows the piece to retain its capricious character. Caprice No. 4 (soprano saxophone) One of my favourite caprices. In the end it was possible to construct a piece that maintained its original charm while taking into account its ptayability. Caprice No.5 (alto saxophone) The opening arpeggios encompassing the entire range of the instrument offer a serious challenge, but the real work in fact begins with the Agitato. I used the violin bowing as a guideline for the slurs on the saxophone. The piece requires the use of circular breathing throughout. Caprice No.6 (alto saxophone) This started out as a joke, but it soon became a serious attempt at having a saxophone play three voices at once. Female players (higher voice) can try it on soprano saxophone. Caprice No.7 (alto saxophone) At first I was put off by the many double stops, but the result is a nicely idiomatic saxophone piece. In general I have avoided using grace notes to replace double stops, but in this particular caprice they work very well. I changed the opening passage in octaves to alternating high and low registers (see also No. 23). The range of this caprice is exactly four octaves, the largest of the entire collection. Caprice No.8 (alto saxophone) This is one of the last caprices I arranged. The combination of singing and playing is an attempt to create a logical and coherent whole. Caprice No.9 (alto saxophone) Here Paganini wants the violinst to imitate flutes and horns: Ha! We can do that better! The flutes are light and chirpy, the horns heavy and resilient. Caprice No. 10 (alto saxophone) This is one of the most demanding caprices, without resorting to technical tricks. Caprice No. 11 (alto saxophone) Before beginning work on this caprice I took a good look at J.S" Bach, aiming to approach the quasipolyphony of his cello suites. Caprice No. 12 (soprano saxophone) Paganini's unwitting gift to saxophonists: this caprice works marvellously on the soprano saxophone .. It is a difficult and demanding study in leaps, legato and circular breathing. Caprice No. 13 (alto saxophone) The suggestively sinister opening (performed here in multiphonics) refers to this caprice's nickname: 'Devil's Laughter'. The second section is a virtuoso etude that generously taps the saxophone's technical potential. Caprice No. 14 (soprano saxophone) The soprano saxophone's additional key (g"') increases its potential for multiphonics. This caprice is a study in consonant multiphonics. Caprice No. 15 (soprano saxophone) I chose to play this caprice on soprano saxophone because of the light-footedness of the arpeggios in the main theme (starting at m.8). It was obvious early on that this would be an suitable pie,ce, just as.•. caprice NO. 16 (alto saxophone) ... one Of the first caprices I Played. In fact, I did not arrange this one at all,
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Caprice No. 17 (soprano saxophone): I had originally discarded this one, until l discovered that the problem of the double stops could be solved satisfactorily by singing and playing simultaneously. In the minor section I sptitthe octave passage
in two: once low and once high, which made it considerably trickier. Caprice No. 18 (soprano saxophone) Although I had left this piece for last, I'm not at all dissatisfied with the result. The Corrente offers, moreover, a brief study in overtones, which sounds quite beautiful on the saxophone.

Caprice No. 19 (soprano saxophone) Technically this caprice is comparable to No. 17, but it has a different character. The G-string study in minor has likewise been replaced by alternating registers (high/low). Caprice No. 20 (alto saxophone) The sung bourdon tone in the allegretto works well, especially when the upper voice splits in two (tremolo). I gave the 'repeated note' motive a bit more character by changing it to a grace note from

the upper octave. Caprice No. 21 (alto saxophone) The first half (Amoroso) is a study in simultaneous singing and playing. The main challenge of the Presto
involves breath control: the staccato notes require the use of circular breathing. Caprice No. 22 (soprano saxophone) I altered the first half considerably, because I had the feeling it would become too much of an 'arrangement'. The second section, on the other hand, has not been changed at all.

variation is matched by subtly shifting timbres (rapid changes in register). For the first time I also introduce the slap tongue (Var. 9). The play of registers in Var. 5 and 7 is, this time, by Paganini himself.

Caprice No. 23 (alto saxophone) As in No.7 I changed the opening octave passage into one of alternating registers, approaching the sort of challenge the original poses for the violin .. A fun piece to play. Caprice No. 24 (alto saxophone) I attempted to transform this piece, the apotheosis of the 24 Caprices, into a true 'showcase'. It includes a wide variety of techniques: simultaneous singing/playing in various guises (octaves, Yare 3), thirds (var. 6) and with tremolo accompaniment (Var. 8). The 'bariolage' technique in the second

.... _

Raa( Hekkemaz saxo~hone


Multiple prize winner Raaf in addition to the classical premiered his arrangement soloist and as a member of Hekkema is a multifaceted virtuoso with an adventurous spirit. He performs, and contemporary saxophone repertoire, his own arrangements. In 2002 he of Paganini's violin concerto 'La Campanella'. He travels the world as a Calefax Reed Quintet.

Hekkema was awarded the Echo Klassik 2007 as Instrumentalist of the Year for his solo CD Paganini Caprices for saxophone. Other reactions on the CD were just as enthusiastic: Luister wrote: Raai Hekkema is mad. And let us rejoice. Because without Hekkema's madness Paganini's famous caprices would not have existed in a version for saxophone. He plays the Caprices in Q way that lets no room tor tediousness. Hekkema is mad, but it is a brilLiant kind of madness. MusicWeb International declared the CD Recording of the month and Classics Today awarded it with the 'highest ranking' (for recording and performance). Raaf Hekkerna is a founding member of the Calefax Reed Quintet (established in 1985), for which he has made dozens of musical arrangements. He has studied composition with Tristan Keuris. Acclaimed are his. settings of J.S. Bach's 'Art of Fuge' and the Goldberg Variations, Ravel's 'Tombeau de Couperin', keyboard music by Debussy and Rameau, but also Duke Ellington's jazz-suite 'The River' and music for player piano by the American composer Conlon Nancarrow. Calefax has made recordings' for radio and television, and produced a vast number of compact discs which were received enthusiastically by the international press. Being awarded the Philip Morris Prize (in 1997), the Kersjes van de Groenekan Prize (2001) and the Y5CD-music award (2005) the quintet has laid hands on three of the most prestigious distinctions. Raaf Hekkema does not teach, but he has given Masterclasses at the University of Greensboro, North Carolina, the Messiaen Academie, the NJO Summer Academy, at the Hochschule fur Musik und Theater ZOrich and at the music academy of Riga, Latvia. .
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www.raafhekkema.com

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