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Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human

or animal life. The word noise may be from the Latin [1] word nauseas, metaphorically meaning disgust or discomfort. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise, [2][3] and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
Contents
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1 Health effects

o o

1.1 Human health 1.2 Wildlife health

2 Impact in the United Kingdom 3 Mitigation and control of noise 4 Legal status 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

[edit]Health [edit]Human

effects
health

Noise health effects describe problems in both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful [4][5][6][7] [5][8] effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their nonexposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are [9] indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately [4] high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase

in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease. Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban [10] areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction. [edit]Wildlife

[4]

health

Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to [11] temporary or permanent loss of hearing. An impact of noise on animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution has caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of [12] military sonar (see also Marine mammals and sonar). Noise also makes species communicate louder, which is called Lombard vocal response. Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine[14] detectors are on. If creatures do not "speak" loud enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one species begins speaking louder, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem to eventually speak louder. European Robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message [15] can propagate through the environment more clearly. The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon is often attributed. Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other [16] activities and thus lead to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences. [edit]Impact
[13]

in the United Kingdom

Figures compiled by Rockwool, the mineral wool insulation manufacturer, based on responses from local authorities to a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April 2008 2009 UK councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution from private residences. This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8,069 noise abatement notices, or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In the last 12 months, 524 confiscations of equipment have been authorised involving the removal of powerful speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9,814 grievances about noise, which equates to 42.32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight of the top [17] 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London. [edit]Mitigation

and control of noise

The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia, designed to reduce roadway noise without distracting from the area's aesthetics.

Main article: Noise mitigation Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations and hypothetical mitigation. Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project. Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines. Altering flight paths and time of day runway has benefitted residents near airports. Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s via redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounted assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace. [edit]Legal

status

Main article: Noise regulation Governments up until the 1970s viewed noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem. In the United States there are federal standards for highway and aircraft noise; states and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning and roadway development. Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities. An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities. Portland, Oregon instituted the first comprehensive noise code in 1975 with funding from the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and HUD (Housing and Urban Development). The Portland Noise Code includes potential fines of up to $5000 per infraction and is the basis for other major U.S. and [18] Canadian city noise ordinances. Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police.

Noise pollution is a major problem in countries like India during the festivals of Diwali, Navratri and Ganpati. The Government of India has regulations against firecrackers and [19] loudspeakers but enforcement is extremely lax. [edit]See

also

Health effects from noise J. Win Austin, Los Angeles City Council member, 194143, condemned airplane noise

[edit]References

1.

^ noise. Dictionary.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/noise (accessed: March 04, 2012).

2.

^ Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session

3.

^ C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, The relationship between highway planning and urision specialty conference, May 21-23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. by American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division

4.

a b c

S. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otolaryngology, 82:236

(1965) 5. ^
a b

J.M. Field, Effect of personal and situational variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas,

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93: 2753-2763 (1993) 6. 7. 8. 9. ^ "Noise Pollution" . World Health Organisation. ^ "Road noise link to blood pressure" . BBC News. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ Karl D. Kryter, The Effects of Noise on Man , Academic Press (1985) ^ Rosenhall U, Pedersen K, Svanborg A (1990). "Presbycusis and noise-induced hearing loss". Ear Hear 11 (4): 25763. doi:10.1097/00003446-199008000-00002 . PMID 2210099. 10. ^ Jess Barreiro, Mercedes Snchez, Montserrat Viladrich-Grau (2005), "How much are people willing to pay for silence? A contingent valuation study", Applied Economics, 37 (11) 11. ^ Effects of Anthropogenic Noise in the Marine Environment 12. ^ Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 1516 March 2000 13. ^ www.dosits.org/glossary/pop/lvr.htm 14. ^ Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to low-frequency sound broadcasts 15. ^ Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007). "Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins". Biology Letters 3 (4): 36870. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0134 . PMC 2390663.PMID 17456449.

16. ^ Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references ) 17. ^ "London is home to the noisiest neighbours" . London Evening Standard. 18. ^ City of Portland, Oregon. Auditor's Office. Chapter 18.02 Title Noise Control . Retrieved on April 20, 2009. 19. ^ Govt of India: Central Pollution Control Board FAQs

[edit]External

links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Noise pollution

Noise pollution at the Open Directory Project World Health Organization - Guidelines for Community Noise Clive Thompson on How Man-Made Noise May Be Altering Earths Ecology {sic} EEA draws the first map of Europe's noise exposure - All press releases EEA