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Gluteal Region: 4 muscles Muscle Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fascia lata Origin Ilium,

dorsal sacrum, lateral coccyx Ilium Ilium Lateral crest of ilium Insertion Iliotibial tract, Gluteal tuberosity of femur Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Iliotibial tract Function Hip extensor; Lateral stabilizer of hip and knee joints Hip abductor; Prevents pelvic drop on opposite swing side in walking Hip abductor; Prevents pelvic drop on opposite swing side in walking Lateral stabilizer of hip and knee joints Innervation Inferior gluteal (L5-S2) Superior gluteal (L2-S1) Superior gluteal (L2-S1) Superior gluteal (L2-S1) Blood Supply Inferior and superior gluteal Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Lat. circum. fem. Blood Supply Inf & sup gluteal Inf. gluteal Inf. gluteal Inf. gluteal Med. circum. fem.

Pelvic Region: 5 muscles Muscle Origin Insertion Function Piriformis Anterior sacrum Medial greater trochanter Hip abductor; Lateral rotator Superior gemellus Ischial spine Medial greater trochanter Hip abductor; Lateral rotator Obturator internus Obturator membrane Medial greater trochanter Hip abductor; Lateral rotator Inferior gemellus Ischial tuberosity Medial greater trochanter Hip abductor; Lateral rotator Quadratus femoris Lateral ischium Intertrochanteric crest Lateral rotator Obturator internus nerve and quadratus femoris nerve = L5-S1 All classic lateral rotators insert into greater trochanter, receive sacral plexus and inferior gluteal a. EXCEPT Piriformis also gets superior gluteal a. due to position (inf. and sup. gluteal a. emerge around piriformis) Quadratus femoris is lower (no more room on trochanter) and receives med. circum. fem. a. Obturator externus must receive obturator n. and a. through obturator canal Posterior Thigh: 3 muscles: Hamstrings Muscle Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Origin Long head: Ischial tuberosity Short head: Linea aspera Ischial tuberosity Insertion Head of fibula Medial proximal tibia Medial tibial condyle Function Knee flexor; Hip extender Laterally rotates hip and knee Knee flexor; Hip extender Medially rotates hip and knee Knee flexor; Hip extender Medially rotates hip and knee Function Hip adductor; Knee flexor Hip adductor; Hip flexor Lateral rotator Innervation Sacral plexus Obturator internus nerve Obturator internus nerve Quadratus femoris nerve Quadratus femoris nerve

Innervation Sciatic (Tibial) Sciatic (Tibial) Sciatic (Tibial)

Semimembranosu Ischial tuberosity s Medial Thigh: 6 muscles Muscle Gracilis Pectineus Obturator Origin Ischiopubic ramus Pectineal line of pelvis Obturator membrane

Blood Supply Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris Blood Supply Med. circumflex femoral; Obturator Med. circumflex femoral; Obturator Med. circumflex femoral; Obturator

Insertion Upper medial tibia Oblique line of posterior femur Trochanteric fossa

Innervation Obturator Femoral Obturator

externus Adductor longus Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus: Posterior proximal femur Adductor part Adductor magnus: Adductor tubercle of femur Hamstring part From anterior to posterior: longus, brevis, magnus Anterior Thigh: 7 muscles : sartorius + 4 quadricepts + posas and illiacus Muscle Sartorius Rectus femoris Origin Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion Upper medial tibia

Body of pubis Body and ramus of pubis, just superior to gracilis Ischiopubic ramus, above adductor longus and brevis Ischial tuberosity

Linea aspera on posterior femur Linea aspera on posterior femur

Hip adductor; Medial rotator Hip adductor Hip adductor Medial rotator

Obturator Obturator Obturator Sciatic

Med. circumflex femoral; Obturator Med. circumflex femoral; Obturator Obturator And bunches other

Straight head: Anterior inferior iliac spine Reflected head: Ilium above acetabulum Vastus medialis Upper shaft femur Vastus intermedialis Upper shaft femur Vastus lateralis Upper shaft femur Illiacus Posterior abdominal wall Psoas major Posterior abdominal wall Lateral Leg: 2 muscles Muscle Fibularis longus Origin Upper lateral fibula, head of fibula, tibial condyle Fibularis brevis Lower 2/3rds of shaft of fibula Superficial Muscles of Posterior Leg: 3 muscles Muscle Gastrocnemius

Quadricepts femoris tendon Quadricepts femoris tendon Quadricepts femoris tendon Quadricepts femoris tendon Lesser trochanter Lesser trochanter

Function Hip flexor; Knee flexor Lateral rotator; Hip abduction Knee extensor Knee extensor Knee extensor Knee extensor Hip flexor; Lateral rotator Hip flexor; Lateral rotator

Innervation Femoral Femoral Femoral Femoral Femoral Femoral Lumbar plexus

Blood Supply Femoral Lateral circum. fem. Femoral Lateral circum. fem. Lateral circum. fem. Internal iliac Internal iliac

Insertion Underside of distal end of medial cuneiform and base of metatarsal I Lateral tubercle at metatarsal V Insertion Calcaneal tendon to calcaneus Calcaneal tendon to calcaneus Calcaneal tendon to calcaneus

Function Eversion;Plantarflexion Supports arch of foot Eversion Function Plantarflex foot Flex knee Plantarflex foot Flex knee Plantarflex foot

Innervation Superficial fibular Superfiical fibular

Blood Supply Perforating branch of fibular artery Perforating branch fibular a. Blood Supply Sural (branch of popliteal) Sural Posterior Tibial Fibular; Sural Blood Supply

Origin Medial head: superior to femoral condyle Lateral head: lateral femoral condyle Plantaris Laterl supracondylar line of femur Oblique popliteal ligament of knee Soleus Medial tibia (soleal line); Posterior head of fibula Tendinous ligament between tibia and fibula Deep Muscles of Posterior Leg: 4 muscles Muscle Origin Insertion

Innervation Tibial nerve (S1, S2) Tibial nerve (S1, S2) Tibial nerve (S1, S2)

Function

Innervation

Popliteus Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior

Tibia Fibula

Lateral femoral condyle Plantar surface distal phalanx great toe

Unlocks knee by lateral rotation Flexes hallucis

Tibial nerve L4-S1 Tibial nerve S2,S3

Medial tibia Plantar surfaces of phalanges of 4 toes Flex lateral 4 toes Tibial nerve S2,S3 Interosseous membrane Tuberosidy of navicular on medial ankle Inversion; Plantarflexion Tibial nerve L4-L5 Adjacent tibia, fibula Medial cuniform Support medial arch in walk Sustentaculum tali contains Tom, Dick, Harry (superior to inferior): tendons of Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus and flexor Hallucis longus Anterior Leg: 4 muscles Muscle Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Fibularis tertius Dorsal Foot: 1 muscle Muscle Extensor digitorum brevis Origin Lateral tibia; interosseous membrane Middle part of medial fibula and interosseous membrane Proximal part of medial fibula and lateral tibial condyle Distal part of medial fibula Origin Lateral calcaneus Insertion Medial side of medial cuneiform Base of metatarsal I Distal phalanx of great toe Distal and middle phalanges of lateral four toes Base of metatarsal V Function Dorsiflexion; Inversion; Support medial arch Extend hallucis; Dorsiflexion Extend lateral four toes; Dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion; Eversion Function Extend toes Innervation Deep fibular Deep fibular Deep fibular Deep fibular Innervation Deep fibular

Posterior tibial Posterior tibial Fibular Posterior tibial Posterior tibial Fibular

Blood Supply Anterior tibial Anterior tibial Anterior tibial Anterior tibial Blood Supply Dorsalis pedis Arcuate

Insertion Phalanx of great toe and lateral tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes 2 to 4

1st Layer Plantar Foot: 3 muscles Muscle Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor digiti minimi Origin Calcaneal tuberosity Calcaneal tuberosity; Plantar aponeurosis Calcaneal tuberosity Insertion Proximal phalanx hallucis Middle phalanges of 4 toes Proximal phalanx little toe Function Abducts and flexes hallucis Flexes 4 toes at interphalangeal joint Abducts little toe Innervation Medial plantar Medial plantar Lateral plantar

2nd Layer Plantar Foot: 2 muscles Muscle Quadratus plantae Lumbricals Origin Medial calcaneus Lateral calcaneal tuberosity Medial sides of flexor digitorum longus tendons Insertion Lateral side of flexor digitorum longus Extensor hoods of four toes Function Laterally pulls flexor digitorum longus tendon Extends toes Innervation Lateral plantar nerve from tibial nerve Lateral plantar

3rd Layer Plantar Foot: 3 muscles Muscle Origin Insertion Function Innervation

Flexor hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Lateral Head: Cuboid; Lateral cuneiform Medial Head: Tibialis posterior tendon Transverse: Metatarosphalangeal joints of lateral 3 toes Oblique: Metatarsals II to IV; Tendon of fibularis longus muscle Base of metatarsal V; Fibularis longus tendon

Lateral and medial sides of proximal phalanx of hallucis Lateral proximal phalanx of hallucis Lateral base of proximal phalanx toe 5

Flexes hallucis Adducts hallucis Flexes little toe

Medial plantar Lateral plantar Lateral plantar

4th Layer Plantar Foot: 2 muscles Muscle Dorsal interossei Origin Adjacent metatarsals Insertion Proximal phalanges toes 2-5 Function Abducts toes 2-5 Innervation Lateral plantar; 2nd dorsal interossei also by deep fibular Lateral plantar

Plantar interossei Medial side of metatarsals of toes 3-5 Proximal phalanges toes 3-5 Adducts toes 3-5 Interossei mnemonic PAD/DAB: plantar adduction, dorsal abduction Anterior tibial gives rise to dorsalis pedis and arcuate artery. Posterior tibial gives rise to medial and lateral plantar artery.

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