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Biology, 7e (Campbell)

Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition

Chapter Questions
1) The body is capable of catabolizing many substances as sources of energy. Which of the following would be used as an energy source only after the depletion of other sources? A) fat in adipose tissue B) glucose in the blood C) protein in muscle cells D) glycogen in muscle cells E) calcium phosphate in bone Answer: C 2) An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit from storing its energy as A) proteins. B) minerals. C) carbohydrates. D) amino acids. E) fats. Answer: E 3) Which one of the following statements about obesity is false? A) The majority of the people in the United States are either obese or overweight. B) Obesity contributes to diabetes, cancer of the colon and breasts, and cardiovascular disease. C) Inheritance is a major factor in obesity. D) As adipose tissue increases, leptin blood levels rise. E) If a person's excess calories were stored as carbohydrates instead of fat, that person would weigh less. Answer: E 4) Some nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of certain animals because A) only those animals use the nutrients. B) they are subunits of important polymers. C) they cannot be manufactured by the organism. D) they are necessary coenzymes. E) only some foods contain them. Answer: C 5) Which of the following is not one of the four classes of essential nutrients? A) essential sugars B) essential amino acids C) essential fatty acids D) essential vitamins E) essential minerals Answer: A 6) Animals require certain basic amino acids in their diet. An amino acid that is referred to as nonessential would be best described as one that A) can be made by the animal's body from other substances. B) is not used by the animal in biosynthesis. C) must be ingested in the diet. D) is less important than an essential amino acid. E) is not found in many proteins. Answer: A 7) Which of the following vitamins is incorrectly associated with its use? A) vitamin Csynthesis of connective tissue B) vitamin Aincorporated into the visual pigment of the eye C) vitamin Dcalcium absorption and bone formation D) vitamin Eprotection of membrane phospholipids from oxidation E) vitamin Kproduction of red blood cells Answer: E 8) Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin? A) vitamin A B) vitamin B12 C) vitamin C D) iodine E) calcium Answer: A

9) Because they accumulate in the body, excess ingestion of which of the following can have toxic effects? A) fat-soluble vitamins B) water-soluble vitamins C) calcium and phosphorus D) proteins E) sugars Answer: A 10) Which of the following minerals is incorrectly associated with its use in animals? A) calciumconstruction and maintenance of bone B) magnesiumcofactor in enzymes that split ATP C) ironregulation of metabolic rate D) phosphorusingredient of nucleic acids E) sodiumimportant in nerve function Answer: C 11) Which of the following terms could be applied to any organism with a digestive system? A) heterotroph B) autotroph C) herbivore D) omnivore E) chemoautotroph Answer: A 12) During the process of digestion, fats are broken down when fatty acids are detached from glycerol. In addition, proteins are digested to yield amino acids. What do these two processes have in common? Both A) are catalyzed by the same enzyme. B) occur intracellularly in most organisms. C) involve the addition of a water molecule to break bonds (hydrolysis). D) require the presence of hydrochloric acid to lower the pH. E) require ATP as an energy source. Answer: C 13) Which of the following digestive processes requires enzymes? A) ingestion B) peristalsis C) absorption D) hydrolysis E) elimination Answer: D 14) To leave the digestive tract, a substance must cross a cell membrane. During which stage of food processing does this take place? A) ingestion B) digestion C) hydrolysis D) absorption E) elimination Answer: D 15) Intracellular digestion is usually immediately preceded by which process? A) hydrolysis B) endocytosis C) absorption D) elimination E) secretion Answer: B 16) Which of these animals has a gastrovascular cavity? A) pigeon B) hydra C) elephant D) beetle E) leech Answer: B

17) Increasing the surface area facilitates which of the following digestive processes? A) hydrolysis B) absorption C) elimination D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: D 18) Which of the following is an advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity? A) Extracellular digestion is not needed. B) Specialized regions are possible. C) Digestive enzymes can be more specific. D) Extensive branching is possible. E) Intracellular digestion is easier. Answer: B 19) Which of the following do not need a digestive system? A) heterotrophs B) autotrophs C) herbivores D) omnivores E) carnivores Answer: B 20) Which one of the following has a shape most like an animal with a gastrovascular cavity? A) a drinking straw B) a baseball bat C) a garden hose D) an umbrella E) a vase Answer: E 21) What is peristalsis? A) a process of fat emulsification in the small intestine B) voluntary control of the rectal sphincters regulating defecation C) the transport of nutrients to the liver through the hepatic portal vessel D) a common cause of loss of appetite, fatigue, and dehydration E) smooth muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal Answer: E 22) After ingestion, the first type of macromolecule to be worked on by enzymes in the human digestive system is A) protein. B) carbohydrate. C) fat. D) nucleic acid. E) glucose. Answer: B 23) What is the substrate of salivary amylase? A) protein B) starch C) sucrose D) glucose E) maltose Answer: B 24) Which of the following statements about the mammalian digestive system is true? A) All foods begin their enzymatic digestion in the mouth. B) After leaving the oral cavity, the bolus enters the larynx. C) The epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea. D) Enzyme production continues in the esophagus. E) The trachea leads to the esophagus and then to the stomach. Answer: C

25) What part(s) of the digestive system have secretions with a pH of 2? A) small intestine B) stomach C) pancreas D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Answer: B 26) Which of the following statements about pepsin is true? Pepsin A) is manufactured by the pancreas. B) helps stabilize fat-water emulsions. C) splits maltose into monosaccharides. D) begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach. E) is denatured and rendered inactive in solutions with low pH. Answer: D 27) Without functioning parietal cells, an individual would A) not be able to initiate protein digestion in the stomach. B) not be able to initiate mechanical digestion in the stomach. C) only be able to digest fat in the stomach. D) not be able to produce pepsinogen. E) not be able to initiate digestion in the small intestine. Answer: A 28) Most enzymatic hydrolysis of the macromolecules in food occurs in the A) small intestine. B) large intestine. C) stomach. D) liver. E) mouth. Answer: A 29) Most nutrients are absorbed across the epithelium of the A) colon. B) stomach. C) esophagus. D) small intestine. E) large intestine. Answer: D 30) A structure that does not manufacture any digestive substances is the A) duodenum. B) pancreas. C) salivary gland. D) gallbladder. E) liver. Answer: D 31) Which of the following statement(s) about bile salts is (are) true? Bile salts A) are enzymes. B) are manufactured by the pancreas. C) emulsify fats in the duodenum. D) increase the efficiency of pepsin action. E) are normally an ingredient of gastric juice. Answer: C 32) Most nutrients absorbed into the lymph or bloodstream are in which form? A) disaccharides B) polymers C) monomers D) enzymes E) peptides Answer: C 33) Which of the following enzymes has the lowest pH optimum? A) amylase B) pepsin C) lipase D) trypsin E) sucrase

Answer: B

34) Where are the agents that help emulsify fat produced? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 8 E) 9 Answer: E 35) Where does the complete digestion of carbohydrates occur? A) 3 only B) 4 only C) 1 and 4 D) 3 and 4 E) 1, 3, and 4 Answer: B 36) Where does the digestion of fats occur? A) 3 only B) 4 only C) 1 and 4 D) 3 and 4 E) 1, 3, and 4 Answer: B 37) Which structure is home to bacteria that produce vitamins as by-products of their metabolism? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 7 E) 8 Answer: C 38) Which one of the following statements about digestion is false? A) Digestion is catalyzed by enzymes. B) Digestion cleaves nucleic acids into nucleotides. C) Digestion cleaves fats into glycerol and fatty acids. D) During digestion the essential macromolecules are directly absorbed. E) During digestion polysaccharides and disaccharides are split into simple sugars. Answer: D

39) How does the digestion and absorption of fat differ from that of carbohydrates? A) Processing of fat does not require any digestive enzymes, whereas the processing of carbohydrates does. B) Fat absorption occurs in the stomach, whereas carbohydrates are absorbed from the small intestine. C) Carbohydrates need to be emulsified before they can be digested, whereas fats do not. D) Most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the blood. E) Only fat must be worked on by bacteria in the large intestine before it can be absorbed. Answer: D 40) Which of the following is not a nutritional monomer that can be transported in the blood? A) sucrose B) glucose C) fatty acid D) amino acid E) nucleotide Answer: A 41) In which blood vessel is glucose concentration likely to vary the most? A) abdominal artery B) coronary arteries C) pulmonary veins D) hepatic portal vessel E) hepatic vein, which drains the liver Answer: D 42) Which of the following glandular secretions involved in digestion would be most likely released initially as inactive precursors? A) protein-digesting enzymes B) fat-solubilizing bile salts C) acid-neutralizing bicarbonate D) carbohydrate-digesting enzymes E) hormones such as gastrin Answer: A 43) In humans, about 7 liters of fluid are secreted each day into the intestinal tract. Which of the following does not secrete fluid? A) salivary glands B) stomach C) liver D) pancreas E) large intestine Answer: E 44) Adult lampreys attach onto large fish and feed regularly on their body fluids. Given this continuous supply of food, which one of the following is most likely missing in lampreys? A) liver B) pancreas C) intestine D) stomach E) gallbladder Answer: D 45) Which portion of the digestive tract is most like a hallway in a school building, connecting one classroom to another? A) stomach B) esophagus C) small intestine D) liver E) pancreas Answer B 46) Which of the following would probably contribute to constipation? A substance that A) contains plenty of fiber. B) promotes water reabsorption in the large intestine. C) speeds up movement of material in the large intestine. D) decreases water reabsorption in the large intestine. E) stimulates peristalsis. Answer: B

47) In general, herbivorous mammals have molars modified for A) cutting. B) ripping. C) grinding. D) splitting. E) piercing. Answer: C 48) In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum? A) carnivores B) herbivores C) autotrophs D) heterotrophs E) omnivores Answer: B 49) All of the following are adaptations to an herbivorous diet except A) broad, flat molars. B) a rumen. C) ingestion of feces. D) bile salts. E) amylase. Answer: D 50) Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material? A) They are autotrophic. B) Cattle, like the rabbit, reingests its feces. C) They manufacture all 15 amino acids out of sugars in the liver. D) Cattle saliva has enzymes capable of digesting cellulose. E) They have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs. Answer: E

Media Activity Questions

51) Your small intestine can absorb ________ without their being further digested. A) starches B) fats C) proteins D) fructoses E) nucleic acids Answer: D 52) Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as A) lactose. B) glucose. C) sucrose. D) fructose. E) maltose. Answer: E 53) What is the main component of gastric juice? A) inactive pepsin B) amylase C) hydrochloric acid D) water E) bile Answer: D 54) Secretin stimulates the ________ to secrete ________. A) pancreas; bicarbonate B) pancreas; pancreatic enzymes C) small intestine; disaccharidases D) stomach; bicarbonate E) liver; liver enzymes Answer: E 55) The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as A) cholecystokinin, or CCK. B) histones. C) TSH. D) secretin. E) pepsin. Answer: D