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Overview of Standard 189.1-2009 for 189.

1HighHigh-Performance, Green Buildings

Tom Lawrence, Ph.D. P.E., LEED-AP Lawrence Ph D P E LEEDlawrence@engr.uga.edu

Introduction and greetings from the University of Georgia

Green Buildings Overview, Standard 189 - 2

Copyright Materials
Copyright 2009 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning g g g Airg Engineers (ASHRAE). All rights reserved. No part of this presentation may be reproduced without written permission from ASHRAE, nor may any part of this presentation be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording or other) without written permission from ASHRAE.

ASHRAE Standard 189.1

Overview of proposed ASHRAE Standard 189.1 for High-Performance, Green HighHigh Buildings
- What is it? - Why have it? - Hi hli ht Highlights

Sponsors and Project Committee

Consensus process Sponsor and co-sponsors: co- ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Air- USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) - IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America)

Project committee: 35 voting members; variety of disciplines, industries & organizations


Standard 189.1: Intent

What Standard 189.1 is:
- a standard d d - applies to all buildings except low-rise residential lowbuildings (same as ASHRAE Std 90.1) p g - intended for adoption into model building codes

What Standard 189.1 is not: - not a design guide - not a rating system
Even if not adopted by your local authorities, this Standard is an indication of future industry trends

Standard 189.1: Relation to Other ASHRAE Standards

90.1 (current version) 90.1 (current version) 62.1 (current version)

Adapt, with modifications

Adapt, Adapt with minor modifications

55 (current version)


Section 2 - Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum requirements for the siting, design, q siting, g g construction, and plans for operation of high performance, green buildings to: (a) balance environmental responsibility, resource efficiency, occupant comfort and well being, and community sensitivity, and being comm nit sensiti it (b) support the goal of development that

meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs. needs. needs. .

Organization and What it Covers

Similar Si il to other ASHRAE standards and LEED h d d d

Standard 189.1 Basic Structure

For Each Section x.1: Scope x.2: x 2: Compliance x.3: Mandatory (required for all projects) ( i df ll j t ) x.4: Prescriptive path (simple option, minimal choices, very few calculations) x.5: Performance path ( (more sophisticated, flexibility, but p , y, more effort)

Highlights of Standard 189.1

Chapter Ch t 5 - Sit Sites: Discourages unmitigated sprawl Prohibited development activity
- Flood plains, wetlands, fish & wildlife habitat

Other areas that are addressed:

- Amount of impervious surface area [max % of

total site to be impervious - Prescriptive] l b Prescriptive] - Urban heat island [shaded or higher solar reflective index materials]
- Light pollution limitations

[max lumens per site, backlight and glare limits]


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Mandatory Provisions Site water use: bio-diverse plantings for use: bio60% of improved landscape, hydrozoning & smart irrigation controllers


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Mandatory Provisions Building water use: use: ( plumbing fixtures & fittings per U.S. U S EPA WaterSense or ASME Standards, Standards with specific limit on flow amount or rate (6 3 2 2) appliances per U.S. EPA US EnergyStar, EnergyStar, with water use factor for dwelling unit or public access


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Mandatory Provisions (cont.) HVAC Systems (6 3 2 3): ( 3): - Subsystem metering above thresholds - Cooling tower cycles of concentration limit, efficient drift eliminators - Condensate collection from units >19 kW (65,000 Btu/h) ( , / )
Annual condensate collection Georgia: ~12.6 gal/cfm Outdoor air or about 100 liters water/(l/s) Iowa: ~6.1 gal/cfm OA Sacramento: ~1.3 gal/cfm OA


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Mandatory Provisions (cont.) Roofs (6 3 2 4): ( 4):
- NO potable water spray on roofs for thermal conditioning or watering vegetation


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Mandatory Provisions (cont.) Consumption measurement: measurement: Measurement devices with remote communication to data management system (with storage and retrieval capability)
- Leased spaces totaling 50,000 ft (5000 m) 50 000 - Heavy use (> 1000 gal/day) leased areas regardless of size (e g laundry) (e.g.,

Metering of water source(s) and primary water use systems above threshold use rate

Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency



Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Prescriptive Option Site Water Use (6.4.1): (6.4.1): )
- Limitations on potable water for irrigation Maximum of 1/3 of total landscaped area (except golf courses, no potable water use) Can exclude dedicated athletic fields for schools, residential common areas, public recreation facilities Allow for plant establishment period Use municipal reclaimed water if available within 200 ft 18

Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Prescriptive Option Building Water Use (6.4.2): g (6.4.2): )
- Cooling Towers
Based on water quality
Makeup Water >200 mg/l hardness

3 cycles for water

5 cycles for water

Exception: Maximum blowdown concentration of 1,500 mg/l total dissolved solids or 150 mg/l silica


Chapter 6 Water Use Efficiency

Performance Option Site water use reduction: reduction: Potable water for irrigation <35% of landscape water demand (based p ( on Eto) Eto) Building use: use:

Proposed use < [mandatory + prescriptive]


Energy Chapter 7

Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Energy General Highlights: gy g g Basic goal 30% lower than Standard 90.190.12007 INCLUDING PROCESS Appendix G from Standard 90.1 is incorporated as a Normative Appendix Metering for verification Peak load reduction Other areas increase stringency beyond g y y Standard 90.1

ASHRAE Energy Goals

ASHRAE goal to have net-zero energy and netcarbon by 2030

Energy Reduction Proposal

En nergy (kBtu/y yr)

Standard 90.1 AEDG ASHRAE BOD Goal Standard 189

2010 2015 2020 2025 2030



General Compliance Path(s)


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Mandatory Requirements: y q
- On-site renewable power (7.3.2) On( Provisions for future installation with minimum rating of 3.7 W/ft (13 Btu/hr-ft) W/ft (13 Btu/hr-ft) [40 W/m] x roof area in ft[m] W/m] ft[m] Exception f areas with low incident solar E ti for ith l i id t l (4.0 kWh/m2/day), account for local shading



Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Energy Mandatory (cont.): Remote or automatic reading meters (7.3.3) criteria based on size - Energy sources (T bl 7.3.3-1) E (Table 7.3.3733 - Key systems (Table 7.3.3-2) 7.3.3Meters communicate to central recording y system Data storage for minimum 36 months
Exception: Residential portions of buildings complying with this Standard

Energy Metering Thresholds


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (General) From DOE Study Std. 189.1 30.2% lower than Standard 90.1-2007 90.190 1 (9% due to renewables) renewables) Average EUI = 50 kBtu/ft kBtu/ft Standard 189.1 builds from 90.1from 90.1-2007


Higher in heating dominated climates 9% from renewable energy


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option Prescriptive Option: Renewable Energy - On-site renewable energy system with On6 kBtu/ftyr[20kWh/myr] kBtu/ft yr[20kWh/m ] [20 kWh/
Exception (meet both of these):
- Low incident solar regions (4.0 kWh/m/day) kWh/m/day) or account for local buildings, topography - P h Purchase of green power i terms of f in f 7 kWh/ft-yr [75 kWh/m-yr] annually until kWh/ftkWh/mcumulative purchase of 70 kWh/ft-yr kWh/ft[750 kWh/m-yr] kWh/m31

Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) P i i O i (B ildi E l ) Comply with Standard 90.1, Section 5 with modifications difi ti Replaces Table 5.5-1 thru 8 on building envelope 5.5in 90.1, for example: 90 1 (7 4 2) 7.4.2)


Climate Zones


Corresponding International


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Example comparisons:


(7 4 2) 7.4.2)

Climate zone 3

Std 90 1 90.1 Insulation above deck R-20 R-

Std 189 1 189.1 R-25

More stringent SHGC M ti t

Climate zone 5
Std. 90.1: Std. 189.1: Std 189 1

R=3.5 R=3 5 (SI) R=4 4 R=4.4

Example for <40% window area: 0.40 0.35 all orientations 0 35 ll i t ti


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Vertical fenestration <40% gross wall area ( ) Overhang: PF >0.5 ( )
Exception for cases with <250 hours per year direct sunlight

- Permanent projections: west, east & south - Climate zones 1-5 1-


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) SHGC Multipliers (different than Std 90.1) (7 4 2 6)


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Fenestration area and SHGC complies with p ( Exception
Buildings adjacent to or shaded by other buildings


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Continuous air barrier requirement (7.4.2 10) Complies with Normative Appendix B to control air leakage in and out Detailed D t il d on construction documents t ti d t Not required for semi-heated spaces that semicomply with Std. 90.1 Section
(defines areas of envelope to be sealed, caulked, gasketed or weather-stripped) k t d weather- t i th d)


7.4.3 HVAC
90.1 (current version) ) 90.1 (current version) (

General Concept: Based on Standard 90.1, but modify to gain improved energy performance over code minimum standards

Adapt, with modifications

7.4.3 HVAC
Brief mention of modifications to Std. 90.1
- 7 4 3 1 Minimum equipment efficiency Either use equipment with efficiencies of: - EPAct baseline more on-site renewable and on-

peak load reduction, OR - Higher efficiency levels Greater of the efficiency per Energy Star (if applicable) or Tables C 1-15. pp ) 1Includes new definition of chiller efficiency formula from ARI Standard test conditions


7.4.3 HVAC Lowers occupancy threshold for demanddemand-controlled ventilation (DCV)
90.1 (current version) 90.1 (current version)

Standard 90.1-2007: 40 people/100 m 90 1 2007: and area >50 m 25 people/ 100 m m If with CO2 sensors, install per p Note: Type of DCV used is not specified in Std. 189.1

7.4.3 HVAC Duct sealing level A everywhere Expanded economizer Standard 90.1 90 1 requirement

- Exempted 3A and 4A - Capacity > 65,000 Btu/h (19 kW)

- Rooftop units <5 tons: two stage (first stage economizer then second stage adds mechanical) - VAV supply air temp reset by at least 5 F (3 C) 5

7.4.3 HVAC
More on Economizers
- Li it on total capacity of systems without Limits t t l it f t ith t economizers If reqd, max. capacity without economizer
= 480,000 Btu/h or 140 kW

- Less flexibility on high limit shutoff control


7.4.3 HVAC Expanded economizer reqt
- Exceptions:
Based on IEER part-load efficiency, or full load EER / SEER

Water cooled units with heat transferred with building (water-source heat pumps) and less (waterthan 54,000 Btu/hr (16 kW) capacity


7.4.3 HVAC Zone controls for limit on reheat
- Volume reheated re-cooled or remixed not to reheated, reexceed design OA flow rate or 15% of total peak supply p pp y Fan power limits

- 10%


7.4.3 HVAC System controls - 2 stages for DX >65 000 Btu/h (19 kW) >65,000 kW), - Air handling or fan coil units with CHW coils and >5 hp (3.7 kW) motor have il d h (3 7 t h reduced fan speed option 1. of full fan speed 2. Volume of outdoor air per Std. 62.1 p - Single zone, DX units > 110,000 Btu/hr (32 kW) supply fans 2-speed or VSD 247

7.4.3 HVAC Expand energy recovery reqt

- 60% energy recovery effectiveness (enthalpy) - Provisions to bypass to allow air economizing

7.4.3 HVAC Kitchen hoods add variable speed (significant impact on energy) and .11 Minimum duct and pipe insulation increased (Tables C-9, C) 10 and 11) Unoccupied hotel/motel >50 guest rooms


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (cont.) 7 4 5 Power 7.4.5
- Peak load reduction

Reduce peak capacity of the building through demand-limiting or load demandshifting measures ( g (5%) )


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Lighting) Interior lighting power to be 10% less than ASHRAE Standard 90.1 ( 7 4 6 1) Occupancy sensor controls ( 7 4 6 2)
- Offices <250 ft (25 m) ft m) - Classrooms, lecture, training, conference or meeting rooms (<1000 ft or 100 m) ft

Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Lighting) (7 4 6 3) Occupancy sensor control to reduce power to <50% for:
- Hotel, motel hallways Hotel - Storage stack aisles - Lib Library stacks t k

Exception: HID lit areas < 0.8 W/ft or 8 W/m 0 8 W/ft

Egress lighting control, < 0 1 W/ft2 (1 W/m) 0.1 W/m W/ Additional allowed if w/ auto shut-off shut-


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Prescriptive Option (Lighting) AutoAuto-controls for daylight zones, zones outdoor lighting (
- Continuous dimming, or dimming - Stepped switching with autoauto-off


Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

7.5 Performance Based Option: Demonstrated equivalent performance in both energy cost and CO2 equivalent compared to if using the Prescriptive path Proposed Mandatory + Prescriptive Path
Using Normative Appendix D i i di Performance Option for Energy Efficiency Efficiency

Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7)

Performance Based Option: 7.5.4 Annual Load Factor/ Peak Electric Demand Same or less peak electric demand as if following the prescriptive path g p p p Minimum annual electrical load factor of 0 25 0.25


Indoor Environmental Quality Mandatory Key Items to ASHRAE members:

Outdoor airflow Tobacco smoke control Outdoor air monitoring monitoring Filtration and air cleaning
Refers to and modifies


Indoor Environmental Quality

8.3.1 IAQ Minimum ventilation design outdoor airflow rate per Standard 62.1, using Ventilation Rate Procedure Outdoor air delivery monitoring
- Permanently mounted, direct outdoor airflow measurement 15% of minimum outdoor airflow - CO2 monitoring instead if system i i i d serves only densely occupied spaces - C Constant volume air supply, damper position t t l i l d iti feedback allowable instead

Indoor Environmental Quality Filtration
- (a) Particulates - Minimum MERV 8 upstream of cooling coils, MERV 13 when project located in non-attainment area for PM2.5 non(Modifies d ( d f and strengthens Std. 62.1 h d )

- (b) Ozone cleaners for outdoor air in building projects located in non-attainment areas for nonozone. (Ozone removal efficiency = 40%, per Std.

- (c) Filter frames, air cleaner racks, access doors sealed to eliminate bypass pathways yp p y

Indoor Environmental Quality Environmental Tobacco Smoke E i t lT b S k Control
- No smoking inside, with signage - No smoking within 25 feet (7.5 m) of

entrance, outdoor air i d i intakes or k operable windows


Indoor Environmental Quality

Other M d t Oth Mandatory: Thermal Comfort
- Comply with Std. 55 Sections 6.1 and 6.2 (Design d (D i and Documentation)

Mat M t systems at t t building entrances Envelop acoustical design (sound (sound transmission rating criteria)


Indoor Environmental Quality

Prescriptive Option (8.4): (8.4): Side daylighting Office space shading (glare) Low emitting materials


Indoor Environmental Quality

Performance Option (8.5): (8.5): Daylighting simulation
- Office space and classrooms - Minimum illuminance target: 300 lux (30 fc) on work surfaces in 75% of fc) daylight zone, at noon equinox zone

Direct sun limitation on office worksurface

Direct Di t sunlight on worksurface <20% of li ht k f f occupied hours on equinox day (worksurface = 2.4 feet [0.75 m] above floor)

Indoor Environmental Quality

Performance Option (8.5): (8.5): Modeling for individual VOC concentrations for each material used, sum total to show compliance with California CA/DHS/EHLB/RCA/DHS/EHLB/R-7174 (CA Section 1350)


Buildings Impact on Atmosphere, Materials and Resources ( 9) ( Mandatory Items Key to ASHRAE:
Construction waste management
- Divert 50% of non-hazardous waste, nondemolition debris (not counting soil, land clearing) - Off-site storage and sorting Offis allowed - Li it on total waste Limit t t l t generated per floor area


Buildings Impact on Atmosphere, Materials and Resources ( 9) ( Mandatory Items Key to ASHRAE:
No CFCs; fire suppression systems contain no ozone depleting p g substances (CFCs, HCFCs , Halons) Halons)
Storage, Storage collection of recyclable materials, discarded fluorescent lamps and ballasts


Construction and Operation Plans OVERVIEW

All Mandatory Provisions: 10 3 1 Construction 10.3.1 10.3.2 Plans for Operation


Construction and Operation Plans OVERVIEW

10.3.1 Construction Building acceptance testing Commissioning g Erosion and sediment control Indoor air quality Moisture control Construction vehicles


Requirements Concerning Construction Building Acceptance Testing Activities prior to permit, and prior to p y occupancy Designate representative to oversee Construction documents indicate who does what Mechanical M h i l systems, lighting, t li hti renewable energy, energy & water measure d i t devices

Construction Requirements (cont.) Building Project Commissioning g Full commissioning for >500 m (5,000 ft ) m ft)
- HVAC, building envelope, lighting, irrigation, plumbing, domestic water, renewable energy

Designate CxA Develop OPR and Basis of Design Design reviews at 50% and final construction documents

Doing full Cx p process also satisfies the Building Acceptance Test requirements

Construction Requirements (cont.) IAQ Construction Mgmt Develop and implement an IAQ Construction Management Plan, to include:
- Air conveyance materials - Permanent HVAC not used during construction, except for startup testing - Flush-out or baseline IAQ monitoring Flush-


Construction Requirements (cont.)

IAQ Construction Management Post-construction, prePost-construction pre-occupancy
1. Flush-out: Temp >60 F (15 C), RH 60% Flush>60

Filtration if Air Quality Forecast >100 Occupancy at flush possible


Construction Requirements (cont.)

IAQ Construction Management Post-construction, prePost-construction pre-occupancy
1. Flush-out: Temp >60 F (15 C), RH 60% Flush>60 (15 C), 2. Baseline IAQ Monitoring for 34 contaminants (next slide sample list) 1 sample point per 25,000 ft(2,500m)or ft(2,500m)or each contiguous floor area eachcontiguousfloorarea


10.3.2 Plans for Operation


High Performance Building Operation

Site Sustainability Water Use Efficiency Energy Efficiency Indoor Environmental Quality Q y

2. 3. 3 4.

Maintenance Service Life Transportation Management


Compare Standard 189.1 to LEED

Std. 189.1: Voluntary vs. V l mandatory

- Improvement in all topical areas - Pushes the envelope 74

More Information
Information on ASHRAE standards: www.ashrae.org then follow

Standards, includes listserv for Standard 189.1

Information on USGBC programs: www.usgbc.org b Information on IESNA programs: p g www.iesna.org

Thank you!
Comments, questions, concerns, advice

Dr. Tom Lawrence, P.E., LEED-AP LEEDlawrence@engr.uga.edu