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ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.

1
Number Sets

Natural numbers

0
Whole numbers

0
Integers

0
Rational numbers

0
Real numbers

0
Irrational numbers

SET RELATIONSHIPS:

Name all the sets the given number belongs to:


7

16

− 36
12

− 12
36
ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.2
Properties

ADDITION MULTIPLICATION
Commutative a+b=b+a a*b=b*a

Associative  a  b  c  a   b  c  a b  c  a  b c 

Identity a0 a 1 a  a

Inverse a  (a )  0 1
a 1
a

Distributive property of addition over multiplication


a(b  c)  ab  ac

Distributive property of subtraction over multiplication


a(b  c)  ab  ac

Fill in the blanks with the property examples below:

3(9  4)  3  9  3  4 2  4  4  (2)
(7  3) 11  7  (3 11)
1 0  (8)  8
34  ( 34)  0   (5)  1
5 2 5 10
37  29  29  37  
8  (2  4)  6  (8  2)  (4  6) 3 5 15
Addition: Multiplication:
Commutative: _____________________ commutative: _____________________

Associative: _____________________ associative: _____________________

Identity: _____________________ identity: _____________________

Inverse: _____________________ inverse: ______________________

Distributive of multiplication over addition or subtraction: _______________________


ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.3
Axioms
Equations Inequalities
Reflexive A=A

Symmetric If A = B, than A = B

Comparison The only one can be


true:A>B, A<B, A=B
Transitive If A=B and B=C then If A<B and B<C then
A=C A<C
Addition If A=B, then If A<B, then
A+C=B+C A+C<B+C
Multiplication If A=B, then A  C=B  If A<B,andC>0 then A
C  C<B  C

If A<B,andC>0 then A
 C<B  C

1. Name the property:


a) Either Alma is younger than Iris, or they are the same age, or Alma is
older than Iris. ______________

b) If Ethan is the same age as Kyle, then Kyle is the same age as Ethan. ______________

c) Cody and his dad work for the same company, which gives it’s employees
Christmas bonus 10% of the monthly salary. If dad’s salary is higher than ______________
Cody’s, then dad’s bonus will be higher than Cody’s.

d) If y + 5 = x – 2 and x – 2 = 10 then y + 5 = 10 ______________

e) If y + 5 = 10 , then y + 5 + -5 = 10 + -5, so y = 5 ______________

x x ______________
f) If < 10, then  (2) > 10  (2) , so x > -5
2 2

2. Fill in appropriate sign into the blanks:


a) if m = n and p < 0, than mp ____ np, and m + p ____ n + p
b) if m = n and p > 0, than mp ____ np, and m + p ____ n + p
c) if m < n and p < 0, than mp ____ np, and m + p ____ n + p
d) if m < n and p > 0, than mp ____ np, and m + p ____ n + p
ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.4
Relations & Functions
Relation: given 4 ways:

a) __________ b) __________ c) __________ d) __________

Domain: input Range: output

Function: for every input, there is exactly one output

Table: It’s a function if ________________________ .


x -2 -1 0 1 x 4 1 0 1 (-4, 4) (-3, 4) (-2, 4)
y 4 1 0 1 y -2 -1 0 1 (-1, 4) (0, 4) (1, 4) (2, 4)

Graphs: no vertical line goes through 2 points

Bubbles: write each arrow as a coordinate, 0


2 3
then use the rule for coordinates
4

Evaluating: *evaluate f(-2)


**evaluate f(x) for x = -2
Zeros
Zero of an equation is an x value of a point with y = 0 , which is just the
function’s ____________________ , the point where the line
______________ x-axis

Example 1: Example 2: Example 3:


GRAPH TABLE FUNCTION
X Y
-1 15 Slope-intercept form:
0 10 F(x) = 3x – 9
2 5
3 0 Not a slope-intercept form:
5 -5 2x + 7y = 14
6 -10

Domain and range of functions given by equations

The domain of a function (what X can be) is all real numbers – unless the x
part is either.…
a
• In the denominator of some fraction. Ex1: Domain of y = is x ≠ 0
x
• Under a radical. Ex2: Domain of y = x is x ≥ 0
• A logarithmic function

The Range of a function is all real numbers - unless the function is a


• polynomial with the highest power ________________.
• rational, exponential, or absolute value function

Find:
2x + 3 d) range of f(x) = 2 x 2 + 5
a) domain of f(x) =
x−2

b) domain of f(x) = 2x − 6 e) domain of f(x) = 2 x 2 + 5

c) domain of f(x) = 2x – 6 f) range of f(x) = 2 x 3 + 5


ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.5
Operations with functions

Given functions f ( x) = x 2 + x and g ( x) = 2 x find:

ADDITION f(x) + g(x)

SUBTRACTION f(x) – g(x)

MULTIPLICATION f(x) ∗ g(x)

f ( x)
DIVISION g ( x)

Given functions f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 and g ( x) = 7 x − 5

1) find 3f(x) + 2g(x)

2) find g 2 ( x)

3) evaluate f(x) ∗ g(x)

f ( x)
4) evaluate
g ( x)
ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.6
Composite functions

SYMBOLS: f(g(x)) = f  g(x)

g(f(x)) = g  f(x)

1. Given f(x) = 3x 2 and g(x) = 2x + 1

a) evaluate f(g(4)) c) find f  g(x)

b) evaluate g(f(4)) d) find g  f(x)

1
2. Given f ( x) = x and g(x)= 3x +6
3

e) find f  g(x) 2
g) evaluate f  g( )
3

f) find g  f(x) 3
h) evaluate g  f( )
2
ALGEBRA II HELPFUL NOTES 1.7
Inverse functions

To find the inverse of a function, switch the ______________________.

Equations:
1. Write y instead of f(x)
2. Switch y and x
3. Solve for the new y:

4
f(x) = 3x – 7 f(x) = 2x + 4 f(x) = x
5

8
f(x) = x 2 f(x) = x 2 – 1 f(x) =
x

12
f(x) = f(x) = 4
x−2
Graphs: graph each function with its inverse on your calculator (if
possible). What can you conclude about the graphs?

Sketch the inverses for the following graphs:

4
3

5 -2

Coordinates: just switch y and x

f(x) = (2, 0), (3, -7), (-1, 4) f −1 (x) =

Table: just switch y and x

f(x) f −1 (x)
x 1 2 3 4 x
y -1 0 -1 -4 y