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Anna Hazare and Anti-Corruption Movement

Submitted by Chandni Khundia (F-108) Rohit Kumar Chaudhari (F-109) Chitrang Desai (F 110) Debprakash Das (F -111)

Answer 1 The word Lokpal was coined in 1963 by L.M.Singhvi, a Member of Parliament during a debate in Parliament about grievance redressal mechanisms. The Lokpal Bill was introduced by Shanti Bhushan in 1968 and passed the 4th Lok Sabha in 1969. But before it could be passed by Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha was dissolved and the bill lapsed. There were total ten attempts in 42 years of time, but the bill was not made into the law.

History of Lokpal Bill

In 1968, Mrs Indira Gandhi and Shanti Bhushan had proposed Lokpal Bill in parliament but was lapsed.She introduced in 1971 also which was a futile attempt.

In 1985 , Rajiv Gandhi attempted but again the same issue of dissolution haunted.In 1989 , V.P.Singh had proposed the bill but later taken back.

In 1998 and 2001, A.B.Vajpayee had taken the issue of Lokpal, but the situation was not changed.

In 1977, this attempt was made by Morarji Desai which was again futile because of dissolution of Lok Sabha

In 1996,Deve Gowda government taken up the issue but no decision was taken until dissolution of Lok Sabha

There were two attempts by Congress government in 2005 and 2008.Nothing was done to Lokpal Bill until now.

In 2011, Hazare initiated a Satyagraha (Fasting for a nobel cause) movement for passing a stronger anti-corruption Lokpal (ombudsman) bill in the Indian Parliament as conceived in the Jan Lokpal Bill (People's Ombudsman Bill). The bill is

for a stronger anti-corruption bill with stronger penal actions and more independence to the ombudsmen in the states. He started hunger strike when the demand was rejected by Indian government. The movement attracted attention in the media, millions of supporters inside and outside of India, and also identified one of popular movements in India after independence. People have shown support in Internet social media such as Twitter and Facebook. Online Signature Campaigns like avaaz got more than 10 lakh signatures in just 36 hours. The middle class people and the youth power participated voluntarily in this movement. The demand was propagated as a nation-wide general demand against corruption. In this movement he was arrested and didnt compromise with his ideology of nonviolence by protesting against violent movement of his supporters. The resolution, in principle, agreed on the following subjects and forwarded the Bill to related standing committee for structure and finalise a report.

A citizen charter on the bill An appropriate mechanism to subject lower bureaucracy to lokpal The establishment of Lokayuktas (ombudsmen at state level) in states

Anna Hazare, civil rights activists along with protestors at site of the fast welcomed this development on being informed, terming it as a battle "half won" while ending the protest. He became from a well-acclaimed social activist to the most powerful influencer and visionary leader of modern India.

Lokpal Bill Movement


Hazare began hid Indefinite Fast on 5th April at Jantar Mantar in Delhi to press for the demand to from a joint committtee of the representatives of teh Government and the civil society to draft a stronger anti-corruption bill .

Hunger Strike in Delhi

End of Hunger Strike after meeting demands

On Apr 8th 2011 , Govt of India accepted all demands of the movement.On the morning of 9th Apr 2011 Hazare ended his 98 -hour hunger strike and said if the bill does not pass he will call for a mass nation-wide agitation.

Differences with the government on draft bill

Anna Hazare and other civil society members decided to boycott the meeting of the joint Lokpal Bill committee in protest against forcible eviction of Swami Ramdev and his followers by the Delhi Police from Ramlila Maidan on 5th June 2011.

Indefinite Fast

On 28th July 2011 the union cabinet approved a draft of the Lokpal Bill,which keeps the PM,judiciary and lower bureaucracy out of the ambit of the proposed Lokpal.Hazare rejected the govt version by describing it as "cruel joke"

Arrest and Aftermath

On 16th August 2011,Hazare was arrested four hours before the planned indefinite hunger strike.Afetr his arrest,Hazare reciieved support from people across the country.There were nearly 570 demonstrations ans protests.

Fast at Ramlila Maidan,New Delhi

On 20th Aug 2011 thousands came to the Ramlila Maidan in New Delhi to show their support to Hazare. "I am Anna" spirit was flowing in the blood of people.The fast continued for almost 288 hours.

A triumphant moment

On 27 August 2011, a special and all exclusive session of Parliament was conducted and a resolution was unanimously passed after deliberations in both the houses of Indian Parliament by sense of the house.

Answer 2
The Jan Lokpal Bill (Citizen's ombudsman Bill) is a draft anti-corruption bill drawn up by prominent civil society activists seeking the appointment of a Jan Lokpal, an independent body that would investigate corruption cases, complete the investigation within a year and envisages trial in the case getting over in the next one year. On the other hand, the government has also drafted its own version of the Lokpal Bill. It is also an effort to rein in the pervasive corruption in public life, was first mooted in the late 60s, However, it failed to become law despite successive attempts.

The Jan Lokpal Bill and Lokpal Bill differ on various fronts. We have listed down the major issues, taking into consideration the ethical, economic and legal implications of each of them

Issues Suo Moto Action Jan Lokpal Bill Details Lokpal will receive complaints of corruption from the general public Lokpal can only probe complaints forwarded by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha or the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Details Lokpal will have the power to initiate prosecution of anyone found guilty Economic Costly and timeconsuming Economic Costly Implications Legal Lokpal will have strong legal powers Ethical Lokpals integrity is a major concern

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Less Costly

Lokpal will not have any legal powers

Lokpals integrity is important but since they are not empowered, it becomes irrelevant to an extent

Initiate Prosecution Jan Lokpal Bill

Implications Legal Lokpal will have strong legal powers

Ethical Lokpals integrity is a major concern

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Lokpal will only be an Advisory Body with a role limited to forwarding reports to a "Competent Authority" Details Lokpal will have police powers as well as the ability to register FIRs.

Timeconsuming but less costly

No substantial powers as such

Lokpals integrity is important but since they are not empowered, it becomes irrelevant to an extent

Police Powers Jan Lokpal Bill

Economic NA

Implications Legal Lokpal will have police powers

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Lokpal will have no police powers and no ability to register an FIR or proceed with criminal investigations

NA

No police powers to the Lokpal

Ethical Lokpals integrity is a major concern. Lokpal is highly empowered and lack of integrity will have serious consequences Lokpals integrity is important but since they are not empowered, it becomes irrelevant to an extent

Lokpal and CBI Jan Lokpal Bill

Details Lokpal and the anti corruption wing of the CBI will be one independent body The CBI and NA Lokpal will be Economic NA

Implications Legal Lokpal will work directly with the CBI

Ethical CBI and Lokpal will have to take utmost care that the power is not exploited NA

Lokpal Bill (Government

No substantial powers as

Version) Severity of Punishment Jan Lokpal Bill

unconnected Details Punishments will be a minimum of 10 years and a maximum of up to life imprisonment Punishment for corruption will be a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of up to 7 years Economic NA

such Implications Legal Since such a severe punishment would be legally permitted, it might have serious repercussions NA

Ethical Punishment is very severe and hence, questionable

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

NA

Punishment is not that severe

We have also listed down some other issues. We have analyzed them from economic, legal and ethical angles (Y Appropriate, N Inappropriate, NA Not Applicable)

Inclusion of Prime Minister Jan Lokpal Bill

Details Economic PM can be Y investigated with permission of seven member Lokpal bench PM can be Y investigated by Lokpal after she/he vacates office Details Economic Can be Y

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Judiciary Jan Lokpal

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Bill

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

investigated, though high level members may be investigated only with permission of a seven member Lokpal bench Judiciary is exempt and will be covered by a separate "judicial accountability bill" Details

Conduct of MPs Jan Lokpal Bill

Economic Can be Y investigated with permission of seven member Lokpal bench Can be Y investigated, but their conduct within Parliament, such as voting, cannot be investigated Details Economic All public servants would be included Only senior Y

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Lower Bureaucracy Jan Lokpal Bill Lokpal Bill

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

N 8

(Government Version)

officers (Group A) will be covered Details Economic The AntiY corruption wing of the CBI will be merged into the Lokpal The AntiY corruption wing of the CBI not be merged into the Lokpal Implications Legal N

CBI Jan Lokpal Bill

Ethical N

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Removal of Details Lokpal members and Chair Jan Lokpal Any person Bill can bring a complaint to the Supreme Court, who can then recommend removal of any member to the President Lokpal Bill Any (Government "aggrieved Version) party" can raise a complaint to the President, who will refer the matter to the CJI

Economic Y

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Removal of Lokpal staff and officers Jan Lokpal Bill

Details Economic Complaints against Lokpal staff will be handled by independent boards set-up in each state Lokpal will conduct inquiries into its own behaviour Y

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Lokayukta Jan Lokpal Bill

Details Economic Lokayukta and Y other local/state anticorruption agency would remain in place All state antiY corruption agencies would be closed and responsibilities taken over by centralised Lokpal Details Economic Whistleblowers Y are protected by Lokpal

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Whistleblower protection Jan Lokpal Bill

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

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Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

No protection granted to whistleblowers by Lokpal Mahima Details

Punishment for Corruption Jan Lokpal Bill

Economic Lokpal can either directly impose penalties, or refer the matter to the courts Lokpal can only refer matters to the courts, not take any direct punitive actions by Lokpal Mahima Details Economic Lokpal can obtain wiretaps, issue rogatory letters, and recruit investigating officers Lokpal can issue contempt orders, and has the ability to punish those in Y Y

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

Investigatory Powers Jan Lokpal Bill

Implications Legal Y

Ethical N

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

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contempt False, frivolous and vexatious complaints Jan Lokpal Bill Lokpal Bill (Government Version) Details Economic Lokpal can issue fines for frivolous complaints Court system will handle matters of frivolous complaints Details Economic Jan Lokpal Bill NGOs not within the scope due to their role in exposing corruption NGOs are within the scope and can be investigated Y Y Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

NGOs

Implications Legal Y

Ethical Y

Lokpal Bill (Government Version)

From the above analysis, we clearly see that if we draw a Venn diagram taking into consideration the legal, economic and ethical fronts, we have

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Legal

Jan Lokpal Bill Lokpal Bill

Ethical

Economic

We can clearly see that even though the Jan Lokpal Bill might be economically a difficult step, it is very much viable from legal and ethical perspectives. On the other hand, Lokpal Bill might be economically viable but it losses ground on the other two grounds. Since corruption is what we are fighting against, the extra cost is certainly justified.

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Answer 3
Dharma-Danda Dharma is kshatrasya kshatram - controller of leader. Hinduism describes dharma as the natural universal laws whose observance enables humans to be contented and happy, and to save himself from degradation and suffering. Dharma is the moral law combined with spiritual discipline that guides one's life. Hindus consider dharma the very foundation of life. It means "that which holds" the people of this world and the whole creation. Dharma is the "law of being" without which things cannot exist. Dharma is knowledge of rights and responsibilities in different stages and station of life - sadharna- dharma ,varna- dharma, ashrama-dharma, svadharma. etc. Annas leadership can be analyzed with reference to the above mentioned Dharmas. Varna Dharma means doing properly what one is supposed to do as per his varna. If we trace back Annas role in the social sphere, its quite evident that after serving successfully in the Indian Army, Anna has worked as a Social Activist. As per the conventional definition Social Activism entails the use of direct, often confrontational action, such as a demonstration or strike, in opposition to or support of a cause. Thus, Anna has performed his Varna Dharma effectively by serving the society as performing his duties as a social activist. Also, Anna, while contributing to the betterment of governance and people, has successfully followed the Grhasta Ashrama Dharma. Along with these, Anna leadership style exhibits his Dharma as Duty & Responsibility, Dharma as service to community, and Dharma as SelfExpression. Anna Hazare wants to build India into a strong, powerful nation. Narratives of war, army and enemy remain the core references in much of the discourse on nation and rural development. Here, expressions like national regeneration, wholesome crop of national glory through comprehensive rural development are coupled with others like We have to hold the nation. The concept of morality and subsequent codes/behaviours/practices based on it are important elements in the notion of development. Annas concern with the moral is couched in his discourse of the nation that exercise control over the private and the public, the personal and the political. In Ralegan, there are a few Mahars, Chamars, Matangs, Nhavi, Bharhadi and Sutars. Since the beginning of his work, Anna has been particularly emphasising the

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removal of untouchability and discrimination on caste basis meted out to people, who are popularly referred to as Harijans here. The concept of village as a joint family, or all inhabitants of the village as almighty God, has prompted the villagers to pay attention to the problems of Harijans. The integration of Dalits into an ideal village has two components in Ralegan. One is to assume that they were always there to perform some duties and necessary services and that their usefulness justifies their existence in the present. The other component is hegemonic, designed to get Dalits into a brahaminical fold. It is not only manifested in the way food or dress habits are propagated; it is prevalent in several other forms. Purohita Kshatriya

Between about 900 and 700 BC the Brahmanas were written in prose as sacerdotal commentaries on the four Vedas to guide the practices of the sacrifices and give explanations often mythical and fanciful for these customs. Nevertheless they do give us information about the social customs of this period and serve as a transition from the Vedas to the Aranyakas and the mystical Upanishads. The caste system based on color (varna) was now established, though not as rigidly as it became later. The essential difference was between the light-skinned Aryans, who made up the top three castes of the priestly Brahmins, warrior Kshatriyas, and artisan Vaishyas, and the dark-skinned Dasas, who were the servant Sudras. Each village was administered by a Gramani, a Vaisya who functioned like a mayor with civil rather than military authority. The Gramani and the royal charioteer (Suta) were considered the kingmakers. The royal priest or Purohito was also supposed to advise the king in peace and protect him in war. Purohita is the abhigantr which means that he is the knower and knows the information. The leader is kartr who is the executer. This goes to show that any leader has to be a Purohit and a Kshatriya, since knowing only facts and information is not sufficient and it has to be put in practice also. For example Anna Hazare had access to the information that there is widespread corruption and mismanagement in the country and officials arent doing their designated job. However knowing only that and not doing anything regarding it isnt sufficient to weed out the problem. Knowledge in isolation doesnt bring about change; response to the information at hand is needed. This response can be suggested and executed by donning the hat of a Kshatriya. Since Kshatriya is responsible for planning and execution it becomes paramount to

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design a detailed strategy for the actions and changes. Once the knowledge is assimilated it becomes important to disseminate it in form of actions.

Inner Sage Outer King As per this Vedic Ethos of Leadership, the highest ideal in leadership is to possess the virtues of both the sage and the king. The sage knows and does the right thing with such ease that he does not have to think about it. The sage is like a trained and skillful dancer who takes the appropriate steps spontaneously and gracefully but without the conscious effort to avoid mistakes that was needed during the period of his training. The sage practices morality with the effortless effort of a top-flight dancer. It occurs naturally for him. A Hindu king, according to the Artha, must be energetically active in performing his duties in order to inspire his subjects. A king must be born of a high family [and] religious as well as valorous, dexterous, and agile. A king should also possess profound knowledge and be endowed with strong memory, cogitative faculty, and physical strength. Inquiry, study, perception, retention, analytical knowledge, critical acumen, and keenness for the realization of reality are the qualities of the kings intellect. Most importantly, a king should be free from passion, anger, greed, obstinacy, fickleness, heat, and calumny. Nevertheless, even though a king must be free from greed, he should act up to the precepts of the science of material gain, since material prosperity is evidence of successful works. Annas leadership combines the virtues of both the sage and the king. Annas leadership style is transformational in nature. When he started his hunger strike in Delhi, the Indian capital, he had a vision. The vision was to implement Jan Lokpal Bill; the anti-corruption bill he thinks can help to eradicate corruption from India. He possesses high confidence and belief in his abilities to make this happen. He inspires and energizes most of the Indian people, especially youngsters to help them to understand it is worthy and meaningful war to fight in a peaceful way. From day 1 he was continuously communicating his vision. Now if we analyze the movement, we can observe that following are the leadership traits exuded by Anna: Honesty or integrity A high level of people skills Initiative, assertiveness, drive, or determination

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Excellent communication skills or willingness to speak up, take a position, or take charge Vision (being forward-looking) Desire or passion to lead and inspire Strong plan of action

Thus, its evident that Anna has wisdom of a sage and at the same time a kings courage to execute actions.

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