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Howard Fang April 7, 2011 AP Chapter 40: Animal form and function

1. What is the definition of animal tissue? Animal tissues are groups of similar cells performing a common function. 2. List the four general categories of animal tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle 3. List six types of connective tissues: Loose connective tissue, cartilage, fibrous connective tissue, adipose tissue, blood, and bone. 4. What are the characteristics of the three muscle tissues? Skeletal muscle: bundles of long cells called muscle fibers; the arrangement of contractile units along the length of the fibers gives the cells a striped appearance under a microscope. Cardiac muscle: They are striated like skeletal muscle and have contractile properties similar to those of the skeletal muscles, while also carrying out contractions of the heart. Smooth muscle: lacks striations, found in the walls of the digestive tract and other internal organs. The cells are spindle shaped. 5. Terms in order from smallest to largest: celltissue organ organ systemorganism 6. What is the goal of homeostasis and how is it maintained? In achieving homeostasis, animals maintain a relatively constant internal environment even when the external environment changes significantly. There are multiple mechanisms of homeostasis, including through the use of negative feedback loops, and the more uncommon, positive feedback loops. 7. Define negative feedback and give one example. A negative feedback a response occurs that reduces, or damps, the stimulus. For example, when you exercise vigorously, you produce heat, which increases body temperature. Your nervous system detects this increase and triggers sweating. As you

sweat, the evaporation of moisture from your skin cools your body, helping return your body temperature to its set point. 8. Define positive feedback and give one example. Unlike negative feedback, positive feedback triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than diminish the stimulus. During childbirth, the pressure of the babys head against receptors near the opening of the mothers uterus stimulates the uterus to contract. These contractions result in greater pressure against the opening of the uterus, heightening the contractions and thereby causing even greater pressure, until the baby is born. 9. Account for several avenues of energy and molecular use for food we eat. Animals use chemical energy harvested from the food they eat to fuel metabolism and activity. Food is digested by enzymatic hydrolysis and nutrients are absorbed by body cells. Most energy containing molecules are used to generate ATP. ATP produced by cellular respiration and fermentation powers cellular work, enabling cells, organs, and organ systems to perform the functions that keep an animal alive. Energy in the form of ATP is also used in biosynthesis, which is needed for body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes. The production and use of ATP generates heat, which the animal eventually gives off to its surroundings. 10. Compare the energy use of ectotherms and endotherms. An endotherm is a warm-blooded animal that controls its body temperature by producing its own heat through metabolism. It has internal mechanisms for regulating its body temperature to levels different from the environmental temperature, typically above the temperature of its surroundings. An ectotherm is a cold-blooded animal that relies on eternal environment for temperature control instead of generating enough of its own body heat. It regulates its body temperature by moving in and out of shaded area. 11. How do you account for the difference in energy needs of endotherms compared to ectotherms? Endotherms (mammals, birds) make their own heat energy, so they often eat more than ectotherms (reptiles, insects, fish, amphibians), which can't make their own heat and thus have to rely on the surrounding environment for heat. That is why you'll often find reptiles basking in the sun.