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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg

P1 Describe typical processes used in the design of both a single and a multi-layer PCB for electronic circuits of different complexity. Task1. Describe the steps necessary to design a basic circuit shown in Figure 2 using a single sided PCB. For the following a SPICE software such as Proteus is needed and the steps required in order to design a basic circuit on a single sided PCB comes as follows:

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


Were once the circuit required is done on the Proteus ISIS which this is done by adding the components necessary from the library of the program and then connect them by means of wire as to form your desire circuit, the Proteus ARES is then opened in order to start the real PCB design. This is first initialized by determining the size of the PCB Board, depending on the enclosure were the board will finally be installed in. Once this is determined, the routing practice would take place. Now in the routing practice we have to ways how to tackle this issue, which are or by manual
Figure 2: Circuit designed on ISIS

Figure 1: PCB Design on ARES

routing or either by auto routing. For the manual routing one should go on track mode so that the route track width would be selected according to the current flowing in the circuitry as illustrated in Figure 3 and then the routes are placed accordingly. Or all of this process could be in a way skipped by selecting auto routing as so the ARES would place the tracks as it believes that would be the best of course there might be unresolved spider webs in the process and therefore some manual routing would take place. Figure 4 illustrates some of the good and bad connections that could be made while design a PCB. For example a bad connection would be by bridging from one point to another, and the short path is
Figure 4: Good & Bad types of connections

recommended as to prevent unwanted resistance from the circuit. When it comes in choosing between metric and imperial sizes, the metric unit system would be preferred since one of the greatest secret to PCB design perfection today is the use of the metric unit system, as said by Mr. Tom Hausherr on the 23rd March 2011. Finally regarding the clearance requirements we can say that they are highly important to be thought well when designing a PCB, for
Figure 3: Current vs Track Width

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


example allocating space on the four corners of the PCB for the fixing holes, spacing for the through hole components etc. Task 2. A PCB design of a more complex circuit shown in Figure 1 is required, what additional steps are needed? When it comes to complex circuits, the circuitry is divided into separate functional blocks so that the complex circuit would not look so complex after all. The blocks are check individually with the aid of the simulator and once all the blocks are operating correctly, a testing circuit on a prototyping board or bread board is carried out. As the testing confirm that the circuitry is working perfectly an artwork using auto router is prepared, making sure that all packages of all the components are known and inserted in the CAD construction schematic diagram. Then a decision on the boards dimension are done are discussed in Task 1, also the method of connection. Finally tracks width are specified and once the auto- routing takes place, tracks are placed on any unresolved spider weds using manual routing.

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


P2 Describe typical production methods used in the manufacture of both a single and a multi-layer PCB for electronic circuits of different complexity. Task 3. For both circuits of Figure 1 & 2, describe the manufacturing process required to obtain a finished product using single sided PCB. The process in order to obtain a finished product using single sided PCB is as follows: First once the design is done on a CAD program such as Proteus, the art work of the design is printed with a plotter printer on a transparency paper and then the print is placed on the PCB. The PCB is then placed in a CNC machine so that with the aid of the Gerber Data (data of the point of drill of the circuit) given to the technician, the machine would drill the necessary hole for the through-hole components. Once the drill process is finalized, the PCB will be passing for cleaning process. The cleaning process is done with an aid of a brushing machine which cleans up both bottom and top from any unwanted dust or elements. This process also removes any deburring caused by the drilling process. After the cleaning process, the PCB is passed for what is called the lamination process and then under the UV exposure unit as to by UV light hits the PCB board as to cure so that the tracks are formed. This process is done for a limited shirt time as to prevent damaging the board. Afterwards the developing process takes place. The process removes the uncured areas of the board, this is done by a splash of caustic soda which expose the unwanted copper. Then the PCB board is placed in a conveyer and into an etching machine so that a hydrochloric acid solution is sprayed as to the remaining unwanted copper is totally removed. This might take a couple of time until all of the unwanted copper is removed. Once all this is done, another cleaning process is done by used water and photo mask on the copper tracks are removed chemically. Then the board would be placed so that a solder masked process is done as to all tracks would be prevented from any corrosion or even from shorting the tracks from excessive soldering. The use of the UV exposure unit is required in order to perform the soldering mask process. Caustic soda is needed as to expose the copper pads. This is essential so that the solder can braze to the copper pad of the board. By all this the process of PCB boards would be finalized.

Task 4. What additional stages are required if both circuits were produced using a multi-layer PCB?

When it comes to a multi-layer PCB board a few additional stages are required. Like copper pads are printed on two separate transparency paper for both sides (bottom and top). A multi-layer board needs the double sided board to be alined as to no misplace is present. Also the negative layer transperancy are placed on top and bottom of the PCB board during the exposure process. Vias are used to make electrical connections between layers on a printed circuit board. They can carry signals or power between layers.

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


P3 Explain how computer aided design software can be used in the analysis of an electonic circuit prior to manufacture Task 6. Explain the benifits of performing Task 5 prior the manufacture of electroniccircuits of Figure 1 and 2. The benefits of the schmatic design would be: The designer would have the prossibility to build and design the circuit on a simulation software before manufacturing. Designer can monitor the output of the circuit and he can conclude wheather the system is worth it for manufacuring in terms of efficency. If the output obtained from the circuit would not reach the results by the client, he could change the components to alter the ouptut of the CAD. While the benefits of the PCB Design would be: The designer can design the PCB artwork on the CAD software before manufacturing. Also if the PCB design does not satisfy the specification of the client he can also alter ( for example track routing, etc) With the CAD the designer can illustrate the harmonics of the circuit, this is done by using Fourier graph and then do the necessary adjustments to reduce the harmonic of the circuit (Function Generator).

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


P5 explain the use of SMT in the manufacture of an electronic circuit and give two different examples of the outlines and packages used for surface mounted devices

Task 7. SMD Technology versus Through Hole Components SMD Technology Through Hole Components The size of the SMD components is very small The size of the TH components is way bigger and compact and therefore the design on the than that of the SMDs so therefore the PCB PCB would be rather small in nice and more design should be bigger in size as to fit all the neater. components in and so the result would be that the final product would be bigger in size when compare to the same circuit which is made up from SMD components. Not drill holes are needed we installing the The PCB design would need further work components on the PCB since everything is after the etching is done, since the soldered directly. components are not soldered directly but holes have to be done as to insert the corrisponding component into it place before soldering take place. So the cost when it come to the PCB would be abit more expensive when compared to that of SMDs. They have a better performance when it TH components like for example a resistor comes to shocks and vibrations since we can has its leads as to make contact with the say that they are shock-proof. tracks, and if these leads are broken the resistor would not work which also leads to an open circuit and therefore I believe that the TH components are not shock-proof like SMDs are. SMDs might be more cheaper to buy. But my TH components are very cheap in price. believe is that still SMD is much worth it since the final product would be nicely finished. As to do repair on the components it would be When it comes to do maintance on a TH rather difficult since they are small in size and designed circuit, it is much each to navigate therefore difficult to handle. with the tools and so disassemble and replace the faulty component.

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


P6 Describe the methods used for the manufacutre of an electronic circuit using SMT Task 8. Circuit given in Figure 1 is to be manufactured using SMT components. Describe how this circuit is assembled and soldered.

Basically the process of manufacturing of SMT components consists of: 1. Once the PCB board is ready designed, printed and the necessary holes are drilled, the PCB board is inserted in a semi automatic paste machine, were paste is applied on the array of the board were the SMT components are doing to be placed.

2. As the paste is applied on all sections of the board were the SMT are going to be soldered, the PCB board is placed in what is called a Automatic Pick & Place Machine. Once the board is inside, the machine chooses the SMT components from the SMT component tray and literally picks them and places them on the selected area given on the input of the user via a computer.

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg

3. Once all the SMT components are placed on the printed component board (PCB) the next step would be that of the reflow oven. This process basically consist of inserting the board, with the soldering paste and the placed SMT components in this 4 heat zones + 1 liquid

nitrogen cool zone

illustrated on

this figure. Were the board would pass for a 4 stage heating zones and finalizing the process with a cooling zone. The board would run on a conveyer which will start from zone 1 and then passes to zone 2 and then to zone 3 which these are the pre-heating zones. In these three zones the heating is applied gradually. Zone 4 is next, were in the zone an excessive heat is applied as to make all soldering paste melts and mates with SMT components. Once it trespass zone 4, the board would be cooled out as to cool the board so that the soldering would be in a solid-state with the components and also so that the operator would be able to handle the board. 4. Now that the reflow oven process is ready a visual inspection of the final result would be the wiser thing to do. This process is called Automated Optical Inspection or AOI, was a camera autonomously literally scans the device under test for variety of surface feature defects such as scratches and stains, open circuits, short circuits, thinning of the solder as well as missing components, incorrect components, and incorrectly placed components.

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Manufacturing Processes and SMT Nicholas Borg


5. Finally once the board passes the AOI, the last step would be that of an electrical test. This is required to check the actual functions of the PCB. It is mostly needed when the inner layers requires testing in the case of multi-layers boards. Measurements of all connections in two positions are checked for stoppages and short circuit. SMT pads and plated through holes are also checked. This electrical test can be done either by parallel or even by finger test.

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