Você está na página 1de 55

PERSONALITY

Personality is the sum total of the human traits and characteristics of an individual that sets him apart and make him different from other individuals. Components of Personality Physical or biological traits and characteristic. These include general physical appearance, size of the body. Height, weight, color of hair, manner of walking, health and etc. 1. Capacities. Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in arts, music, science, etc. education, expertise, noted achievements.etc. 2. Psychosocial traits. These refer to good manners, gregariousness, extroversionintroversion, dominance- submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle, patterns of adjustments etc. 3. Spiritual and Moral Values. These are piety, honestly, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality, responsibility, devotion to duly, absence of anti-social tendencies, etc. 4. Temperament. This is emotional maturity and stability. The ability to keep ones cool when under stress and strain, the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc.

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
1. TYPE OF THEORIES

Physique: Body Types. (Bodily constitution, health and vigor associated with temperament.) a. Kretschemers classification (not confirmed)

1. Asthenic- tall, thin body associated with schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder characterized by splitting of personality, dissociation emotional deterioration and out of ideational content. 2. Pyknic- short fat body with cyclothymiacs temperament, a mild-manic depressive psychosis involving recurring cycles of exhilaration and depression. 3. Dysplastic- bodily defective and handicapped. 4. Normal- have only mild forms of a aesthetic and pyknic characteristic and have bodies and temperaments that are appropriate and accepted as the normal by the majority. b. Sheldons classification (not confirmed) 1. Endomorphic- prominence of the intestines and other visceral organs, round in body weak muscles and bones. 2. Mesomorphic- athletic type with strong and rippling muscles, broad-shouldered and narrow-hipped. 3. Ectomorphic- tall, thin, strong and rippling-shouldered with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive nervous system.

2. Temperament Types (Physiology: types based on body chemistry and endocrine balance.)

a. Sheldons temperament types:

1. Viscerotonic- predominantly endomorphic loves to eat, seek, bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and movement and slow in reactions.

2. Somatotonic- predominantly mesophormic, energetic, likes, exercise, direct in his manners and loves competitive aggressiveness. 3. Cerebrotonic- predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and emotional worries much, does not like groups and loves solitude. b. Greeks classification of Temperaments attributed to Hippocrates and it is based upon the predominant body fluid. 1. Sanguine- warm- hearted, pleasant, quick to react, balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid is blood. 2. Melancholic- suffers from depression and sadness, unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is black bile. 3. Choleric- easily angered and quick to react easily excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow bile. 4. Phlegmatic- list less, slow, apathetic, calm emotion, weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm. c. Behavior: Psychological Types. ( These are Jungs theories)

1. Introvert- prefers to be alone, shy, withdrawn but maybe a leader in discussion if his level of intelligence is high. 2. Extrovert- tends or prefers to be amidst people, very sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and out-going, chooses an occupation that deals with people like scales one promotional work. 3. Ambient- the normal who is in between the two extremes of introversion and extroversion.
A. Trait Theories

A trait theory describes a personality by its position on a number of scales, each of which represents a trait. Some of trait theories are as follows:
1. All ports Personal Dispositions. Are traits that are unique for a person called by all

port as personal dispositions? These traits are organized in some kind of hierarchy as follows: a. Secondary Traits- when the traits are so many that they merely express isolated interest or moods of responding and are better characterized as attitudes than traits. b. Central Traits- when the traits are too few to described a person.
c. Cardinal Traits- when a person is dominated by a single outstanding trait that

makes him stand out and he becomes a reference personality whose characteristics we expect others to know.

2. Cattells Theory of Surface and Source Traits a. Surface Traits- they are mostly learned or acquired values. b. Source Traits- they are more innate or inborn traits. C. Developmental Theories Deal with continuities, that is, one can tell what a person will do in a given situation by what he has done before in earlier situation that resemble the present.

1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development

The theory holds that we undergo a maturational scheme of psychosexual stages and at each stages, psychosocial crisis occur which is successfully met lead to psychological development. 2 Forms of Psychoanalytic Theory a. Compulsive Personality- characterized by excessive cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess and punctuality. b. Authoritarian Personality- characterized by highly conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and cynism, desire for power, concern over sex. 2. Learning Theories. According to this theory personality is the result of learning punishment or reward. 3. Role Theories. This theory describes personality according to manner in which the individual meets the various demands the society makes upon his role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen, etc.

5 Roles that Society Establishes A. Age-sex Positions- a child should act like a child, a man act like a man, and a woman must act like a woman. B. Occupational Positions- a farmer develops a farmer personality, a doctor, a doctor personality, etc. C. Prestige Positions- a slave have a slave personality, a millionaire has a millionaire personality, a president personality etc.

D. Family, Clan and Household E. Position in Association group based on Congeniality or Common Interest

D.Theories of Personality Dynamics

1. Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality covers the following: 1. The Id This consist of innate instinctual drives of sexual and aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of primitive,, irrational pleasure seeking of drives, sex, hunger, thirst, etc. 2. The Ego This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in socially approved ways. There is a rational thinking. 3. The Superego This is a conscience, the sense of right and wrong, works according to the ideal. When the Id predominates, man becomes irrational and commits anti-social act; when the ego predominates, man becomes socially goods; when the superego predominates, man does the exceptional ideal such as becoming heroes, scientist, writers, explorers, etc. 4. Lewins Field Theory According to this theory, the individual is embedded in a field called his life space, which is actually his environment, in which conflicts arise and the alternatives open to the individual to resolve the conflicts.

E. Overcompensation Theory This is a theory of Alfred Adler. This is trying to excel in something to compensate a weakness or deficiency. F. Need Theories of Personality
1. Karen Horneys Theory of personality. According to Horney, a child may resolve conflicts

in a harsh environment in one of three ways. a. Moving toward people This is satisfied the need for love, affection, and approval of other people so the child or individual tries hard to please people to their love, affection, and approval. b. Moving against people This is to satisfy the need for power, dominance, prestige, and admiration, financial and sexual success. c. Moving away from people This is to satisfy the need for independence and self-sufficiency.
2. Erich Fromms Isolation Theory. According to this theory, man has been isolated from

nature and from other men and has given rise to five basic needs which if not satisfied would result in frustration and problems. These five basic needs are:

a. Relatedness- man has lost his nearness to nature and so he has to relate himself to others based on love and affection. b. Transcendence- man has to submerge his animal nature of greed so that he becomes cooperative and productive. c. Rootedness- man has to satisfy his need for belongingness to a group by brotherhood love and so he associates himself with other people.
7

d. Identity- man needs to feel that he is different from others and so he tries hard to do or create something that would give an identity to him. e. Frame of orientation man needs an environment that is stable and with consistent events to be able to understand it.

3. Maslows Self-actualization Theory. According to this theory, man is innately good and

self- actualization or achievements in his goal. Blocking this goal gives frustration and neurosis to man. To Maslow, mans needs are as follows: (The needs are arranged like a pyramid) a. Biological needs These needs give comfort to the body, such as food, clothing, and shelter and some materials needs. b. Psychological needs These are needs for love, affection, belongingness, safety, cooperation, companionship, etc. c. Self-actualization needs These are needs for exceptional and ideal achievements and creativity.

Motivation

Motivation is another important factor in learning. Without motivation, not much or no learning at all will take. There are several definitions of motivation but they all amount to the arousal of interest that directs the learners towards a goal. Motivation is not a bag of tricks which the teacher uses to produce learning. Rather it is a process which belongs to the learner. Motivation- it is the process of arousing and sustaining interest in an activity in order to achieve a goal. It is also the creation of a desire on the part of the learner to perform an activity to satisfy a need. Importance of Motivation Directs activity toward the achievement of a goal. 1. Controls and directs human behavior. 2. Inculcates spiritual and moral values in the minds of the young. 3. Fives satisfaction and happiness to the individual. Motivation as differentiated from Motives and Incentives
1. Motivation is a process but motive is a disposition, tendency desire or aspiration. 2. Motivation is a drive or impulse, an attitude that arouses interest and sustains and

regulates behavior while motive is within an individual.


3. Incentives is an external benefit or reward of some kind derived from an activity.

Classification of Motives
1. Biological and Physiological drives. This is innate or inborn stimuli such as the desire

for food, water, shelter, and other comforts of the body.


2. Physiological drives. These are social drives which are acquired, learned or derived.

3. Creativity or Self actualization drives. These are general or unconscious drives or

motives. Two Classes of Motivation a. Intrinsic Motivation- it is an internal stimulus that arouses one to action. It is based on motive, which is always intrinsic.

b. Extrinsic Motivation- it is an external stimulus to action. It is based on incentives. It comes from outside (external environment). 1. Social approval 2. High grades 3. Medals 4. Scholarship 5. Rivalry/competition 6. Helpfulness of the teacher

Motivational Cycle Motivation goes through a cycle. The first stage starts with a need which turns into a motive. Then tension or stress arises. The second stage is action. The motive spurs the individual into action and the activity continues until the motive has been satisfied and the goal achieved. Then the third stage starts, which is the satisfaction of the individual. Tension vanishes and stability or equilibrium takes its place. This is called homeostasis, which is the absence of tension and satisfaction stability and equilibrium characterize bi individual. If there is another need or motive arising, the motivational cycle starts all over again.
10

Source Theories of Motivation What are the source theories of motivation? The following theories give the explanation.
1. Need-drive-incentive theory it is a greatest source of motivation and the desire to satisfy.

The need is the strongest motive. In fact, all the other theories have the element of need.
2. Cue-stimulus (non-drive) theory according to this theory, the stimulus to activity does

not come from within the individual but from the outside.

-it is more on incentive. 3. Affective arousal theory it is an application of the law of effect of Thorndike. Pleasant experience Tend to be repeated and unpleasant experiences tend to be avoided. Law of effect state that the learning is strength if it gives satisfaction to the learner.
3. Cognitive theory an individual takes an action that is most favorable to his perception and

rational thinking. This is on the level of decision making or making a choice.

4. Psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud, the proponent of this theory, claims that the libido

or psychic energy is sexual in origin and is the primary driving force of behavior.

11

Discipline and Guidance

Aside from motivation discipline is one important factor in learning because once the learner is well disciplined. Learning will take place.

Objectives of Discipline

The objectives of disciplines are:

12

1. To create favorable attitudes towards classrooms conditions that will facilitate the attainment of instructional objectives. 2. To create favorable attitudes towards the development of self control and cooperation as personal aspects. 3. To create favorable attitudes towards authority.

Approaches to Discipline The two common most approaches to discipline are:


1. Training approach. This is referred to as training model. This is accordance to the

biblical passage which says Train up a child in the way he should go and when he gets old he will not depart from it. It calls for a frequent repetition of good acts until they become habits. For instance, pupils through constant training, acquire the habit of addressing their teacher, Sir or Madam, thereby inculcating respect for authority.
2. Behavior modification approach. This is called the behavior modification model.

Good behavior is reinforced and misbehavior discourage. Ignore or with proper approach correct a bad act without any emotional outburst. Reformatory punishment may be used but never use severe scolding, rebuke, ridicule, nagging, personal indignities, or corporal punishment especially in front of the class. A private conference with the misbehaving pupil may behold where he is asked to formulate ways improving the situations. Parents should be informed, whether verbal or written, of their childrens good behavior.

Developmental Stages in Discipline The developmental stages in discipline are the following: 1. Stage 1. Pupils show unruliness, noise, inattention, disobedience, and other forms of disciplinary problems that successful completion of a lesson.
13

2. Stage 2. With proper guidance, the pupils listen to admonitions and abide by the rules of discipline. Gradually, they form favorable attitudes towards classroom conditions conducive to learning. 3. Stage 3. The pupils, realizing the importance of a well-discipline life, imbibe and assimilate good disciplinary principles.

4. Stage 4. Pupils develop competence in self-control and initiative in problem-solving thus becoming self directed individuals. Guidance and Counseling Guidance and counseling plays an important learning. It is not the intension of this section to discuss all the intricacies of guidance and counseling but only to point out its significance. There are many definitions of guidance and counseling as there are authorities on the subject. But many definitions as there are, they point out to one essential fact. Guidance and counseling is helping the individual to make a wise choice from the among the many alternatives that are open to him in meeting lifes conflicting situations. The students, after shown the consequences options choose the best action when faced with conflicting situations. Self-decision and self-direction is thus attained. Objectives of Guidance and Counseling Objectives of guidance and counseling are to help the individual to: 1. Becomes independent and self-directed 2. Gain emotional maturity and stability; 3. Recognized his importance to society, his contributions to its stability and progress and his readiness and willingness to adjust himself to the standards of society;

14

4. Be an organizer, initiator and creator that will rebound to the benefit not only of him but of society as well. 5. Gain knowledge of himself; his own intellectual and physical capacities, his interest, his social and inborn traits and the requirements and possibilities a certain action, all to help choose the right alternatives when confronted with conflicting situations. Choosing a Vacation or Profession In choosing of a vocation or profession, the following should be considered: 1. Intellectual capacity and aptitude An individual should choose one that fits his level of intellectual ability. 2. Interest Is the intentness of an individual about something? One should choose a vocation or profession that is within his range of interest. 3. Education The level of education that is required of the career aspired for should also be considered. 4. Temperament Temperamental people who easily get rattled should choose jobs that is quite, peaceful, and without much conflict. 5. Physical strength and health One should choose as career that suits his physical health and strength. 6. Opportunities for employment and advancement Chances of employment are high where work force is not saturated and vice versa. 7. Remuneration
15

Is the salary satisfaction? If not, choose one that gives the most satisfactory remuneration under the circumstances.

8. Hazards Some occupations are relatively more hazardous than others such as as aviation, army, police, or marine works. 9. Place of work Is the work confined within a room or in the open air? Does it involve too much travel? Does the work necessitate being too far away from home and family?

16

THE TEACHERS AND THE POLICY MAKER


The teacher and the policy maker are the key factors in the educative process. Without them there can be no formal education. Therefore, a study of their functions is important. THE TEACHER The teacher is the key person in the teaching-learning situation; hence, he must be a model to all his pupils in an aspect of life. Children are good imitators and they usually make their teachers their role models. The teachers are the manager of the teaching-learning situation, the facilitator of learning, and the evaluator of the pupil achievements. Hence, he must possess the following: 1. Mastery of the subject matter. This is based upon the principle that one cannot give what he does not. This is the most important qualification of a teacher because unless he knows his
17

subject matter thoroughly, he can never teach well. Otherwise, he does not have any moral right to stand before his class and teach.

2. Mastery of the methods and tools of teaching. The teacher is like a carpenter. The teacher who combines the best features or techniques and who manipulates with utmost dexterity the tools at hand can turn out the most desirable and finest outcome of his teaching, the literate graduate.

3.

Mastery of the psychology of learning or educational psychology. The teacher must be able to apply with a certain degree of expertise principles, motivation, individual differences, and discipline, and reinforce the law of learning for optimum results.

4. Mastery of the medium of instruction and the art of communication. The teacher should be skillful in formulating questions, explaining points of clarification, reacting to students insight. Effective is the teacher who inspires his students to effective speaking.

5. Mastery of lesson planning and subject matter organization. Contributory to the success of learning session is a good lesson plan and well-organized units or parts of the lesson. Little learning takes place if disorganized, hodgepodge of facts are transmitted. There is no substitute for a systematic lesson plan and subject matter.

6. Mastery of the national philosophy. Goals and objectives as well as instructional goals and objectives. The teacher should know the national philosophy of education, its goals and objectives so that he can include these as implied goals and objectives in his instructional objectives.
18

7. Mastery of classroom management. The teacher is the manager and director of the classroom activities. He should see to it that the learning sessions are conducted smoothly and effectively. Democratic management is the participation of the learners in all teachinglearning situations such as discussions, recitations, problem-solving, manipulation of learning gadgets and research work. Opposite of autocratic classroom management where activities are teacher-cantered and the students, passive recipients of spoon-fed information. Laissez faire, the third type of classroom management allows the learners freedom to conduct activities anyway they want.

8. Mastery of measurement and evaluation of achievement. To be able to know whether the teaching-learning situation has been effective, the achievement of the learners must be measured and evaluated. The teacher should know how to construct more or less valid, reliable, and useful measuring instruments in the forms of test and examinations and then evaluate or transmute the resulting scores into school marks.

9. Mastery of spiritual and moral values. The teacher may not be a paragon of virtues but he must at least possess the values essential in teaching such punctually, devotion to duty, respect for authority, honesty, fairness, industry, kindness and friendliness to and love for children. 10. Mastery of good relations. The teacher must maintain good human and professional relations with his learners, with his peers and superiors, the parents and the people of the community for these people will help him achieve his goals. 11. Mastery of good grooming techniques. Since teachers are role models, they should observe good grooming and maintaining neatness, good taste and decency.

19

12. Mastery of leadership technique. The teacher is both a leader in the classroom and in the community-democratic seller ideas.

13. Health. The teacher must be healthy, physically and mentally so that he can carry on his work. Mental and physical health ensures effective teaching with right direction and rationality. 14. Missionary spirit. Teaching is a mission replete with sacrifice. The noble teacher therefore fined joy and fulfillment in serving his students despite his meager income.

15. Basic knowledge of guidance and counseling. Since a teacher guides his pupils in their daily activities and counsels them in their problems, a basic knowledge is imperative. Before serious cases are referred to the guidance counselor, the teacher must have done preliminary fact-finding necessary for appropriate comments or recommendations. 16. Punctuality and enthusiasm. The effective teacher is always punctual and enthusiastic in his teaching. He teaches with diligence, not wasting any time. He covers as much subject matter as possible.

17. Loyalty and commitment. A teacher cannot teach with effectiveness and enthusiasm without loyalty and commitment to the institution he serves.

18. Respect for authority. A good teacher must have respect for authority and obedience to legitimate instruction, rules, policies and regulation. He must abide by group decisions and cooperative with co-workers in the enterprise. 19. Ability to evoke critical thinking. Students must not be reduced to robots parroting what the teacher says. They must be made to think, criticize, analyze, and ask questions. The
20

teacher should ask thought- provoking questions that require reflective thinking. Usually, these types of questions begin with the words why, how, explain, discuss. 20. Clean sense humor. A teacher must have a wholesome sense of humor to keep his student alert especially when the students are sleepy. The teacher may relate a funny tale that is relevant to the lesson. Humor is often a means of manipulating the interest of the students.

Tips for an Effective Teaching Learning Situation

21

1. The learner must see his goal clearly. A goal oriented activity elicits interest and meaning to a student than one which has none. 2. The learner must be ready to learn psychologically and physiologically that is the level of difficulty of the lesson must be brought to the level of understanding of the learner. 3. The learner must be motivated and guided either intrinsically or extrinsically. Generally,, intrinsic motivation is preferred. 4. The learner must be learning by doing. He must be an active participant in the learning situation. Active learning is better and more lasting than passive learning. 5. The learner must concentrate on the learning task. A learner cannot learn if cannot or does not concentrate. 6. The learner must integrate the related parts of the learning task into a whole to make the task more meaningful and understandable. 7. The strategy of teaching must suit the learning situations. Not one method is good for all learning situation and the strategy use for a particular situation must fit in the situation. 8. The learner must be able to see the significance, meanings, implications and application of the learning task so that it becomes more important meaningful and understandable to him. 9. The learner must often use the law of exercise to enable him to remember and retain what he has learned. Correct practice to remember makes him perfect as the saying goes. Regular review is imperative. 10. It at first the learner fails to attain his goal, he must use his insight and understanding to discover the right solution to his problem. He must be persistent in findings ways and means to attain his goal, the solution of his problem.

THE POLICY MAKER


The educational policy maker is a very important component of the learning process. Without it, there can neither be an educational system nor a learning process.
22

The Policy makers are composed collectively


1. The government. The government, acting through its proper agencies, is the chief maker.

It provides laws for the financing and operation of the whole educational system.
2. The administration of private and state schools. The administration of schools like the

University of the Sto. Tomas and state like the University of the Philippines also make educational policies through their respective Board of Trustees. Such policies should not violate any law or policy of the state.
3. The People. The people also have a hand in the formulation of policies. Proof is the

approval by the people of the Constitution, which contains provisions expressing the educational philosophy, policies, goals, and objectives of the countrys whole educational system upon which other educational laws and policies are based. The educational policy maker is a very important component of the learning process. Without it, there can neither be an educational system nor a learning process. The Scope of Educational Laws or Policies
1. Framework for the educational system. The lawmaking body lays down the framework

of the whole educational system of the country.Act.No.74 is the first framework of the Philippines educational system. The Educational Act of 1994, otherwise known as K.A No. 7722 is the latest enacted law for educational system
2. Goals and objective. These concerns the purposes that the educational system aims to

achieve.
3. Schools personnel. This concerns the recruitment, qualifications, development, promotion,

rights, duties, and enumeration and other benefits of school officials and teachers.
23

4. Students. This concerns the admission, rights and obligations, duties, honors, financial

assistance, guidance, counseling and discipline.


5. Curriculum and curricular years. This concerns the selection of subject, time frame for

each course, specialization, academic and technical etc.


6. Facilities. Facilities include campuses, buildings, and instructional facilities such as

textbooks, references, laboratory equipment and educational media.


7. Organization of private and state schools. The laws policies are especially regarding

facilities, administration, and qualification, of personnel, capitalization, profit, taxation, tuition, and quality of instruction.
8. Promotional standards. If the promotional standards are high, the school graduates are

efficient capable, employable, and become educated literates.


9. Parents. There are also policies concerning the rights and obligation, duties, and functions

of parents.

Theories of Transfer of Learning

24

Transfer of learning refers to the facilities in learning subject due to a previously learned one. Acquired knowledge, skills, ideas, concepts, understandings, insights, attitudes and values aid in obtaining the same in the study of another subject matter.

Theories of Transfer of Learning:


1. Mental Discipline This theory asserts that the skills of training gained in the study of

one subject will improve the performance of the same skill in the study of another subject. Example: The training gained in memorizing poetry will facilitate the memorizing of other learning materials such as names, dates, events, and other information in history. The reasoning power gained from the study of geometry and algebra can also be used in the study of social sciences, logic and other subjects. Thus the value of a subject does not only lie in the usefulness of the content also in the training and skill and acquired used in the study of other subjects.
2. The theories of Identical Elements. It states that the amount of transfer depends upon

the presence of identical elements in both learning situations. This theory was formulated by Thorndike.

Example: The study of mathematics facilitates the study of physics because the principles used in the solution of verbal problems in physics are the same principles studied in mathematics. The study of medical technology or nursing facilitates study of medicine because of many similar elements in this field.
3. The theory of generalization It means that experiences in one learning situation can

be applied in another learning situation. It should be noted that there are also similar elements in the two learning situations. This is a theory of Judd. But emphasis is based
25

place on the understanding and recognition of the relationships between the generalizations of the two learning experiences involved. Example: Take the two study of English and Filipino grammar. The rules and principles of grammar are practically the same in the two languages. Although the word noun in English is translated into pangalan in Filipino, both have the same uses in the sentences such as subject of a sentence, object of a verb, or objective complement. The adjective in English is called pang-uri in Filipino but both described or modify nouns. In fact, a good knowledge of English grammar can be a good basis for studying Filipino.
4. The Theory of Configuration. This is the same as the Gestalt theory of learning. The

term configuration is the equivalent of the German word gestalt. Configuration refers to the unified or total pattern of organization of a learning situation so that the components of element lose their identity. Example: Take the two courses, nursing and medicine. Medicine as a whole is analyzing an illness and prescribing its cure. Nursing on the other hand is taking care of the sick and administering the cure. Hence, the two courses are applied. So, one who has finished nursing will have an easier time learning medicine. Factors Affecting the Transfer of Learning:
1. Mental ability. The higher the mental ability of a learner, the transfer of learning will

take place.
2. Similarities between subject matter. The more similarities that exist between two

subjects, the more transfer will take place.

3. Motivation and effort-making capacity. The more motivated the learner is and the

more effort he exerts, the more transfer will take place.


4. Method of teaching. The more effective of teaching is, the more transfer will take

place.
26

5. Facilities. The more adequate and superior the facilities in the teaching-learning

situation are, the more transfer will take place.


6. Background. The learner with a superior or richer background or environment can

have more transfer of learner or training than one with a poorer environment.

Factors which may Affect the Learning Process It has been found out that the pupils difficulty in learning maybe due to many factors within the child himself. These factors are the following:
1. Intellectual Factors- refers to the individuals level. Success in school is generally closely

related to the level of the intellect. 2. Learning Factors- factors owing to lack of mastery of what has been taught, physical development, work or study, and narrowness of experimental backgrounds. 3. Physical Factors- under this group are included such factors as health, physical development, nutrition, visual and physical defects, and glandular abnormality. 4. Mental Factors- attitude falls under mental factors. Attitudes are made up of organic and kinesthetic elements.
5. Emotional and Social Factors- personal factors, such as instincts and emotions, and social

factors, such as cooperation and rivalry, are directly related to a complex psychology and motivation.

27

Other Factors which Affect Learning

There are many other factors which create educational casualties or produce difficulties which require special help. 1. Malnutrition. Frequent delitating illness and grandular disturbances are among those which should be mentioned. 2. The kind of relations which exists between pupils and teachers. The relation between pupils and teachers are extremely varied an complex. Pupils are sensitive to a teachers personality and methods. The kinds of roles which the teacher assumes have a profound effect upon the learning situation in the classroom. 3. There is the persuasive effect of goals, purpose, objectives and the way the students believe their work will be evaluated.

28

Proper Setting for Learning The psychological setting of the classroom is basic to the teaching-learning situation and to the general growth and development of the learner. It is an atmosphere in which the learner desire to learn and make knowledge as his own. The proper setting for learning is one of the cooperation and competition with other learners. Competitions cannot be eliminated in favor of cooperation. Both competition and cooperation tendencies can be developed for the benefit of the individual and the group. Learning, being an individual active process, needs proper setting for growth and development. The teacher can provide situations that may encourage pupils growth and development. Pupils must learn how to be receptive to learning. No amount of patient careful directions, even from persons who loves and admires, enables him to learn unless he makes the effort to-do so. The importance of emotional tone is beyond question. Emotional tone is essential of the individual. Strong emotions may cause the learner to over-invest or to reject. The effect of over29

investment or rejection is similar to, personal involvement, feeling of rejection and remorse, lack of attention. Learning and Scopes of Learning Learning is an active process of cage which takes place within the individual. The learner must be so aroused that he will not only initiate the learning activity but will persist in it as well. Learning involves change. It concerned with acquisition of habits, skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes. Learning starts with the learner. Any motivation within the individual which makes him perceptive to stimulation is essential to goal attainment.

Nine Conditions to Make Learning Possible


1. The first condition for effective learning is one we are all conscious of, is motivation.

Their needs must be some kind of drive, some kind of motive in order to keep action going on. 2 Sources of Motivation

a. Social Needs- human being needs to feel that he belongs to the social group and to have some ways of giving affection. b. Great Satisfaction- derived from their own activity that is meaningful and that help satisfy their curiosity by giving some understanding of the world.

2. The learner fined his previous ways of reacting unsatisfactorily.

30

Recent studies emphasized that just motivating someone will not produced new behavior unless that person discovers his present behavior are unsatisfactory and need replacing by different better ones. 3. Kind of guidance of the learners efforts when the behavior he is trying to learn is not simply acquired.

Guidance of some sort is essential for any kind of complex learning situation where trialerror would prove to be inefficient that lost. 4. Adequate and appropriate provision of materials for the student to use in his effort to learn. 5. Enough time to carry on the desired behavior. This involves time to react to it, to reflect upon it, to feel it, as well as to experience it overtly. 6. Learner gets satisfaction from his behavior. Behavior that is satisfying to the person carrying it sense is to remain with him, become part of him, and in that sense is learned, while dissatisfying or painful tends to be blotted. 7. Sequential Practiced. Unless there is variation in method of approach each time some behavior is practiced. 8. The teacher must encourage pupils to keep setting their sights and show them how they can improve their present standard of accomplishment.

9. Is to help the learner get some means of judging his own performance.

31

Emotional-social climate is the result of at least the following factors: A. The kind of pupil-teacher relationships which exist in the classroom;

B. The social interaction of relationships among pupils; C. The relationships among members of the faculty and staffs; and D. The physical characteristics of the classroom, class size, the previous experience of the pupil, pupils social readiness, relative emphasis on cooperation versus competition, and pupils attitudes toward teachers.

6. Teachers Personality- the teachers as an individual personality is an important element in the learning environment or in the failures and success of the learner.

A summary of the skills which a teacher needs in order to help such childrens are:

A. Ability to diagnose social needs B. Ability to study rejected child and isolate to find the causes of the behavior C. Proficiency in setting up programs and work which allow the induction of such children into the class group.

32

7. Environmental Factors- physical conditions need for learning is under environmental

factor. One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which learning takes place. This includes the classrooms, textbooks, equipment, school supplies, and other instructional materials.

33

DISCOVERING AND OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES IN LEARNING

Although there is no single answer to the problem of educational casualties, it is virtually certain that many pupils, who would otherwise have failed or drop out of school, are being help by teachers who have discovered pupils difficulties early enough and have provided appropriate remedial teaching. Alert teachers have recognize that anything which interferes with reception of stimuli (sensory defect in vision and hearing) the pupils responses (such as low mental ability) or with motives and energy (as negative attitude and emotional instability) interferes with learning, any such interference whether it be speech defect, a slight loss of hearing, or feeling of rejections must be recognized and treated before the pupils full potential is release. Remedial teaching begins with a discovery of pupils who are having or apt to have difficulties. Learning difficulties maybe discovered by routine physical checkups, mental test achievements test, diagnostic and clues which the teacher may notice in observing pupils at work. The causes of the difficulties are found through a more intensive analysis which includes the use of diagnostic test, interviews, and case studies. It is important in this steps that teachers study the processes which pupils use in solving problems or in going about their work. Principles of diagnostic and remedial teaching apply to all subjects and grade levels of our school system. There are individual problems in each of the school subjects. In each subject, the teacher should apply the basic principles of remedial teaching, but in addition should make use of the special techniques which research has found to be effective. Remedial teaching in essence is
34

just good teaching which takes the learner where he is, and through well motivated activities led him to increase competence in his area of weakness or difficulties. Following diagnosis, work should be set up to get the child back into class work. In doing remedial work, the following general principles must be observed: 1. Remove the negative emotional attitudes which affect learning. Since a large percentage of learning difficulties are either caused by or accompanied by emotional disturbances to alleviate difficulties is to build up the childs self-confidence. 2. Find materials which are interesting and commensurate with the childs weakness. A retarded reader might have great interest in comic books, and those might have media beginning remedial work.
3. Remedial work must be such as to give close attention and guidance to learners in early

trial of any new kind of learning, or with new materials. Original difficulties, which may be caused by quite simple mistakes, may grow, become persistent, and affect whole area of work. 4. The child must be given an early opportunity to use and demonstrate new found skills. In this connection, however care should be exercised so that child who is undergoing remedial teaching is not thrown into competitive situation to quickly, as it may undermine his growing confidence.

35

PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING


To teach effectively, the teacher must understand the basic principles of learning. Based on the different concepts of the learning process and the laws that govern them, the following general principles of learning are presented for guidance in teaching:

1. Learning is considered as an acquisition of knowledge, habits, skills, abilities, and

attitudes through the interaction of the whole individuals and his total environment. Responses are considered an integral part of the unified self in meeting lifes demands. In other words learning is the process of experiencing, doing, reacting and undergoing.

2. Learning is meaningful if it is organized in such a way as to emphasized and call for understanding, insight, initiative, and cooperation. When the learner is capable of gaining insight or understanding into the learning situation, then and only then the will

36

learning take place. Understanding is an organizing, synthesizing process that integrates experiences into larger meaningful units.

3. Learning is facilitated by motives or drives. Needs, interest, and goals are fundamental on the learning process. If the individual has to learn, he must have some goal to be accomplished. Learning is best when the learner knows and understands his motive in learning.

4. Learning is facilitated by the law of readiness or mind get. Learning does not occur

unless the learner is ready to act or to learn. When a person is ready to learn, he learns more effectively and with greater satisfaction than when unprepared. When a person feels ready to act and is prevented from doing so, he feels annoyed. Mental set is conductive to effective learning.

5. Learning is facilitated by the law of exercise. Practice and exercise are so common that they are universally accepted as an active means of learning. Lack of practice or exercise cause memory of leaned materials weaken; and in general, the longer the period of disuse, the greater the loss. We learn and retain by exercise and forget though disuse.

6. Learning is facilitated by the law of effect. The law of effect pertains to the influence

of satisfying or unsatisfying feeling tones that accompany a response and either strengthen or weaken that response. When the learner finds the correct answer to a question, he feels pleased about his achievement and the connection is consequently strengthened. A feeling of satisfaction fixes a response, whereas a feeling of annoyance tends to destroy it.

37

7. Learning is facilitated by the law of belongingness. When the learner perceives the

relationship of facts presented, the speed of learning is greatly increased. In order that learning in the classroom will be more meaningful to the learner, it must be related in some way to his previous knowledge. It must belong to the context of learning to learner has already achieved. 8. Learning is facilitated when the teacher provides the learner with the proper stimuli and guides, and uses the principle of conditioning or associating those learning functions that need to be made automatic for most effective learning. Automatic responses are of prime importance in the formation of new habits or skills for they increase power and lessen fatigue. They serve as time-energy-saving habits. 9. Learning is conditioned by the attitude of the learner, the environmental conditions conducive to learning, and the attitude and skill of the teacher in setting the stage for learning, which includes teaching skill itself. Learning is most effective in an atmosphere of security and belonging. 10. Learning difficulty is due to many factors within the learner himself. The most common factors which affect the learning process are the intellectual, physical, emotional, and social factors. All of these factors may be found in the individual himself. 11. Learning is effective when more senses are utilized by the learner. The combination of seeing and hearing with touch, taste, and smell will facilitate the learning and understanding of the learning situation. The use of different senses will also add effectiveness in causing learning to be meaningful and functional.

12. Learning is effective when it is made functional and aided by understanding derived

from experience. The experience of the pupil when utilized by the teacher will add to the understanding of the learning situation. Experiences and other material devices are
38

often used in teaching to give meaning and understanding to the learner. The maturity and intelligence of the learner will determine the need for supplemental experience and other instructional devices.
13. The learning process and achievement are materially affected by the level of aspiration

set by the learner. Individual need practice in setting realistic goals for themselves. Realistic goals lead to ore satisfactory improvement than unrealistic goal-setting.

14. The learning process and proceeds most effectively when the experiences. Materials and desired results are carefully adjusted to the maturity and background of experience of the learner. 15. The learning process proceeds best when the learner can see results, has knowledge of his status and progress when he achieves insight and understanding.

16. The learning process proceeds most effectively under the type of instructional guidance which stimulates without dominating or coercing which provides for success rather than too many failures.
17. The learning process in operation is a functioning unity of several procedures which

may be separated arbitrarily for discussion. This is based on the principle of integration.

18. Learning products are socially useful pattern of action, values, meanings, attitudes, appreciations, skills, and abilities. The learning products accepted by the learners are those which satisfy a need, which are useful and meaningful to the learner.

39

19. There is no substitute for respective practice in the over learning of skill or in memorization of unrelated facts. Spaced or distributed results are more advantageous in fixing material that is to be long retained.

20. Learning as commonly conceived means not only change but improvement. Learning situation may be either formal or informal. During informal learning as individuals habit patterns result directly from response in day by day situations. Much of this learning emanates from imitation of others. A child tends to imitate speech patterns, mannerism, social behavior, or group standards. The learning situation which is considered more formal is that of the school. Here the teacher can also involve himself in many informal experiences as he shares activities with his school mates and enjoy satisfactory relationship with teachers and classmates.

Conclusion of the Learning Process

40

To learn is to acquire knowledge or skill. Learning also may involve a change in attitude or behavior. Children learn to identify objects at an early age; teenagers may learn to improve study habits; and adults can learn to solve complex problems. This handbook is designed as a basic guide to educational psychology. This chapter addresses that branch of psychology directly concerned with how people learn. Definition of Learning The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime. To define learning, it is necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. For example, an individual's way of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. Thus, learning can be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience. This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more subtle ways. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views, psychologists generally agree on many common characteristics of learning. Characteristics of Learning Learning is Purposeful Each student sees a learning situation from a different viewpoint. Each student is a unique individual whose past experiences affect readiness to learn and understanding of the requirements involved. For example, an instructor may give two aviation maintenance students the assignment of learning certain inspection procedures. One student may learn quickly and be able to competently present the assigned material. The combination of an aviation background and future goals may enable that student to realize the need and value of learning the procedures. A second student's goal may only be to comply with the instructor's assignment, and may result in only minimum preparation. The responses differ because each student ads in accordance with what he or she sees in the situation.

41

Learning is a Result of Experience Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the student. The student can learn only from personal experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. A person's knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences. Even when observing the same event, two people react differently; they learn different things from it, according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. Previous experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to ignore others. Learning is Multifaceted

Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types, such as verbal, conceptual, perceptual, motor, problem solving, and emotional. Other classifications refer to intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudinal changes, along with descriptive terms like surface or deep learning. However useful these divisions may be, they are somewhat artificial. For example, a class learning to apply the scientific method of problem solving may learn the method by trying to solve real problems. But in doing so, the class also engages in verbal learning and sensory perception at the same time. Each student approaches the task with preconceived ideas and feelings, and for many students, these ideas change as a result of experience. Therefore, the learning process may include verbal elements, conceptual elements, perceptual elements, emotional elements, and problem solving elements all taking place at once. This aspect of learning will become more evident later in this handbook when lesson planning is discussed. Learning is an Active Process Students do not soak up knowledge like a sponge absorbs water. The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom, shop, or airplane when the instructor presented the material. Neither can the instructor assume that the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. For students to learn, they need to react and respond, perhaps outwardly, perhaps only inwardly, emotionally, or intellectually. But if learning is a process of changing behavior, clearly that process must be an active one.
42

Learning Styles Although characteristics of learning and learning styles are related, there are distinctions between the two. Learning style is a concept that can play an important role in improving instruction and student success. It is concerned with student preferences and orientation at several levels. For example, a student's information processing technique, personality, social interaction tendencies and the instructional methods used are all significant factors which apply to how individual students learn. In addition, today's culturally diverse society, including international students, must be considered.

Self Activity, the Basis of All Learning

43

The preceding study of learning activities emphasized the importance of self activity on the part of the learner. There is a great need for activity in effective learning. However, too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of activity in the learning process on the fact that learning is promoted by action alone, for the speed and the precision of learning becomes most effective only in direct proportion to the amount of activity that is aroused during the process. Speed, precision and permanence of learning will be enhanced in proportion to the amount of activity aroused in the process. Learning at its best is the process of discovering by ones self. It is an active process. Learning proceeds rapidly in direct proportion to active participation. The teacher plays an important part in the educative process by finishing the conditions that stimulate the desired physical, mental, social and emotional experience. Methods of Self Activity It emphasizes the importance of needs and interest, not only in the work at hand, but interest in improvement and the acceptance of the work as significant to the pupils needs. Self activity, in the sense of ability to educate should be an objective of all teaching. Self activity must made a definite objective and pupil under proper guidance, must be given experience in using the means thought make self education possible. Importance of Self activity in Thinking The principle of self activities is of particular importance in teaching pupils to reason. Pupils will learn to think reflectively by going through experiences of reasoning. Through experiences and reflective thinking, the pupil learns the significance of the steps of the inductions and deductive reasoning process.

Importance of Self activity in Acquiring Specific Motor Activities

44

In acquiring specific motor abilities, it is necessary that the pupil experience each of the sets of muscular movements essential to the development of the ability. Verbal directions, demonstrations or various kinds of illustrations may help in guiding the trial and error of the learning process, by actual doing repetition are essential to the mastery of the ability.

The Importance of the Whole - Method in Learning Most learning situations consist of an organized pattern of objects or events. Such units oughts to call for an organized pattern of response. Studies made by Cronbach have shown that the whole method is superior to the part method only with respect to certain subjects. The Literature suggest as follows: a. More meaningful the material, the more efficient the whole method. b. The more intelligent the learner, the more efficient the whole method. c. Learning of any sort is dependent to some extent on the magnitude of the unit to the comprehend.

Cognitive Learning and Thinking


45

Cognitive Learning and Thinking It is important for teachers to understand the way student and the components of critical and creative thinking. Learning is a reflective process whereby the learner either develops new insights and understanding or changes or restructures his or her mental process. So constructed, learning combines both inductive thought and deductive thought where as learning connotes a general process, critical thinking and creativity connote specific aspects of learning. Principles of Learning There have been three major school of learning theories in the last 100 years:
1. Behavioral theories learning in terms of changing what we do. The emphasize

behavioral modification by means of reinforcement.


2. Field and Gestalt theories consider how the individual perceives the learning

environment or situation. They emphasize observational learning and modeling


3. Cognitive theories consider how learners think, reasons, and transfer

information to new situations. The following list of principles of learning is derived from cotemporary cognitive psychology and has implications for teachers today.
1. Learning by doing is good advice. But teachers should also understand that student

learn by indirect means by observing others and through encouragements to try again or to go to the next task or skill level
2. One learns to do what one does. If students are unwilling to read or to play terms they

will not learn how to read or to play tennis.

46

3. Is relative to the student needs and abilities. An important part of teaching is to

know ones needs additional instruction and who is ready to learn new task.
4. The principle of readiness is related to the learners stage of development and

their previous learning. The teacher must consider the students age in presenting certain content and in expecting certain cognitive processes.
5. The student self- concepts and beliefs about their abilities are extremely

important. Sometimes forget that these personal factors affect learning and that teachers attitudes influence the student perceptions themselves.
6. Teachers should provide opportunities for meaningful and appropriate practice-

practice task to engage students more fully and to take advantage of different ways of learning the same thing. 7. Transfer of learning to new situations can be horizontal ( across subject matter ) or vertical ( increased complexity of the same subject ) 8. Learning should be good- directed and focus- teachers must assist students to become task- oriented, purposive and efficient in their use of time for learning and studying. 9. Positive feedback, realistic praise and encouragement are motivating in the teaching learning process. Teachers must also consider situational factors. 10. Meta cognition- is an advanced cognitive process whereby students acquire specific learning strategies and also sense when they are not learning. Teachers need to help students to learn how to recognize their thoughts, how to assess their own thinking and to study. Teachers need to help students learn how to organize their thoughts how to assess their own thinking and how to study. From a review of the Literature, Charles Letteri has compiled a list of seven comprehension or thinking skills that students can develop to enhance the way they process and
47

integrates information. This are the skills that the teacher should understand and help student acquire. 1. Analysis ( sometimes called Field dependence independence ) The ability to breakdown complex information into component parts for the purpose of identification and categorization. 2. Focusing (scanning) the ability to select relevant or important information without being distracted or confused by the irrelevant or secondary information.
3. Comparative analysis - (reflective impulsivity) the ability to select a correct item from

among several alternatives and to compare information and make proper choice. 4. Narrowing (breadth of categorization) the ability to identify and place new information into categories through its attributes physical characteristics, principles or function. 5. Complex cognitive (complexity simplicity) the ability to integrate complex information into existing cognitive structure. 6. Sharpening (sharpening leveling) the ability to maintain distinction between cognitive structures and to avoid confusion or overlap.
7. Tolerance (Tolerant intolerant) the ability to monitor and modify thinking, the ability to

deal with ambiguous or unclear information without getting frustrated. Cognitive frameworks propose Weinstein and Mayor consist of eight comprehension or thinking strategies.
1. Basic rehearsal strategies. The ability to remember names or words and the order of

things.
2. Complex rehearsal strategies. Making appropriate choices or selection. 3. Complex elaboration strategies. Analyzing or synthesizing new information with all

the information.
4. Basic elaboration strategies. Relating two or more items such as nouns and verbs. 48

5. Basic organizational strategies. Categorizing, grouping or ordering new information. 6. Complex organizational strategies. Putting information in hierarchal arrangement

such as outlining notes or framework.


7. Comprehension, monitoring. Checking progress, recognizing when one is on the right

track or confused, right or wrong.


8. Affirtive strategies. Being relaxed yet alert and attentive during a test situation and

when studying. Tips for an effective learning situation 1. The learner must see his goal clearly. 2. The learner must be ready to learn psychologically and physiologically. 3. The learner must be motivated and guided either intrinsically and extrinsically. 4. The learner must learn by doing. 5. The learner must concentrate on the learning task.
6. The learner must integrate the related parts of the learning task into a whole.

7. The strategy of teaching must suit the learning situation. 8. The learner must be able to see the significance meaning, implications, and application of the learning task. 9. The learner must often use the law of exercise to enable him to remember and retain what he has learned. 10. If at first the learner fails to attain his goal, he must use his insight and understanding to discover the right solution to his problem.

Teaching Styles
49

Teaching style is viewed as a broad dimension or personality type that encompasses teacher stance, pattern of behavior, mode of performance, and attitude toward self and others. Penelope Peterson defines teachers style in terms of how teachers utilized space in the classroom, their choice of instructional activities and materials, and their method of student grouping. Donald Medley refers to teachers styles as a dimension of classroom climate.

DESCRIPTION OF TEACHING STYLES Thelen (1954) Herbert Thelen attempts to compare teaching styles with characteristics of societal positions or with what appear to be roles associated with other occupation. 1. Socratic. The image is a wise, somewhat crusty teacher who purposely gets into arguments with the students over the subject matter through artful questioning. 2. Town-meeting. Teachers who adapt this style use a great deal of discussion and play a moderator role that enables students to work out answers to problems to problems by themselves.
3. Apprenticeship. This person serves as a role model towards learning, as well as

occupational outlook, perhaps even toward general life. 4. Boss-Employee. This teacher asserts his or her own authority and provides rewards or punishments to see that the work is done. 5. Good-Old Team. The image is one of a group of players to the coach working as a team.

50

Riesman (1967) Frank Reissmans eight teaching styles describe personality types; they were originally based on the observant ions of effective teachers of inner-city students. 1. Compulsive type. This teacher is fussy, teaches things over and over and is concerned with functional order structures. 2. Boomer. This teacher shouts out in loud, strong voice, there is no nonsense in the classroom. 3. Maverick. Everybody loves his teacher, except perhaps the principal. She raises difficult questions and present ideas that disturb. 4. Coach. This teacher is informal, earthy and maybe an athlete; he is physically expressive in conducting the class. 5. Quite One. Sincere, calm but definite, this teacher commands both respect and attention. 6. Entertainer. This teacher is free enough to joke and laugh with the students. 7. Secular. This person is relaxed and informal with children; she will have lunch with them, or play ball with them. 8. Academic. The teacher is interested in knowledge and in the substance of ideas.

Rubin (1985) Louis Robin more recently defines six kinds of teaching styles related to the act of teaching. 1. Explanatory. The teacher is in command of the subject matter and explains particular aspects of the lesson.

51

2. Aspiratory. The teacher is stimulating and exhibits emotional involvement in teaching. 3. Informative. The teacher presents information through verbal statements. The students are expected to listen and follow the instructions of the teacher. 4. Corrective. The teacher provides feedback to the students- analyzing the work, diagnosing for errors, and presenting corrective advice. 5. Interactive. Through dialogue and questioning, the teacher facilitates the development of students ideas. 6. Programmatic. The teacher guides the students activities and facilitates self instruction and independent learning.

Research on Teacher Styles


Lipid and White laid the groundwork for a more formal classification of what a teacher does in the classroom. They developed an instrument for describing the social atmosphere of childrens clubs and for quantifying the effects of group and individual behavior. Authoritarian teacher. Directs all the activities of the program. This style share some characteristics with is now called the direct teacher. Democratic teacher. Encourage group participation and is willing to let students share in decisionmaking process. This behavior is typical of what is now called the indirect teacher. Laissez- faire teacher. Considered to be an unorganized or ineffective teacher.

52

Student Problem Types Based on Teacher Description


1) Failure syndrome

These Children are convinced they cannot do the work, they often avoid starting or they just give up easily. 2) Perfectionist These Children are unduly anxious about making mistakes; they have self impose standards which are unrealistically high. 3) Underachiever These do the minimum work just get by they do not value school work. 4) Low Achiever These children have difficulty even when willing to work. 5) Hostile aggressive
53

These children express hostility trough direct, intense behavior. They are not easily controlled. 6) Passive Aggressive These children express opposition and resistance to the teacher though indirectly. 7) Defiant These children resist authority and carry on power struggle with the teacher. They want to have their way and not to be told what to do. 8) Hyperactive These children show excessive and almost constant movement, even when sitting.

9) Distractible These children have short attention span. They seem unable to sustain attention and concentration and are highly distractible. 10) Immature These children have poorly developed emotional stability, self control, self-care, abilities, social skills, or responsibility. 11) Rejected by peers These children seek interaction but are rejected, ignored or excluded. 12) Withdrawn These children avoid personal interaction. Are unobtrusive, and do not respond well to others.

54

55