= (7)
where P
0
is the surface power; d, the maximum distance measured from the surface, being the attenuation
factor, a function of the dielectric constant and loss factor .
2
1
2 / 1
2
tan 1 '
2


.

\


.

\

+
=
o c
t
o
(8)
with

.

\

=
'
"
1
tan
c
c
o (9)
3. NUMERICAL MODEL
The differential equation (3) was numerically solved to calculate food temperatures as a function of position and
time with proper initial and boundary conditions. In this work, the Crank Nicolson finite difference scheme was
chosen (Forsythe & Wasow, 1960); it provides an acceptable predictive quality, being numerically stable when
compared to explicit schemes. Finite differences method is easily applied to regularlyshaped foods
in one, two and threedimensional heat transfer. The following equations were used:
t
T T
t
T
n
i
n
i
A
=
c
c
+1
(10)
x
T T T T
x
T
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
A
+
=
c
c
+
+
+
+
4
1 1
1
1
1
1
(11)
2
4
2
1 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
x
n
i
T
n
i
T
n
i
T
n
i
T
n
i
T
n
i
T
x
T
A
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
c
c
(12)
where i denotes node position; n, the time interval, Ax space increment (radial or axial) and At, the time step,
such that x = iAx and t = nAt, with i = 0 (center), b (boundary); n stands for time t, while (n + 1) corresponds to
time (t + At).
To evaluate the conductivity spatial derivative, negligible changes of this property between times nAt
and (n + 1) At, were considered:
x
k k
x
k
n
i
n
i
A
=
c
c
+
2
1 1
(13)
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
484  P a g e
also to evaluate the power volumetric derivative, negligible changes of this property between times nAt and (n +
1) At, were considered:
V
n
i
P
n
i
P
V
P
A
+
=
c
c
2
1 1
(14)
The resulting systems of algebraic equations were solved by the Thomas Algorithm (Allen, Herrera, & Pinder,
1988); this is an adequate method to solve systems of linear equations leading to a tridiagonal matrix of
coefficients. The complete solution was codified in a Fortran 90 program.
4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experiments were carried out in the laboratory, using a BPLSANYO microwave oven (model BMO
700 T), maximum power of 1200W, with an operation frequency of 2450MHz. The desired drying temperature
was not possible to set; instead, an appropriate power setting was chosen and processing time was varied using a
digital display panel.
Samples of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill) slab with dimensions of 4 cm 1 cm 2 cm were used.
For heating, slab was placed inside glass container; which is transparent to radiation. During the experiment,
sample was placed in the cavity center on an acrylic support, resting on a rotating table. This provides a uniform
electromagnetic field around the sample surface (Tong & Lund, 1993). Sample temperatures were measured
before and immediately after heating (Oliveira & Franca, 2002) by using TP01thermocouple probe (sensor type:
Thermocouple K (NiCrNiAl)) with LCD (Liquid Crystal Display).The time elapsed between sample removal
from the oven and temperature measurement was minimized and recorded.
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
5.1 Validation of the Mathematical Model with Experimental Data
The microwave power absorbed by a sample is a function of weight. The experiment for this relationship was
conducted using distilled water as recommended by Lin (1991) (L. Zhou et. al., 1995). The power absorption
equation was obtained by regressing the experimental data:
P=1.7905+0.8231W+ 0.0046W
2
+ 4 x 10
5
W
3
(R
2
=1) (15)
Where W is the weight of water (kg). The relationship in eqn (15) between power absorption and product weight
is, clearly, nonlinear.
The power absorbed by the Aloe vera was calculated using eqn (15) and the weight of water in the Aloe vera
sample. The microwave power absorption in food materials is mainly due to the presence of water molecules.
Also, water (moisture) content in the Aloe vera used for these experiments was high (average moisture content
of Aloe vera was >98%). Although an approximation, the present approach is a reasonable way to obtain power
absorption. In addition, no inexpensive instruments were readily available. Experiments were conducted in the
Laboratory for validating this assumption. Validation experiments were performed by comparing average
temperature increments in Aloe vera and water; the error was within 5%.
The surface power P
O
was approximately calculated by dividing the power absorbed by the total surface area
(Lin, 1991). The data used for power calculation are listed in Table 1. where, the P
0
values for slab were 1.2136
x 10
4
W/m
2
considered;
Table 1 Data used for surface power calculation
Sample W
s
(Kgx10
3
) W
w
(Kgx10
3
) P (W) A
s
(m
2
x10
4
) P
0
(W/m
2
x10
4
)
Aloe vera 9.117 8.93466 9.709 8 1.2136
Surface evaporation A
v
m was not readily available in the literature. A drying experiment was conducted in
the laboratory to obtain this value. Weight losses of the sample at different temperature levels were collected. It
was found that the surface evaporation rate is a function of temperature. The resulting regression is given in
equation (16):
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
485  P a g e
A
v
m = 25 + 6631.1 T 226571T
2
+ 2 x10
6
T
3
4x10
6
T
4
(R
2
=1)
(16)
where A
v
m is in g/min.cm
2
and T is the air temperature in C.
As Attenuation factor and heat transfer coefficient was not readily available in the literature. They were assumed
to be same as of Agar gel. The required data was collected from experimental results obtained by Padua (1993).
In order to establish the proposed model, some complementary information was required. Shrinkage of the
sample during drying was found to be linearly proportional to time at the experimental condition. The resulting
regression is given in equation (17). As it is observed from Eq. (17), an important reduction of sample volume
during dehydration was measured:
V=151.13  40.5 t (17)
Table 2: Thermal and electromagnetic properties of Aloe Vera
Property Aloe vera
Density (kg/m
3
) 1000
Conductivity (W/(mC)) 1.0
Specific heat (J/(kg C)) 4184
Attenuation factor (m
1
) 34
Surface power(W/m
2
x10
4
) 1.2136
Heat transfer coefficient (W/(m
2
C)) 20
Initial temperature (C) 25
A
v
m (g/min.cm
2
)
Eqn (9.2)
9.2 Model Validation For OneDimensional Transfer Semi Infinite Slab
Aloe Vera was used as the test material for the heat transfer measurement and modeling study. Because of the
limitation of Aloe vera size, the dimension of the test sample were 40 (x direction) X 10 (y direction) X 20 (z
direction) mm.. A semiinfinite slab was discretized into 20 equal size cubic elements. The initial temperature
was uniform at 25C. The semiinfinite slab surface was kept at a constant temperature of 25C. Heat generation
was considered in the calculations and thermal conductivity was taken to be unity.
Table 3: Effect of microwave heating on corner and center temperature of Aloe Vera gel slab
Time (sec) Corner Temperature (C) Center Temperature (C)
0 25 25
6 26 26
8 27 28
10 27 30
12 28 32
Table 4: Temperature distribution due to microwave heating
Distance from center (mm) Temperature (C)
0 32
0.2 30
0.5 28
All nodes at the same distance from the surface of the slab were expected to have the same temperature.
Comparisons between analytical solutions and Finite Difference Method predictions were based on center and
corner of the slab temperature. Fig. 1 shows the temperature profiles predicted by the numerical model and
experimental results, respectively for a slab of Aloe vera after 12 s of microwave heating. The temperature
increased away from the corners to the edges, with further increase towards the center. The top surface had a
lower temperature than the middle layer because of a large evaporation along with huge convective heat loss.
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
486  P a g e
27.5
28
28.5
29
29.5
30
30.5
31
31.5
32
32.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Distance from center (mm)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Experimental
Numerical model
Figure 1: Temperature profiles predicted by the experimental results and
Numerical model for a slab of Aloe Vera after 12 s of microwave heating.
Figure 3 and 4 shows the comparison of predicted temperatures in the corner and in the center, respectively by
numerical model of microwave heating and experimental results for slab of Aloe Vera.
24.005
25.005
26.005
27.005
28.005
29.005
30.005
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (sec)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Experimental
data
Temperature
predicted by FDM
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
0 5 10 15
Time (sec)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Experiment al dat a
Model predict ed
dat a
Figure 3 Comparison of predicted
temperatures at the corner by numerical
model of microwave heating (symbols) and
experimental results (solid line) for slab of
Aloe vera
Figure 4 Comparison of predicted temperatures
at the center by numerical model of microwave
heating (symbols) and experimental results
(solid line) for slab of Aloe vera
As can be seen, the trends of FDM predictions and measurements are similar. However some differences were
also observed. The FDM predicted temperatures at the upper corner of the Aloe vera were higher than measured
values (Fig. 3). The predicted temperature at the center was lower than measured values (Fig.4). Average
percentage errors between the numerical model (present work) and experimental data were 1.87% and 0.33% for
Fig. 1 and 2, respectively.. Results indicate that microwave energy concentrates in the center of the slab, giving
rise to hot spots and hence nonlinear temperature rise occurs inside the product.
The reasons for these differences may be explained as follows:
(1) Accuracy of probe position and the temperature value  it was difficult to locate a probe at the exact
geometric center or the comer;
(2) Inadequate accuracy in the measured surface evaporation rate and absorbed power; (3) nonuniform power
distribution;
(4) Insufficient accuracy of material properties which were obtained from the literature.
6. CONCLUSIONS
In this work, a mathematical model was solved based on the numerical solution of the heat transfer differential
equation with the initial and boundary conditions required to define the system during microwave heating. It was
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
487  P a g e
successfully solved by the finite difference method in onedimensional system. The model useful to understand
the effect of system geometry on temperature profile and to obtain the location of hot and cold points depending
on the shape of the product. In slab shaped products microwave energy gets concentrated at the center, giving
rise to hot spots and hence nonuniform temperature profile in the product. The numerical model was validated
using experimental data obtained in our laboratory. The developed model can be applied under conditions
observed in the usual practice of microwave heating and constitutes a decisionsupport aid to select the proper
operating conditions to optimize technological processes.
APPENDIX A.
A finite difference method was developed for one dimensional energy transfer (slab, infinite cylinder,sphere). To
predict temperature profiles, Eqs. (10)(13) must be replaced in the microscopic balance (3) and, through this
procedure, the general equation for numerical calculation of temperatures was obtained:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
V
n
i
P
n
i
P
x i
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
T
x
n
i
k
t
n
i
Cp
n
i n
i
T
x i
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
T
x i
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
T
x
n
i
k
t
n
i
Cp
n
i n
i
T
x i
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
T
A
+
+




.

\

A
A

.

\

+



.

\

A
A
+




.

\

A
+
A

.

\

+
+
A
+
=




.

\

A
+
A

.

\

+
+
A
+



.

\

A
+
A
+
+




.

\

A
A

.

\

+
+
2
1 1
2
1 4
GI
2
8
1 1
2
2
1
2
2
1 4
GI
2
8
1 1
2
2
1
2
1 4
GI
2
8
1 1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1 4
GI
2
8
1 1
2
2
1
1
(A.1)
This equation is valid for 0 < i < b. Vi is the volume of an element placed between nodes (i + 1/2) and (i  1/2),
while Pi is the power calculated in the same nodes:
(
(
A +
=

.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\

x i L
e
x i L
e
t
A
inc
A
P
i
P
2 / 1 2 2 / 1 2
0
o o
(A.2)
where A
inc
is the area of incidence considered, At being the total product area.
For the central node (i = 0), Vi and Pi were calculated between nodes i and (i + 1/2), while for the border (i = b),
calculations were performed between nodes (i 1/2) and i.
In the center, (i = 0), the microscopic energy balance presents a discontinuity when applied to spheres and
infinite cylinder. The problem was solved applying LHpital rule to the corresponding term, thus generating a
modified microscopic balance:
V
P
x
T
x
k
GI
x
T
k
x
T
x
k
t
T
p
C
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
2
2
(A.3)
To obtain the equation for temperature in the center, finite difference equations (10)(13) are replaced into
Eq.(A.3) to obtain:
(A.4)
In the resulting expression, two points (i1,n) and(i1,n+1) are found to fall outside the domain, constituting
fictitious positions. To evaluate them, discretized boundary condition (5) was used for times n and (n + 1) t and
the following identities were obtained:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
V
P P
x
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
n
i
T
x
n
i
k
t
n
i
Cp
n
i n
i
T
x
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
n
i
T
x
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
n
i
T
x
n
i
k
t
n
i
Cp
n
i n
i
T
x
n
i
k
x
n
i
k
n
i
k
n
i
T
n
i
n
i
A
+




.

\

A
+
+
A

.

\

+



.

\

A
+
A
+




.

\

A
+
+
A

.

\

+
+
=




.

\

A
+
A

.

\

+
+
+



.

\

A
+
+
A
+
+




.

\

A
+
A

.

\

+
+
+
2 2
2
GI 1
2
8
1 1
1
2
GI 1
2
2
GI 1
2
8
1 1
1
2
2
GI 1
2
8
1 1
1
1
2
GI 1
1
2
2
GI 1
2
8
1 1
1
1
1 1
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
488  P a g e
n
i
T
f n
i
T
1
,
1 +
=
(A.5)
1
1
, 1
1
+
+
=
+
n
i
T
f n
i
T
(A.6)
Relationships (A.5) and (A.6) are also known as symmetry conditions. By replacing these equations into Eq.
(A.4), the expression for the center node was obtained:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )



.

\

A
+
+
A
+



.

\

A
+
=



.

\

A
+
+
+



.

\

A
+
+
A
+
2
0
1
0 0
0 2
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
1 2
0
1
0 0 1
0
x
n
k GI
t
n
Cp
n
n
T
x
n
k GI
n
T
x
n
k GI
n
T
x
n
k GI
t
n
Cp
n
n
T
(A.7)
On the food surface (i = b), Eq. (A.1) presents two fictitious points (i+1,n) and (i+1,n+1). To deal with them,
boundary condition (6) was used in discrete version. Therefore, the following relationships are valid for the
border:
A
v
H
v
m x
n
i
k
a
T h x
n
i
k
n
i
T h x
n
i
T
f n
i
T
A A
A
+
A
=
+
2 2 2
1
,
1
(A.8)
A
v
H
v
m x
n
i
k
a
T h x
n
i
k
n
i
T h x
n
i
T
f n
i
T
A A
A
+
+
A
=
+
+
2 2
1
2
1
1
, 1
1
(A.9)
By replacing Eqs. (A.8) and (A.9) in the general expression (A.1), the temperature prediction equation for the
food surface was obtained:
( )
( )
( )
( )
V
n
b
P
n
b
P
b x
n
b
GIk
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x
n
b
k
A
v
H
v
m x
n
b
k
a
T h x
b x
n
b
GIk
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
a
xT h
x
n
b
k
n
b
T
b x
n
b
GIk
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x h
x
n
b
k
t
n
b
Cp
n
b n
b
T
x
n
b
k
n
b
T
b x
n
b
GIk
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x
n
b
k
n
b
k
x h
x
n
b
k
t
n
b
Cp
n
b n
b
T
A
+
+



.

\

A
+
A
+
+
A
+



.

\

A A
A
+



.

\

A
+
A
+
+
A
A
+



.

\

A
+



.

\




.

\

A
A
A
+
A
A
=



.

\

A
+



.

\




.

\

A
+
A
+
+
A
A
+
A
+
A
+
2
1 1
1
2
4
2
8
1 1
2
2
4 4
1
2
4
2
8
1 1
2
2
4
2
1
1
2
4
2
8
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
4
2
8
1 1
2
2
2
2
1
(A.10)
Eqs. (A.1), (A.7) and (A.10) form a system of linear equations from which the center, internal and surface
temperatures were determined. The equation system is valid for slabs, infinite cylinders and spheres according to
the geometric index GI. The resulting systems of algebraic equations were solved by the Gauss Seidel iteration
method; this is an adequate method to solve systems of linear equations leading to a tridiagonal matrix of
coefficients. The complete solution was codified in a Fortran 90 program.
Taralkar S. V., Mahajan N. D., Kothavade A.D., and Chattopadhyay S / International Journal
of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)
ISSN: 22489622 www.ijera.com
Vol. 2, Issue 3, MayJun 2012, pp. 481489
489  P a g e
REFERENCE
[1] Ohlsson, T., & Bengston, N. (1971). Microwave heating profile in foodsA comparison between heating
and computer simulation. Microwave Energy Applied Newsletter, 6, 38.
[2] Swami, S. (1982). Microwave heating characteristics of simulated high moisture foods. MS Thesis. USA:
University of Massachusetts.
[3] Datta, A. K., & Anantheswaran, R. C. (2001). Handbook of microwave technology for food applications.
New York: Dekker Inc Ayappa, K. G., Davis, H. T., Crapiste, G., Davis, E. A., & Gordon, J.(1991).
Microwave heating: An evaluation of power formulations. Chemical Engineering Science, 46(4), 1005
1016.
[4] Chen, A. A., Singh, R. K., Haghighi, K., & Nelson, P. E. (1993). Finite element analysis of temperature
distribution in microwave cylindrical potato tissue. Journal of Food Engineering, 18, 351368.
[5] Forsythe, G. E., & Wasow, W. R. (1960). Finite difference methods for partial differential equations.
New York: John Wiley and Sons.
[6] Allen, M. B., Herrera, I., & Pinder, J. F. (1988). Numerical modeling in science and engineering. New
York: John Wiley and Sons.
[7] Tong, C. H., & Lund, D. B. (1993). Microwave heating of baked dough products with simultaneous heat
and moisture transfer.Journal of Food Engineering, 19, 319339.
[8] Oliveira, M. E. C., & Franca, A. S. (2002). Microwave heating of foodstuffs. Journal of Food
Engineering, 53, 347359.
[9] Lin, Y. E. (1991). Heating characteristics of simulated solid foods in a microwave oven.PhD thesis,
Pennsylvania State University, PA.
[10] Padua, G. W. (1993). Microwave heating of agar gels containing sucrose. Journal of Food Science,
58(60), 14261428.
[11] L. Zhou, V. M. Puri, R. C. Anantheswaran & G. Yeh (1995). Finite Element Modeling of Heat and Mass
Transfer in Food Materials during Microwave HeatingModel Development and Validation, Journal of
Food Engineering, 25, 509529.
Muito mais do que documentos
Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.
Cancele quando quiser.