eff i
where R
eff i
is the ef
fective radius of curvature, the velocity dependent coefcient of friction is
i
and the
displacement at which the gap element engages is d
i
. In the actual bearing, the effective
radius of curvature, R
eff i
, is equal to R
i
h
i
, where R
i
is the radius of curvature of the i
th
spherical surface and h
i
is the radial distance between the i
th
spherical surface and the
pivot point of the articulated slider. Here, overbar notation is used to denote parameters
and responses associated with the series model and standard notation is used to denote
parameters and responses associated with the true behavior of the triple FP bearing.
Examining the series model, displacement of element i initiates when the applied
horizontal force F exceeds the friction force, F
fi
=
i
W, where W is the vertical load sup
ported by the bearing. Motion of element i stops when the relative displacement on the
i
th
surface becomes equal to the displacement capacity d
i
. This occurs at an applied hori
zontal force of
F
dri
=
W
R
eff i
d
i
+ F
fi
1
The overall stiffness is inversely proportional to the sum of the effective radii of cur
vature of the surfaces upon which sliding is occurring. Once sliding starts on a given
surface, it does not stop until motion reverses direction or the displacement capacity of
this surface is achieved. The resulting hysteretic behavior obtained by considering three
single FP elements in series is shown in Figure 3. To construct this loop, it has been
assumed that F
f1
F
f2
F
f3
F
dr2
F
dr3
. The shape of this loop is identical to the ac
tual forcetotal displacement relationship exhibited by triple FP bearings (Fenz and Con
Figure 2. Three single FP elements in series used to model the behavior of the triple FP
bearing.
1014 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
stantinou 2008a, 2008b). Therefore, the approach taken will be to match each branch of
the loop of Figure 3 to the actual behavior through appropriate modication of the input
parameters to the series model.
INPUT PARAMETERS TOTHE SERIES MODEL
The modications made to the input parameters of the series model are calculated
assuming that three single FP elements are used to represent a triple FP bearing in the
most general or fully adaptive conguration. Referring to Figure 1, this means that (a)
R
eff 2
=R
eff 3
R
eff 1
=R
eff 4
, (b)
2
=
3
4
, (c) d
2
2
R
eff 2
and d
3
3
R
eff 3
so that F
f1
F
dr2
and F
f4
F
dr3
and (d) F
f4
F
dr1
. The behavior of less adap
tive congurations, such as the common case in which
2
=
3
1
=
4
, can also be mod
eled within this framework simply by specifying the appropriate friction coefcients.
In the proposed series modeling scheme, the rst FP element represents the com
bined behavior of inner surfaces 2 and 3, the second element represents the behavior of
outer surface 1 and the third represents outer surface 4. Since there is no adjustment
made to the vertical load supported by the bearings, to ensure that sliding initiates cor
rectly for each element there are no modications made to the coefcients of friction.
That is
1
=
2
=
3
2a
2
=
1
2b
3
=
4
2c
Total Displacement
0
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
W
R
eff1
W
R
eff1
+R
eff3
W
R
eff1
+R
eff2
+R
eff3
W
R
eff1
+R
eff2
W
R
eff1
2F
f1
0
W
R
eff1
W
R
eff1
+R
eff2
W
R
eff1
+R
eff2
+R
eff3
F
f1
F
f2
F
f3
F
dr2
F
dr3
F
dr2
 2F
f2
F
dr3
 2F
f3
Figure 3. Forcedisplacement behavior of three single FP elements connected in series.
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1015
For F
f2
=F
f3
FF
f1
, the true behavior is sliding occurring only on surfaces 2 and
3. In the series model, there is sliding occurring only for element 1. Therefore, to prop
erly capture the stiffness during this sliding regime, it is necessary that
R
eff 1
= R
eff 2
+ R
eff 3
3
For F
f1
FF
f4
, sliding occurs on surfaces 1 and 3 only in the actual bearingmotion
stops on surface 2 the instant it starts on surface 1. However, the series model cannot
capture the stoppage of motion for one element once it has begun for another. The ef
fective radius of the second FP element in the series model is obtained by equating the
stiffness given by the series model with the actual stiffness exhibited by the bearing:
W
R
eff 1
+ R
eff 2
=
W
R
eff 1
+ R
eff 3
4
Combining Equations 3 and 4:
R
eff 2
= R
eff 1
R
eff 2
5
For F
f4
FF
dr1
, the true behavior is sliding on surfaces 1 and 4 onlymotion stops
on surface 3 the instant it starts on surface 4. The effective radius of the third FP element
in the series model is obtained by again equating the series model stiffness with the ac
tual stiffness exhibited by the bearing:
W
R
eff 1
+ R
eff 2
+ R
eff 3
=
W
R
eff 1
+ R
eff 4
6
Combining Equations 3, 5, and 6:
R
eff 3
= R
eff 4
R
eff 3
7
To ensure that the onset of stiffening behavior is accurately captured, the force at
which the rst gap element engages in the series model, F
dr2
, is set equal to the force at
which the slider contacts the displacement restrainer of surface 1, F
dr1
:
d
2
R
eff 2
+
2
=
d
1
R
eff 1
+
1
8
Using Equations 2b and 5,
d
2
=
R
eff 1
R
eff 2
R
eff 1
d
1
9
Similarly, to ensure that F
dr3
=F
dr4
, it is necessary that
1016 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
d
3
=
R
eff 4
R
eff 3
R
eff 4
d
4
10
For FF
dr4
, sliding occurs only on surfaces 2 and 3 to the maximum displacement. The
series model gives sliding only for element 1. The stiffness is predicted correctly by the
series model during this sliding regime per Equation 3. If desired to model the total dis
placement capacity of the bearing, the displacement capacity of the rst FP element can
be assigned
d
1
= d
1
+ d
2
+ d
3
+ d
4
d
2
+ d
3
11
or it can be left unspecied (innite displacement capacity). When equating the actual
behavior of the bearing with the behavior given by three elements in series, the stiffness
during each sliding regime as well as the forces at which transitions in stiffness occur
were enforced to be equal. It follows that the overall displacements at which the transi
tions in stiffness occur must also be equal.
Adjustments are also made to properly capture the velocity dependence of the coef
cient of friction. At each sliding interface, the coefcient of friction varies with veloc
ity according to the following relationship (Constantinou et al. 1990):
= f
max
f
max
f
min
exp au 12
where f
max
is the coefcient of friction at high velocity, f
min
is the coefcient of friction
at very slow velocity, a is a rate parameter that controls the transition between f
max
and
f
min
, and u is the sliding velocity.
The rate parameter a is adjusted to properly model the velocity dependence of the
coefcient of friction on surfaces 1 and 4. The velocity dependence will be properly
modeled on surface 1 of the actual bearing provided that a
2
u
2
=a
1
u
1
. This is guaranteed
by specifying
a
2
=
R
eff 1
R
eff 1
R
eff 2
a
1
13
Similarly, for surface 4 of the actual bearing
a
3
=
R
eff 4
R
eff 4
R
eff 3
a
4
14
For the rst FP element of the series model, the rate parameter can be specied as half
of the average of the rate parameters on surfaces 2 and 3 of the actual bearing because
the actual sliding velocities on surfaces 2 and 3 are half of the relative velocity u
1
cal
culated using the series model. Therefore,
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1017
a
1
=
1
2
a
2
+ a
3
2
15
Equation 15 will properly represent the velocity dependence during stages when sliding
is occurring only on surfaces 2 and 3 of the actual bearing. Table 2 summarizes the val
ues assigned to the input parameters of the three element series model.
IMPLEMENTATIONANDVALIDATION
To capture the complete range of behavior exhibited by triple FP bearings, the as
sembly of twojoint FP link elements, gap elements and rigid beam elements shown in
Figure 4 is proposed. The displacement capacities of gap elements G2 and G3 are d
2
and
d
3
respectively. In order for gap element G2 to engage at a relative deformation of d
2
,
the assembly of rigid beam elements is required. The gap elements are pinended to ap
proximately model the capability of the slider to rotate freely when against the displace
ment restrainer. Furthermore, the overall height of the entire assembly should approxi
Table 2. Parameters of the series model of the triple FP bearing assuming the most general
(fully adaptive) conguration
Coefcients
of friction Radii of curvature
Nominal displacement
capacity Rate parameter
Element 1
1
=
2
=
3 R
eff 1
=R
eff 2
+R
eff 3
d
1
=d
tot
a
d
2
+d
a
1
=
1
2
a
2
+a
3
2
Element 2
2
=
1 R
eff 2
=R
eff 1
R
eff 2
d
2
=
R
eff 1
R
eff 2
R
eff 1
d
1
a
2
=
R
eff 1
R
eff 1
R
eff 2
a
1
Element 3
3
=
4 R
eff 3
=R
eff 4
R
eff 3
d
3
=
R
eff 4
R
eff 3
R
eff 4
d
4
a
3
=
R
eff 4
R
eff 4
R
eff 3
a
4
a
Note: d
tot
is the total displacement capacity of the actual bearing. Alternatively, parameter d
1
may be left un
specied (innite displacement capacity).
Figure 4. Assembly of friction pendulum link elements, gap elements and rigid beam elements
used to model the behavior of the triple FP bearing in software used for responsehistory
analysis.
1018 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
mately correspond to the height of the actual bearing. Additional guidelines for
modeling FP bearings for responsehistory analysis in SAP2000 are provided in Scheller
and Constantinou (2002) and Constantinou et al. (2007) and are generally applicable.
It should be noted that the complete arrangement shown in Figure 4 is needed only
for modeling all sliding regimes of the most general (fully adaptive) conguration of
triple FP bearing. In many cases, certain elements can be omitted from the model to
make the analysis more efcient. For example, the gap elements can be omitted in lower
amplitude excitations or in cases in which the engineer does not wish to utilize the stiff
ening capability of the device. When this is done however, the actual relative displace
ments must be checked to verify that the displacement restrainers are not contacted.
Also, in simpler congurations, such as equal friction on the inner two surfaces along
with equal friction on the outer two interfaces, the behavior can be properly captured
using only two FP link elementsthe rst having friction
2
=
3
and effective radius
R
eff 2
+R
eff 3
and the second having friction
1
=
4
and effective radius R
eff 1
+R
eff 4
R
eff 2
R
eff 3
.
The arrangement described in the gure is exact only for horizontal excitation in one
direction (collinear with the gap elements). One may be tempted to include gap elements
in both orthogonal horizontal directions and perform a full three dimensional analysis.
However, the results would be awed because the gap elements properties in SAP2000
are uncoupled; that is, they are independent in each deformational degree of freedom
(Computers and Structures, Inc. 2007). Physically, this represents a bearing that is
square in plan. Obviously, the bearing is circular in plan, which means that the gap el
ement must engage when the resultant relative displacement equals the displacement ca
pacity d
i
. However, a coupled gap element is not currently available in SAP2000. To
work around this, more gap elements can be used in the assembly to approximate a circle
using straight line segments. Though the assembly becomes somewhat complex, the
replicate radial command in the software can be used to efciently build the model.
Alternatively, a preliminary analysis can be conducted without gap elements to deter
mine the directions in which they would be engaged. The model can subsequently be
modied to include gap elements in these directions.
General purpose nite element software can also be used for the analysis. For ex
ample, ABAQUS (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen, Inc. 2004) has a cylindrical gap ele
ment, the GAPCYL element, that can be employed for bidirectional analysis. This ele
ment is used to model contact between two rigid tubes of different diameter, where the
smaller tube is located inside the larger tube. Clarke et al. (2005) present a case study in
which ABAQUS software was used to analyze an offshore oil platform isolated with
single concave FP bearings.
The forcedisplacement behavior predicted by the series model was validated by
comparison to experimental data generated from characterization testing of a smallscale
triple FP bearing. The bearings used in the analysis are assumed to have the properties of
a triple FP bearing recently tested at the University at Buffalo (Fenz and Constantinou
2008b). The properties of the bearing obtained from characterization testing and the at
tendant properties of the series model are listed in Table 3. Based on this, the various
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1019
sliding isolator and gap link elements used in SAP2000 are dened per Table 4. Param
eters such as the coefcients of friction, radii, and gap size are important properties con
trolling the overall behavior and total response of the isolators. Other parameters such as
element mass, vertical stiffness, unloading stiffness, rate parameter, and gap element
stiffness do not substantially inuence the response in terms of displacement demands
and shear forces, but they do affect the efciency and accuracy of the analysis.
Small masses are assigned to the isolator elements to provide modes associated with
the isolators required for the modal responsehistory analysis to converge. These are se
lected iteratively since they must be small enough such that they have negligible dy
namic effect, but large enough that the analysis converges within a reasonable time pe
riod. The unloading stiffness of each individual FP element was calculated per the
recommendations in Constantinou et al. (2007), but using a much smaller value of yield
displacement. A smaller value is specied in this analysis because (a) the total yield dis
placement of the assembly is three times the yield displacement of a single isolator el
ement and (b) the expected isolator displacements for the reducedscale bearing are
smaller than those expected in fullscale seismic applications. Lastly, it should be noted
that the horizontal effective stiffness of the link elements is actually arbitrary for non
linear modal responsehistory analysis. However, as explained in Wilson (2001), it is
used as a rst guess of the instantaneous stiffness so a good estimate can accelerate the
rate of convergence. Therefore, the value assigned to each element is the horizontal ef
fective stiffness at half of the elements displacement capacity, K
eff
at D=d
i
/ 2.
In Figure 5, the results of displacementcontrolled analysis with SAP2000 are com
pared to both the experimental data and the analytical behavior based on the algebraic
equations presented in Table 1. Using the model presented in Figure 4, the analysis was
carried out by xing the bottom node and imposing a sinusoidal displacement history to
the top node. The loops shown have displacement amplitudes corresponding to those
from the experiment1.2 mm, 25 mm, 75 mm, 115 mm and 140 mm. In the experi
Table 3. Actual properties of isolator from testing and those assigned to
the elements of the series model. The two coefcients of friction listed for
each surface and for each element are the values at low speed and high
speed respectively
Actual properties from testing (Fenz and Constantinou 2008b)
Surface 1 R
eff 1
=435 mm
1
=0.020.04 d
1
=64 mm a
1
=0.10 sec/ mm
Surface 2 R
eff 2
=53 mm
2
=0.010.02 d
2
=19 mm a
2
=0.10 sec/ mm
Surface 3 R
eff 2
=53 mm
3
=0.010.02 d
3
=19 mm a
3
=0.10 sec/ mm
Surface 4 R
eff 4
=435 mm
4
=0.060.13 d
4
=64 mm a
4
=0.10 sec/ mm
Properties of series elements
Element 1
R
eff 1
=106 mm
1
=0.010.02
d
1
=
a
1
=0.05 sec/ mm
Element 2
R
eff 2
=382 mm
2
=0.020.04
d
2
=56.2 mm
a
2
=0.11 sec/ mm
Element 2
R
eff 3
=382 mm
3
=0.060.13
d
3
=56.2 mm
a
3
=0.11 sec/ mm
1020 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
ment, the frequency of the excitation was very low to minimize velocity dependence of
the coefcient of friction. Accordingly, singlevalued coefcients of friction were speci
ed in the analysis as well. Since the exact values of friction cannot be known before
hand, the friction coefcients specied in the analysis are those measured from each test.
As shown in Figure 5, the proposed modeling scheme accurately reproduces both the
experimental results and the results from more simplied analysis for all combinations
of sliding behavior.
This rst analysis case serves to physically validate the forcedisplacement relation
ship given by the assembly of nonlinear elements with properly modied input param
eters. Next, to verify the basic numerical accuracy of the dynamic responsehistory
analysis procedures, a simple single story shear building isolated with triple FP bearings
is analyzed. The isolators are modeled the same way as the previous analysis except now
incorporating the effect of velocity dependence on the coefcients of friction. The ana
lytical model of the superstructure is shown in Figure 6. The total weight is 200 kN,
divided twothirds to the story mass and onethird to the basemat. All frame elements are
Table 4. Properties of sliding isolator and gap link elements used in
SAP2000 analysis
Sliding isolator link elements
FP1 FP2 FP3
Mass kNsec
2
/ mm 5.010
7
5.010
7
5.010
7
Element height (mm) 50 25 50
Vertical stiffness (kN/mm) 4,000 8,000 4,000
Horizontal effective stiffness (kN/mm) 0.524 0.202 0.362
Shear deformation location (mm) 25 12.5 25
Yield displacement (mm) 0.01 0.01 0.01
Unloading stiffness (kN/mm) 50 100 300
Coefcient of frictionslow
a
0.01 0.02 0.06
Coefcient of frictionfast
a
0.02 0.04 0.13
Rate parameter (sec/mm) 0.05 0.112 0.112
Radius (mm) 106 382 382
Rotational stiffness (kNmm/rad) 3.010
6
3.010
6
3.010
6
Gap link elements
Gap2 Gap3
Mass kNsec
2
/ mm 1.010
9
1.010
9
Element length (mm) 150 150
Effective stiffness (kN/mm) 0.5 0.5
Gap size (mm) 56.2 56.2
Stiffness after closing (kN/mm) 250 250
a
Note: Velocity dependent coefcients of friction are used only for the nonlinear
responsehistory analysis. Single valued friction coefcients based on the experimental
results are used for the displacement controlled analysis.
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1021
idealized as massless, with the superstructure and basemat masses lumped at the inter
sections of the beams and columns. Relevant properties assigned to the Column and
Rigid type frame elements are listed in Figure 6. The moments of inertia of the Col
umn elements are selected to give a xed base superstructure period of 0.20 sec in each
principal direction (assuming shear building behavior). Rigid elements are assigned
large moments of inertia in each direction in order to eliminate bending deformations.
For both types of elements, the cross section area, torsion constant and shear area are
assigned large values in order to effectively suppress deformations in the associated de
grees of freedom.
The story height and bay width are typical values of 3.66 m and 11 m respectively
chosen to minimize the variation in isolator axial force and the likelihood of uplift for
this simple example. Similar to traditional FP bearings, triple FP bearings are capable of
safely accommodating localized uplift over short durations. The upper concave plate
temporarily lifts off and there is impact when the bearing returns down, however the ef
fects on the structure are localized and this typically does not result in permanent dam
age to the bearing. Uplift of individual isolator units is captured in the SAP2000
responsehistory analysis since gap behavior is specied in the vertical direction for FP
link elements.
Experimental
Total Displacement, u (mm)
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Analytical
Algabraic Equations
Total Displacement, u (mm)
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Analytical
SAP2000
Total Displacement, u (mm)
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Figure 5. Comparison of the experimentally measured forcedisplacement relationship of the
triple FP bearing (Fenz and Constantinou 2008b), the analytical prediction based on the equa
tions presented in Table 1 and the behavior obtained from displacementcontrolled nonlinear
analysis in SAP2000.
1022 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
The solution algorithm used is the Wilson Fast Nonlinear Analysis algorithm, de
scribed in Wilson (2001). This algorithm uses the results of dynamic analysis with Ritz
vectors and is particularly efcient for analysis of systems with a limited number of dis
crete nonlinear elements. Prior to the earthquake analysis cases, a separate nonlinear
modal analysis case must be run to apply the gravity load to the isolators. The load is
applied using a ramp function with 10 sec rise time. Unidirectional excitation along one
axis of the building is applied using the 180 component of the 1940 El Centro record
(PGA of 0.31 g) available from the PEER NGA database. The motion was scaled by a
factor of 2.15, which was chosen only to induce isolator displacements that were large
enough to show all possible sliding regimes.
The results from the SAP2000 analysis were compared to the results obtained from
an independent solution method. This later analysis entailed solving the equations of
motion for a SDOF superstructure supported by three FP isolator elements in series us
ing a numerical integration scheme. The SDOF superstructure had the same mass, stiff
ness, and damping properties (W
s
=133.33 kN, T
s
=0.20 sec and
s
=0.25%.) as the su
perstructure in the SAP2000 model. The very small amount of superstructure damping
was chosen to minimize differences in the calculated response caused by the two differ
ent ways in which the analysis methods incorporate viscous damping. The isolation sys
tem was modeled using three elements in series (as shown in Figure 2), each consisting
of a parallel arrangement of (a) a linear spring, (b) a velocitydependent perfectly plastic
friction element represented using a modied BoucWen model, and (c) a gap element.
This is related to the multiple spring representation of the smooth hysteretic model
(Sivaselvan and Reinhorn 2000). Using this approach, the force in isolator element i is
given by
Figure 6. Description of simple seismically isolated structure that was analyzed in the valida
tion study.
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1023
F
i
=
W
R
eff i
u
i
+
i
WZ
i
+ k
ri
u
i
d
i
signu
i
Hu
i
d
i
16
where W, R
eff i
and d
i
have been previously dened, u
i
is the relative displacement of FP
element i,
i
is the coefcient of friction with velocity dependence governed by Equa
tion 12, k
ri
is the stiffness after contacting the displacement restrainer which should be
assigned a large value, H denotes the Heaviside function and Z
i
is a dimensionless hys
teretic variable governed by the differential equation:
dZ
i
dt
=
1
u
yi
A
i
Z
i
i
signu
i
Z
i
+
i
u
i
17
where u
yi
is the yield displacement, and A
i
,
i
,
i
and
i
are dimensionless quantities
that control the shape of the hysteresis loop (u
yi
=0.01, A
i
=1,
i
=0.9,
i
=2 and
i
=1).
These are essentially the equations that are used for dynamic analysis of FP bearings in
the 3DBASIS software platform (Nagarajaiah et al. 1989). The only difference is the
last term of Equation 16, which is the additional restoring force from contacting the dis
placement restrainer.
For the same El Centro 180 excitation used in the SAP2000 analysis, the equations
of motion for three FP elements connected in series and attached to a viscously damped
SDOF superstructure were formulated using a statespace approach and then integrated
numerically using the ode15s solver in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc. 2005). The
ode15s solver is a variable order, multistep algorithm that is efcient in solving sys
tems of stiff differential equations (Shampine and Reichelt 1997). The system is math
ematically stiff due to the sharp transitions in stiffness that occur for each FP element
upon reversal of motion.
Figures 79 compare the results obtained using the two analysis methods. There is
good agreement in both the response of the isolation system and of the superstructure.
Peak values of isolation system displacements agree within 2% and the peak values of
absolute superstructure acceleration and drift agree within 5%. The histories of each re
SAP2000 Analysis
Total Displacement, u (mm)
200 100 0 100 200
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
F
o
r
c
e
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.50
Integration of Equations
of Motion
Total Displacement, u (mm)
200 100 0 100 200
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.50
Peak Displacement
= 160.5 mm
Peak Displacement
= 163.6 mm
Figure 7. Comparison of isolation system response predicted by analysis using SAP2000 and
from numerical integration of the equations of motion.
1024 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
sponse quantity also correspond closely to each other. The agreement of the results given
by the two independent formulations and solution methods gives added condence in the
validity of this proposed approach. Furthermore, this analysis represents extreme re
sponse of the isolatorsin practice it is unlikely that engineers will design into the nal
SAP2000 Analysis
0 10 20 30 40
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
g
)
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
Integration of Equations
of Motion
Time (sec)
0 10 20 30 40
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
g
)
0.75
0.50
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
Peak Value = 0.613g
Peak Value = 0.644g
Figure 8. Comparison of the histories of superstructure absolute acceleration response deter
mined from analysis using SAP2000 and from numerical integration of the equations of
motion.
SAP2000 Analysis
0 10 20 30 40
S
u
p
e
r
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
D
r
i
f
t
(
m
m
)
8
4
0
4
8
Integration of Equations
of Motion
Time (sec)
0 10 20 30 40
S
u
p
e
r
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
D
r
i
f
t
(
m
m
)
8
4
0
4
8
Peak Value = 6.11 mm
Peak Value = 6.40 mm
Figure 9. Comparison of the histories of superstructure drift determined from analysis using
SAP2000 and from numerical integration of the equations of motion.
MODELINGTRIPLE FRICTION PENDULUM BEARINGS FOR RESPONSEHISTORY ANALYSIS 1025
stiffening regime. It should be emphasized however that these results are veried only
for a very simple structure isolated with only four bearings. The accuracy of the results
for more sophisticated analysis cases such as those involving uplift or more realistic
buildings that are irregular and have dozens of isolators remain untested.
Lastly, bidirectional analysis was carried out using the El Centro 180 and 270 com
ponents (scaled again by a factor of 2.15) applied in each principal direction of the
model structure. The assembly of rigid elements and gap elements were arranged radi
ally around the FP elements at 45 increments. Therefore, the bearing which is circular
in plan is approximated by a regular octagon. This discretization results in a maximum
error of 8% in the displacement capacity of a particular surface based on the difference
between the radius of the inscribed circle and the distance from the center to the vertex
of the polygon. More elements can be arranged at smaller radial increments just as easily
using the replicate radial command. The coarse renement is chosen here to better il
lustrate the modeling scheme and associated errors.
The relative displacement trajectories of the slider on surfaces 2 and 3 calculated by
modal responsehistory analysis using SAP2000 are provided in Figure 10. This demon
strates that the radial arrangement of nonlinear elements effectively stops sliding on a
surface when the resultant relative displacement on a surface attains the displacement
capacity. Given that the FP link elements in SAP2000 have coupled properties in both
shear degrees of freedom (Computers and Structures, Inc. 2007), it can be concluded
that the proposed arrangement will reasonably approximate the true bidirectional behav
ior of the triple FP.
FP Element 2
XDisplacement (mm)
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
Y

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
75
50
25
0
25
50
75
Boundary Defined by Gap Elements
Actual Displacement Capacity
Displacement Trajectory
FP Element 3
XDisplacement (mm)
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
Y

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
75
50
25
0
25
50
75
Figure 10. Displacement trajectories for FP Elements 2 and 3 obtained from responsehistory
analysis of model subjected to 2.15 El Centro ground motion (180 component in xdirection
and 270 component in ydirection).
1026 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
CONCLUSION
The triple FP bearing has been shown to possess several desirable behavioral char
acteristics, however, prior to implementation reliable analysis tools need to be devel
oped. This paper has described how to capture the overall forcedisplacement relation
ship of the triple FP bearing using a series assembly of gap elements and single concave
FP elements. The input parameters to this series model need to be modied since the
behavior of the triple FP is not exactly that of three single concave FP bearings con
nected in series. With proper modication, the overall forcedisplacement relationship
can be reproduced, though the exact internal sliding behavior cannot. The lack of a
coupled gap element means that the proposed modeling scheme will not be exact for
bidirectional analysis, though results can be obtained within reasonable engineering tol
erances simply by arranging multiple gap elements radially.
At present, there are no hysteresis laws or nonlinear elements incorporated into ex
isting software that can be used to exactly capture the multiphase sliding behavior of
the various multispherical sliding bearings. There is certainly need for a devicespecic
nonlinear element that is computationally efcient and capable of handling bidirectional
excitation in an exact manner, however the process of implementing and verifying such
an element in new versions of software will take time. The emphasis in this paper has
been on developing and verifying a modeling scheme that closely captures the behavior
of these devices and, of equal importance, can be immediately implemented in current
versions of structural analysis software.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support for this project was provided by the Multidisciplinary Center for
Earthquake Engineering Research (Thrust Area 2) and Earthquake Protection Systems,
Inc., Vallejo, CA. This support is gratefully acknowledged. Also thanks to Mr. Fabio
Fadi, Visiting Scholar at SUNY Buffalo, for his suggestion on how to perform the
displacementcontrolled analysis in SAP2000.
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(Received 24 August 2007; accepted 8 June 2008
1028 D. M. FENZ AND M. C. CONSTANTINOU
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