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T BE F OTN AL O C NE T CHAPTER - 1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER - 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................... 11 2.1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF PARENT BRAND AND BRAND EXTENSION ............................. 11 Jalees, T. (2009, January). Relationship Between Brand Personification of Parent Brand

2.1.1.

and Brand Extension. Market Forces, PAF-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology, Pakistan , 13. 11 2.1.2. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 11 2.1.3. Theories.............................................................................................................................................. 11 2.1.4. Conceptual Framework: .................................................................................................................. 13 2.1.5. Methodological Approach ................................................................................................................ 14 2.1.6. Hypothesis: ........................................................................................................................................ 14 2.1.7. Conclusion: ......................................................................................................................................... 15 2.1.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 16 2.1.8.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 16 2.1.8.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 16 2.2. BRAND PERSONALITY AND MOBILE MARKETING AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION .................................................... 17 2.2.1. Bouhlel, O., Mzoughi, N., Hadiji, D., & Ben Slimane, I. (2009). Brand Personality and

Mobile Marketing: An Empirical Investigation. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology , 53................................................................................................................................................ 17 2.2.2. Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 17 2.2.3. Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 17 2.2.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 18 2.2.5. Methodological Approach ................................................................................................................ 18 2.2.5.(1). Sampling and Data Collection..................................................................................................... 18 2.2.6. Hypothesis: ........................................................................................................................................ 18 2.2.7. Conclusion: ......................................................................................................................................... 19 2.2.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 19 2.2.8.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 19 2.2.8.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 19 2.3. BRAND PERSONIFICATION: A TOOL IN BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETS................................................................ 20 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. 2.3.6. 2.3.7. 2.3.8. 2.3.9. Brand Personification: a tool in Business-to-Business Markets. (n.d.). Page No. 63........... 20 Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 20 Theories.............................................................................................................................................. 20 Keywords ............................................................................................................................................ 20 Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 20 Methodology Approach .................................................................................................................... 21 Research Question............................................................................................................................ 22 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 22 Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 22

2.3.9.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 22 2.3.9.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 22 2.4. DO BRAND PERSONALITY SCALES REALLY MEASURE BRAND PERSONALITY BY AUDREY AZOULAY RECEIVED (IN REVISED ? FORM): 21ST JUNE, 2003 .......................................................................................................................................... 23 2.4.1. Azoulay, A., & Kapferer, J.-N. (2004). Do Brand Personality Scales really measure Brand Personality? Journal of Brand Management . .............................................................................................. 23 2.4.2. 2.4.4. 2.4.5. 2.4.3.

Abstract: ............................................................................................................................................. 23 Theories.............................................................................................................................................. 23 Arguments .......................................................................................................................................... 23 Brand Personality History of the concept in Marketing ............................................................. 24 Concepts ............................................................................................................................................. 25 2.4.6.(1). Human Personality Concept in Psychology ............................................................................... 25 2.4.6.(2). Psychology applied to the Brand Personality Concept........................................................... 26 2.4.6.(3). Brand Personality Measurement ................................................................................................ 27 2.4.7. Issues ................................................................................................................................................... 28 2.4.6. 2.4.7.(1). Are Currently Brand Personality Scales Valid? ........................................................................ 28
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2.4.7.1.1. The Issue Of Concept Validity .................................................................................................... 28 2.4.7.1.1.1. Ideas / Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 28 2.4.7.1.2. The main problematic items of the scales ............................................................................... 28 2.4.7.1.2.1. The item competence:......................................................................................................... 28 2.4.7.1.2.2. The item Feminine: .............................................................................................................. 29 2.4.7.1.2.3. The items related to social class ........................................................................................... 29 2.4.7.1.2.4. Some other questionable items: ............................................................................................ 29 2.4.7.1.3. The flaws of the scale stem from its conceptual definition ................................................. 30 2.4.8. Conceptual framework: ................................................................................................................... 30 2.4.9. Methodological Approach ................................................................................................................ 31 2.4.10. Conclusion:......................................................................................................................................... 31 2.4.11. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 31 2.4.11.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection .................................................................................... 31 2.4.11.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ................................................................... 31 2.5. PAPER NO. 32 (ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF PERSONIFICATION OF A BRAND ON CUSTOMER RETENTION)32 Antecedents and Consequences of Personification of a Brand on Customer Retention.

2.5.1.

(n.d.). Paper No. 32 ....................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5.2. Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 32 2.5.3. Theories.............................................................................................................................................. 32 2.5.4. Concept............................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5.5. Hypothesis .......................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5.6. Model Used ......................................................................................................................................... 33 2.5.7. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 33 2.5.8. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 34 2.5.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 34 2.5.9.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 34 2.5.9.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 34 2.6. BRAND PERSONIFICATION IN THE LUXURY GOODS INDUSTRIES PIER LUIGI RONCAGLIA, SOCIET ITALIANA BREVETTI 35 2.6.1. Roncaglia, P. L., & Brevetti, S. I. (2006). Brand Personification in the Luxury Goods

Industries. INTA Annual Meeting .................................................................................................................. 35 2.6.2. Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 35 2.6.3. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 35 2.6.4. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 35 2.6.4.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 35 2.6.4.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 35 2.7. DIMENSIONS OF BRAND PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTIONS: A PERSON-CENTRIC APPROACH IN THE GERMAN CULTURAL CONTEXT MICHAEL BOSNJAK UNIVERSITY OF MANNHEIM, GERMANY VALERIE BOCHMANN ZELFI AG, GERMANY TANJA HUFSCHMIDT MAGNETIC BRANDS GMBH, GERMANY ...................................................................................................... 36 2.7.1. Bosnjak, M., Bochmann, V., & Hufschmidt, T. (2007). Dimensions of Brand Personality Attributions: A Person-Centric Approach in the German Cultural Context. Social Behaviour and Personality , 35(3), 303-316........................................................................................................................... 36 2.7.2. Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 36 2.7.3. Theories.............................................................................................................................................. 36 2.7.4. Keywords ............................................................................................................................................ 36 2.7.5. Model Developed ............................................................................................................................... 36 2.7.6. Tests .................................................................................................................................................... 38 2.7.7. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 38 2.7.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 39 2.7.8.(1). Replication viz a viz Data Collection ........................................................................................ 39 2.7.8.(2). Replication viz a viz Methodological Approach ....................................................................... 39 2.8. BRAND AND CORPORATE PERSONALITY AS RELATIONSHIPS SYSTEMS THEORY (SUMMARY ABSTRACT - IAN WEST

2003) 40 2.8.1. 2.8.2. 2.8.3. 2.9.

West, I. (2003). Brand and Corporate Personality as Relationships-System theory............ 40 Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 40 Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 40

BRAND MEANING AND VIRTUAL BRAND COMMUNITY AMONGST TEENAGERS: A STUDY OF THE IPOD BRAND ............ 41 Solomon, M., & Englis, B. G. (June 2008). A Visual Approach to the Assessment of Apparel

2.9.1.

Brand Personality and its Relationship to Brand Equity. National Textile Center Research Briefs 41 . 2.9.2. Introduction and Theories............................................................................................................... 41

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2 .9.3. Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 41 2 .9.4. Conceptual frame work: Brand Selection Criteria ..................................................................... 42 2 .9.5. Methodology: ..................................................................................................................................... 42 2 .9.6. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 42 2.10. HOW DESIGN HELPS CREATE MEMORABLE BRANDS CREATING THE PREEMINENT GLOBAL BRAND BY KENNETH D. LOVE, PRESIDENT & CREATIVE DIRECTOR ..................................................................................................................... 44 2.10.1. Love, K. D. (n.d.). How Design Helps Create Memorable Brands. Creating the Preeminent Global Brand .................................................................................................................................................... 44 2.10.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 44 2.10.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 44 2.10.4. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 44 2.10.5. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 44 2.11. DESIGNING GLOBAL BRANDS: CRITICAL LESSONS LARRY ROELLIG, EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, CONSUMER BRANDING, ENTERPRISE IG.......................................................................................................................................... 45 2.11.1. Roellig, Larry. (2001). Designing Global Brands:Critical Lessons. Design Management Journal, Managing Design for Global Value , 12, 4. ................................................................................... 45 2.11.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 45 2.11.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 45 2.11.4. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 45 2.11.5. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 45 2.11.6. Methodology Approach .................................................................................................................... 46 2.11.7. Lessons in the Papers ....................................................................................................................... 46 2.11.8. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 46 2.11.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 46 2.12. THE CULT OF PERSONALITY: EXPLORING BRAND ATTRIBUTES IN A RESEARCH-DRIVEN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND ACADEMIA JOHN TAKAMURA AND TAMARA CHRISTENSEN...................................... 48 2.12.1. Takamura, J., & Christensen, T. (2007). The Cult of Personality: Exploring Brand Attributes in a Research-Driven Product Development Partnership Between Industry and Academia. International Association of Societies of Design Research The Hongkong Polytech............................ 48 2.12.2. Theories .............................................................................................................................................. 48 2.12.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 48 2.12.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 48 2.12.5. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 49 2.12.6. Hypothesis.......................................................................................................................................... 49 2.12.7. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 49 2.12.8. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 49 2.12.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 49 2.13. EXAMINING THE VALIDITY OF THE COUNTRY BRAND PERSONALITY CONSTRUCT (S EVEN A. T MURPHY ALIA EL-BANNA JOS ROJAS-MNDEZ NICOLAS PAPADOPOULOS SPROTT SCHOOL OF BUSINESS CARLETON UNIVERSITY)............................................................................................................................................................... 51 2.13.1. Murphy, S. A. (2009). Examining the Validity of the Country Brand Personality Construct. Alia El-Banna Jose Rojas-Mendes Nicolas Papadopoulos Sprott School of Business Carleton University . ........................................................................................................................................................ 51 2.13.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 51 2.13.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 51 2.13.4. Theories .............................................................................................................................................. 51 2.13.5. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 52 2.13.6. Finding from Literature Review..................................................................................................... 52 2.13.7. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 52 2.13.8. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 52 2.13.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 53 2.14. COMPARING FACTOR ANALYTICAL AND CIRCUMFLEX MODELS OF BRAND PERSONALITY IN BRAND POSITIONING JILLIAN SWEENEY AND ESTHER BAO, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA...................................................................... 54 2.14.1. sweeney, j., & bao, e. (n.d.). comparing factor analytical and circumplex models of brand personality in brand positioning. university of western australia ........................................................ 54 2.14.2. Introduction and Theories............................................................................................................... 54 2.14.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 54 2.14.4. Conceptual frame work:.................................................................................................................. 54

2.14.5. Research Design ................................................................................................................................ 55


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2.14.6. Methodology: ..................................................................................................................................... 55 2.14.7. Tests: .................................................................................................................................................. 55 2.14.8. Results ................................................................................................................................................ 56 2.14.9. Conclusion:......................................................................................................................................... 57 2.14.10. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan........ 57 2.15. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF BRAND PERSONALITY FOR POSTMODERN BRANDING DYNAMICS: A CRITICAL REVIEW

AND RESEARCH AGENDA EUN-JUNG LEE, KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, USA........................................................................ 58

2.15.1. Lee, E. J. Theoretical Foundation of Brand Personality for Postmodern Branding Dynamics: A Critical Review and Research Agenda. Advances in Consumer Research , 36, 887....... 58 2.15.2. Theories and Introduction............................................................................................................... 58 2.15.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 58 2.15.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 59 2.15.5. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 59 2.16. LOGOS AND BRAND PERSONALITY KAREL JAN ALSEM1, GARMT DIJKSTERHUIS 12, MARJOLEIN KLEINHUIS13 1 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS DEPT. MARKETING UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGEN ........................................................................ 60 2.16.1. Alsem, K. J., Dijksterhuis, G., & Kleinhuis, M. (n.d.). Logos and Brand Personality......... 60 . 2.16.2. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 60 2.16.3. Theories .............................................................................................................................................. 60 2.16.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 60 2.16.5. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 61 2.16.6. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 61 2.16.7. Findings .............................................................................................................................................. 62 2.16.8. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 62 2.16.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 63 2.17. HOW PERSONALITY MAKES A DIFFERENCE BY JOSEPH T. PLUMMER ................................................................. 64 2.17.1. Plummer, J. T. (1985). How Personality Makes a Difference. Journal of Advertising Research, Cambridge University Press/UK , 24 (6). ................................................................................... 64 2.17.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 64 2.17.3. Conceptual frame work ................................................................................................................... 64 2.17.4. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 64 2.17.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 64 2.17.6. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 64 2.18. MANAGING BRAND RELATIONSHIPS: SHOULD BOARD-ROOMS LISTEN TO CONSUMER CHOICES? MOHAMMED NADEEM, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, USA. .......................................................... 66 2.18.1. Nadeem, M. (2008). Managing Brand Relationships: Should Board-Rooms Listen to Consumer Choices? Advances in Consumer Research , VIII, 329-331...................................................... 66 . 2.18.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 66 2.18.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 66 2.18.4. Key words........................................................................................................................................... 66 2.18.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 66 2.18.6. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 66 2.19. CUSTOMER-FOCUSED BRAND POSITIONING (A BREAKTHROUGH METHODOLOGY) .............................................. 68 2.19.1. Customer Manufacturing Group. (2006, July). Customer-Focused Brand Positioning A Breakthrough Methodology............................................................................................................................ 68 2.19.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 68 2.19.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 68 2.19.4. Conceptual framework .................................................................................................................... 68 2.19.5. Tests .................................................................................................................................................... 69 2.19.6. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 69 2.19.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 69 2.20. BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF MOBILINK, U-PHONE, TELENOR, AND WARID T ARIQ JALEES, COLLEGE
OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES PAF-KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS & TECHNOLOGY (MARKET FORCES JULY 2006) ....... 71

2.20.1. Jalees, T. (2006). Brand Personification of Mobilink, U-Phone, Telenor, and Warid. Market Forces, PAF Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology , II (2)....................................................... 71 2.20.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 71 2.20.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 71

2.20.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................... 72 2.20.5. Hypothesis.......................................................................................................................................... 72 2.20.6. Previous Studies On Brand Personality ......................................................................................... 72
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2.20.7. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 73 2.20.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 73 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF REPUTATION AND BRAND FOR CREATING TRUST IN THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF A RELATIONSHIP 2.21.
BETWEEN AN ONLINE VENDOR AND ITS CUSTOMERS ......................................................................................................... 75

2.21.1. Einwiller, S. (2001). The Significance of Reputation and Brand for Creating Trust in the Different Stages of a Relationship between an Online Vendor and its Customer. Eighth Research Symposium on Emerging Electronic Markets, Institute for Media and Communications Management, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland . ........................................................................................................ 75 2.21.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 75 2.21.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 75 2.21.4. Concept: ............................................................................................................................................. 75 2.21.5. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 75 2.21.6. Conclusion:......................................................................................................................................... 78 2.21.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 78 2.22. THE IMPACT OF TV CHANNEL DESIGN ON EMOTION AND BRAND PERSONALITY INNOVATIVE MARKETING, VOLUME 4, , ISSUE 4, 2008008 INNOVATIVE MARKETING, NABIL MZOUGHI (TUNISIA), HLA AYED (TUNISIA),.................................... 80 2.22.1. Mzoughi, N., & Ayed, H. (2008). The Impact of TV Channel Design on Emotion and Brand Personality. Innovative Marketing , IV (4)................................................................................................... 80 2.22.2. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 80 2.22.3. Introduction and Theories............................................................................................................... 80 2.22.4. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 80 2.22.5. Conceptual Framework: Animation. ............................................................................................. 80 2.22.6. Research Design ................................................................................................................................ 81 2.22.7. Hypothesis.......................................................................................................................................... 81 2.22.8. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 82 2.22.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 82 2.23. SWP 22/88 WHAT DO WE UNDERSTAND BY BRANDS DR LESLIE DE CHERNATONY LECTURER IN MARKETING......... 84 ? 2.23.1. Chernatory, D. L., & Mc William, G. (1988). SWP 22/88 What do we understand by Brands? 84 2.23.2. Theories .............................................................................................................................................. 84 2.23.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 84 2.23.4. Arguments .......................................................................................................................................... 84 2.23.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 84 2.23.6. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 85 2.24. SEPARATING BRAND FROM CATEGORY PERSONALITY BY RAJEEV BATRA PETER LENK ,MICHEL WEDEL ................ 86 2.24.1. Batra, R., Lenk, P., & Wedel, M. (n.d.). Separating Brand from Category Personality..... 86 2.24.2. Introduction and Theory.................................................................................................................. 86 2.24.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 86 2.24.4. Methodology Approach .................................................................................................................... 86 2.24.5. Test ..................................................................................................................................................... 86 2.24.6. Model Developed............................................................................................................................... 87 2.24.7. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 87 2.24.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 87 2.25. THE VARYING NATURE OF BRANDS AS ASSETS: THEORY AND PRACTICE COMPARED DR LESLIE DE CHERNATONY LECTURER IN MARKETING CRANFIELD SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CRANFIELD ........ 89 2.25.1. Chernatory, D. L., & McWilliam, G. (1989). The Varying Nature of Brands as Assets: Theory and Practice Compared. International Journal of Advertising ................................................. 89 2.25.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 89 2.25.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 89 2.25.4. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 89 2.25.5. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 90 2.26. DISCOVERING BRAND MAGIC: THE HARDNESS OF THE SOFTER SIDE OF BRANDING BY ALEXANDER L. BIEL .......... 91 2.26.1. Biel, A. L. (1997). Discovering Brand Magic: The Hardness of the Softer Side of Branding. International Journal of Advertising , XVI................................................................................................... 91 2.26.2. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 91 2.26.3. Theories .............................................................................................................................................. 91 2.26.4. Conceptual Model ............................................................................................................................. 91

2.26.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................... 92 2.26.6. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan............ 93
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2.27.

DEVELOPMENT OF BRAND PERSONALITY SCALE AND APPLICATION TO TWO SUPERMARKET BRANDS .................... 94

2.27.1. Ambroise, L., Ferrandi, J. M., Merunka, D., & Florence, P. V. (2005). Development of a Brand Personality Scale and application to two Supermarket Brands. Universite De Droit D' Economie ET Des Sciences D' Aix Marseille University Paul Cezanne , W.P.n 703............................... 94 . 2.27.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 94 2.27.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 95 2.27.4. Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 95 2.27.5. Approach and Methodology............................................................................................................. 95 2.27.6. Scale Development and Testing ..................................................................................................... 96 2.27.7. Generation of Items ......................................................................................................................... 96 2.27.8. Items purification ............................................................................................................................. 96 2.27.9. Scale Testing and Purification........................................................................................................ 96 2.27.10. Validity Test .................................................................................................................................. 97 2.27.11. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 97 2.27.12. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan........ 97 2.28. BRANDS AS COMPLEX SOCIAL PHENOMENA HANS MHLBACHER, ANDREA HEMETSBERGER, EVA THELEN*,

CHRISTINE VALLASTER, RUDOLF MASSIMO, JOHANN FLLER, CLEMENS PIRKER, ROBERT SCHORN, CHRISTINE KITTINGER UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK, DEPARTMENT OF VALUE-PROCESS MANAGEMENT, MARKETING GROUP ..................................... 99 2.28.1. Muhlbacher, H., Hemetsberger, A., Thelen, E., Vallaster, C., Massimo, R., Fuller, J., et al. (n.d.). Brands as Complex Social Phenomena. University of Innsbruck, Department of ValueProcess Management, Marketing Group ...................................................................................................... 99 2.28.2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 99 2.28.3. Abstract.............................................................................................................................................. 99 2.28.4. Concepts ............................................................................................................................................. 99 2.28.4.(1). Brand Interest ............................................................................................................................ 99 2.28.4.(2). Brand Meaning......................................................................................................................... 100 2.28.4.(3). Brand Manifestations ............................................................................................................. 100 2.28.5. Conceptual frame work ................................................................................................................. 100 2.28.6. Key words......................................................................................................................................... 101 2.28.7. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 101 2.28.8. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 101 2.29. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH SUN DONOGHUE............................................................. 102 2.29.1. Donoghue, S. (2000). Projective Techniques in Consumer Research. Journal of Family Econology and Consumer Services , XXVIII. ................................................................................................ 102 2.29.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 102 2.29.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 102 2.29.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 102 2.29.5. Methodology .................................................................................................................................... 102 2.29.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 103 2.29.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 103 2.30. BRANDS, CONSUMERS AND RELATIONSHIPS: M AURICE PATTERSON & LISA OMALLEY IRISH MARKETING REVIEW VOLUME NUMBER 2006 ................................................................................................................................ 104 2.30.1. Patterson, M., & Malley, L. O. (2006). Brands, Consumers and Relationship: A Review. Irish Marketing Review , XXVIII.................................................................................................................... 104 2.30.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 104 2.30.3. Abstract: .......................................................................................................................................... 104 . 2.30.4. Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 104 2.30.5. Conceptual framework .................................................................................................................. 104 2.30.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 104 2.30.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 105 2.31. BRAND PERSONALITY CREATION THROUGH ADVERTISING HANS OUWERSLOOT ANAMARIA TUDORICA MAXX WORKING PAPER SERIES ..................................................................................................................................... 106 2.31.1. Ouwersloot, H., & Tudorica, A. (2001, February). Brand Personality Creation through Advertising. Maxx working Paper Series ................................................................................................... 106 2.31.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 106 2.31.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 106

2.31.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 106 2.31.5. Propositions..................................................................................................................................... 108 2.31.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 109
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2.31.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 109 2.32. ANZMAC 2009 A SHORT SCALE FOR MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY SVEN KUENZEL, UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH* KLAIROONG HAWA PHAIROR, UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH........................................................................ 110 2.32.1. Kuenzel, S. (2009). A Short Scale for Measuring Brand Personality. University of Greenwich, Klairoong Hawa Phairor .......................................................................................................... 110 2.32.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 110 2.32.3. Abstract: .......................................................................................................................................... 110 . 2.32.4. Conceptual frame work ................................................................................................................. 110 2.32.5. Research Design .............................................................................................................................. 110 2.32.6. Methodology .................................................................................................................................... 111 2.32.7. Tests: ................................................................................................................................................ 111 2.32.8. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 111 2.32.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 111 2.33. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INTO THE IMPACT OF COLOUR AND PACKAGING AS STIMULI IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS FOR A LOW INVOLVEMENT NON-DURABLE PRODUCT JUDY REX, STUART WAI AND ANTONIO LOBO FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ENTERPRISE, SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY.......................................................................... 112 2.33.1. Rex, J., Wai, S., & Lobo, A. (n.d.). An Exploratory Study into the Impact of Colour and Packaging as Stimuli in the Decision Making Process for a Low Involvement Non-Durable Product. Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology.......................................... 112 2.33.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 112 2.33.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 112 2.33.4. Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 113 2.33.5. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 113 2.33.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 113 2.33.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 113 2.34. THE IMPACT OF BRAND PERSONALITY ON BRAND-AROUSED FEELINGS DR KAREN MILLER SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
AND MARKETING, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN QUEENSLAND, TOOWOOMBA, QLD ........................................................... 115

2.34.1. Miller, D. K. (n.d.). The Impact of Brand Personality on Brand-Aroused Feelings. School of Management and Marketing University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD ...................... 115 2.34.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 115 2.34.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 115 2.34.4. Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 116 2.34.5. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 116 2.34.6. Hypothesis........................................................................................................................................ 116 2.34.7. Research Design .............................................................................................................................. 116 2.34.8. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 117 2.34.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 117 2.35. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE INFLUENCE OF BRAND TRUST ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER & COMPANY IMAGE SUBMITTED TO THE ACADEMY OFF MARKETING CONFERENCE ((AM2005)) SCHOOL OFF MARKETING,, DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DUBLIN,, IRELAND JULY 5TTH 8TTH 2005 ................................... 118 2.35.1. Power, J., & Whelan, S. (2005, July). A Conceptual Model of the Influence of Brand Trust on the Relationship between Consumer and Company Image. Academy of Marketing Conference (AM 2005) . ...................................................................................................................................................... 118 2.35.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 118 2.35.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 118 2.35.4. Conceptual frame work ................................................................................................................. 119 2.35.5. Hypothesis........................................................................................................................................ 119 2.35.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 120 2.35.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 120 2.36. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING BRANDS OVER TIME BY MEENAKSHI GAUTAM PROFESSIONAL REPORT SUBMITTED FOR
COMPLETION OF MASTERS IN ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ................................................................. 121

2.36.1. Gautam, M. (n.d.). Strategies for Managing Brands over Time. Professional Report submitted for completion of Masters in Advertising . ............................................................................ 121 2.36.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 121 2.36.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 121 2.36.4. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 122 2.36.5. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 122 2.37.

THE TRANSFER OF A REDUCED HUMAN PERSONALITY SCALE TO BRANDS: AN INITIAL CROSS-CULTURAL TEST JEAN-MARC FERRANDI CERMAB, UNIVERSITY OF DIJON(1994) ............................................................................... 123
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2.37.1. Ferrandi, J. M., Merunka, D., Florence, P. V., & Barnier, V. D. (1994). The Transfer of a Reduced Human Personality Scale to Brands: An Initial Cross-Cultural Test..................................... 123 2.37.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 123 2.37.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 123 2.37.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 123 2.37.5. Research Design .............................................................................................................................. 124 2.37.6. Methodology .................................................................................................................................... 124 2.37.7. Tests.................................................................................................................................................. 124 2.37.8. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 124 2.37.9. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 125 2.38. LUND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MASTER THESIS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING AND BRAND MANAGEMENT BRAND PERSONALITY AND GENDER HOW THERE IS A WOMAN INSIDE EVIAN AND A MAN INSIDE NIKE ......................................................................................................... 126 2.38.1. Azusienyte, M., Gutheim, V., & Kervinen, M. (2008, May). Brand Personality and Gender How there is a woman inside Evian and a man inside Nike. Master Thesis in International Marketing and Brand Management ............................................................................................................................... 126 2.38.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 126 2.38.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 126 2.38.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 127 2.38.5. Test Performed ............................................................................................................................... 127 2.38.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 127 2.38.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 127 2.39. BRAND EQUITY: CAPITALIZING ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL B Y C H I R A N J E E V K O H L I A N D L A N C E L E U T H E S S E R ................................................................................................................................................ 128 2.39.1. Kohli, C., & Leuthesser, L. (2001, March / April). Brand Equity: Capitalizing on Intellectual Capital. Ivey Business Jounal ................................................................................................ 128 2.39.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 128 2.39.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 128 2.39.4. Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 128 2.39.5. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 128 2.39.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 129 2.39.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 129 2.40. THE PERCEIVED BRAND AGE DENIS DARPY PROFESSEUR DES UNIVERSITS UNIVERSIT PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE (PARIS 6) CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DMSP DRM (UMR CNRS 7088 UNIVERSIT DE PARIS DAUPHINE) ........................ 130 2.40.1. Darpy, D. (n.d.). The Perceived Brand Age. Adrien Levesque, Chef de produit - NISSAN Europe . 130 2.40.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 130 2.40.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 130 2.40.4. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................. 131 2.40.5. Keywords.......................................................................................................................................... 131 2.40.6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 131 2.40.7. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan.......... 132 2.41. A NEW MEASURE OF BRAND PERSONALITY MAGGIE GEUENS1 BERT WEIJTERS2 KRISTOF DE WULF3 DECEMBER 2008 133 2.41.1. Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & Wulf, K. D. (2008, December ). A New Measure of Brand Personality: working Paper.......................................................................................................................... 133 2.41.2. Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 133 2.41.3. Abstract............................................................................................................................................ 133 2.41.4. Keywords:........................................................................................................................................ 133 . 2.41.5. Criticisms on Aaker Scale .............................................................................................................. 133 2.41.6. Objectives of the Study ................................................................................................................. 134 2.41.7. Conceptual framework .................................................................................................................. 134 2.41.8. Research Design .............................................................................................................................. 134 2.41.9. Methodology .................................................................................................................................... 134 2.41.10. Tests: ............................................................................................................................................ 134 2.41.11. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 134 2.41.12. Replication of Data Collection Methods and Methodological Approach In Pakistan...... 135 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................................. 136

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LS O FGRS I T F I UE Figure 2.1.4-1 Aaker Scale (Brand Personality Framework) ..................................................... 13 Figure 2.1.5-1 Sample Allocation .................................................................................... 14 Figure 2.2.4-1 Model presents the process leading to the purchase intention after receiving an SMS ad .............................................................................................................................. 18 Figure 2.2.5-1 Conceptual Framework .............................................................................. 21 Figure 2.3.6.(3-1 Aakers Brand Personality Scale and the Psychological five factors Model............ 27 Figure 2.3.7.1.2.4-1 Brand Identity Prism by J-N. Kapferer .................................................... 30 Figure 2.4.6-1 Model developed to test the list Hypothesis generated as a result of Literature review .............................................................................................................................. 33 Figure 2.7.5-1 Measurement Model for German Brand Personality attribution derived from Study 1. + denotes positive relationship, - negative relationship and ? indicates that no specific direction of influence is assumed.................................................................................................... 37 Figure 2.7.5-2 Standardized coefficients for the measurement model tested. Latent constructs are shown in ellipses and observed variables in rectangles. All coefficients are significant at alpha= .05, except the intercorrelation of Superficiality and Drive, displayed in brackets. Measurement error terms are not shown.................................................................................................... 37 Figure 2.11.5-2 Consumer Brand Attribute Categories and Corporate Brand Attribute Categories..... 46 Figure 2.12.9-1 Brand DNA to Fuel Redesign ............................................................... 50 Figure 2.14.8-1 Plot of Brands using Aakers (1997) five dimensions......................................... 56 Figure 2.14.8-2 Plot of Brands using Wiggings (1979) 26 IPC attributes...................................... 56 Figure 2.16.3-1 Double Arrow on the right represents the focus of the reported Study.................. 61 Figure 2.16.7-1 Four biplots of the PCA results for the four product categories. The numbers 1 thru 13 refer to the logos, the association items are lis ted (cheerful, imaginative, reliable, charming, outdoorsy, well Known, interesting, surprising, business liKe). ................................................. 62 Figure 2.19.4-1 Brand Positioning Model in the Mind of Consumers.......................................... 68 . Figure 2.19.7-1 Brand Personality Map.............................................................................. 70 Figure 2.22.5-1 Conceptual Framework............................................................................. 81 Figure 2.24.6-1 Conceptual Representation of Brand Personality Construct................................ 87 Figure 2.26.3-1 Conceptual view of Brand Magic ................................................................. 91 Figure 2.26.3-2 Promising New approach .................................................................... 92 Figure 2.26.3-1 Characteristics of Strongest Brands ..................................................... 92 Figure 2.28.4-1 Brand as a Social complex Phenomenon ....................................................... 100 Figure 2.31.4-1 Customer based and Financial Brand Equity ................................................. 106 Figure 2.31.4-1 Customer based Equity and the Consumer Buying Behaviour Model.................... 107 . Figure 2.31.4-1 The Brand Image................................................................................... 107 Figure 2.31.4-1 The Brand personality creation and transfer (adapted from Dingena, 1994).......... 107 Figure 2.31.4-1 Model of How Advertising works including the brand personality creation and transfer ............................................................................................................................ 108 Figure 2.35.4-1 Conceptual Model ................................................................................. 119 Figure 2.39.5-1 Managing Brand Equity ........................................................................... 128

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C H A P T E R - 1 . INTRODUCTION

Literature Review will provide insight of Brand Personification. Personification is an ontological metaphor in which a thing or abstraction is represented as a person. The term "personification" may apply to: A description of an object as being a living person or animal as in: "The sun shone brightly down on me as if she were shining for me alone". In this example the sun is depicted as if capable of intent, and is referenced with the pronoun "she" rather than "it". Literature review focus on the literature related to the Brand Personification with reference to the following: Theories Concepts Ideas Issues Arguments Findings Methodological Approaches Replication of Data Collection and Methodological Approaches in Pakistan

This literature review will provide direction flags regarding the formulation of the research question to be examined. It will provide the independent and dependent variables that have been examined by the previous researchers. By examining and analyzing the methodological approaches used in the research works of other researchers in the topic area, the review of literature provides the direction flag with regard to the appropriate methodological approach to be adopted for the research. It will provide the clues regarding the questions that need to be asked from the respondents. It will also provide the direction flag with regards to the appropriate statistical tools necessary for testing the validity of the results of the research.

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C H A P T E R - 2 . LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF PARENT BRAND AND BRAND EXTENSION

2.1.1. JALEES, T. (2009, JANUARY). RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF PARENT BRAND AND BRAND EXTENSION. MARKET FORCES, PAF-KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS AND TECHNOLOGY, PAKISTAN , 13. 2.1.2. INTRODUCTION The last 30 years have seen the publication of numerous research papers on topics such as brand Image, Brand equity, and Brand Personification. There has however been limited research examining the relationship between the Brand personification of the parent brand and the extended brand. To the best of the authors knowledge, only one comprehensive study on this issue has been carried out by Jarlhem & Mihailescue(2003) in which the authors have selected ethnic food industry as the stimulus, and their analysis is qualitative in nature. This study differs significantly from that of Jarlehem and Mihailescue (2003) on two counts. (1) The stimulus used in this study consists of sets of three fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), each representing varied degree of synergy. (2) This study is quantitative in nature. It involves an attempt to derive and empirically test six different hypotheses for addressing the following question (a) Is there any relationship between the companys perceptions and consumers perceptions about parent brand personification? (b) Is there any relationship between the consumer perception of the brand personification of the parents brand and the extended brand? 2.1.3. THEORIES Brand Extension is using an established name of one product class for entering another product class (Aaker1991). A strategy commonly used by firms for using established and successful brand name for launching a new or modified product(Kotler & Armstrong 1990). Brand Extension is using an established brand name for launching a new product into a product category which is new to the company is known as franchise strategy (Harman, Price & Duncan, 1990). Brand Extension could be further classified into three categories that are: i) Horizontal Extension

ii) Distance Extension iii) Vertical Extension (Kamal, 2003). In Horizontal extension the existing product name is used for extending a new product to the company (Kamal, 2003).

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Close extension are those where the distance between the core product and extended product is nominal. Whereas Distance extensions involves the extension into an unrelated product category. In the latter case, overall quality association of core brand is necessary for success(Pita & Katsanism 1995). Distancing is a deliberate effort to increase the perception distance of the core brand and the extension product (Raj, 2003). Umbrella branding involves the use of the same brand name for several products. Firm following this strategy must ensure that the quality perception of the core product gets transferred to all the extensions (Erdem, 1998). Vertical extension involves launch related brand in the same product category but with a different price and quality level. Vertical extension could have two possible directions. If the new product is of higher quality level and higher pricing it will called up-scaling. On the other hand, if the extended brand quality is low and also has a lower price it will be known as down-scaling (Kamal, 2003). Vertical strategy is generally considered less risky, therefore is acceptable strategy by the management. The strategy may however not necessarily be successful for all functional products. Upscale extensions are more acceptable for prestige products where the requirement is to sell small quantities of the product at high price (Kamal, 2003). The downscale strategy is found to be more effective in functional products such as stripped down version of computer software at low price. The concept of Brand Personality is relatively a recent phenomenon for the marketers and educationists, but not for the advertisers who have been using the concept for quite long time. The evolution of the concept could be traced back to the early fifties when celebrities started to endorse brands. The use of famous people and their personalities not only helps marketers to position their brands; it also seduces the consumers to purchase the products who identify themselves in stars. In other words, consumer could perceive congruence between their (ideal or actual) perceived selves and that of the star, and hence form an attraction to the brand. Otherwise more simply, this personality endowment may merely give the brand a meaning in the consumers eyes (Plummer, 1984-85). Recent research has shown that Medical Doctors (generally practitioners, as well as specialists) had no difficulty in attributing personality traits to pharmaceutical brands; furthermore, these traits were actually significantly correlated to the medical prescription itself. (Kapferer, 1998). In real life the relationship between two persons not only depends on what the other person is, but also on what that person thinks of the other person. Similarly, a brand-Customer relationship will have an active partner at each end, the brand as well as the customer (Aaker, 1997). If the firm is able to create distinctive personality for its brand, It will come alive for the customer and endear itself to him. It will help your customers in identifying with your Brands Personality Traits. (Kapoor, 2005).

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There are different ways and tools for creating brand personality including active communication. The Personality has to be disseminated to come alive. Advertising is heavily used in this process of personality creation. This follows logically from the fact that personalities are particularly useful for the creation of brand association. Brand associations influence the evaluation of alternatives stage in basic consumer buying behavior models. In this stage, and for these goals, advertising is considered to be the most effective communication tool. (Brassington and Pettit 2000). The most visible and commonly used method of personality creation is by means of celebrity endorsements. Public heroes, sports personalities, pop stars, and movie stars are commonly used to lend their personality to a brand. These celebratory endorsement techniques may sound ancient; nevertheless, it is still considered an effective advertisement technique. (Ergogan and Baker (2000). There are two approaches towards brand personification. One, the creation of an intrinsic personality of the brand itself, the other approach involves the associating of several personalities or celebrities with the product branded, the rationale being: Celebrities or personalities who now move into another era of being branded and therefore, have consumers going after them and following their ways and their styles to enhance their own standard of living (Kapoor, 2001). Prior to 1997, Brand Personality scales were drawn arbitrarily. Aaker in 1997 carried out a research Brand Personality Dimensions wherein the brand personality dimensions were identified non-arbitrarily in research, is therefore considered as the pioneering research on brand personification. 2.1.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Aakers scale is now widely used in brand personality research. Initially, various replication studies were carried out in the United States, Subsequently, different researchers in other countries also used the brand scale dimension developed by Aaker:

Figure 2.1.4-1 Aaker Scale (Brand Personality Framework)

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2.1.5. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH Based on literature survey, three sets of questionnaire covering the brand of three companies were developed: each containing 45 brands personality traits. The total sample size for the study was 210. One set of the questionnaire was administered to the representative of the three companies whose brands were being studied. Of the other two sets, one was administered to the respondents of parent brand, and the other was administered to the respondents of parent brands and other was administered to the respondents of brand extension. The Summary of sample allocation is presented below:

Figure 2.1.5-1 Sample Allocation The respondents were asked to rate all the 45 selected traits on the scale of 1 to 5, rating five representing close association with the brand, and one representing no association at all. For the purpose of analysis, rank correlation was carried out for the traits that were ranked top by the respondents. The Stimulus was selected through informal focus group discussions. While selecting the stimulus, the emphasis was on the different level of synergy between the brands and their extensions. For example, Lifebuoy and Lifebuoy Shampoo have very close synergy, Pakola Drink and Pakola Milk have close synergy and Woodwards Gripe water and Woodwards Toothpaste have the least synergy. 2.1.6. HYPOTHESIS: All the hypothesis were tested through Rank Correlation. H1. Hypothesis one postulates that there is no relationship between the company and consumer perception with regard to the brand personification of Lifebuoy Soap (Parent Brand). Hypothesis two postulates that there is no relationship between the consumer perception of the brand personification of Lifebuoy brand (Parent Brand) and Lifebuoy Shampoo. Hypothesis three postulates that there is no relationship between the companys and consumers perception on the brand personification of Pakola. Hypothesis four postulates that there is no relationship between the consumer perception of Pakola Drink (Parent Brand) and Pakola Milk (extended Brand). Hypothesis five postulates that there is no relationship between the company and consumer perception regarding the brand personification of Woodwards Gripe Water.
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H2.

H3.

H4.

H5.

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H6.

Hypothesis six postulates that there is no relationship between the consumer perception regarding the brand personification of Woodward Gripe Water (Parent Brand) and Woodward Toothpaste (Extended Brand).

2.1.7. CONCLUSION: The objective of the study was to examine the relationships (1) between the consumer and company perception on the brand personification (2) relationship between the brand personification of parent brand and extended brand. A sample size of 245 was selected that was administered to the company and consumers of parent brand and extended brand. The questionnaire contained 45 brand personality traits. The respondents were asked to rate how close each of them were in reference to the brand. Six different hypotheses were derived that were tested through rank correlation. The summarized results are presented below: 1) A strong relationship was found between company and consumer perception of the brand personification of the lifebuoy. The reason for such a strong relationship could be attributed to the fact the Lifebuoy Soap is one of the largest selling toiletries of the company. It is targeted to rural areas and lower income group, and the other soaps of the company have different positioning and perception. However, there appears to be significant gap on how company and consumers perceive the brand personality on the same traits were similar. The company thus needs to examine whether they really want to portray the brand personification of Lifebuoy as perceived by their employees, or want to realign their strategies in order to fit consumer perceptions. The hypothesis relating to no relationship on the consumer perception of the brand personification of Lifebuoy Brand (parent brand) and Lifebuoy Shampoo) was substantiated. There appears to be a strong be a strong negative relationship between the brand personification of Lifebuoy (Parent Brand) and Lifebuoy Shampoo (Brand Extension) with R2 being -0.65. The reason for inverse relationship is that Lifebuoy is generally targeted at rural areas and low income group. These two segments, generally, in developing countries could not afford shampoo, or even if they could they do not use shampoo. Companies thus need to deliberate whether they want to maintain the strong inverse relationship in the brand personification of the period of time want to change the image of both the parent brand and extended brand so that there is more synergy in the brand personification of soap and shampoo. A weak negative relationship was found between the brand personification of Pakola Drink and Pakola Milk. The reason for such a weak relationship could be that consumers in urban areas generally do not find any synergy in milk and beverages. Pakola was the first company that launched flavored milk in Pakistan. After the launching of Pakola flavored Milk, the trend has changed, and now other companies also have launched flavored milk. Now consumers have not only started drinking Pakola flavored milk, but in this case the extended brand was found to be more successful than the Pakola drink (parent brand). In this case, we could infer that the brand personification strategy being followed for the extended brand appears to be

2)

3)

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appropriate. However, the company could re-align their brand personification strategy of Pakola drink. 4) A very strong relationship was found between company and consumers perception on brand personification of Woodward Gripe water with R2 being 0.78. The result is not surprising as Woodward Gripe water is a leading brand and has not been used by parents for their infant from generation to generation. A very strong and positive relationship was found between the brand personification of Woodward Gripe Water and its extension toothpaste with R2 being 0.63. The reason for such a strong relationship was surprising because there is no synergy between the parent brand and extended brand. Moreover the brand image of the Woodwork was so strong that it was presumed that it would not have any correlation with extended brand that is toothpaste. 2.1.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Since this research was conducted in Pakistan, replication of the data collection and Methodological approach is quite easy and effective. 2 . 1 . 8 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

5)

Data were collected through three sets of Questionnaire covering the brand of three companies, each containing 45 brands personality traits. The total sample size for the study was 210. One set of the questionnaire was administered to the representative of the three companies whose brands were being studied. Of the other two sets, one was administered to the respondents of parent brand, and the other was administered to the respondents of parent brands and other was administered to the respondents of brand extension. 2 . 1 . 8 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

The respondents were asked to rate all the 45 selected traits on the scale of 1 to 5, rating five representing close association with the brand, and one representing no association at all. For the purpose of analysis, rank correlation was carried out for the traits that were ranked top by the respondents. The Stimulus was selected through informal focus group discussions. While selecting the stimulus, the emphasis was on the different level of synergy between the brands and their extensions.

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2.2.

BRAND PERSONALITY AND MOBILE MARKETING AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

2.2.1. BOUHLEL, O., MZOUGHI, N., HADIJI, D., & BEN SLIMANE, I. (2009). BRAND PERSONALITY AND MOBILE MARKETING: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION. WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY , 53. 2.2.2. ABSTRACT This research assesses the value of the brand personality and its influence on consumers decision making, through relational variables, after receiving a text message ad. An empirical study, in which 380 participants have received an SMS ad, confirms that brand personality does actually influence the brand trust as well as the attachment and commitment. The levels of sensitivity and involvement have an impact on the brand personality and the related variables to it. 2.2.3. INTRODUCTION Branding is becoming ever more important as firms face an increasingly global and competitive marketplace. They remain a tool of differentiation according to the type of market and the brand positioning. Many useful constructs and measurements have been developed recently in the branding literature including brand personality, brand community, brand trust and brand attachment. The brand personality is an inanimate object associated with personality's lines resulting from interactions that the consumer has with it or through the marketing communication. A well established brand personality influences consumer preference and patronage and develops stronger emotional ties, trust, and attachment with the brand. Consumers' emotional attachments to a brand might predict their commitment to the brand and their willingness to make financial sacrifices in order to obtain it. In marketing, trust has been empirically tested as a key factor in the initiation and maintenance of any long-term relation. Trust leads to customer loyalty and commitment. The target should be approached in a personalized, interactive and immediate way. The mobile marketing presents powerful opportunities to reach consumers by allowing interactivity and personalization of the content and message context The purpose of this study is to define the individuals profile who, under the influence of the brand personality, are the most susceptible to maintain a strong relationship with it and to buy the product after a short message service ad. This research value the relational approach of the brand personality and the mobile marketing on the purchase intention. The managerial interest is to study the mini message, as a daily mean of communication, adapted to the management of brand equity. The mini message practice becomes a durable phenomenon, targeting different users. Some brands perceive the mobile potential, but do not know how to integrate it into their marketing campaigns. There is little research which focuses on the communication by SMS, the relationship between brand personality and mobile marketing as well as the influence of the mobile marketing on the purchase intention.

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2.2.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 2.2.4-1 Model presents the process leading to the purchase intention after receiving an SMS ad

2.2.5. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH 2 . 2 . 5 . ( 1 ).SAMPLING AND DATA COLLECTION

The investigation was held in Sousse, Tunisia (North Africa, population: 10000). A total of 380 respondents participated in the study. Data for this research was collected through questionnaire survey. Convenience sampling was used; no particular criteria were employed to select the participants. The only limitation was that participants should have received commercials SMS from prt--porter brands. Before the questionnaire was conducted, it was pre-tested on thirty mobile phone users in order to measure the construct the validity of the attitude measurement. Among the 380 respondents 63.8 % are females and 36.2 % are males. As expected, most respondents were under 30 years of age: around 82.8 % belonged to the age group 20 to 35. 2.2.6. HYPOTHESIS: H1. H2. H3. H4. H5. H6. H7. The brand personality influences positively the brand trust. The brand personality has a positive impact on the brand attachment. The brand trust has a positive impact on the attachment. Brand trust has a positive influence on consumers brand commitment There is a positive relation between the brand attachment and brand commitment. There is a positive relation between the consumers brand trust level and the purchase intention The brand commitment has a positive effect on purchase intention.

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2.2.7. CONCLUSION: The growth of mobile advertising has opened a new area for research. The objective of this study was to estimate the interest of the brand personality on the Tunisians customer purchase decision through relational variables, after receiving an ad SMS within the framework of a campaign of mobile marketing. An inquiry, with 380 individuals receiving a SMS on behalf of brands of prt porter clothing, was realized. Mobile phones have the potential to be ideal personalized tools [133] for providing an opportunity for marketers to send an offer at the right time to the right consumer [134]. Mobile phone is a new direct marketing device that provides direct access to consumers and interacts with them in a very personal way. The results show that the brand personality influences the trust and the attachment as well as the commitment. The more the consumer perceives the brand as being sincere and competent, the more he trusts it, what generates his attachment and his commitment. The levels of sensitivity and involvement modify the impact of the brand personality on the consumer behavior. The consumer purchase intention increases after receiving a SMS announcing a new collection, a period of sales. As with any empirical study, this study is characterized by certain key limitations that must be evaluated before making further implications or generalizations about the results. The scale of the personality of the used brand is not completely adapted to the Tunisian context. Some items were not understandable by certain members of the sample. A specific tool of measure must be thus developed. The conclusions elaborated above not only deliver valuable implications for marketing practitioners but also reveal some 2.2.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN 2 . 2 . 8 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

For data collection convenience sampling and questionnaire survey were used, In Pakistan a largely populated country, convenience sampling is suitable and questionnaire and interview survey can be conducted for data collection. 2 . 2 . 8 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

A process leading to the purchase intention after receiving an SMS ad has been developed for this research which can easily be used in Pakistani environment especially in FMCG market.

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2.3.

BRAND PERSONIFICATION: A TOOL IN BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETS

2.3.1. BRAND PERSONIFICATION: A TOOL IN BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS MARKETS. (N.D.). PAGE NO. 63. 2.3.2. ABSTRACT To be able to successfully operate in highly competitive markets, brands have to ensure that they are on the preference list of resellers. The selection of brand by its resellers is a very complex process. This paper first provides an overview of the factors that affect the selection of brand by resellers. Secondly it provides an understanding of the theories that link association between resellers and the brand personified (as brand representative), in order to understand how brand personified can influence the selection of brand by resellers. 2.3.3. THEORIES Chun and Davies (2006) empirically projected personification as an incident that helps easier consideration of the compounded and hidden ideas linked to the brand. Authors like Lojacono and Zacai (2004) suggest it as a technique to be used for making concealed principles and emotions noticeable. The third dimension in which literature presents brand personification is that it is one of the inventories of brand symbol(Tsai, 2005). Collaborations between brands and resellers highlight the presentation of both the bodies by allowing them to grab the opportunities available in the market(Glynn et al., 2007). According to (Cornelissen, 2003) during collaborative events power of one entity becomes a substitute for weakness of other entity. Use of personification in marketing field for developing relationships with customers or for determining obviously to the outside world of the organization (Krake 2005), is a recognized build. In branding literature since 1955, brand personification has been understood as a metaphor which enables customers to understand complex ideas related to the brand(Gardner and Levy, 1955). 2.3.4. KEYWORDS Business-to-business, reseller network, brand personification, brand representatives, brand selection 2.3.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This paper proposes marketers to use brand personification in highly competitive reseller networks in order to manage reseller selection criteria efficiently. The argument proposed is based on the view that representatives of the brand as personified brand not only ensure that resellers understand the offerings made by the brand. The representatives enable the brand managers to understand the resellers. They develop a direct association with resellers on behalf of the brand. When brand representatives as brand personified directly converse with resellers they use one or all types of projective techniques to understand hidden emotions and concerns of the resellers in relation to the brand. After understanding they act as a conduit between the brand and reseller in order to create an environment in which both the entities willingly contribute value to each others business by sharing information and resources.
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Figure 2.3.5-1 Conceptual Framework

2.3.6. METHODOLOGY APPROACH The review of the literature enabled the researcher to understand the existing boundary of the knowledge about brand personification in the marketing domain. Since the researcher has found the theory, though not empirically tested in the literature, this research will be directed towards theory testing and not theory generation and will follow a hypothetic deductive approach (Deshpande, 1983). Hence, this research will principally adopt a methodology that relies on the positivist paradigm. For robustness, researchers suggest that paradigms should not be dealt with exclusively because different paradigms use different methods which allow researcher to achieve research objectives (Reynolds, 2000). This research is trying to understand the role of brand personification in building positive perception of the brands or the organizations behind the brand in the minds of resellers, so as to influence their decision making process for initiating, continuing or discontinuing their association with the brand.

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2.3.7. RESEARCH QUESTION The following questions were answered by resellers during personal interviews with some other probing questions: Q1. On what basis do you choose to sell a brand as against other competing brands who offer similar benefits? Q2. What keeps the relationship between the brand and your company going for a longer period? Q3. What drives the relationship between brand representatives and your company? Q4. What are the significant contributions of brand representatives to your relationship with the brand? 2.3.8. CONCLUSION Communicating to the brand representatives nurtures a feeling of satisfaction in the mind of the reseller. Knowledge of resellers feedback, views, needs, emotions and concerns allows managers to build innovative marketing strategies that help organizations to stay competitive in the reseller networks. 2.3.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This research can be replicated in Pakistan with certain amendment to the research methodology. 2 . 3 . 9 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

In this research data collection was done through Interview by asking certain questions to the resellers. This could be replicated in Pakistan. But they should use questionnaire technique as well in order to quantify the results and findings of the research. 2 . 3 . 9 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

In order to the replicate this methodological approach researcher should adopt Quantitative and qualitative techniques to analyze the results and findings of research and suggests for future research work.

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2.4.

DO BRAND PERSONALITY SCALES REALLY MEASURE BRAND PERSONALITY BY AUDREY ? AZOULAY RECEIVED (IN REVISED FORM): 21ST JUNE, 2003

2.4.1. AZOULAY, A., & KAPFERER, J.-N. (2004). DO BRAND PERSONALITY SCALES REALLY MEASURE BRAND PERSONALITY? JOURNAL OF BRAND MANAGEMENT . 2.4.2. ABSTRACT: Brand personality is certainly a key facet of a brand identity. As this paper will demonstrate, however, the current scales of brand personality do not in fact measure brand personality, but merge a number of dimensions of brand identitypersonality being only one of them which need to be kept separate both on theoretical grounds and for practical use. Brand research and theorizing, as well as managerial practice, have nothing to gain from the present state of unchallenged conceptual confusion. 2.4.3. THEORIES Growing discontent with a lasting belief of marketing live out equating the product and the brand which defines the brand by a products performance. Rosser Reevesthe author of Reality in Advertising(1961). The brand distinctiveness always quoted brand personality as a measurement of brand identity human personality traits that can be accredited to the brand. Among other dimensions the brand relationship facet the brand-reflected consumer facet, and the brand physical component. Personality could be defined only in terms of the reactions of a personage towards other populace in regular interpersonal situations in life. The smallest unit of regular reactions enthusiasm. Feelings, behavior mechanisms that are the components of the personality. Those dynamisms are quite stable and gather throughout life. (Sullivan) Some psychological aspects of humans such as fearful exhaustion, for example, may not be applicable to brands. This need for alteration has also been suggested by Aaker60 and Caprara et al.61 2.4.4. ARGUMENTS In this paper, we argue that one needs to a stricter definition of brand personality, to avoid the present state of conceptual confusion in branding research and to allow brand personality to be a rich and most helpful concept to understand and manage brands. One should recall that Personality and other concepts used in marketing (such as self, or values) derive from psychology, and should therefore be defined and strictly described in relation to their definition in psychology, although some adaptations seem necessary(Caprara, Barbaranelli & Guido6). To better understand what brand personality is, we first briefly review the roots and history of brand personality. We then look at the existing definition and measurements of brand personality and of personality in psychology, for comparison purposes.

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Finally, we demonstrate that the existing definition and measurement methodology have led to the construction of scales that do not really measure brand personality but other unrelated concepts. 2.4.5. BRAND PERSONALITY HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT IN MARKETING Advertisers and marketing practitioners have been the first ones to coin the term brand personality, well before the academics studied and accepted the concept. As early as 1958, P. Martineau used the word to refer to the non material dimensions that make a store special, its character. S. King writes that people choose their brands the same way they choose their friends in addition to the skills and physical characteristics; they simply like them as people. He goes on quoting research from J. Walter Thomson Advertising agency indicating that consumers do tend to attribute personality facets to their brands and talk fluently about these facets. Plummer speaks of Orangina soft drink as having a sensuous personality. In addition, motivation research made popular the common use of projective techniques to capture these facets: for instance, it has become a classic to make use of metaphors in focus groups, where consumers are asked to speak of their brands as if it was a person, a movie star, an animal. As early as 1982, J. Sguela, Creative Vice President of the RSCG advertising agency introduced the star strategy as the new mode of brand management for mature markets. People would be deciding more and more on non product based features of the brand, even if for rationalization motives, they spoke of the product first. Sguela recommended that all brands be described along three facets: the physical one (what does the product do, its abilities, its performances), the character (brand personality facet) and the style (executional elements for advertising and communication). On the side of design and corporate identity, in 1978 W. Olinss book Corporate Personality refers to the fact that design is not here to describe a product but to endow either its brand or corporation with values and non material distinguishing attributes. In practice, these publications expressed a growing dissatisfaction with an enduring tenet of marketing practice equating the product and the brand that is defining the brand by a product performance. A typical example of that was the famous Unique Selling Proposition, USP, the term created by Rosser Reeves, the advertising man author of Reality in advertising (1961) a title which, in and of itself, unveiled the vision of a brand as a product with a plus. In the late eighties, realizing that with growing copies, and the abundance of similar products, it was more and more difficult to differentiate brands on the basis of performance, Ted Bates, the advertising agency of Rosser Reeves introduced an additional concept: the Unique Selling Personality! As a consequence, in the famous copy strategy, the essential single sheet which summarizes the advertising strategy as related to copy, it became widespread to see a new item to be filled by account executives: brand personality (as substitute to the former item: tone of advertising). In fact, this meant that tone (an executional constant) would not have to be invented but derived from the type of brand one wanted to create, to build and to reinforce. Starting in the seventies, whatever the client or its advertising agency, all copy strategies did entail a provision for describing brand personality, after having stated the target, the brand promise and the reason why. From this it can be seen that the use of brand personality originated as non product based definition of the brand: it captured all that was
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not bound to the product use, performance, benefits, attributes etc Interestingly, it was not either a description of the target itself, like when one describes a brand by the life style of its target. In copy strategies brand personality was used as a common practical but rather loose word for assessing non product based, non functional dimensions of the brand: it captured the singularity of the source of the product as if it were a person. Later, on the researcher side, the brand identity frameworks, always quoted brand personality as a dimension or a facet of brand identity, namely those traits of human personality that can be attributed to the brand. Among other dimensions are the brand inner values (its cultural facet), the brand relationship facet (its style of behavior, of conduct), the brand reflected consumer facet, the brand physical facet (its material distinguishing traits) At odds with this general conceptualization of personality as one part of brand identity, namely referring to the traits of human personality attributed to the brand, J. Aaker in the process of building a scale for measurement purposes defines brand personality not as a part but as the whole: "the set of human characteristics associated to a brand" However, . inner values, physical traits, pictures of the typical user are also "human characteristics" that can be associated to a brand. Hence the risk (if one follows this too global definition) of muddling conceptually and empirically distinct brand identity facets within a single scale of so called brand personality. This recent loose usage of the concept of brand personality for scale measurement purposes is in fact a come back to the historical early use by pioneer professionals who rightly felt that the copy strategy did well define the product compelling competitive advantage (USP), but failed to capture the flesh of the source of that product (the brand). They coined the term brand personality to capture all the non-product dimensions. To come back to theoretical unity and conceptual clarity, one should follow Churchill's measurement advice of "exacting in delineating what is included in the definition and what is excluded". We suggest a clear and pure definition of the concept of brand personality, separate from the other human characteristics which can be associated to a brand. This definition should remain close to that in psychology, which has been analysing the concept of personality for decades, although it should be adapted to brands. 2.4.6. CONCEPTS 2 . 4 . 6 . ( 1 ).HUMAN PERSONALITY CONCEPT IN PSYCHOLOGY

Without going back to the Latin or theological roots of the word "personality" the meanings of which are then manifold we observe that the first psychologist who constructed a personality theory was Freud. Most important is that Freud and his disciples considered personality to be something dynamic, cumulative, but, above all, they viewed it as being durable and relatively stable over time. Sullivans researches have the same lines, especially concerning the definition of personality. Indeed, Sullivan thought that Personality could be defined only in terms of the reactions () of an individual towards other people in recurrent interpersonal situations in life. He called the smallest unit of recurrent reactions dynamism. He used that word to describe certain patterns of feelings or behavior () and also to describe entities or mechanisms that are the components of the personality. () Those dynamisms are quite enduring and accumulate throughout life. This definition is quite vague, but it gave a way to the trait theory. Personality is a clear construct different from cognitive aspects of the person, or from his or her skills, abilities. It is described by traits.

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The theory of traits is crucial to that of personality insofar as it has permitted to use concretely the theory of personality, to build personality scales, and to define the corpus of words that define personality. As Allport described it, a trait is a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior. The first exhaustive and published list of terms related to personality and present in the English dictionary was done by Allport & Odbert29 in 1936 (they listed 18,000 terms). Goldberg is all the more confident with his results since another research, which analyzes 6 studies, shows the robustness of the model unveiled by Tupes & Christal, with 5 factors labeled Big Five by Goldberg. However, the number of dimensions is not confirmed by all researchers. Some of them indeed note that the parsimonious configuration of the Big Five Model has weaknesses. Despite those critiques, the Big Five theory or Five Factor Model is widely accepted. The 5 dimensions are often (but not always) labeled O.C.E.A.N.: 1. Dimension O: openness to new experiences, to imagination, intellectual curiosity. That dimension gathers such elements as intensity, complexity of an individual's experiences. span and

2. Dimension C:

conscientiousness orderly, and trustworthy.

. This dimension gathers such traits as scrupulous,

3. Dimension E:

Extraversion . That dimension gathers such traits as openness to others, sociability, impulsivity, likeability to feel positive emotions. Agreeableness trust, and altruist. Neuroticism . That dimension includes such traits as kind, modest,

4. Dimension A:

5. Dimension N:

. An individual is said to be neurotic if he's not emotionally

stable. That dimension includes such traits as anxious, unstable, and nervous. Some researchers have shown that the five dimensions could be represented by a small number of adjectives that are representative enough of the dimension they load on. In other words, those adjectives have a high loading on one dimension and a low (or close to 0) one on any other dimension. Those adjectives are named "markers" of the Big Five(Goldberg, Saucier). They have been developed in order to reduce the questionnaires length and to avoid respondents' fatigue. 2 . 4 . 6 . ( 2 ).PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO THE BRAND PERSONALITY CONCEPT

The methodology that led to the Five Factors Model has been directly borrowed, and sometimes somehow adapted, by some marketing researchers (Caprara, Barbaranelli & Guido, Ferrandi & Valette-Florence). Thus, if we consider that brands, just as individuals, can be described with adjectives, the approach used in psychology can be very interesting and relevant to account for a brand personality as perceived by consumers. Indeed, we perceive an individual's personality through his/her behavior, and in exactly the same way, consumers can attribute a personality to a brand according to its perceived communication and "behaviors".

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The question is whether the terms that encode personality in our language can be applied to brands. The existing literature about the relationship between an individual and a brand (Plummer; Fournier), about brand attachment or even about the view of a brand as a partner (Aaker & Fournier), enables us to think that, brands being personified, human personality descriptors can be used to describe them. But maybe not all of them, brands being attributed only some of the human characteristics. In fact, the adjectives used to describe human personality may not be all relevant to brands. This is where an adaptation is required. Some psychological aspects of human beings such as neurotic fatigue for example, may not be applicable to brands. This need for adaptation has also been suggested by Aaker and Caprara, Barabaranelli & Guido. 2 . 4 . 6 . ( 3 ).BRAND PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT

J. Aaker's work has tried to clarify the concept and to build a scale to measure it. To achieve that, she followed most of the time the psychologists steps in their study of human personality. She followed more particularly the studies made by researchers who contributed to unveil the existence of 5 dimensions subsuming personality (Five Factor Model). More specifically, J. Aaker (1997) and those who replicated or followed her work (Ferrandi, FineFalcy & Valette-Florence; Koebel & Ladwein; Aaker, Benet-Martinez & Garolera), are walking in the steps of the American psychologists Costa and McCrae who have adopted a lexical approach, and whose personality inventory (NEO-PI-R66,67) is renown, famous and translated in several languages (Rolland68 French for example). All those works in marketing are based on J. Aakers global definition of the concept: brand personality is the set of human characteristics associated to a brand (Aaker69). J. Aaker explored the brand personality on the basis of 114 adjectives (or traits) across 37 brands that cover various product categories. She reached a 5 factor solution presented below. Only three out of those five factors correspond to some factors of the FFM in psychology.

Figure 2.4.6.(3-1 Aakers Brand Personality Scale and the Psychological five factors Model

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2.4.7. ISSUES

2 . 4 . 7 . ( 1 ).ARE CURRENTLY BRAND PERSONALITY SCALES VALID?

2.4.7.1.1.THE ISSUE OF CONCEPT VALIDITY So far, most of the research on brand personality has focused on external validity: scores of translations have been undertaken by local researchers to assess the ability of the scale produce its similar five factors in different markets and cultures. This refers to the external validity. Now the main issue has not so far been addressed. It is not because one calls a scale brand personality scale that it does actually measure personality. This issue refers to a critique of construct or concept validity. J. Aaker's are based implicitly or explicitly on his definition. Therefore, all those studies share the same flaw in their conceptual basis. Indeed, by defining loosely brand personality, we may find that it means everything related to man and applied to brands, which means we may produce a vocabulary slippage or even a misnomer with the words brand personality. Whereas psychologists have worked over years to exclude intellectual abilities, gender, and social class from their personality definitions and scales, adopting J. Aaker's loose definition of brand personality may take us to ignore their results, and therefore to use the term brand personality to designate any non-physical attribute associated with a brand, including intellectual abilities, gender, or social class. 2.4.7.1.1.1. IDEAS / RECOMMENDATIONS This is why they recommend that marketing researchers and practitioners should adopt a stricter definition of the concept of brand personality, as follows: Brand personality is the set of human personality traits that are both applicable to and relevant for brands. That is why they advocate a stricter definition of brand personality than popularized by J.Aaker in order to reach a more exact measurement of that concept. A stricter definition means a definition that enables us to delineate what is included in and what is excluded from the concept, as suggested by Churchill. 2.4.7.1.2.THE MAIN PROBLEMATIC ITEMS OF THE SCALES They examined how the current scale of so called Brand Personality encompasses dimensions conceptually distinct of the pure concept of personality. An analysis of the items of the scale has enlightened the case. 2.4.7.1.2.1. THE ITEM COMPETENCE: J. Aakers scale holds competence as a major factor or trait among the five identified. The item competence refers to a know-how (in the case of brands), or to an ability to carry out something properly.
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We saw above that the definition of personality in psychology excludes any item related to abilities or cognitive capacities. Most psychologists exclude intelligence - as a cognitive ability - from their personality tests. Note that the adjectives "productive", "well-organized", or "(intellectually) efficient" are descriptors of personality (McCrae & Costa), but they do not relate to cognitive ability. Those items are applicable to brands but not in the framework of brand personality: they are rather relevant of fields such as organization studies, control of organizations or strategy. 2.4.7.1.2.2. THE ITEM FEMININE: For the item generation step, J. Aaker added some items related to gender, social class and age. She bears out her choice by quoting Levy and by writing that researchers argue that brand personality include demographic characteristics such as gender [which may be all the more true in the languages wherein there is a neutral pronoun to talk about inanimates] (), age (), and class Another problem is that the item feminine is a facet of Aaker's model, although gender is absent from psychology scales of personality. In addition, more often than not, feminine is a value judgment. Its meaning is very tied to the culture. 2.4.7.1.2.3. THE ITEMS RELATED TO SOCIAL CLASS We think that to integrate items related to age and social class is also problematic. Indeed, if Levy talks about age and social class, he never explicitly says that they are relevant to brand personality. He simply explains that those items are part of the imagery associated to typical users of the brand (user imagery). He states that an age and a social status could be imbued to a brand through its typical users. This argument is significant of a conceptual lack of distinction between the personality of the brand (the sender) and the person to whom the brand seems to be speaking, addressing to (the receiver) (Kapferer). Merging both dimensions introduces confusion and hinders proper brand diagnosis and implementation. These arguments support our belief that without a strict definition of the concept, and without the methodological stage of evaluation of items, the measurement of brand personality may become a ragbag. 2.4.7.1.2.4. SOME OTHER QUESTIONABLE ITEMS: Some authors (Davies, Chun & Vinhas da Silva have tried to replicate Aaker's study in the U.K. In their replication, they found that the item Western, Small Town or feminine account a lot for the low reliability scores of their study. They question the relevancy of those items in the framework of personality. The presence of Western is a typical illustration of ethnocentrism in marketing research. Why are the equivalent terms Asian, or Latin absent?

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Are the brands of the world either Western or not? Most important, the concept refers to the value system underneath the brand, what Kapferer calls its cultural underpinnings, its cultural facet in the brand identity prism. The brand identity prism captures the key facets of a brands identity

Figure 2.4.7.1.2.4-1 Brand Identity Prism by J-N. Kapferer

2.4.7.1.3.THE FLAWS OF THE SCALE STEM FROM ITS CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION The weaknesses and shortcomings of the current scale of brand personality derive from its construction methodology itself embedded in the flawful concept definition. For the item generation, in order to be as exhaustive as possible, and not to forget any item, J.Aaker generated 309 items coming from 4 different sources: (a) literature review of scales used in psychology to measure personality; (b) personality scales used by marketers (academicians and also practitioners); and (c) items generated by qualitative studies. Those three sources were then completed by (d) a free association task done by respondents who were asked to elicit personality traits that they would associate with some brands. The problem comes from the sources that generated the items. As we mentioned earlier, early practitioners used the concept of brand personality in a global extended meaning. This way, the concept covers a variety of existing separate constructs: the personality itself, but also the values, the reflection of the typical or stereotypical buyer, etc all different facts of brand identity. 2.4.8. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: The present so-called brand personality scale merges all the human characteristics applicable to brands under one blanket wordpersonalitythus losing the distinctiveness of the facets of brand identity; personality being only one of them.
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2.4.9. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH Exploratory research, it is more like a critique on Aaker Scale.

2.4.10.

CONCLUSION:

As demonstrated in this paper, the existing measures for the construct of brand personality do not measure that construct, and introduce conceptual confusion. They measure instead other classical facets of brand identity, even perceived product performance; recent Empirical research has reinforced this conclusion. It seems that prior to the construction of a valid measurement of the construct of brand personality. As they demonstrated in this paper, it seems to them that prior to the construction of a valid measurement of the construct of brand personality, there must be a strict definition of the construct, as well as the clarifying of the conceptual difference between this concept and the closely related ones. As Churchill wrote, we should always be aware of the fact that the first in the suggested procedure for developing better measures involves specifying the domain of the construct. What is included in the definition, and what is excluded? Researchers should have good reasons for proposing additional new measures given the many available for most marketing constructs of interest That's why they have tried to analyze in detail the shortcomings of the existing definition and scales to measure the concept of brand personality before proposing a new methodology. To conclude, they thought that the existing measures for the construct of brand personality do no measure that construct and introduce conceptual confusion. Rather, they somehow measure all the human characteristics applicable to brands merging under one blanket word a number of key distinct facets of brand identity. It is time to restrict the use of the concept of brand personality to the meaning it should never have lost: the unique set of human personality traits both applicable and relevant to brands. 2.4.11. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN

2 . 4 . 1 1 . ( 1 R.EPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION )

This paper is more critics to the Aaker Scale, this is more of Empirical research, there is no data collection. 2 . 4 . 1 1 . ( 2 R.EPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH )

They have reviewed the Aaker Scale and highlight some items need to be catered. They proposed additional new measures for brand personality scale. They suggested that not to use concept of Brand personality to the meaning. As far as Replication in Pakistan concerned Researchers of Pakistan need to consider these shortcomings of the scale, they need to alter the scale according to the requirement.

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2.5.

PAPER NO. 32 (ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF PERSONIFICATION OF A BRAND ON CUSTOMER RETENTION)

2.5.1. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF PERSONIFICATION OF A BRAND ON CUSTOMER RETENTION. (N.D.). PAPER NO. 32 . 2.5.2. ABSTRACT The marketing literature in various facets has been acknowledging the importance of relationship management. Authors have been differentiating market orientation of a firm based on products, services or integration of business functions etc. Traditional marketing theories and various different schools of thoughts offered a number of perspectives to researchers. Different theories proposed different views, like market based view proposed strategies of market segmentation, product differentiation and low cost production for a competitive edge, whereas resource based theory acknowledged the skills, competencies and resources in identified target markets as competitive advantage of the firm, simultaneously sustainable competitive theory gave an insight about the role of relationships and employee psychology. Given these developments, customer retention with brand relationship management became the focus for sustainable growth of a firm. 2.5.3. THEORIES Brand relationship management is an associate leaning relationship organization strategy for a brand that starts an attractive and jointly advantageous interactive relationship between a firm and its partners and works around partners to drive their preferences to a brand with an aim to retain them for future business while enabling customized assistance for current and future contact. (Storbacka et al 1994) Branding helps in rising brand consciousness, brand loyalties, also brand value that helps in identifying customer priorities based on product separations it is the brands relationship with the customer, which gets transformed into profits because brand loyalty extends beyond behavior to include customer preferences, fondness and future intentions (Day 2000). Business partners have various alternatives provided to them to choose, to acquire the strong objectives firms need deliberately built dealings (Xu et al 2002; Mithas et al 2005; Shani and Chalsani 1992). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. In competition demanding markets consisting of multifaceted business-to-business networks (Morgan and Hunt 1994) 2.5.4. CONCEPT The research aims to identify appropriate strategies for use by companies in addressing customer dissatisfaction before it becomes widespread in the marketplace. 2.5.5. HYPOTHESIS H1. Presence of a brand representative is positively linked to market-share in businessto-business market

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H2. H3. H4. H5. H6.

Presence of a brand representative in local business environment has a positive relationship with market-issues Presence of a brand representative is positively related to efficient management of market opportunities. Presence of a local brand representative has a positive relationship to problem addressing capabilities of a firm Presence of a brand representative has a positive relationship to the relationship recovery process. Presence of a brand representative in market has a Positive relationship with partner enhancement.

2.5.6. MODEL USED

Figure 2.5.6-1 Model developed to test the list Hypothesis generated as a result of Literature review

2.5.7. METHODOLOGY Research method will test the list of hypothesis generated as a result of literature review and will involve various techniques of quantitative method in terms of questionnaire that will help me analyze trends, followed by qualitative method that will help me answers questions that cannot be addressed with the help of quantitative data i.e. policy issues. Research dataset will include personal interviews with senior managers of companies to address relevant policy issues, and questionnaires to company middle managers to collect and analyze data from a more operational point of view. Another questionnaire, completed by business network partners of these companies, will help to understand market dynamics. The research aims to identify appropriate strategies for use by companies in addressing customer dissatisfaction before it becomes widespread in the marketplace.

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2.5.8. CONCLUSION The topic of research, Antecedents and consequences of personification of a brand in a complex business-to-business network addresses both partner and customer retention issues for effects on growth of a company. An ethnographic perspective to such business research is critical so that the human dimension in business-to-business network growth is more widely recognized, because of the important role of individual expertise, understanding and personal experience in addressing local market dynamics in order to Brand Representative Brand 2 Customer 1 Brand 3 Partner Enhancement Program Brand 1 Loyal Partner Customer 2 gain competitive advantage. It aims to develop a conceptual framework regarding brand relationship management after examining the related variables. 2.5.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN 2 . 5 . 9 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

Research dataset will include personal interviews with senior managers of companies to address relevant policy issues, and questionnaires to company middle managers to collect and analyze data from a more operational point of view. Another questionnaire, completed by business network partners of these companies, will help to understand market dynamics. All above data collection method can be replicated in Pakistan and could help to identify appropriate strategies for use by companies in addressing customer dissatisfaction before it becomes widespread in Marketplace. 2 . 5 . 9 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

They have developed a model for this research or test their hypothesis, this model could be used in Pakistani Culture.

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2.6.

BRAND PERSONIFICATION IN THE LUXURY GOODS INDUSTRIES PIER LUIGI RONCAGLIA, SOCIET ITALIANA BREVETTI

2.6.1. RONCAGLIA, P. L., & BREVETTI, S. I. (2006). BRAND PERSONIFICATION IN THE LUXURY GOODS INDUSTRIES. INTA ANNUAL MEETING . 2.6.2. ABSTRACT The personification of a brand needs to be intensified and long-lasting. To achieve such long-lasting brand personification around a lifestyle (as opposed to a single product), brand owners often draw on the notoriety of the brand owner/designer/fashion director themselvesinstead of known celebrities. In such cases, the brand owner or designer often becomes a celebrity, with status that is on par with that of typical endorsers like famous entertainers and super models. 2.6.3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK In essence, to maximize an endorsers impact on brand persona, the endorser should: (a) (b) (c) Have a personality and image that is coherent with the product, i.e., conveys the same characteristics and qualities; Be relevant to the consumer, i.e., is distinctive and gives added value to the product; and Be exclusive to the brand owner.

2.6.4. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN 2 . 6 . 4 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

This article discusses brand personification in the luxury goods industries, drawing particularly on the authors experience in the European market so this article doesnt need a data collection. 2 . 6 . 4 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

In this paper celebrity endorsement has discussed with its advantages and risks. In Pakistan Celebrility Endorsement is commonly used by the Marketer and brand Manager to position their Brand in the Market such as Shahid Afridi endorsed for Head and Shoulders. Shahid Afridi is best suited celebrity for Head & Shoulders because of his silky soft hairs and People in Pakistan of all age group and gender like Shahid Afridi and his hair. There is risk involve in Pakistan market as well. Lets take the example of 2007 cricket world cup Habib Bank of Pakistan endorsed Cricketer of Pakistan but as soon as the Pakistan Cricket team fails to reach in Super 8, they changed the advertisement in order to ensure that bad performance of Cricketers dont affect the image of Habib Bank.

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2.7.

DIMENSIONS OF BRAND PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTIONS: A PERSON-CENTRIC APPROACH IN


THE

GERMAN CULTURAL CONTEXT MICHAEL BOSNJAK UNIVERSITY OF MANNHEIM,

GERMANY VALERIE BOCHMANN ZELFI AG, GERMANY TANJA HUFSCHMIDT MAGNETIC BRANDS GMBH, GERMANY 2.7.1. BOSNJAK, M., BOCHMANN, V., & HUFSCHMIDT, T. (2007). DIMENSIONS OF BRAND PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTIONS: A PERSON-CENTRIC APPROACH IN THE GERMAN CULTURAL CONTEXT. SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERSONALITY , 35(3), 303-316. 2.7.2. ABSTRACT Research on the symbolic use of commercial brands has shown that individuals prefer those brands matching their own personality. While the Big Five model of human personality is universal, brand personality attributions are partly culture-specific. Furthermore, research investigating brand-related trait attributions has largely neglected negatively valenced traits. Consequently, the objective of this research was to identify and operationally indigenous German brand personality attributions from a person-centric perspective. This approach entails an exploration of those positive as well as negative human personality dimensions applicable and relevant to brands. Within two studies, four dimensions of brand personality (Drive, Conscientiousness, Emotion, and Superficiality) were identified. A preliminary 20item instrument is proposed for the parsimonious measurement of brand personality attributions in the German cultural domain. 2.7.3. THEORIES Aakers (1997) also provided crosscultural study on brand characteristic shows approach that substantial differences between cultures lead to the number of aspects extracted and their meaning (e.g., Aaker, Benet-Martinez, & Garolera, 2001, Ferrandi, Valette-Florence, & Fine-Falcy, 2000, for France; Smit, van den Berge & Franzen, 2002; Sung & Tinkham, 2005, for Korea, and Smit, van den Berge, & Franzen, 2002, for the Netherlands). John, 1990; McCrae & Costa, 1989; Norman, 1963 provided model personality scales used by promoters .In terms of cross-cultural robustness, personality research has shown that the Big Five factor structure is able to describe personality structure well across a wide variety of cultures. This suggests that human personality trait structure is universal (McCrae, 2001, 2002; McCrae & Allik, 2002). To pursuing the goal of finding and measuring the concept of commercial brands by examining how brand personality attributes are organized in the German cultural context Goldberg, 1990; John, Angleitner, & Ostendorf, 1988, formed a concept particle to brands so to support the statement Aaker found and afterward corroborated aspects of brand personality traits . 2.7.4. KEYWORDS Brand personality, brand-related trait attributions, symbolic use of commercial brand, symbolic consumption, self-image congruence.

2.7.5. MODEL DEVELOPED


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Figure 2.7.5-1 Measurement Model for German Brand Personality attribution derived from Study 1. + denotes positive relationship, - negative relationship and ? indicates that no specific direction of influence is assumed.

Figure 2.7.5-2 Standardized coefficients for the measurement model tested. Latent constructs are shown in ellipses and observed variables in rectangles. All coefficients are significant at alpha= .05, except the intercorrelation of Superficiality and Drive, displayed in brackets. Measurement error terms are not shown.

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Figure 2.7.5-2 depicts the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using maximum likelihood estimation. 2.7.6. TESTS The measurement model tested was identical to that inductively derived from the first study reported above. Explicitly: The factors Emotion, Conscientiousness, and Superficiality each had four indicators and the factor Drive was represented by two facets (Excitement, Boredom), each assessed by four indicators 2.7.7. CONCLUSION First, results should be scrutinized with the aid of a random sample approach to further explore their generalizability. Second, only one aspect of validity, namely factorial validity, was explored. Many more aspects of validity and reliability should be investigated in the future. Last, but not least, possible concept-scale interaction effects, that is, shifts in item meaning conditional upon the brand to be assessed, remain an under explored issue to be addressed in the field of brand personality attribution research (see, e.g., Caprara, Barbaranelli, & Guido, 2001). The objective of the studies presented here was to identify and operationalize indigenous German brand personality attributions. Departing from Aakers (1997) seminal work, we presented a revised conceptual definition and pursued a person-centric approach by encompassing both positively and negatively valenced traits. Furthermore, between-subject variability in identifying the dimensionality of brand-personality attributions was taken into account. As a result, a four dimensional attribution space was identified in a first study and corroborated in a second. The factors identified were labeled Drive,Conscientiousness Emotion, and Superficiality . All four factors can be adequately covered using the preliminarily developed 20-item measurement scale. Given its parsimony, this scale should prove useful in both academic and commercial research settings. Consumer psychologists may want to use this item-set to explore the symbolic use of brands in the German cultural domain. In commercial marketing research contexts, this preliminary measurement scale could be of assistance in profiling brands as well as consumers, and in predicting both product approach and product avoidance behaviors. The current studies suffer from limitations which should be addressed in future research. First, results should be scrutinized with the aid of a random sample approach to further explore their generalizability. Second, only one aspect of validity, namely factorial validity, was explored. Many more aspects of validity and reliability should be investigated in the future. Last, but not least, possible concept-scale interaction effects, that is, shifts in item meaning conditional upon the brand to be assessed, remain an underexplored issue to be addressed in the field of brand personality attribution research(see, e.g., Caprara, Barbaranelli,& Guido, 2001).

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2.7.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN 2 . 7 . 8 . ( 1 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ DATA COLLECTION

The collected the data by 131 volunteer online panel members participating in a web-based study on People Opinion and evaluation of well known Brand. They were asked to rate the extent to which the 84 personality traits described a specific brand. Based on this they identified certain facet like excitement encompasses item exciting, adventurous, spirited and saucy, Boredom encompasses negatively valence item such as Small minded, bourgeois, boring and old fashion etc. Similarly second data collection procedure defined in this paper as One hundred and eightyfour subjects randomly drawn from an online access panel participated in the web-based study on peoples evaluations of well known brands, Participants were to rate only one of the following randomly selected brands on the basis of the twenty items resulting from study 1: Allianz (insurance brand), Volkswagen (car brand), Gillete (razor brand), Coca-Cola (soft drink brand). 2 . 7 . 8 . ( 2 ).REPLICATION VIZ A VIZ METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

The above method used for data collection and model that was developed for that test can be replicated in Pakistan because Internet users are increasing day by day in Pakistan, This method is so economical. Web Based study could be conducted on different forum like Facebook, Nexopia, Myspace and etc.

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2.8.

BRAND AND CORPORATE PERSONALITY AS RELATIONSHIPS SYSTEMS THEORY (SUMMARY


ABSTRACT - IAN WEST 2003)

2.8.1. WEST, I. (2003). BRAND AND CORPORATE PERSONALITY AS RELATIONSHIPS-SYSTEM THEORY. 2.8.2. ABSTRACT Marketing communications strategies can be developed to influence brand choice, but brand personality issues may involve matters of corporate values not directly amenable to marcoms activity. It may be necessary to make more deep rooted changes to structures, practices and cultures within the organization which is brand custodian in order to modify the emotional values which it represents. 2.8.3. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN As defined above theory can be implemented in Pakistan such as Well-Known Brands can be categorized in groups by Brand Relationship and brand Personification like Safeguard, and Lifebuoy Gold. Logos of the brands can be grouped together to show them as a group. Similarly Consumer can be segmented in groups by brand relationship and brand personification on a basis of liked and disliked of known brand. Questionnaires and interviews can be used to analyze both the pragmatic and intuitive elements of the brand personality. Factors driving brand choice have both a rational and emotional content and even marketing communications strategies which are fundamentally pragmatic also have an emotional dimension. Marketing communications strategies can be developed to influence brand choice, but brand personality issues may involve matters of corporate values not directly amenable to marcoms activity. It may be necessary to make more deep rooted changes to structures, practices and cultures within the organization which is brand custodian in order to modify the emotional values which it represents.

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2.9.

BRAND MEANING AND VIRTUAL BRAND COMMUNITY AMONGST TEENAGERS: A STUDY OF


THE IPOD BRAND

2.9.1. SOLOMON, M., & ENGLIS, B. G. (JUNE 2008). A VISUAL APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF APPAREL BRAND PERSONALITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO BRAND EQUITY. NATIONAL TEXTILE CENTER RESEARCH BRIEFS . 2.9.2. INTRODUCTION AND THEORIES Cova and Cova (2001) identified four roles that tribe members can take on an adherent or devote of institutions, a participant in informal gatherings, a practitioner who has tribal involvement on a daily basis, and a sympathiser who follows the tribes trends. Consumer research can focus on cross sections or the entire tribe (Cova and Cova, 2001). While the model includes the possibility that a member can take on different roles at one time, it neglects the possibility that some tribal members may not take on certain roles at all. Mc William (2000) suggests that some members never actively participate, but remain passively involved as lurkers. McAlexander et al., (2002) point out the variance in characteristics of communities. Different brand communities may have different characteristics. The study of Hammond et al., (1993) found that demographic factors failed to discriminate between buyers of different brands within a category, and brand communities have typically been defined as non-geographically bounded (Muniz and OGuinn 2001). However, they may nevertheless be geographically concentrated (Holt, 1995) or exist in the non-geographical space of the Internet (Granitz and Ward 1996; Kozinets, 1997). Furthermore, Muniz and OGuinn (2001) regard brand community as a customercustomer-brand triad, whereas McAlexander et al., (2002) believe that brand community is customer-centric, and that its existence and meaningfulness are inherent in customer experiences rather than in the brand around which experiences revolve. 2.9.3. ABSTRACT Research on symbolic brand meaning and brand community has so far been limited to the adult population (McAlexander et al., 2002; Muniz and O.Guinn, 2001; and Brown et al 2003). Brand communities can be defined as reconstructed communities in which admirers of a brand form social relationships. A more detailed definition and elaboration on this phenomenon will be provided in the following chapter. So far no research has been conducted concerning the existence or characteristics of brand community amongst the adolescent population. Moreover, very little is known about virtual communities and research on virtual brand communities of adolescents remains nonexistent to this day. Given the positive implications of brand meaning and brand community to the marketer, and the increasing economic importance of teenagers, these are significant gaps in literature. Individuals use products to create and communicate their self-concept to themselves and others (Belk, 1988; Solomon; 1983; Kleine et al., 1995, Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988, Sirgy, 1982), and they purchase products that are congruent with their self-images. Chaplin and John (2005) essentially identify and address that although this phenomenon has been well documented there is a literature gap concerning self-brand connections amongst adolescents. It is the aim of this research to fill the above research gaps by identifying and investigating brand meaning and virtual brand community among adolescents. Apart from proving new insight into virtual brand community, and consumption meanings the research will furthermore address the lack of research into the internet experiences and self-brand connections of adolescents. This will be achieved by revealing some unique and new insight, as well as uncovering some new important areas for future research.

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2.9.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK: BRAND SELECTION CRITERIA

1. 2. 3. 4.

Brand strength (financially weak versus strong) Market size Usage situation (e.g., intimate apparel versus casual wear) Appeal to male versus female consumers.

2.9.5. METHODOLOGY: Study 1. We will employ a two-stage process where respondents are shown a brand name and are asked to indicate whether or not a meaning dimension (e.g., gender) is relevant to that brand. For each relevant meaning dimension, we then ask the respondent which characteristic within the meaning dimension (e.g., male versus female) is relevant to the brand. Study 2. Referring again to the brands we included in Study 1, we will create scales that incorporate the dimensions along with the relevant characteristics chosen from Study 1 (e.g., To what degree is [Image X] relevant to the meaning of this brand?). We will employ discriminate function analysis to determine which dimensions/characteristics best differentiate among the brand set within each of the cells used in the design (e.g., male versus female brands). Study 3. In Study 3 we will move to the mapping of visual images onto the meaning dimensions/ characteristics we identified in Study 2. We will select visual imagery that captures the universe of meaning respondents identified as relevant in Study 2 and empirically map these photos onto the meaning dimensions/ characteristics from Study 2. As a result, each of the images chosen will be assigned ameaning signature, or set of scores for each meaning dimension/characteristic relevant to that image. In the aggregate, the set of images chosen will capture all of the meaning dimensions/ characteristics from Study 2. Study 4. In the last step we will use the visual materials we developed in Step 3 to replicate the discriminate analysis we conducted in Study 2. The basic question we will address here is whether or not a visual-only collage-creation approach to the assessment of brand meaning yields the same/similar meaning map that would be obtained using a traditional verbal approach. Direct comparison between Studies 2 and 4 will provide an empirical test of the relative strengths of these competing models. 2.9.6. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN In this study they discussed the Meaning Visualization Pilot Study to explore whether the respondents could readily and consistently associate visual imagery with specific conveyed meaning and identified the meaning associated with those images. They also discussed Brand Logo Sorting Study in which they Two sets of gender-relevant apparel brands is being used and consumers are asked to sort these brands into consistent meaning groups. Respondents will then provide a narrative description of the apparel brands. Results from this study will be used to select brands that have distinct, and different,cultural meanings for use in future studies.

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Both the approaches can be replicated in Pakistani Culture and can be very effective. In this way Marketer or brand Manager can alter their branding strategy according to the personification of the brand. They also highlighted certain areas for future research which could be benefited to the Pakistani Environment as well are as follow: They are in the process of identifying the set of apparel brands we will use to represent the following dimensions as independent variables: Brand Selection Criteria 1 2 3 4 . . . . Brand strength (financially weak versus strong) Market size Usage situation (e.g., intimate apparel versus casualwear) Appeal to male versus female consumers.

They have also begun to refine the verbal measures that will be used in two forthcoming studies. The following provides an outline of the next series of studies: Study 1. We will employ a two-stage process where respondents are shown a brand name and are asked to indicate whether or not a meaning dimension (e.g., gender) is relevant to that brand. For each relevant meaning dimension, we then ask the respondent which characteristic within the meaning dimension (e.g., male versus female) is relevant to the brand. Study 2. Referring again to the brands we included in Study 1, we will create scales that incorporate the dimensions along with the relevant characteristics chosen from Study 1 (e.g., To what degree is [Image X] relevant to the meaning of this brand?). We will employ discriminant function analysis to determine which dimensions/characteristics best differentiate among the brand set within each of the cells used in the design (e.g., male versus female brands). Study 3. In Study 3 we will move to the mapping of visual images onto the meaning dimensions/ characteristics we identified in Study 2. We will select visual imagery that captures the universe of meaning respondents identified as relevant in Study 2 and empirically map these photos onto the meaning dimensions/ characteristics from Study 2. As a result, each of the images chosen will be assigned a meaning signature, or set of scores for each meaning dimension/characteristic relevant to that image. In the aggregate, the set of images chosen will capture all of the meaning dimensions/ characteristics from Study 2. Study 4. In the last step we will use the visual materials we developed in Step 3 to replicate the discriminant analysis we conducted in Study 2. The basic question we will address here is whether or not a visual-only collage-creation approach to the assessment of brand meaning yields the same/similar meaning map that would be obtained using a traditional verbal approach. Direct comparison between Studies 2 and 4 will provide an empirical test of the relative strengths of these competing models. This will complete the development of the core visualization methodology. The final study in the project will use the visualization method to assess brand meaning for a set of brands selected according to the above brand selection criteria and will relate these brand meanings to measures of brand performance (market size and financial performance metrics).

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2.10. HOW DESIGN HELPS CREATE MEMORABLE BRANDS CREATING THE PREEMINENT GLOBAL BRAND BY KENNETH D. LOVE, PRESIDENT & CREATIVE DIRECTOR 2.10.1. LOVE, K. D. (N.D.). HOW DESIGN HELPS CREATE MEMORABLE BRANDS. CREATING THE PREEMINENT GLOBAL BRAND . INTRODUCTION

2.10.2.

Many components constitute a brand's identity, beginning with the assumption of quality. It is the cumulative sum of tangible and intangible identity elements that creates a brand's distinctive tone and manner. When managed systematically for all it is worth, a powerful and valuable brand identity reverberates to the corporation over all. The powerful role design plays in a brand's image is illustrated by the Penguin book story, well known in publishing circles and mentioned recently in a New York magazine article. While being held hostage in Beirut, the Anglican clergyman Terry Waite requested some reading material. His jailer spoke very little English, but Waite managed to indicate he'd like to read a book. He drew a penguin with an oval around it, telling his captor, "Find any book with this symbol and it will be a good one." That kind of reputation and recognition is available to every company. All that is needed is a dedicated strategy for building a brand. 2.10.3. ABSTRACT

The powerful role design plays in a brand's image is illustrated by the Penguin book story, well known in publishing circles and mentioned recently in a New York magazine article. While being held hostage in Beirut, the Anglican clergyman Terry Waite requested some reading material. His jailer spoke very little English, but Waite managed to indicate he'd like to read a book. He drew a penguin with an oval around it, telling his captor, "Find any book with this symbol and it will be a good one." That kind of reputation and recognition is available to every company. All that is needed is a dedicated strategy for building a brand. 2.10.4. CONCLUSION

Symbols are the world's design cues. They facilitate communications, breaking down linguistic and cultural barriers and reinforcing a brand's core attributes that appeal to multiple audiences. Nike's Swoosh, Texaco's Star, FTD's Mercury Man, Apple's Apple, Starbucks' Mermaidthese symbols stand on their own because they are visual representations of their brand's essential character and personality, and they have been promoted with consistency and assertiveness. 2.10.5. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Symbols are the world's design cues. They facilitate communications, breaking down linguistic and cultural barriers and reinforcing a brand's core attributes that appeal to multiple audiences. Nike's Swoosh, Texaco's Star, FTD's Mercury Man, Apple's Apple, Starbucks' Mermaidthese symbols stand on their own because they are visual representations of their brand's essential character and personality, and they have been promoted with consistency and assertiveness.

Logos and Symbols are very essential for making a brand memorable in Pakistan as other culture of the world.

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2.11. DESIGNING GLOBAL BRANDS: CRITICAL LESSONS LARRY ROELLIG, EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, CONSUMER BRANDING, ENTERPRISE IG 2.11.1. ROELLIG, LARRY. (2001). DESIGNING GLOBAL BRANDS:CRITICAL LESSONS. DESIGN MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, MANAGING DESIGN FOR GLOBAL VALUE , 12, 4. INTRODUCTION

2.11.2.

Companies must realize the brands core qualities, personality, and positioning by appraising its market category, target consumers, and competitors, as well as the attitudes and beliefs of their own employees. In addition, governmental regulations and assessment, political issues, social and environmental pressures, cultural differences, local customs, religious restrictions, consumer tastes, and different languages will need to be considered. The primary element that needs to be taken into account when creating a global brand is the name and the associated word mark, or symbol, that will be used to represent the company, product, or service throughout the world. The name must be pronounceable in all languages and dialects, free of negative connotations, and not confusingly similar to existing names. It is really an aggregation of all the physical and emotional characteristics of a company, a product, or a service encountered by the consumer at all points of contact. Branding is important as it communicates a brands business suggestion and, hopefully, a reason why a consumer should desire the product represented by the brand. The most winning visual expressions of a brand embrace its core attributes and seek to establish a positive affecting relationship between the brand and its audiences, both internal and external. 2.11.3. ABSTRACT

Brand identity and distinct positioning messages are best communicated across all countries through packaging graphics that are as standardized as reasonably possible. A global brand must retain its autonomy while also adhering to local sensitivities. Environmental issues do not just stop at packaging. Consumers are also becoming more aware of how their products are obtained, grown, and produced. Unified global branding policy can result in smaller markets having access to the otherwise unaffordable results of a much larger budget. 2.11.4. KEYWORDS

Economies of scale, Effects of environmental and social pressures, Physical packaging 2.11.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Different government legislation of consumer packaging from country to country, the quandary of country association, taking into regard cultural tastes and differences.

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Figure 2.11.5-1 Consumer Brand Attribute Categories and Corporate Brand Attribute Categories

2.11.6.

METHODOLOGY APPROACH

Exploratory Research 2.11.7. LESSONS IN THE PAPERS

Lesson 1: Creation of a captivating name and wordmark, or symbol Lesson 2: The quandary of country association Lesson 3: Taking into regard cultural tastes and differences Lesson 4: Physical packaging Lesson 5: Effects of environmental and social pressures Lesson 6: Different government legislation of consumer packaging from country to country Lesson 7: Economies of scale 2.11.8. CONCLUSION

There is so much to contemplate when creating a design strategy for the global marketplace that the list of factors to consider sometimes seems unwieldy. The positives and negatives of creating one global design versus localized adaptations, or remaining associated with the country of origin versus embodying cultural differences, must be weighed against each other. However, despite these complications, great brands tap into basic human needs and aspirations. 2.11.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Lesson 1: Creation of a captivating name and wordmark, or symbol

Lesson 2: The quandary of country association


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Lesson 3: Taking into regard cultural tastes and differences Lesson 4: Physical packaging Lesson 5: Effects of environmental and social pressures Lesson 6: Different government legislation of consumer packaging from country to country Lesson 7: Economies of scale Above are some tactics of Strategic lesson for Brand Managers and Marketers to keep in mind when producing a global brand expression, which is essential for Pakistani Market as well.

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2.12. THE CULT OF PERSONALITY: EXPLORING BRAND ATTRIBUTES IN A RESEARCH-DRIVEN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND ACADEMIA JOHN TAKAMURA AND TAMARA CHRISTENSEN 2.12.1. TAKAMURA, J., & CHRISTENSEN, T. (2007). THE CULT OF PERSONALITY: EXPLORING BRAND ATTRIBUTES IN A RESEARCH-DRIVEN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND ACADEMIA. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIETIES OF DESIGN RESEARCH THE HONGKONG POLYTECH. THEORIES

2.12.2.

According to Pine & Gilmore 1999, Zastrow 2003, the economic change from a product support to an occurrence foundation has forced companies to discover habits of embedding experiences into their products to get contentment about the recent shopper and their observed needs .The brand simply becomes nil more than a relic that identifies the way to familiarity. Experiences are events that engage individuals in a personal way. They go on to point out that; Most product designers focus primarily on the internal mechanics of the good itself: how it performs. What if the attention centered instead on the individuals use of the good? The focus would then shift to the user: how the individual performs while using the good. Pine and Gilmore (1999, p. 12) Properties of a brand can be either official or empirical. Formal product properties be impartially deliberated Patrick Jordan (2000) Pragmatic properties determine the product exists, attitudes and outlook of the group experiencing the product .Hence it is probable for a product to obtain the facts of its presentation divide of providing the feeling for it. But if a product communicates automatically without involving emotions, it will stay a product rather than becoming a brand. Travis (2000, p. 174) Products that suggest the emotions are directly partial by the individual personalities of their brands. Brand personality is the set of human traits linked with a brand. Jennifer Aaker (1997, p. 347) 2.12.3. ABSTRACT

This paper describes a funded research collaboration that involved an industry sponsor, faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students. The research methods developed for this project offer an interesting paradigm for examining the role of brand personality in new product development. A new method, a unique derivation of the Product Personality Assignment, was devised to ask respondents to assign personalities to particular areas or features on a product rather than the entire product itself. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data facilitated the collaborative development of a product character vocabulary and a brand DNA which informed the redesign of the products form, color, material, texture, details, and brand. 2.12.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This paper describes a sponsored partnership between academia and industry that sought to

harness the research and product development potential of an academic unit to serve the
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brand and design needs of real-world client. The methods developed and utilized for the redesign of a generator offer an example of how academic units may customize their service offerings to best satisfy the educational needs of students and faculty while providing truly innovative solutions for a client. The methodology described herein offers a unique yet adaptable approach to exploring the formal and experiential product properties that shape and inform design research and development in the context of product personality and brand DNA. 2.12.5. KEYWORDS

Brand Experience vs. Product Experience, Personality Assignment, The Brand DNA Metaphor, 2.12.6. HYPOTHESIS

The methodology described herein provides a successful example of how to customize academic offerings to best serve industry needs in pursuit of truly innovative partnerships that grow the knowledge base both of academic units and students, as well as the clients they hope to serve. 2.12.7. METHODOLOGY

The methods used for this study are a case in point and demonstrate the influence of design research on the design process and the potential to use design process for the development of research methods that explore brands and products. 2.12.8. CONCLUSION

This study demonstrates an emerging trend in how to design and implement collaboration between universities and industry sponsors. The case presented here describes how an academic unit cans incentives industry partnership through development of client-specific design research, brand, and product development offerings. As design educators seek to minimize the gap between education and practice, 2.12.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN A new method, a unique derivation of the Product Personality Assignment, was devised to ask respondents to assign personalities to particular areas or features on a product rather than the entire product itself. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data facilitated the collaborative development of a product character vocabulary and a brand DNA which informed the redesign of the products form, color, material, texture, details, and brand.

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Figure 2.12.9-1 Brand DNA to Fuel Redesign

The same technique can be replicated in Pakistan which will be more fruitful and will be helpful in collaborative development of a product character Vocabulary and Brand DNA which facilitate in redesign of the products form, color, material, texture, details and brand.

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2.13. EXAMINING

THE

VALIDITY

OF

THE

COUNTRY

BRAND

PERSONALITY

CONSTRUCT (STEVEN A. MURPHY ALIA EL-BANNA JOS ROJAS-MNDEZ NICOLAS PAPADOPOULOS SPROTT SCHOOL OF BUSINESS CARLETON UNIVERSITY) 2.13.1. MURPHY, S. A. (2009). EXAMINING THE VALIDITY OF THE COUNTRY BRAND PERSONALITY CONSTRUCT. ALIA EL-BANNA JOSE ROJAS-MENDES NICOLAS PAPADOPOULOS SPROTT SCHOOL OF BUSINESS CARLETON UNIVERSITY . INTRODUCTION

2.13.2.

This paper examines the validity of the country brand personality construct, and captures the potential richness and intuitive appeal of countries along human dimensions, while examining the rigour of the theoretical models upon which the construct is built. 2.13.3. ABSTRACT

Examining the validity of the country brand personality construct at this juncture in the nascent fields development is critical to ensure that future research is on solid footing. This paper analyzes the extent to which human personality scales are appropriate in conceptualizing and measuring country brand personality. 2.13.4. THEORIES

Research on consumer-brand relationships has achieved advancements in explaining relationships while lacking adequate development of core construct definitions(Fournier, 1998). Brand personality traits have also been applied to countries to develop what is referred to as country or nation brand personality (Anholt, 2003; DAstous and Boujbel, 2007). Personality has long been defined by psychologists as the enduring traits that differentiate individuals, and we admit that there is an allure to seeing brands and countries as having trait-like qualities (Davies et al., 2001). The perception of a country as a brand has had a major impact on relatively recent international marketing research (Leyland et al., 2007; Papadopoulos and Heslop, 2002). Research on country branding suggests that countries, just like brands, are described by consumers according to specific qualities and traits (Anholt, 2003). A country is either perceived as part of a physical product brand which adds to or diminishes its value, or can be viewed as a brand in and of itself (Kotler and Gertner, 2002). In some instances, a country may directly use its name as a brand to promote its products (Kotler and Gertner, 2002). It is argued that there is a close to complete need of hypothetical foundation that goes ahead of the use of personality as a symbol in the country brand personality text. The set of human characteristics linked with a brand and personality traits associated with a brand are as obvious as those linked with an individual, and customers be inclined to show themselves

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through the brands Thus, the greater the similarity between an individuals self traits and those that describe a brand, the greater the individual priority for a brand. Aaker (1997) shared human personality scales based on the Big 5 personality construct, and a set of distinctive brand personality traits which were created across three product divisions. The study indicated in forty-two traits represented fewer than five dimensions: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness Since the introduction of . this model, there has been creatingconcern in determining brand personality based on the above five dimensions (Azoulay and Kapferer, 2003). However, we would caution that trait-congruent consumer behavior research requires further validation (Fitzsimons et al., 2008), especially when referring to country brands Brand personality scale of Aaker is comprehensive to gauge country brand personality (Foscht et al., 2008; Leyland, 2007, Pitt et al., 2007). According to Davies et al., 2001, Personality is stated as the lasting characteristics that distinguish person and folks as there are an attraction to consider brands as having qualities of human traits. 2.13.5. KEYWORDS

Country; Nation Branding; Personality; Scale Development; Validity.

2.13.6.

FINDING FROM LITERATURE REVIEW

Their review of the marketing literature on the current measures of country brand personality revealed two types of scales: those concerning brand personality in general, and those specific to country brand personality.

2.13.7.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The country brand personality construct is an extension of the brand personality construct. Such anthropomorphic metaphors are common in organization studies. For example, we use the notion of life cycles to describe product and organizational lives. Personality has long been defined by ecologists as the enduring traits that differentiate individuals, and we admit that there is an allure to seeing brands and countries as having trait-like qualities (Davies et al., 2001). The difficulty in brand personality, and country brand personality, is when researchers begin to operational the construct using the Big 5 measure of personality, designed and validated on individuals. We argue that there is a near complete lack of theoretical underpinning that goes beyond the use of personality as a metaphor in the country brand personality literature. 2.13.8. CONCLUSION

This paper critically analyzes the relevance of human personality traits to brands, and particularly countries. It casts a different light on the recent research on country brand personality by examining and comparing the marketing literature with the psychological personality literature. The literature on construct validity, reliability, personality, and branding strengthens the papers argument that there is a need to better validate our

current understanding of the country brand personality construct. In an era of globalization, marketers need to assess the benefits of associating personalities to countries
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2.13.9.

REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN

This paper highlights the need to better validate our current understanding of the country brand personality. Because there are lots of brand in Europe for example wine have positive personality in the mind of the European when it comes to the Pakistani Culture wine is treated as negative personality. Marketer and Brand Manager should look into this and validate their understanding of Country Brand Personality in order to cope up with the cultural shift. There are lots of Brands can be introduced in Pakistan but just because of Negative Country Brand Personality in the eyes and mind of Pakistani people like Denmarks Brands etc. If Marketer and Brand Manager understand the Country Brand personality and its importance they could introduce that brand in much better way and with the high probability of getting success.

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2.14. COMPARING FACTOR ANALYTICAL AND CIRCUMFLEX MODELS OF BRAND PERSONALITY IN BRAND POSITIONING JILLIAN SWEENEY AND ESTHER BAO, UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA 2.14.1.
SWEENEY, J., & BAO, E. (N.D.). COMPARING FACTOR ANALYTICAL AND CIRCUMPLEX MODELS OF BRAND PERSONALITY IN BRAND POSITIONING UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA . .

2.14.2.

INTRODUCTION AND THEORIES

A brands personality has been identified as significant in consumer actions. Brand personality has been familiar as a tool for articulacy (Keller, 1993), Brand personality is also presented as an energetic participant in the consumer-brand interface. This view is same as that of Fournier (1998) who proposed consumers create continuing dealings with brands. Blackston (1992, 2000) also has similar views, conceptualizing the brand as a person the consumer may want to have to build a relationship with it. Sweeney and Brandon (2006) defined brand personality as the set of human personality traits that communicate with the interpersonal area of human personality and that are relevant to describing the brand as a relationship associate. The two approaches to conceptualizing brand personality includes identifying brand personality as the set of human traits associated with the brand and the interpersonal view of brand personality, in which the brand is viewed as a relationship cohort. It is suggested that managers should identify the value of including the less good brand personality traits which includes proud, superiority, difficult, and devious while measuring brand personality. To help managers in measuring brand personality, researchers may adapt the diacritic scale items used by Wiggins (1979) to be more thoughtful of brands 2.14.3. ABSTRACT

With the increased pressures placed upon the world economy in recent years, it is becoming more important for companies to examine their brand management strategies. Brand personality, a component of brand equity, has emerged as an important means of brand differentiation and thus of increasing consumer preference. However, remarkably little empirical research has addressed the brand personality concept and in particular its role in product evaluation. The present study examines two forms of brand personality conceptualization and the associated modeling approaches. The first approach, adopted by Aaker (1997), views brand personality as the set of human personality characteristics associated with a brand and is typified by a factor analytical approach. However, several criticisms have been leveled at the factor approach. The second approach views the brand as a relationship partner, that is, a person with whom the consumer may choose to have a relationship. The latter approach corresponds to the interpersonal circumflex approach to personality modeling. 2.14.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK:

The study compares the usefulness of the two approaches, through the development of a brand positioning map, and through predicting consumer outcomes.

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2.14.5.

RESEARCH DESIGN

In addition the cars were compared directly in a pair wise procedure, in order to assess the holistic comparisons between brands in terms of personality, (i.e. how similar two cars are in terms of their brand personality). Finally, various consumer outcome variables were measured for each car, these were preference, trust, attitude, emotions evoked and willingness to pay a premium price for the car. Single items derived from the literature were used to measure these variables. 2.14.6. METHODOLOGY:

Plot of brands using Aakers (1997) five dimensions The aim of the empirical stage of the research was to develop brand position maps through two alternative approaches, the factor analytical approach and the IPC approach and compare the maps. The measures selected to develop these maps were the 42 items of Aakers (1997) brand personality scale as well as Wiggins Revised Interpersonal Adjectival Scale (IAS-R) (Wiggins, Trapnell and Phillips, 1988). Since the latter was developed to measure human, rather than brand personality, the 64 items of the IAS-R were evaluated by 32 expert judges, academics and doctoral students in marketing, to assess their appropriateness to brand personality across a range of product types. The IAS-R scale was reduced in this process to 26 items. Cars were selected as the focal product, since car brands were very familiar to the student sample and expected to have sufficiently memorable and different personalities. Eight models/ brands of small cars were selected according to a pilot survey among 42 students which assessed both the familiarity and strength of personality of each of 24 brands of small cars. An online questionnaire was developed and a total of 88 respondents, identified through a convenience sampling approach at the researchers university, completed the questionnaire. The eight brands of car were assessed based on the 68 item scale, each respondent rating only four cars due to potential respondent fatigue. The order of the cars was rotated to avoid bias through eight versions of the questionnaire. In all, each car was rated by 44 respondents. This sample size was considered adequate, since in developing brand position maps, the number of objects compared to dimensions is the crucial element in developing a stable map (Hair, Anderson, Tatham and Black, 2006). The present study modeled eight brands, and hence meets this requirement, based on the expected two dimensions of the brand map generated. In addition the cars were compared directly in a pair wise procedure, in order to assess the holistic comparisons between brands in terms of personality, (i.e. how similar two cars are in terms of their brand personality). Finally, various consumer outcome variables were measured for each car; these were preference, trust, attitude, emotions evoked and willingness to pay a premium price for the car. Single items derived from the literature were used to measure these variables. 2.14.7. TESTS:

Coefficient of variance in Aakers five dimension.

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2.14.8.

RESULTS

Figure 2.14.8-1 Plot of Brands using Aakers (1997) five dimensions

Figure 2.14.8-2 Plot of Brands using Wiggings (1979) 26 IPC attributes

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2.14.9.

CONCLUSION:

This suggests that in modeling brand personality, Aakers five factors do not explain much more in brand personality conceptualization and variance than the two dimensions of human personality modeled through the IPC. Given that the more restrictive interpersonal conceptualization of brand personality is subsumed within the broader definition of brand personality suggested by Aaker, the implications are that Aakers dimensions are not clearly superior to the IPC approach to brand personality modeling. 2.14.10. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Plot of brands using Aakers (1997) five dimensions is the best way to find out the Market category, Personality and the competitors of the brands, this could easily be replicated in Pakistan.

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2.15. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF BRAND PERSONALITY FOR POSTMODERN BRANDING DYNAMICS: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND RESEARCH AGENDA EUN-JUNG LEE, KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, USA 2.15.1. LEE, E. J. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF BRAND PERSONALITY FOR POSTMODERN BRANDING DYNAMICS: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND RESEARCH AGENDA. ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH , 36, 887. THEORIES AND INTRODUCTION

2.15.2.

(Sung & Tinkham, 2005) provided the result that academics contended that brand and human personality share the same conceptual framework as well as scales. Brand and human personalities are not similar to brand personality is beyond the l scope of human personality Brand personality should maintain consumer-oriented perspectives. According to the theory, meaning of products should be understood from consumers point of view, not from others, since the meaning is generated and interpreted by consumers themselves. What has been largely missed in the trait-based approach is that, with few exceptions, they have tried to build a conceptual framework for brand personality by referring other concepts in other areas. Brand personality is not a concept that has adopted other concepts and theories (e.g., traits) from different disciplinary (e.g., psychology), but rather it is a concept that is developed by customers within a marketplace (e.g., Upshaw, 1995). The consumeroriented approach can also be actualized with the experimental consumer research methods suggested by scholars in the theory of consumption symbolism. . It also provides a useful research method for consumer studies. On the other hand, brand personality serves as an organization-wide guide for brand meaning communication. As a marketing family concept, brand personality demands a marketing domestic theory (Rook, 2006)-which the popular theories are not. Brand personality, generally referring to the human characteristics associated with a brand (e.g., Aaker, 1997), is a branding concept that explains a facet of branding dynamics Brand personality is the core of postmodern branding dynamics, which fulfills a multi-faceted function in consumer-organization as well as within-organization communications (Davis, 2000; Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000; Silverstein & Fiske, 2005). Brand personality serves as an effective consumer-organization communication tool. It allows an organization to identify consumers brand perceptionseven the hidden onesby its projection techniques with (human) metaphor (Dent-Read & Szokolszky, 1993; Zalthman, 1997). Marketers can then use consumers perceptions to make their marketing strategies become more focused on consumers It helps marketers communicate brand meaning which otherwise might not be easy to understand .By adding robust, descriptive, and sensible clarifications for brand identity. 2.15.3. ABSTRACT

This article attempts to contribute to a solid theoretical base for postmodern branding dynamics with a mediation of a popular market oriented branding concept: brand personality. While re-illuminating market-oriented functions and common misconceptions about brand personality and discussing the limitation of its prevailing theoretical approach, a new and expansive conceptual ground has been suggested for brand personality upon the theory of consumption symbolism, a rising sub-stream in the consumer research literature, which speculates upon the meaning production and consumption in the postmodern marketplace. Based on its marketing-homegrown and interdisciplinary perspectives, some new research agendas have been suggested for the future academic approaches for deepening the academic understandings of the dynamics of brand personality and of the postmodern branding.

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2.15.4.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Meanings of products play a critical role in contemporary consumers choices. In the postmodern marketplace, commercial goods often perform as social identity markers, as well as carriers of functional qualities (McCracken, 1986). With a myriad of diverse meanings and symbols floating in the marketplace, consumers need heuristics for their decision-making regarding such non-utilitarian product and brandattributions. Marketers and managers need to make their branding activities compatible with their customers interests (e.g., Solomon, 2003), and they require a systematic and organization-wide management for non-utilitarian facets of a brand. Brand personality has been devised and gradually elaborated upon to fulfill some of those needs in a more structured manner. Brand personality, generally referring to the human characteristics associated with a brand (e.g., Aaker, 1997), is a branding concept that explains a facet of branding dynamics (e.g., Batra et al., 1993; Carr, 1996; Kapferer, 1998; Upshaw, 1995; Keller, 2001; 2003) which is about (some) non-utilitarian brand attributions (e.g., Keller, 1993). Brand personality is the core of postmodern branding dynamics, which fulfills a multi-faceted function in consumerorganization as well as within-organization communications (Davis, 2000; Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000; Silverstein & Fiske, 2005). Brand personality serves as an effective consumer-organization communication tool. It allows an organization to identify consumers brand perceptionseven the hidden onesby its projection techniques with (human) metaphor (Dent-Read & Szokolszky,1993; Zalthman, 1997). Marketers can then use consumers perceptions to make their marketing strategies become more focused on consumers. It also provides a useful research method for consumer studies. On the other hand, brand personality serves as an organization-wide guide for brand meaning communication. It helps marketers communicate brand meaning which otherwise might not be easy to understand and/or share (among marketers). By adding robust, descriptive, and realistic explanations for core yet abstract brand identity, brand personality makes the brand meaning understandable and contemporary (Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000). 2.15.5. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN A new conceptual framework with a multi-method approach Brand personality needs a new conceptual framework from the new theoretical base. To be useful in the marketplace, the new conceptual framework should be able to explain the meaning and symbols that are projected to brands (with human metaphor) by the majority of consumers. A systematic approach on non-utilitarian brand management Decoding brand meanings with the mediation of brand personality Brand personality can be a mediator for understanding brand meanings and the dynamics of postmodern branding. With a well-developed conceptual framework of brand personality, some aspects of the non-functional attributions of brands, or of the brand meaning, or the consumption symbolism, can be decoded. In the light of this paper above research agendas have been determined on which research need to be conducted in Pakistan as well in order to explain meaning and symbols that are project to brands and by majority of Consumers. A systematic approach needs to be found on non-utilitarian Brand Management.

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2.16. LOGOS AND BRAND PERSONALITY KAREL JAN ALSEM1, GARMT DIJKSTERHUIS 12, MARJOLEIN KLEINHUIS13 1 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS DEPT. MARKETING UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGEN 2.16.1. ALSEM, K. J., DIJKSTERHUIS, G., & KLEINHUIS, M. (N.D.). LOGOS AND BRAND PERSONALITY. ABSTRACT

2.16.2.

A group of 207 subjects scored a set of associations to logos using brand personality items. This was done with the same set of 13 logos under the instructions that the logos belong to a particular product category. The exercise was repeated for four different product categories. In addition a set of 20 subjects sorted the logos into a number of groups, under no instruction at all, other than to freely group the logos. A Procreates matching of the configurations of associations for the four product categories showed similar configurations of logos, so a group average configuration is representative for each of the four configurations. This group average is subsequently matched to the MDS configuration based on the free grouping. The match shows two significantly different configurations. We conjecture that the free grouping task taps a different process than the association scoring task. In the latter the subjects are guided by the meaning of the association items, in the former no interpretation is needed. The free grouping shows a more pure perceptional result than the association task which always includes interpretation of verbal labels. 2.16.3. THEORIES

In the increasing battle for the attention of consumers, brand recognition has become very important. A logo is considered to be a critical factor in recognizing a brand(Berry, 1989; Morrow, 1992). The model for the associations measurement is the brand personality scale ofAaker (1997), so according to it is resulted that five main dimensions: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness. It is considered that using labels for the logo to guess is easy but results showed that some labels are complex to identify for the specified respondents Aaker (1997). PCA results showed that the few variances in relationships between the four data sets are investigated by means of Procrustes matching (cf. Gower & Dijksterhuis 2004; OP&P 2002). 2.16.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

In the increasing battle for the attention of consumers, brand recognition has become very important. A logo is considered to be a critical factor in recognizing a brand (Berry, 1989; Morrow, 1992). An important advantage of a logo is its visual character, which may make it less vulnerable to international barriers. The importance of logos may differ per product category. The identity and values of a brand are the starting point for planning the brand elements, the marketing instruments and secondary associations (Keller, 2002). Within the set of brand elements the logo is perhaps after the brand name- the most important and stable carrier of a brands image. So, it is important for a brand to choose a logo that facilitates the communication of the chosen brand values. We tackle a methodological issue in our paper, pertaining to the way logo associations are measured. We compare the mostly

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used aided way of measuring using fixed scales with a more free way where consumers can compare the stimuli without prescribed criteria. Our dependent variable is based on the brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997).

Figure 2.16.4-1 Double Arrow on the right represents the focus of the reported Study

2.16.5.

KEYWORDS

Logos, brands, consumer, free sorting, Procreates matching. Track: Brand Management / consumer behavior 2.16.6. METHODOLOGY

We hypothesize that certain logo properties lead to specific associations. This relation might be affected by the product category: a round logo for a toothpaste brand might lead to other associations then the same logo for an insurance brand. In order to select logo properties we performed qualitative depth interviews with five respondents. We showed them five different, unknown logos and asked them to describe these logos in their own words. We also asked them which properties they look at, when the y see a logo. In addition we had an interview with a (logo) design agency. A problem with selecting the properties was that some properties the respondents came up with, could actually be interpreted as associations.

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2.16.7.

FINDINGS

Figure 2.16.7-1

Four biplots of the PCA results for the four product categories. The numbers 1 thru 13 refer to the logos, the association items are lis ted (cheerful, imaginative, reliable, charming, outdoorsy, well known, interesting, surprising, business like).

2.16.8.

CONCLUSION

Our comparison of judged properties of logos with stated associations of logos yields some guidelines for logo development. However, the insignificant match between the groupings and the association items can be interpreted to mean the following. The associations are clearly guided by the Aaker and the other items, which the subjects have to score. For this the subjects have used their own interpretation of the meaning of the items, which may be different for different subjects. What may be more important is that they will interpret the meaning of the items. This may prompt them to probe their (verbal) memories searching for ways to help them understand the task (Well, what would anoutdoorsy logo look like?, etc.). The free grouping task does not require such conscious labor. The subjects can rely on their own thoughts about similarity/dissimilarity of the logos without the need to probe their (verbal) memory, or even any memory. This, we conjecture, results in a grouping based on the pure perceptions of the logos, undisturbed by rationalizations of how much of a certain property a certain logo may possess. Seen in this light, the mismatch between the two tasks need not surprise us. A more far reaching conclusion could even be that the association data may be invalidated by the fact that they do not agree to the configuration of undisturbed perceptions but show another type of configuration. Which configuration lies at the basis of a consumer behaving in his/her natural environment who encounters logos, is an obvious

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question to ask. It could be the one from the free grouping task, and not the one guided by the items in the association task. 2.16.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN A disadvantage of the associations analysis is that respondents may be strongly guided by the associations possibly resulting in constructs with low external validity. Our grouping data do not suffer from this: respondents can freely group the logos, based on any (un)conscious criterion they may use. The question is now whether this configuration, derived from the associations, is similar to the configuration obtained by the free grouping. Logo is essential for Brand Recognition and strong Brand Association in Pakistan as well, it is very useful to judge the properties of logos with stated association in order to know that they are conveying the right meaning of the item. Results in a grouping based on the pure perceptions of the logos, undisturbed by rationalizations of how much of a certain property a certain logo may possess. Marketers and Brand Managers of Pakistan should conduct this research in order to find out whether the logos of their respective brands are conveying the same meaning for they are made of. If the logos are not conveying the same meaning or not conveying right message for the brand Marketers or Brand Managers need to alter the logos till then start providing right meaning to the consumer.

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2.17. 2.17.1.

HOW PERSONALITY MAKES A DIFFERENCE BY JOSEPH T. PLUMMER PLUMMER, J. T. (1985). HOW PERSONALITY MAKES A DIFFERENCE. JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS/UK , 24 (6). INTRODUCTION

2.17.2.

The aim of the brand personality profiles is to determine perceptual actuality from the consumer insight and the way consumers actually sense about the brand rather than simply being an appearance of the way we would like consumers to feel about the brand. The profiles should identify salient components of the brand's personality. It is suggested that to point out that which extents are burly and which are feeble. The profiles should be used to compare population subgroups as if there is one thing may know about some number that gets through investigations. 2.17.3. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

The two faces of brand personality therefore are input, that is, what we want consumers to think and feel, and out-take, what consumers actually do think and feel. These two perspectives on brand personality can be expressed in two forms. The first is the brand personality statement, that is, our communication goals for the brand which have been in use at Y&R for many years as an important part of creative strategy. And the other is the brand personality profiles, which are consumer perceptions of the brand. 2.17.4. Pragmatists 2.17.5. CONCLUSION KEYWORDS

In summary, we have the brand-personality profiles, the brand-personality statements, and the procedure that we use to integrate the two in order to know what we want to maintain, what we want to change, and how best to go about doing it. Therefore, while the success of personality segmentation on consumer populations to create personality typologies or unique user profiles using survey methodology has not proven very useful to marketers and advertising people, we, at any rate, are very encouraged by our work with brand personality. It is in this new arena of brand personality that research does make a difference! 2.17.6. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN As the classic work by Evans in the early 1960s where he attempted to profile Chevrolet owners versus Ford owners on numerous personality traits this could be replicated in the Pakistan. Marketers and Brand Managers should be cleared about the difference between Brand Image and Brand personality in order to replicate the Brand personality Profiles creation. As we all know that people interpret the brand through many different filters; through experience, through perceptions, misconceptions, the value systems and etc. Marketers and Brand Managers need to consider these aspects as well. Two perspective of Brand Personality of need to be considered carefully i.e. Brand

Personality Statement (Communication Goal for the Brand for which Brand has been in use) and second is Brand Personality Profiles which are the consumer perceptions of the Brand
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Physical attributes, Functional characteristics or the consequences of using a brand and characterization i.e. a brand may be characterized as modern or old-fashioned, or lively, or exotic. These characterization aspects of the brand are what we call the brand's personality that is the result of the communication on which Brand Managers and Marketers need to focused. There are three primary components to a brand's image, three aspects of the brand's description. There are its physical elements or attributes, the functional characteristics or the benefits or consequences of using a brand, and the way the brand is characterized, or its personality. These elements, mediated by whatever the viewer brings to the interaction, are in some way transformed into the viewer's head into "appropriate for me" or "not appropriate for me"; or possibly, "me for it." The brand personality statement is primarily a strategic tool for the creative. It is written by the creatives and is used by them. It is used to some degree as a mirror to hold up to their work, to see whether the ads or commercials that are produced are consonant with the personality as expressed in the brand personality statement. It is an articulation of what we would like consumers out there in the world to feel about our brand over time. Basically the success and failure of brands are purely depending on Brand Personality Statement. For example Head Shoulder uses Dandruff free hair as Brand Personality Statement. Brand Personality Consumer Profiles should be created by Brand Managers. The brand personality consumer profiles are quite different. Their role and function is different. The way they are written is different, and the way they are measured and evaluated is different. The goal of the brand personality profiles is to describe perceptual reality from the consumer perception. That is, they should reflect the way consumers actually feel about the brand rather than simply being an expression of the way we would like consumers to feel about the brand. It helps in comparing population and subgroups. The brand personality profiles are measured through consumer surveys in most cases.

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2.18. MANAGING BRAND RELATIONSHIPS: SHOULD BOARD-ROOMS LISTEN TO CONSUMER CHOICES? MOHAMMED NADEEM, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, USA. 2.18.1. NADEEM, M. (2008). MANAGING BRAND RELATIONSHIPS: SHOULD BOARD-ROOMS LISTEN TO CONSUMER CHOICES? ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH , VIII, 329-331. INTRODUCTION

2.18.2.

Association towards an entity is unidirectional as the object counter react as a human being (While Shimp and Madden 1988). The idea of consumer brand relationship is a extended to a bidirectional view point by disagreeing that a relationship can made in the consumers mind but Fournier (1994) argues that through notion building make consumers recognize marketing actions as brand actions which display the brand as an active partner. According to (Franzen and Bouwman 2001; Gordon 2006), it is vivid that the consumer tends to build a relationship with a brand. In addition, it is counter stated that rational relationship can be established and maintained through interactive marketing activities. Referring to the brand personality literature and the representation of brands (Belk 1988), Blackston (1992) introduced the details of brand relationships and argued that relationships with brands are a consistent addition of the idea of a brand relationship (p. 80). 2.18.3. ABSTRACT

In this respect, the present article contributes to the insight into the current Indian and Chinese consumer brand relationships realm. In order to encourage future research, this study suggests adopting the relationship metaphor utilized in the board-room context wherein it was proved of value. Relying on this relationship understanding is justified by the fact that global consumer brand relationships and board-room relations have in common that they deal with monetary exchanges which is not the case in interpersonal relationships. 2.18.4. KEY WORDS

Brand Relationships (logical extension of the idea of a brand relationship), brand relationship quality scale by Fournier (1994). 2.18.5. CONCLUSION

The study has several limitations that could benefit from further research. First, research on whether and which firms learn from their mistakes would be helpful. Second, more precise measures of Indian and Chinese culture are in order. Third, the evolution of a firms fortunes over time could lead to greater insights into how the firm adjusts its strategies to exploit the opportunities presented by emerging markets in India and China. 2.18.6. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This paper emphasized that the consumer tends to build a mental relationship with a brand and mental relationship can be established and maintained through interactive marketing activities.

By virtue of this paper Brand Managers of Pakistan need to identify effects that could moderate global consumer brand relationship and Consumer Characteristics into account
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that dominate their attitude and behavior in exchanges which are characterized by past experience and future anticipations. Company of Pakistan should consider not only the growth of emerging markets but also the success rates of prior entrants. As this paper says that growth of China is better than India the two cultures discussed in this paper. This paper highlight the opportunity for lower firm in Pakistan that smaller firms are more successful than larger firms and greater openness of the emerging market have lower success. This study doesnt cover all the aspects there is a requirement of future research in order to bridge the gap like how the firm adjusts its strategies to exploit the opportunities presented by emerging markets in India and China or Pakistan.

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2.19. CUSTOMER-FOCUSED BRAND POSITIONING (A BREAKTHROUGH METHODOLOGY) 2.19.1. CUSTOMER MANUFACTURING GROUP. (2006, JULY). CUSTOMER-FOCUSED BRAND

POSITIONING A BREAKTHROUGH METHODOLOGY. 2.19.2. INTRODUCTION

Personification provides brand stewards the ability to take the guess work and debate out of brand positioning, and allows all efforts across the venture to be united for the success of the brand. The Brand Personification map shows the brand exactly where the opportunities might lie. It is up to them to determine if such "open positions" are valuable, but it takes the guesswork out of where to consider moving. Brand Personification provides the brand dealer dealing with an existing brand, a brand repositioning, or a new brand, a proven, repeatable, useful approach to brand positioning that goes well beyond projective method. Using precise actionable insights from existing customers and latent customers, the marketer can learn where their brand is positioned in the customer's mind and how to influence that position for best value. 2.19.3. ABSTRACT

The personification approach provides a measurable, repeatable framework to describe brand position and the relative strength of that position among customers and potential customers. With this clear knowledge in hand, the brand marketer can focus the new brand where it is most likely to succeed, and can assure that all messaging and positioning reinforce that brand position. 2.19.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Much has been and continues to be written about the power of Brands, and the importance of brand positioning. Al Rise and Jack Trout coined the term positioning over 30 years ago to describe the process of obtaining customer mind-space. Existing Brands have mind-space; new brands want mind-space. Knowing what your mind-space actually is and how that compares to your competitor's mind space is critical to brand success.

Figure 2.19.4-1 Brand Positioning Model in the Mind of Consumers

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2.19.5.

TESTS

Projective techniques 2.19.6. CONCLUSION

Brand Personification offers the brand marketer, whether dealing with an existing brand, a brand repositioning, or a new brand, a proven, repeatable, useful approach to brand positioning that goes well beyond projective method. Using precise actionable insights from existing customers and potential customers, the marketer can learn where their brand is positioned in the customer's mind and how to leverage that position for best value. Brand Personification provides brand stewards the ability to take the guess work and debate out of brand positioning, and allows all efforts across the enterprise to be aligned for the success of the brand. 2.19.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Projective techniques have been used for many years to help people describe a brand in terms other than just hard attributes/benefits in Pakistan and around the globe. For example, respondents might be asked if Nesvita was a person what would it be like? These techniques have proved helpful in creating a better understanding of brand personality but they are not quantitative or measurable and may not be repeatable. The deficiencies of projective techniques can be eliminated by assigning personality traits that can be quantitative and measurable; and thus of more powerful and repeatable use in brand communication than the projective techniques have allowed this technique called, Brand Personification There is another method discussed in the paper is discriminate analysis method, which not only allows to determine which of the pre-defined personality traits best describes your brand, it also show how strongly that position is held by your brand which could be replicated in Pakistan. As Ries and Trout said many years ago, it is far easier to take advantage of what people already believe than to try and change their minds. Since each of these three brands hold a unique position, mind changing is unnecessary anyway. Brand Managers should keep the message consistent across media is now practical. In fact, the personification allows for a common language around the specific personality to be identified and consistently used. Brand Managers of Pakistan should compare all messaging, and so-called branding activities against the brand personality to ensure that the personality is being reinforced and not degraded. This single-focused, powerful guidepost can keep the brand message and position on target. Another use highlighted in this paper which could be really effective in Pakistan is to find repositioning opportunity. Where to reposition to is always a key question. As strategists have suggested for years, "hit them where they ain't." (Well they probably used more sophisticated language, but you get the point.) The Brand Personification map can show exactly where the opportunities might lie.

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Figure 2.19.7-1 Brand Personality Map

This Brand Personality Map can be useful for Brand Managers of Pakistan in launching a new brand that is, by personifying the existing brands in the market space, the marketer looking to launch a new brand can quickly see where existing brands sit. They can look for weakly positioned brands or for open positions that may be of value. It offers brand marketers Brand Personification offers the brand marketer, whether dealing with an existing brand, a brand repositioning, or a new brand, a proven, repeatable, useful approach to brand positioning that goes well beyond projective method.

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2.20. BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF MOBILINK, U-PHONE, TELENOR, AND WARID TARIQ JALEES, COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES PAF-KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS & TECHNOLOGY (MARKET FORCES JULY 2006) 2.20.1. JALEES, T. (2006). BRAND PERSONIFICATION OF MOBILINK, U-PHONE, TELENOR, AND WARID. MARKET FORCES, PAF KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS AND TECHNOLOGY , II (2). INTRODUCTION

2.20.2.

Brand associations influence the evaluation of alternatives stage in basic consumer buying behavior models. In this stage, and for these goals, advertising is considered to be the most effective communication tool (Brassington and Pettit, 2000)The personality has to be disseminated to come alive. Advertising is heavily used in this process of personality creation. Differentiations based on functional attributes are never long lasting as the competitors could copy the same. (McEnally & Chernatorny, 1999). Therefore, the marketers invented the concept of brand personification. By creating the personality of the caring mother, the marketer injects emotion into the consumers learning and valuing process. Doing so brings the brand closer to the consumer through an emotional bond. The consumers are more likely to affiliate themselves with those brands that are endorsed or associated with desirable personalities (Levy, 1959). Brands personalities are mainly helpful for the formation of brand relations .Also the most seen and usual way of personality establishment is by means of celebrity endorsements. Public heroes, sports people, pop stars and movie stars are commonly used to endorse their personality to a brand.. (Erdogan & Baker, 2000). It is experienced that researchers are regularly using images in focus groups deliberations on brands as if brands were a person, a movie star, an animal, and so on. Emphasis on that in mature markets consumers buying decisions are more influenced by non-product-based features despite the fact that in focus group discussions the respondents emphasized rational motives. The character of a brand its style does not describe a product but shows either its brand or conglomeration with values and non-material unique attributes. (Seguela, 1982). There are different ways and tools for creating brand personality including active communication. (Brassington and Pettit). 2.20.3. ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was review the concept of brand personification and its importance in marketing; review previously developed brand personality scales; develop brand personality scale that is brand- category and cultural specific; and use it for measuring the brand personality of Mobilink, Telenor, Warid and U-phone. Brand personification is an old concept; it evolved in early fifties when celebrities started to endorse brands. The use of famous peoples and their personalities not only helps marketers position their brands but it seduces those consumers to purchase the products who identify themselves with these stars. Aakers (1997) research Brand Personality Dimensions is considered as the pioneering research on brand personification. Three different studies on brand personality scales have been used in this research for developing a brand personification scale that is brand-category and Pakistani cultural specific. A sample of one hundred and twenty was drawn. Most respondents were in the age range of (16-25 years)

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as suggested by the mobile service providers. The questionnaire administered to the respondents was based on rating and nominal scale; it has 27 items including personal related items. 2.20.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The objective of this study was to review the concept of brand personification and its importance in marketing; review previously developed brand personality scales, develop brand personality scales that are both brand category and Pakistani culture specific; and use the developed scales to measure the brand personality of Mobilink, Uphone, U- Phone, Telenor, and Warid. 2.20.5. HYPOTHESIS

H1o: The means of the levels of the factor A are equal. H1A: At least two means differ. H2o: The means of the levels of the factor B are equal. H2A: At least two means differ. H3o: The factor A and B do not interact to affect the means responses. H3A: The factor A and B do interact to affect the mean responses. 2.20.6. PREVIOUS STUDIES ON BRAND PERSONALITY

Three different studies on brand personality scales have been summarized below. These have been used for developing the methodology for the current study. As noted by Aaker (1997) in the pioneering study the brand personality scales could be divided into two categories. The fist type would be ad hoc scales that are based on traits ranging from 20 to 300. Aaker was of the opinion that research based on such arbitrary scales would lack genraliziblity, reliability and validity. The second type of personality scales although are derived from personality traits but are validated by a scientifically developed methodology. (Aaker 1997)

Aaker developed a framework for identification brand personality scales that contained the following steps: Personality traits generation Stimuli selection Checking the reliability of the identified personality dimensions. Assessing the stability of the brand personality dimensions. Confirming brand personality dimensions. Representing the five brand personality dimensions: and the final set of personality trait

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Aaker generated a comprehensive list of personality trait through three major sources. (1) Psychological personality scales (2) Personality scales used by marketers, and (3) Originally qualified traits. In the third category Aaker obtained the opinions of focus groups on the traits that came into their mind when they thought about two brands in three product categories. The categories were Symbolic (jeans cosmetic and fragrance), Utilitarian (computers, electronics, appliances), symbolic and Unitarian (automobile beverages, and athletic shoes). The above exercise generated a list containing 309 personality traits. In the second stage, the respondents were asked to rate all the personality traits on a scale of seven to one. While rating the personality scales the respondents were advised that since the above study is not product specific, or brand specific, therefore while rating the personality traits respondent should think about as many types of brands in various product categories as possible. (Aaker 1997). In the next stage to ensure comprehensiveness and representative ness of the brands, Aaker adopted appropriate selection. First, she generated a list of salient and well-known brands so that the research could be administered to a sample that is broadly similar to national average demographic in the United States in the late 1990s. Secondly she selected a wide variety of brands representing a spectrum of personality types to enhance the scope of the scales; and third a range of product categories both symbolic and utilitarian was drawn upon to enhance the scale genraliziblity. (Aaker 1997). Aaker obtained the brand list that from a study on equity trend Study (1992). That list contained 131 brands in 39 product categories. Aaker observed that using a comprehensive brand list might have increased the genraliziblity and robustness of the measurement scale. She further added that the respondents while responding to a comprehensive list could have become tired and bored and that may have led to biased results. Aaker used a list containing 37 brands. She developed this list by segmenting the 131 brands into four brand categories in the 1992 equity brand study. The clustering was done in such a manner that each brand group contained a similar profile of brands. Finally Aaker also added one brand (Levis Jeans) in each of the four brands groups. The purpose of including the Levis jean brand in all the four brand groups was to measure variances in personality perceptions of the four segments of respondents. 2.20.7. CONCLUSION

A containing five seven facets and 39 sub-dimensions on personality traits were derived from the three studies discussed in the report. This list was administered to a focus group, and opinions were collected on rating scale. Than facet-to-total correlation was carried and all the facets with a correlation of 70% or higher were selected, and the rest two were dropped. This resulted in five facets that are sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and passion. Similarly, dimensions-to-total correlation was carried out for all the five short listed facets. Tree sub dimensions in each five selected category were selected with higher correlation. Respondents opinions on the personality traits for the following brand Mobilink, Warid U-Phone, and Telenor were sought. 2.20.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Since this research was conducted in Pakistan, replication of the data collection and Methodological approach is quite easy and effective.

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Most respondents were in the age range of (16-25 years) as suggested by the mobile service providers. The questionnaire administered to the respondents was based on rating and nominal scale; it has 27 items including personal related items. The brand personification of Mobilink was found to be competence, ufone it was sincerity, Telenor was sophistication and Warid was excitement. Standard deviation of the respondents on the four-brand personification ranged from .78 to .87. Negative skew nesses were found in all four-brand personification ratings. The hypothesis relating to the means of of factor A being equal was rejected. Similarly the hypothesis relating to the means of of factor B being equal was rejected. The hypothesis stipulating that the factors A and B do not interact to affect the mean responses was also rejected.

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2.21. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF REPUTATION AND BRAND FOR CREATING TRUST IN THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ONLINE VENDOR AND ITS CUSTOMERS . 2.21.1. EINWILLER, S. (2001). THE SIGNIFICANCE OF REPUTATION AND BRAND FOR CREATING TRUST IN THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ONLINE VENDOR AND ITS CUSTOMER. EIGHTH RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM ON EMERGING ELECTRONIC MARKETS, INSTITUTE FOR MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ST. GALLEN, SWITZERLAND . INTRODUCTION

2.21.2.

It is very important these days to make consumers convinced that they are making the right choice when they pull their well-merited money out of their pockets and hand it over in substitute for a product or service. The more protected they feel in making that conclusion the more expected they are to unbolt their wallets and make those purchases. Before you can create the promotion messages that will build brand trust, it needs to find out particularly the target audience needs, wants, trust and safety and how the product can fill that empty space. Hence give the sign of indication that the communication of message is resonate with consumers that build and enhance their trust. The personality trait of a brand should be like a soul mate to the customers with whom they can have a strong association as in the case of a real friend or partner. The most prior and demarcating aspect of portraying a brand is its personality. It includes the completeness of all associations that are drawn when a person recognizes the brand name or symbol and it is this interaction of associations that is responsible that the branded object becomes evident as a personality. [Aaker et al., 1992]. According to the author to generate consumer trust. There are three stages familiarity,

predictability, cognitive and emotional dependability for the existing image of a brand to be fostered and strengthened with strong beliefs that are of prior importance for the current surrounding. [S. Einwiller]. 2.21.3. ABSTRACT

The article aims to clarify the meaning of the concepts reputation and brand where reputation represents the collective perception and second hand information of an actor, for example a firm, whereas the most important part of a brand, the brand image, resides in the minds of the individual. Based on these conceptual differences, the collective nature of reputations versus the individual nature of brands, these phenomena take up different roles when it comes to engendering trust in an online vendor. The significance of reputation and brand for creating trust in a market partner are further elaborated upon with a particular focus on the specific features of the different stages of trust as a relationship between an online vendor and its (potential) customers progresses. 2.21.4. CONCEPT:

Trust building in the mind of customers regarding brands personality. 2.21.5. METHODOLOGY

(Data analysis): Exploratory research

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The Role of Reputation and Brand in the Different Stages of a Commercial Relationship The concepts just described have great potentialities to create a positive expectation on the part of the trust or. However, depending on the particular stage of the relationship different aspects of a firms reputation, brand name, or brand image are particularly significant as well as the concepts themselves vary in significance depending on the stage. Applied to the relationship between an online vendor and its (potential) customers, analyzing the role of a firms reputation and brand in the stages of the relationship bears important implications for brand and communication management concerning the overall goal to generate consumer trust. Stage 1: Familiarity In this first stage of getting to know the firm, the firms reputation as well as its brand name and the first brand impression play the important role. At this stage no brand image has yet been developed in the minds of the potential customers. The goal must be to make the brand name or symbol known to which the future brand image can adhere and to leave a first favorable impression that stimulates the intention in the consumer to learn more about the firm. During the Internet euphoria of the late nineties the battle for attention was so fierce that many young companies choose to make their names know by means of aggressive and often shocking or suggestive advertising8. Those firms might have succeeded in being noticed by potential customers. However, effects on the brand image that is to develop as the relationship progresses must be closely considered and associations with aggressive or shocking content do not foster the maturation of a trustworthy brand personality. Nevertheless, advertising is an efficient way to reach large audiences, yet the goal must not be to attract attention by any means. Another frequent mistake was the choice of generic names such as books.com or flowers.com. The generic name might in this first stage help find the firm on the Internet and elicit guiding associations with the generic category. However, the development of a distinct brand personality which fosters the trusting relationship between firm and customer as the relationship progresses might be greatly hampered. It has been proposed that a good brand name excels by its independence, respectability, innovativeness, powers of memory, and legal protectability [Kircher, 1999]. Reputation plays an important role when it comes to raising the level of familiarity. Generally speaking, the greater the network that shares the reputation of a firm, the higher the chance of a potential customer to take notice of it. Most effective is spreading the word of the company through credible third parties in an as large social network as possible. The network characteristic of the Internet greatly facilitates the exchange and spread of information for example by word-of-mouth [Helm, 2000]. The instant messaging service ICQ and the chat service Dobedo for example managed to win most of their customers by allowing users to recruit friends via e-mail, thereby hardly having any expenses for marketing. Media coverage in classical media is highly effective in this stage, particularly positive news coverage in influential media with high circulation among the target audience.

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Stage 2: Predictability The brand image that is beginning to form in this stage plays an increasingly significant role for creating a positive expectation. However, reputation is of particularly great importance here as a source of information and a possibility for sanctions. After the brand name has been familiarized and the first encounter has left its cognitive traces a network of associations with the firm begins to take shape. The associations are stored in the consumers memory and mark the starting point of the developing brand image. In order for a solid cognitive foundation to develop to which new image elements can adhere brand messages as well visual brand elements should be homogenous. The repeated and concerted communication of core brand messages strengthens the foundation and signals consistency. Personal experiences with the firm, some of which are gained at this stage, are considered the strongest signals for the development of trusting beliefs. A study by Boston Consulting Group revealed that satisfied first-time purchasers engaged in three times more online transactions than dissatisfied first-time purchasers [BCG, 2000]. These findings elucidate the importance of a satisfactory first experience because past experiences with a companys behavior are a good predictor for its future behavior. By the end of this stage it is particularly the trusting beliefs predictability and competence that should have consolidated. Because much personal experience has not been gained at this stage the firms reputation plays a decisive role for a potential trust or to predict possible future actions of a vendor. Specific services like online chats, bulletin boards, and virtual communities can be administered to support the dissemination of information. Herewith, consumers have the chance to find out about the experiences others have already made with the company and its services. Features about consumers experiences in print media or on television can furthermore enhance knowledge and predictability and can lead to a positive expectation provided the coverage is positive. Trusted third parties (e.g., Better Business Bureau, TRUSTe) that guarantee the trustworthiness of the firm can also play an important role as a guarantor for the actions of a firm. Another possibility is to engage in co-branding efforts with firms that have already an established brand and reputation. The transfer of brand image elements of the partners brand to the own brand can be one effect. Another comes from the role of reputation as a potential mechanism for sanction. If trust should be violated, the reputation of the firm as well as that of its reputed partners can be hurt. It can be expected by the potential customer that the partners with the higher reputation pay attention that this will not happen. Thus, the role of reputation as a hostage in the hands of the customer plays an important role at this stage. Stage 3: Cognitive and Emotional Dependability This is the phase where the brand image plays the essential role. The significance of the reputation concerns the dissemination of favorable information by the customer herself as well as the possibility to sanction in case something should go deeply wrong. Through repeated interaction with the firm the customer becomes aquainted with the companys behavior. The trusting beliefs predictability and competence that were already developed to a certain extent during the previous stage are further strengthened and complemented by the trusting beliefs integrity and benevolence as well as other beliefs representing characteristics of the company. The overall brand image begins to take the shape of a clearly featured brand personality. The firm behind the brand should more and more be perceived as a partner or friend on which the customer feels confident to rely.
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There are various ways to allow for the development of dispositional inferences and the creation of a brand personality in the minds of the customers. First of all, the brand of an online retailer is a corporate brand and as such represents a firm that is said to have its own traits, habits and attitudes that become familiar to its stakeholders [Davies et al., 2001]. A firm can express its traits, habits and attitudes through its normal service behavior. However, it can further demonstrate its traits, for example benevolence, by acting benevolently towards others but its customers (for example the community). Public relations can serve as a powerful method to personalize the firm. Showing the people behind the scenes, for example features on persons like the founders or employees in the press, support dispositional inferences. Presenting the faces of employees and information about the company and the corporate culture on the web site can be advisable9. Evidence that has the strongest potential for inferring a partners dispositional qualities stems from a set of experiences which involve extreme situations. If something goes wrong for some reason (preferably caused by a mistake of the customer) the benevolent and uncomplicated behavior of the firm greatly supports the strengthening of trusting beliefs. The satisfactory experiences and the feeling of attachment lead furthermore to the development of positive emotions. Reputation comes into play here mainly as a possible means for support and sanction. If the relationship develops well, the dissemination of positive gossip can strongly support and strengthen the reputation of the firm within the customers social network. Just as he or she has received positive information on the company in the first stages of the relationship, the satisfied customer can now serve as a disseminator herself. However, should the firm not behave favorably or the customer feels betrayed and emotionally hurt, the dissemination of unfavorable information can cause damage to the companys reputation. This happens if the tolerance-threshold is exceeded. This threshold should be the higher the better the brand image. However, the stronger the attachment and the emotions involved, the greater the vulnerability in case of a betrayal. Reputations characteristic as a source of information is important here mainly as a way to gain confirmation by others who share a similarly positive brand image of the firm. 2.21.6. CONCLUSION:

In this article an attempt was made to clarify the concepts of reputation and brand as potential sources for trust in the relationship between an online vendor and its (potential) customers. Although the discussion here could only touch the implications for reputation and brand management, some aspects should have become evident. Concerning reputation, the exchange of information throughout the network in which the firm and its potential customers are embedded is essential. Existing and satisfied customers need to be given the opportunity to spread the word, so positive experiences can reach potential new customers for whom the firms reputation represents one of the most important sources of information 2.21.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Three stages were defined in this paper showing the Role of Reputation and Brand in the Different Stages of a Commercial Relationship which can be used in Pakistani Culture as well especially for FMCG. Stage 1: Familiarity In this first stage of getting to know the firm, the firms reputation as well as its brand name and the first brand impression play the important role. At this stage no brand image has yet been developed in the minds of the potential customers.

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Stage 2: Predictability The brand image that is beginning to form in this stage plays an increasingly significant role for creating a positive expectation. However, reputation is of particularly great importance here as a source of information and a possibility for sanctions. After the brand name has been familiarized and the first encounter has left its cognitive traces a network of associations with the firm begins to take shape. The associations are stored in the consumers memory and mark the starting point of the developing brand image. In order for a solid cognitive foundation to develop to which new image elements can adhere brand messages as well visual brand elements should be homogenous. The repeated and concerted communication of core brand messages strengthens the foundation and signals consistency. Stage 3: Cognitive and Emotional Dependability This is the phase where the brand image plays the essential role. The significance of the reputation concerns the dissemination of favorable information by the customer herself as well as the possibility to sanction in case something should go deeply wrong.

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2.22.

THE IMPACT OF TV CHANNEL DESIGN ON EMOTION AND BRAND PERSONALITY , INNOVATIVE MARKETING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 4, 2008008 INNOVATIVE MARKETING, NABIL MZOUGHI (TUNISIA), HLA AYED (TUNISIA), MZOUGHI, N., & AYED, H. (2008). THE IMPACT OF TV CHANNEL DESIGN ON EMOTION AND BRAND PERSONALITY. INNOVATIVE MARKETING , IV (4). ABSTRACT

2.22.1.

2.22.2.

The communication strategy of TV channels is essentially based on schedule and channels packaging. It contains visual and sonorous components that are fundamental factors of media communication. Previous marketing researches considered product packaging design and studied elements of design like color and form, etc. Taking into account TV channels as a product, this research aims to investigate the channel design impact on viewers emotions and brand personality. The advertising credit is one of the main elements of the TV channel design. It contains three stimuli: animation, color and music. Moderate effects of human personality and optimum stimulation level are examined. 2.22.3. INTRODUCTION AND THEORIES

(Bettman and Park, 1980) provided that the impact of lively images advertising appears on thinking emotional level. The first is used to establish the capacity of a publicity to draw attention and inform about the product the second leads to the identification of the attitudes created by the stimuli which are used for effectiveness measurement (MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989). The third enables the anticipation of the consumer behavior and intention (Brucks, 1985; Andrews et al., 1992; Beerli and Santana, 1999). The animated vs. not animated images have a better effect on the attitude toward the advertisement, on the emotion and on the immersion (Hussant-Zebian, 2004). Eight Ad credits were conceived for the experimentation using animation techniques, colors and music. The final sample, comprising 512 respondents, was divided into eight groups exposed each to a single credit. The data analysis method applied is ANOVA. The findings indicate that visual and sound stimuli affect channel design appreciation. Hot hue color evokes emotion response and influences the channel competence perception. Slow tempo jingle has a significant relationship with channel personality dimensions. Credit animated images are more appreciated than the unanimated ones. This study shows that a TV channel is a product that needs a marketing strategy to survive with hard competitors. 2.22.4. KEYWORDS

Channel design, animation, color, music, brand personality, emotion. 2.22.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: ANIMATION.

It is considered as a stimulus of the visual aspect which can trigger simultaneously affective and cognitive response. The stimulus vividness is the number of senses that a medium can arouse as well as its capacity to reproduce some parts of the human sensorial system (Coyle and Thorson, 2001). The animation can be considered as a vivid characteristic of an advertising message (Sundar and Kalyanaraman, 2004). The impact of animated images advertising appears on cognitive, affective and conative levels. The first is used to establish

the capacity of a publicity to draw attention and inform about the product (Bettman and
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Park, 1980). The second leads to the identification of the attitudes created by the stimuli which are used for effectiveness measurement (MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989). The third enables the anticipation of the consumer behavior and intention (Brucks, 1985; Andrews et al., 1992; Beerli and Santana, 1999). The animated vs. not animated images have a better effect on the attitude toward the advertisement, on the emotion and on the immersion (Hussant-Zebian, 2004). 1.1 Animation 1.2 Color 1.3 Music 1.4 Brand Personality 1.5 Emotional Responses 1.6 Human Personality 1.7 Optimum Stimulation Level

Figure 2.22.5-1 Conceptual Framework

2.22.6.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The same visual and sonorous components are used in both Ad credits and advertising sequences design. Unlike studies undertaken about the impact of Ad and packaging components on consumer behavior, there are few researches on credit Ad elements. Hence, we transpose hypotheses from other contexts to TV channel design. Our model integrates some relations which are neglected until now by the literature. Therefore they are presented as propositions. 2.22.7. HYPOTHESIS

H1: An animated image generates more pleasure than not animated one. H2: An animated image generates more activation than not animated one.

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H3: An animated image generates more dominance than not animated one. P1: Animated images (vs. unanimated) modify channel brand personality perception. H4: A credit with a cold hue color generates more pleasure than a credit with hot one. H5: A credit with a hot hue color generates more activation than cold one. P2: A credit with a hot hue color generates more dominance than cold one. H6: A changing credit hue color modifies the channels brand personality perception. H7: The fast tempo music generates more pleasure than slow one. H8: The fast tempo music generates more activation than slow one. P3: The slow tempo music generates more dominance than fast one. P4: The variation of the tempo has a significant effect on the channels personality perception. H9: The Optimum Stimulation Level moderates the effect of the Hue on the emotion: Pleasure; Activation; Dominance.

H10: The human personality moderates the hue/channel personality relation. P5: Does the interaction between the hue, the tempo and the animation have a positive effect on: P5.1: the channels personality? P5.2: emotions (Pleasure, Activation, Dominance)? CONCLUSION

2.22.8.

Facing the channels profusion, managers focus more on what they need to do in order to attract viewers and make them loyal. The first media of a TV channel is television (Jaur, 2000). It is the most direct and accessible way to communicate. The programs grid is the first element that reflects the identity of the channel and decides of its public. The channel design presents programs and contributes not only to the conveyance of the channels image, but also to the development of the viewers loyalty. TV packaging components are considered as visual and sonorous stimuli. By analogy with other products, the effect of packaging elements was tested. The main purpose of this research is to highlight the impact of the visual (color and animated images) and sonorous (jingle) design of a TV channel on emotions and brand personality. The findings show that the elements of Ad credits (main component of TV packaging) affect viewers response by emotional and perceptional reaction. 2.22.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN TV plays an important role in Brand Positioning and creating Image and association. Brand marketers should seek out those channels for promotion of their brand that attract viewers and make them loyal. It is the most direct and accessible way to communicate. This

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highlights the impact of the visual (color and animated images) and sonorous (jingle) design of a TV channel on emotions and brand personality. The findings show that the elements of Ad credits (main component of TV packaging) affect viewers response by emotional and perceptional reaction. This makes Brand Marketers consider TV channels as a product not as a medium.

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2.23. SWP 22/88 WHAT DO WE UNDERSTAND BY BRANDS DR LESLIE DE CHERNATONY LECTURER ?


IN MARKETING

2.23.1.

CHERNATORY, D. L., & MC WILLIAM, G. (1988). SWP 22/88 WHAT DO WE UNDERSTAND BY BRANDS? THEORIES

2.23.2.

Schutte (1969) showed the height of uncertainty that existed over branding terms and made recommendations for developing standard language and definitions. The marketing of brands is undertaken both by manufacturers and distributors and therefore to talk about brands is to introduce uncertainty in communication. More information is conveyed by the terms manufacturers brand and distributors brand since this clarifies who has instigated the branding activity and these terms also describe the marketing process. It is recommended to marketers that they recognize the branding work being undertaken by distributors and acknowledge by using the terminology distributors brands and manufacturers brands. (Caulkin 1987). 2.23.3. ABSTRACT

In an era of increasing multiple retailer dominance in the UK (Segal-Horn 1987) questions are being raised about the future of brands (eg Leahy 1987). With the shift in the balance of power from brands manufacturers to multiple retailers (Henley Centre for Forecasting 1982) Marketing Managers are becoming more aware of the importance of understanding the competitive tiers in the market place. Yet analysis appears to be based upon imprecise terminology of the competitive tiers (Bullmore 1984) with the inherent danger of communication confusion (Martell 1986) and badly conceived marketing strategies. This paper is concerned with clarifying branding terminology. A review of the evolving competitive tiers is presented along with a Critique of the plethora of definitions on branding and recommendations are made for consistent terminology and definitions. PRECISION IN BRANDING TERMINOLOGY: Schutte (1969) showed the extent of confusion that existed over branding terminology and made recommendations for developing standard terminology and definitions. His wise suggestions do not appear to have been widely disseminated since an examination of the marketing literature shows that there are still a plethora of terms and definitions and as Bullmore (1984) noted, people give too little thought to brand terminology. 2.23.4. ARGUMENTS

This paper has argued that it is no longer appropriate to use terms such as brands and own labels and advocates instead that Marketing Management adopt the terms manufacturers brands and distributors brands.

2.23.5.

CONCLUSION

The changing forces in the market place, particularly the growth of multiple retailers and their increased investment in their distributor brands, necessitate a revision in branding terminology. This paper has argued that it is no longer appropriate to use terms such as

brands and own labels and advocates instead that Marketing Management adopt the terms
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manufacturers brands and distributors brands. This terminology acknowledges the importance of the range of products directly under distributors the control, which are no longer a cheap, down market substitute for manufacturers brands. Definitions for these competing tiers have been proposed based upon the locus of marketing activity, rather than on an organizations functional strength. 2.23.6. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN There is no such methodology has been used and data collection has been done in this paper, there is only an argument that it is no longer appropriate to use terms such as brands and own labels and advocates instead that Marketing Management adopt the terms manufacturers brands and distributors brands which could be adopted in Pakistans Environment as well.

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2.24. SEPARATING BRAND FROM CATEGORY PERSONALITY BY RAJEEV BATRA PETER LENK ,MICHEL WEDEL 2.24.1. BATRA, R., LENK, P., & WEDEL, M. (N.D.). SEPARATING BRAND FROM CATEGORY PERSONALITY. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY

2.24.2.

(Azoulay and Kapferer 2003, p. 144) acknowledged that most of the research papers on brand personality are now based on Aaker's scale though her scale is not without its critics. It has been criticized on conceptual grounds, with some critics questioning whether the aspects being measured truly represent individuality (Barbaranelli and Guido 2001). Empirically, some others have complained that it does not replicate well in other countries and consumer samples, especially when it is used to gauge within-category brand personality differences (Austin, Siguaw and Mattila 2003). Highly for present purposes, it has also been pointed out that some brand personality scale items (those of Aaker 1997, but also others) appear, depending on the category, to pick up functional product category characteristics rather than brand personality ones. (Plummer 1984-85) realized that the exact measurement of existing brand personality imagery has been studied for over twenty years .Researchers have quite obviously found to develop a valid and reliable measurement instrument of brand personality that is enough to be working crosswise a variety of product categories and consumer segments, drawing on the wide literature on human personality (Digman 1990; McCrae and Costa 1987). 2.24.3. ABSTRACT

Consumers often describe brands by using adjectival descriptors of personality traits, and marketers often create or reinforce these perceptions by their brand positioning. Successfully positioning a brand's personality within a product category requires measurement models that are able to disentangle a brand's unique personality traits from those traits that are common to all brands in the product category. This paper proposes a factor model that separates the two by using category-level and brand-level random effects. It illustrates the model on a data-set about brand personalities in three categories (Jeans, Magazines and Cars), and investigates the marketing implications of the results obtained with the model, through analysis of the parameter estimates. The analyses provide support for our conjecture that entire product categories (or sub-categories), not simply brands within them, and are perceived to possess personality characteristics, which can be leveraged for marketing strategy. 2.24.4. METHODOLOGY APPROACH

The methodology developed and illustrated in this paper clearly show the value of partial ling-out category personality in meaningful analysis of brand personalities. They make clear that the meaning of brand personality descriptors can be significantly influenced by the category context. 2.24.5. TEST

In order to select the number of factors, we consider two fit statistics: the marginal

distribution of the data given the model, P(Q|Model) (Kass and Raftery 1995) and the Brier score. Gelfand and Dey's (1994) method is used to approximate the marginal distribution from the MCMC draws. Our choice of the density to normalize the joint distribution is the
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prior so that the marginal density is estimated as the geometric average of the distribution of the data across the iterations of the Gibbs sampler. 2.24.6. MODEL DEVELOPED

Figure 2.24.6-1 Conceptual Representation of Brand Personality Construct

2.24.7.

CONCLUSION

Where functional brand benefits are nowadays being matched quickly by competitors, it is becoming more and more clear that brand marketers need to differentiate their brands, and add perceived consumer value, on the basis of brand personality imagery (Aaker 1997). Therefore, brand strategy planners need to be able to study the perceived personality characteristics of their brand and those of competitive brands, to find ways to shape their brand's imagery-building communications to better tap into the needs of their customers. However, brand personality characteristics are inevitably influenced by the nature of the product category itself (Durgee and Stuart 1987; Domzal and Kernan 1992). Thus, in studying brand personality one needs to separate category-level and brand-level determinants of a brand's perceived personality characteristics, which is especially important in situations where brand strategists look to brands in other product categories for strategic inspiration. 2.24.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This paper proposed a factor model that separates the two by using category-level and brand-level random effects. It illustrates the model on a data-set about brand personalities in three categories (Jeans, Magazines and Cars), and investigates the marketing implications of the results obtained with the model, through analysis of the parameter estimates.

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The analyses provide support for our conjecture that entire product categories (or subcategories), not simply brands within them, are perceived to possess personality characteristics, which can be leveraged for marketing strategy. This model can be useful in Pakistan in the same categories as it has been used in this paper or it can be used in different categories as well on both Category level and Brand Level.

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2.25. THE VARYING NATURE OF BRANDS AS ASSETS: THEORY AND PRACTICE COMPARED DR LESLIE DE CHERNATONY LECTURER IN MARKETING CRANFIELD SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT CRANFIELD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CRANFIELD 2.25.1. CHERNATORY, D. L., & MCWILLIAM, G. (1989). THE VARYING NATURE OF BRANDS AS ASSETS: THEORY AND PRACTICE COMPARED. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING . INTRODUCTION

2.25.2.

Research by de Chernatony (1988) showed that across a variety of packaged groceries, consumers perceived the competitive structures to be manufacturers brands versus distributors brands. A further strength of interpreting branding from the perspective of ownership is that this is how consumers perceive the structure of competing items in any product field. It is found that consumers placed reliance upon who develops brands and noted that consumers may prefer a familiar distributors brand to a minor, unfamiliar manufacturers brand since they perceive a sense of guarantee which they associate with the organization responsible for the brand effectively communicated (Whitaker, 1983) and brands are backed by innovative, high quality product development (Ramsay, 1983). Designing a name or a symbol is an important aspect of branding (Murphy, 1987), but it is only one of the many elements that lead to successful brands. Consumers have limited cognitive capacities (Jacoby et al 1974) .To carried the minimum of information, consumers develop ways of coping with the extensive information available. Miller (1956) was one of the first researchers to show that consumers have a limit of about seven items to their short term memory. To overcome this limitation, he shows numerous examples of the mind recoding large quantities of attributes into a few groups possessing a greater quantity of information ,By continuing to increase the size of these few chunks, consumers can process information more effeciently. 2.25.3. ABSTRACT

With the current interest in valuing brands, it is essential that any technique takes into account how the term brand is interpreted, since there are differing views about the meaning of brands. This paper seeks to clarify the ways brands have been interpreted in the literature and, through a series of interviews with marketers, shows how brands are interpreted by practitioners. A synthesis of the literature indicates five possible categories, i.e. brands as devices to show marketing control, as differentiating devices, as a means of communicating a guarantee, as an aid for consumers rapid decision making and as symbolic devices to enable consumers to express something about them. Marketers interpretations were consistent with this framework, but they did not place any emphasis upon brands as showing marketing control. Practitioners mainly saw brands as differentiating devices and to communicate the companies commitment behind the brand. 2.25.4. CONCLUSION

From a theoretical perspective branding can be interpreted in five broad groups. Branding may be used to show the main source of marketing control/ownership, to act as a differentiating device, to communicate a guarantee (usually about consistent quality), to enable consumers to rapidly make a purchase decision through efficiently interrogating memory or brands may be a symbolic means for consumers to express something about themselves. None of these interpretations should be viewed as being discrete categories.

One has to only consider the advertisements for Heinz Baked Beans to realise that while
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there is strong evidence of the creative approach implying that the brand is used to communicate product superiority, there is also a small element of the housewife using the Heinz brand to express a caring message to her family. Each of these five ways of interpreting brands has implications for the use of marketing resources and it is essential for the marketer to be explicit about what he/she understands by this term in their brand planning document, For example, where the brand is viewed mainly as a symbolic device, advertising would be essential to communicate these messages to the target users and his/her social groups. During any period of advertising budget restraint, the brand controller needs to be well aware that this type of brand would be subjected to a weakening of brand personality. 2.25.5. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN It was found necessary to determine any technique that takes into account how the brand is interpreted. This paper clarifies the ways brands have been interpreted. This paper indicated five possible categories Brand as: Devices to show marketing control Differentiating devices, Means of communicating a guarantee, Aid for consumers rapid decision making Symbolic devices to enable consumers to express something about them.

This paper also highlighted that Marketers interpretations were consistent with this framework, but they did not place any emphasis upon brands as showing marketing control. The above five categories can be used by Brand Marketers to interpret the Brand correctly in Pakistan.

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2.26. DISCOVERING BRAND MAGIC: THE HARDNESS OF THE SOFTER SIDE OF BRANDING BY ALEXANDER L. BIEL 2.26.1. BIEL, A. L. (1997). DISCOVERING BRAND MAGIC: THE HARDNESS OF THE SOFTER SIDE OF BRANDING. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING , XVI. ABSTRACT

2.26.2.

We have also suggested that what many view as the softer side of branding has a veryhard edge indeed. In fact, the emotional, personal, relational aspects of randing are more likely to provide marketers with a lasting economic advantage. Finally, we have noted that strong brands often employ a visual metaphor that contributes to their strength, and have suggested some of the attributes of this branding strategy. Marketers who do not take the trouble to uncover their brands magic from the consumers point of view will stumble in the dark. Some, of course, will enjoy blind success; but more will fail. Today we have the tools to really understand the so-called softer side of branding; tomorrows winning brands will use these insights as the basis on which to develop and grow. 2.26.3. THEORIES

The Softer Side of Branding? The so-called softer side of branding -- identity of the brand -- is increasingly being recognized as in reality the harder, cutting edge of brand differentiation. Brand identity is reflected in the image and personality of the brand, and the quality of the relationship between the brand and the consumer. More often than not, a brand's identity is deeply rooted in the marketer's corporate culture. We describe these unique values as Brand Magic. Functional benefits invite imitation, but Brand Magic sharply etched, while difficult to build, is easier to own (Biel, A. L. (1997)). . The Brand Input Assessment This involves inventorying and analyzing the objects, policies, and interactions that the brand has with its consumers. While the specifics of this process will differ by product category, it typically consists of reviewing the advertising the brand and its direct competitors are running currently, as well as the advertising that they ran in the recent past. It involves examining the brands packaging and promotions compared to competition and includes a review of PR activity.(Biel, A. L. (1997)). Brand Magic Many brands go slogging through life with very little magic, of course. Often profitable, but frequently undistinguished, they are typically the third or fourth ranked brands in a category. While in some cases their magic really is absent, in many others it is simply undernourished. The strongest brands discover, nurture and enhance their magic, developing it as a critical brand asset. A brands magic is composed of the brands image, and its relationships. (Biel, A. L. (1997)). 2.26.4. CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Figure 2.26.4-1 Conceptual view of Brand Magic

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Figure 2.26.4-2 Promising New approach

Figure 0-1 Characteristics of Strongest Brands

2.26.5.

CONCLUSION

This paper has argued that brands will increase in importance to consumers, and therefore to marketers. That is good news for manufacturers committed to brand-building. The bad news, for manufacturers, is that retailers recognize this, and the best of them are learning how to build strong brands of their own. We have also suggested that what many view as the softer side of branding has a very hard edge indeed. In fact, the emotional, personal, relational aspects of branding are more likely to provide marketers with a lasting economic advantage. Finally, we have noted that strong brands often employ a visual metaphor that contributes to their strength, and have suggested some of the attributes of this branding strategy.

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Marketers who do not take the trouble to uncover their brands magic from the consumers point of view will stumble in the dark. Some, of course, will enjoy blind success; but more will fail. Today we have the tools to really understand the so-called softer side of branding; tomorrows winning brands will use these insights as the basis on which to develop and grow. 2.26.6. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Relatively new concept Brand Magic has been introduced in this paper A brands magic is composed of the brands image, and its relationships. (Biel, A. L. (1997)). Second element of Brand image is Personality and third element is relationship which involves the insight that consumers interact with brands, just as they interact with the people in their lives. This is new paradigm stands in contrast to unidirectional communication models that specify marketers sending messages to consumers, who then respond by either buying or not. Brand personality, brand skills, and brand relationships, taken together, constitute brand magic. This paper also highlighted the characteristics of Strongest Brands This paper has provided us the tool which can be used in Pakistan as well to really understand the so-called softer side of branding, tomorrows winning brands will use these insights as the basis on which to develop and grow.

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2.27. DEVELOPMENT OF BRAND PERSONALITY SCALE AND APPLICATION TO TWO SUPERMARKET BRANDS 2.27.1. AMBROISE, L., FERRANDI, J. M., MERUNKA, D., & FLORENCE, P. V. (2005). DEVELOPMENT OF A BRAND PERSONALITY SCALE AND APPLICATION TO TWO SUPERMARKET BRANDS. UNIVERSITE DE DROIT D' ECONOMIE ET DES SCIENCES D' AIX MARSEILLE UNIVERSITY PAUL CEZANNE , W.P.N 703. INTRODUCTION

2.27.2.

(Plummer, 1984, McEnally and De Chernatory, 1999) provided the perception of brand traits in this way that to amplify the personal users of a brand for the consumer .The survival of brand personality traits help consumers to express their concept and to make trial figurative advantages from their tenure (Belk, 1988it is also argued that brand personification provides a better perspective and meaning of the brand picture notion (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990). (Astous and Levesque, 2003, Macintosh and Lockshin, 1997) suggested that patrons may create strong dealings. According to (Sirgy, 1982) buyers performance is checked by the communication between the personality of the consumer and the concept of the products which priors. It is along these lines that the concept of brand personality has emerged. Individuals tend to behave in accordance with the image that they have from themselves or that they wish to convey to others. Brands can be thought as the ways to correspond these images (Belk, 1988, Schutz-Kleine et al., 1995) Theories on self-reinforcement (Grubb and Grathwohl, 1967) and on congruence between self-image and brand image (Sirgy, 1982) postulate that consumer behavior is determined by the interaction between the personality of the consumer and the perceptions of the products which he prefers or purchases. It is along these lines that the concept of brand personality has emerged. Individuals tend to behave in accordance with the image that they have from themselves or that they wish to convey to others. Brands can be thought as a means to communicate these images (Belk, 1988, Schutz-Kleine et al., 1995) and the connection between brands and personal identity has been conceptualized as a brandconsumer relationship (Fournier, 1998). Problems linked to the concept of brand personality Conceptualization: if brand personality is a convenient metaphor to describe specific stable characteristics associated to brands, the concept originally used by advertising agencies has not been defined properly before the work of Aaker (1997). Aaker defines brand personality as the set of human characteristics associated with a brand. However, this definition seems too general and may lead to the inclusion of items either having no equivalent term for describing Human personality or not belonging to the personality concept. Contrasting with the concept of brand image (a generic term corresponding to the whole set of representations the consumer has with respect to a brand, see Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990) brand personality should be applicable across product categories (a view we share with J. Aaker). As items used to measure brand image are often category-specific and sometimes brand-specific, personality measurement items should have a level of generality allowing
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them to be applied across categories, brands and cultures. It should also offer the opportunity to transfer meaning from Human personality of consumers to brand personality of the brands they prefer, purchase or reject. Therefore, we define brand personality as the set of Human personality traits associated with a brand. 2.27.3. ABSTRACT

We present the development and the test of a brand personality measurement scale developed in France across product categories. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses validate a first level structure composed of 7 dimensions. When applied to supermarket brands, the scale is proved to be partially invariant. Brand personalities of the two biggest French supermarket retailers Carrefour and Leclerc exhibit high contrast, suggesting that brand personality is a concept that might well affect overall store attitude, preference, choice and shopping behavior. 2.27.4. KEYWORDS

Brand personality, Retailing, Supermarkets, Branding, Brand management 2.27.5. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY

Measurements: brand personality scales have been developed based on human personality measurements. Three types of approaches have been followed: 1. The hierarchical approach used by Aaker (1997) follows the classical steps of scale development (Churchill, 1979). The hypothesis is that a brand personality scale should be applicable to all brands (i.e. across product categories and brand types). Aaker identifies 42 traits and five brand personality factors: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness. This model originally developed in the English language and with data collected on American respondents has allowed differentiating products and services (Bauer et al., 2000, Siguaw et al., 1999). However, critics have emerged arguing that the brand personality scale exhibits some dimensions having no real equivalents in terms of human personality (such as sophistication and ruggedness). Also, and not surprisingly, the scale is not perfectly stable in different cultural contexts (Aaker et al., 2001; Ferrandi et al., 2000). If a five factor solution is indeed found (as in the United States), some dimensions as peacefulness in Japan or passion in Spain or conviviality in France seem to be country-specific. Finally, some scale items (such as western) are too culturally rooted to be applicable outside the US. The lexical approach which is based on the direct application to brands of a human personality scale (Caprara et al., 2001). Results lead the authors to question the transferability of a human personality scale to brands. Ferrandi and Valette-Florence (2002) also applied to brands a parsimonious human personality scale (the MiniMarkers of Saucier, 1994). The original human personality scale needed a good degree of purification in order to be applicable to brands (14 items from the original 40 were retained). An ad-hoc approach considering that a product or service category is specific and requires the development of an adapted brand personality scale. This approach has been applied for the measurement of store personalities by dAstous and Levesque (2003). They argue that some sources of inference for personality construction are

2.

3.

unique for stores (such as the sales personnel) and that the valence of store

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personality traits need not be positive (as is the case in the Aaker brand personality scale). 2.27.6. SCALE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

Our objective is to build a personality measurement scale applicable across product (or service) categories (including stores), in accordance with our conceptualization of brand personality. We thus used published findings (such as the Aakers scale) and generated ourselves other brand personality items. Scale purification and validation were then conducted with measurements performed on multiple product categories. We now present the results of the classical steps followed in scale development and testing (item generation, scale purification and validity tests). 2.27.7. GENERATION OF ITEMS

Generation of items was performed through a two-step procedure: 1. Selection of items from existing scales: we gathered 112 items from existing scales (Aaker, 1997, Aaker et al., 2001, Caprara et al., 2001, Ferrandi and Valette-Florence, 2002). A convenience sample of 161 business students evaluated these items in terms of their ability to describe brands as persons. 2. Generation of new items by consumers and experts: we used the technique of nominal groups (Claxton et al., 1980) to induce consumers and experts to elicit words they would use to describe brand personalities. Three experiments were conducted with a group of six university experts and two groups of eight consumers. The mean number of items generated by each group was 130. Semantic content of each item was discussed among participants in order to check for convergence in interpretation. Each group participant was then asked to evaluate individually, on a 7-point scale, the ability of each item to describe a brand as a person 2.27.8. ITEMS PURIFICATION

Items purification was completed through two steps: 1. Selection of items based on item evaluations: items from existing scales were retained if the mean evaluation score was greater than 4 (on a 5 point scale). Items from the list generated by experts or consumers were selected if mean score was greater than 5.5 (on a 7 point scale). After this first purification phase, 88 items were kept for further analysis. Elimination of identical or redundant items: Experts eliminated items judged as identical and grouped items judged as very similar. Among group of items judged similar, only the item best evaluated was retained. At the end of this phase, a final list of 69 items best able to describe brand personality was obtained. 2.27.9. SCALE TESTING AND PURIFICATION

2.

The scale of 69 items was tested following two steps. We first selected 4 brands for their awareness and penetration levels so that virtually all respondents would have a reliable judgment of brand personalities. The 4 brands are composed of two pairs of brands, each

pair competing on the same market (Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola on the one hand, Nike and Adidas on the other hand). Data were collected on a sample of 100 business students from a French university. They were asked to judge brand personality of the 4 brands on the list of
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items, using a 1 to 7 Likert scale. In order to have a more representative sample of the population, we selected 4 other well-known brands with high penetration levels: two coffee brands (Carte Noire and Grand-Mre) and two supermarket retail brands (Carrefour and Leclerc). Data were collected through the Internet on a sample of 190 respondents for both pairs of brands. Both samples represented the French population well in terms of age and occupation. The personality scale structure was then tested on pooled data (1089 observations for the whole set of 8 brands). Based on principal component factor analysis with promax rotation, an iterative procedure allowed purification of the measurements through successive elimination of items ill-represented on the factors (communality inferior to 0.5). This led to an order 1 structure composed of 18 items loading on 7 dimensions 2.27.10. VALIDITY TEST

Validity of scale structure was tested by means of trait validity performed through a confirmatory factor analysis, the results of which were validated via a systematic bootstrap procedure. Trait validity and discriminant validity were assessed (t tests associated to each factorial weight, mean extracted variance and the internal coherence coefficient of Jreskog). In table 2 appear the indicators of convergent validity and reliability. Results are satisfactory and show good trait validity for the uncovered personality scale. The scale contains some of the facets proposed by Aaker (cheerful, reliable) and by dAstous and Levesque (sophistication, genuine, solid) as well as new ones (lively, joyful), which might offer a richer understanding of differences between competing brands. 2.27.11. CONCLUSION

From an academic standpoint, what remains to be done is to test the impact of brand personality on dependent variables such as number of items purchased, amount of time spent in the store, amount of money spent in the store or store loyalty. We suggest that these suggested impacts might not be direct. Mediating variables such as emotions (Sherman, Mathur and Smith, 1997), affect (Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001) and measurements of brand/consumer relationships should be tested in a more elaborated model of brand personality effects. Depending on product categories (and perhaps consumers), it is probable that some brand personality traits play a greater role than others on consumer or shopping behavior. What is important in terms of brand management is to identify the important personality traits for the particular category under study. It is on those brands personality dimensions that the managers should concentrate their attention. 2.27.12. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN The provided a scale to measure brand personality bearing in mind that the items used to best describe personality as applied to a brand might be different than that used to describe Human personality. The structure of the scale is composed of 7 dimensions and results are satisfactory in terms of reliability and validity. The scale structure ought to be reassessed with other product categories and data sets before implementing in Pakistan. Differentiation of supermarkets is often difficult as supermarket brands have difficulties distinguishing themselves from competitors in terms of locations, assortment (with the exception of store brands) and overall price level in Pakistan as well . The major supermarket chains such as Aghas, Makros and Naheed etc in Pakistan build quite standardized and similar stores in terms of size, layout and overall atmospherics. Brand personality might well be a means of differentiation.

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Brand Marketers of Pakistan may decide what brand personality is desirable and what brand personality traits have to be modified. Based on a personality strategy, communication decisions, assortment decisions or store atmosphere decisions might follow.

Brand Marketers of Pakistan need to study the link between brand personality and Human personality traits of the brand buyer (or non buyer) or of the brand loyal customer. If store choice, shopping behavior and repeat buying behavior are a means to express self-image or to communicate ones desired image to others, retail brand personality should play a role in the process. This scale should also be tested across culture because this scale was developed based on France culture and we have noted problems when personality scales developed in one country were applied in other countries, translation problems certainly being one and culture being another one (Aaker, Benet-Martinez and Garolera, 2001).

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2.28. BRANDS AS COMPLEX SOCIAL PHENOMENA HANS MHLBACHER, ANDREA HEMETSBERGER, EVA THELEN*, CHRISTINE VALLASTER, RUDOLF MASSIMO, JOHANN FLLER, CLEMENS PIRKER, ROBERT SCHORN, CHRISTINE KITTINGER UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK, DEPARTMENT OF VALUE-PROCESS MANAGEMENT, MARKETING GROUP 2.28.1. MUHLBACHER, H., HEMETSBERGER, A., THELEN, E., VALLASTER, C., MASSIMO, R., FULLER, J., ET AL. (N.D.). BRANDS AS COMPLEX SOCIAL PHENOMENA. UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK, DEPARTMENT OF VALUE-PROCESS MANAGEMENT, MARKETING GROUP . INTRODUCTION

2.28.2.

Viewing a brand as a obvious product regarding the

brands ontological base,

conceptualizations in the text range and as a bundle of features is formed (e.g. Kotler 1991, Park and Srinivasan 1994) With look upon to sharing in brand building, current marketing literature describes brand creation from either a company perception or from the consumers side (e.g. Kapferer 2004, Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000, or Keller 1998). The projected brand personality and the representative value of a brand can be successful in changing the ancient useful and individualistic branding standard. By doing so, corporate behavior and central directorial values have become part of a better brand concept on a corporate level (e.g. de Chernatony 2001, Hatch and Schultz 2001, 2003). The meaning of utilized activities in the making of brands has been established by authors such as Wallendorf and Arnould (1991), Members interpret themselves as belonging to a community, because this membership is functional for the development and preservation of their social uniqueness.(Muniz and OGuinn 2001), The contributions of brand antagonists to brand-related conversation shows strong brand meanings and the social unity of the core members of a brand attention group, so the conceptualizing a brand by removing antagonist members of a brand interest group would mean to ignore potentially significant co-creators of brand connotation.(Luedicke 2005). 2.28.3. ABSTRACT

Contemporary marketing literature describes brand creation from either a company perspective, or from the consumers side. We argue that this rather dualistic restriction on either the organization as the dominant driver in establishing brandsor the focus on consumers reaction to marked objects largely ignores the possibility that a more varied group of interested individuals and organizations actively co-participate in brand-related interactions and so contribute to brand development. The objective of this paper is to reconceptualize the brand as a complex, social phenomenon. To this end, we will first present a brief review and discussion of how brands have become depicted in contemporary literature. Secondly, we develop an integrative perspective, which conceptualizes a brand as encompassing brand manifestations, brand meaning, and a brand interest group that constructs brand meaning as well as brand manifestations in an ongoing public discourse. Finally, implications of such an approach for theory and future research will be discussed. 2.28.4. CONCEPTS

2 . 2 8 . 4 . ( 1 B.RAND INTEREST )

A brand interest group is defined as a social entity of individuals and organizations more or less intensively communicating in a brand-related direct and indirect, verbal and nonverbal, manner, meeting on physical and/or virtual platforms. Individuals can meet on purpose, or get together coincidentally in order to share their experiences, or to express their beliefs and convictions regarding a certain company, product, service, event, or person. Although

members of the brand interest group may be in constant flux, they contribute to the development of the brand by disseminating their knowledge, expectations, evaluations and
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ways of usage during an ongoing interaction process from which brand meaning continually emerges (Schouten and McAlexander 1995). Members of a brand interest group may be suppliers of products or services, their staff, intermediaries and their staff, customers and sympathizers of the offer, customers and sympathizers of competitive offers, or journalists. The relevance of the brand determines how intensively individuals participate in the ongoing discourse about the brand. Highly brand involved people may form an inner circle. 2 . 2 8 . 4 . ( 2 B.RAND MEANING )

Brand meaning is a dynamic collective knowledge and evaluation system continually emerging from interactions among the members of a brand interest group. Brand meaning is not a stable system of thought, but in constant flux as prevailing beliefs are constantly challenged and recharged in discourse. Hence, their concept of brand meaning stands in contrast to the idea of brand image or brand knowledge, which is commonly, viewed as comprising descriptive brand attributes that characterize the brand (Keller 2003). 2 . 2 8 . 4 . ( 3 B.RAND MANIFESTATIONS )

Brand manifestations are the material expressions of the meaning of a brand. Hence, brand manifestations allow individuals and groups to sensually experience the meaning of a brand. Brand manifestations are not determined from the very beginning of a brand, nor are they to be exclusively thought of as branded objects. They may comprise a number of elements, which can be objects as well as people, organizations, or activities. Brand manifestations are socially constructed by the members of the brand interest group (Dant 1999). It is not only the company that plays an active part in this process but also other members of the interest group. 2.28.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

Only across individuals but also for each individual. They converge in terms of their core. The core of brand meaning may be strongly shaped by the "vision of life", the cultural and social practice of the core group, those who participate most intensively in the brand related discourse. The core meaning of the brand Gucci, for example, might include exclusivity, Italian culture, and design. Brand meaning might also be influenced through various other forms of social interaction, for instance by innovating or displaying a possession, thus symbolically articulating the brand. Hence, varying meanings may become additionally relevant in different social situations.

Figure 2.28.5-1 Brand as a Social complex Phenomenon

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2.28.6.

KEY WORDS

A brief review of brands and branding, Brands as complex social phenomena, Brand Interest Group, Brand meaning, Brand manifestation 2.28.7. CONCLUSION

The future challenge in branding will be to find appropriate ways of how to effectively integrate the core and peripheral elements of brands, persons and objects, brand discourse and activities, various forms of brand relationships, and members of a brand interest group into a coherent and inspiring frame for the continual, collective and mutual co-construction of successful brands of the future. 2.28.8. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This paper has provided integrated understanding of the brand, which develops through a vivid social discourse among the members of the brand interest group. By increasingly acknowledging the power of diverse stakeholders in co-constructing brand meaning and brand manifestations, the development of brands has to be viewed as a more complex process within a social system of interrelated actors. The understanding and integration of such brand co constructing processes into brand management will be one of the biggest challenges for the future in Pakistani market. By virtue of this integrated view, Brand marketers will have to incorporate all members of a brand interest group into brand research, including brand resisting groups of individuals. This should, for instance, open up our eyes with respect to our understanding of the ownership and the deep meaning of brands. The integrated view of brands, however, is not restricted to iconic brands. Particularly with so called service brands, the development of appropriate brand manifestations is crucial. This integrated understanding of the brand can be fruitful for the Brand Marketers of Pakistan

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2.29. 2.29.1.

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH SUN DONOGHUE DONOGHUE, S. (2000). PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH. JOURNAL OF FAMILY ECONOLOGY AND CONSUMER SERVICES , XXVIII. INTRODUCTION

2.29.2.

It is important to identify and answer the uncertain stimuli that can be easily anticipated own particular edge of position (Churchill, 1991:322; Kassarjian, 1974:3-86; Loudon & Della Bitta, 1993:300; Solomon, 1994:25). (Solomon, 1994:25). Said that there are no rights or wrong answers for the subjects that can project their own lifeless feelings. Lennon, 1993; Webb, 1992:11 provided some projective methods to reveal the intimate judgment and positions of an entity. Some aspects are important to this person, in other words the essence of his or her individuality (Kline, 1983:35). Projective techniques are also used to discover the persons traits modes of anticipating the behavior (Chaplin in Sampson, 1986:41). Projective techniques are based on the underlying principle that unconscious desires and feelings can be inferred by showing a subject with an uncertain condition in which he or she has to use the ego defence mechanism of projection 2.29.3. ABSTRACT

This article describes the use of projective techniques in qualitative consumer research. Psychology's basic theoretical foundations - from which the use of projective techniques in consumer research evolved are briefly discussed. Projective techniques are described with reference to their design and structure; the different types of projective technique are discussed, as are the analysis and interpretation of data generated by using projective techniques. Their reliability and validity are investigated, and the advantages and disadvantages of projective techniques are discussed. Case studies are presented where projective techniques have been used outside the clinical setting. 2.29.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Projective techniques have been categorised in terms of the response types required of subjects. The first category is association. The subjects are presented with a stimulus and they respond by indicating the first word, image or thought elicited by the stimulus (Burns & Lennon, 1993). In the case of word association, the subjects are asked to read a list of words and to indicate the first word that comes to mind. The answers provide the researcher with a variety of "consumer vocabulary. associated with brands or products (Green, 1984). This can be useful in discovering a brand image or product attributes. Brand personification requires the subjects to associate a brand or product with a person or personality type. With the pictures and words technique, the subjects are given a number of words and pictures and are asked to choose those they associate with a brand or product and to explain their choice. This allows the researcher to discover the more emotional responses to brands and imagery (Green, 1984; Gordon & Langmaid, 1988:95-98). 2.29.5. METHODOLOGY

Interpreting data generated by using projective techniques follows two broad approaches. In quantitative analysis, the content of verbal or pictorial descriptions or sorted information is
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analyzed by classifying the content into categories that are then given numerical values (Burns & Lennon, 1993). Specific components of the test protocol are thus tabulated and used systematically to evaluate either a subject's responses or the empirical validity of generalizations about groups (Levy, 1981) 2.29.6. CONCLUSION

Gordon and Langmaid (1993:3) believe that qualitative research may be used optimally in situations that would increase understanding, expand knowledge, clarify the real issues, generate hypotheses, identify a range of behaviours, explain and explore consumer motivations, attitudes and behavior, identify distinct behavioural groups, and provide input for future research. Qualitative research is mainly used for answering how, why and what questions. It is not used for "how many" questions, that is the provenance of the quantitative research schools of thought (Webb, 1993:112). 2.29.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN I have learned projective techniques in qualitative consumer research. In consumer research qualitative data collection methods include group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, observation and projective techniques (Webb, 1992:112) which can easily be replicated in Pakistan. Projective techniques may be used in combination with individual interviews and group discussions to overcome some of the problems associated with both. Projective techniques therefore complement other qualitative data collection methods by drawing complete portraits of consumers which could be really fruitful in data collection in Pakistan. Project techniques could help the Brand Marketers of Pakistan to find out from a consumer what the phenomenological characteristics of various products may be, in other words the value character of a product in the consumer's life and not the physical characteristics of the product (Haire, 1950).

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2.30. BRANDS, CONSUMERS AND RELATIONSHIPS: M AURICE PATTERSON & LISA OMALLEY IRISH MARKETING REVIEW VOLUME NUMBER 2006 2.30.1. PATTERSON, M., & MALLEY, L. O. (2006). BRANDS, CONSUMERS AND RELATIONSHIP: A REVIEW. IRISH MARKETING REVIEW , XXVIII. INTRODUCTION

2.30.2.

It is recognized that for a BCR to exist the brand must be an alive body as associations survive between active and mutually supporting allies. Personification of the brand is unsatisfactory for the brand to be measured a genuine relational cohort (Fournier, 1998). Brands need to be humanized, in order for people to have relationships with them (Ambler, 1999; Fournier, 1998 While brands can be vigorous through brand characters .Complete anthropomorphisation of the brand includes possessing it with human qualities such as feeling, thinking and decision. Fournier (1998) argues and gave counter statement that activities can be construed as behaviors acted by the brand performing in its relationship role. 2.30.3. ABSTRACT:

Relationships have become very popular in the branding literature as a result of the general focus on relationships in marketing and on the so called Anthropomorphisation of brands where human qualities and personalities are projected on to brands. However, the use of the interpersonal relationship metaphor within the branding realm is not without its problems. This paper reviews the emergence of the literature on brand consumer relationships, considers problems with the concept and suggests opportunities for future development. More critical appreciation of the roles of brands in our lives points towards a brand community perspective that acknowledges the network of connections between a brands various publics. This perspective avoids the pitfall of stretching the interpersonal relationship metaphor too far and provides a strong foundation upon which brand managers can build. 2.30.4. KEYWORDS

BCR concept i.e. explicating the BrandConsumer Relationship 2.30.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The conceptual leap made here is that BCRs can be treatedas if they were interpersonal relationships, and Fournier takes these ideas to their logical conclusion in attempting to establish a grounded and fully articulated relationship based framework for the study of consumerbrand interactions. 2.30.6. CONCLUSION

The paper acknowledges that brands possess meanings above and beyond those of a functional nature, and accepts the notion that we project personalities onto those brands that are salient to us. More critical appreciation of the roles of brands in our lives points towards a brand community perspective that acknowledges the network of connections

between a brandss various publics. This perspective also avoids the pitfall of stretching the interpersonal relationship metaphor too far and provides a strong foundation upon which brand managers can build. In particular, the paper highlights how brand meanings may
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derive from the very nature of communal interaction and underlines the tools such communities use to construct personalized brand meanings. For managers, the major lesson to emerge from this work is that consumers are the ultimate arbiters of brand meaning. 2.30.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN As we all know that relationships have become very popular in the branding literature as a result of the general focus on relationships in marketing and on the so called Anthropomorphisation of brands where human qualities and personalities are projected on to brands. However, the use of the interpersonal relationship metaphor within the branding realm is not without its problems. This paper reviews the emergence of the literature on brand consumer relationships, considers problems with the concept and suggests opportunities for future development which could also be implemented in Pakistan Brand Marketers of Pakistan should focus on brandconsumer relationships (BCRs) as close, emotional and committed relationships is a direct consequence of the employment of the interpersonal relationship metaphor primarily at the basic level of marriage. This results in the implicit acceptance of normative ideals regarding marriage being transferred to consumers interaction with brands. For managers of Pakistan, the major lesson to emerge from this work is that consumers are the ultimate arbiters of brand meaning. As such, managers need to pay close attention to how customers themselves define their various connections with the brand. If consumers truly view these connections as relationships, managers need to be wary of unthinkingly adopting an RM frame to understand them. They need to identify how best to facilitate that interaction without overtly intruding upon it.

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2.31. BRAND PERSONALITY CREATION THROUGH ADVERTISING HANS OUWERSLOOT ANAMARIA TUDORICA MAXX WORKING PAPER SERIES 2.31.1. OUWERSLOOT, H., & TUDORICA, A. (2001, FEBRUARY). BRAND PERSONALITY CREATION THROUGH ADVERTISING. MAXX WORKING PAPER SERIES . INTRODUCTION

2.31.2.

According to Keller (1998) brand personality shows how people feel about a brand, rather than what they think the brand is or does (p.97). The symbolic use of brands is possible as consumers often give brands human personalities (J. Aaker, 1997). Consumers perceive the brand on dimensions that typically capture a persons personality, and extend that to the domain of brands. The scope of brand personality is defined by enlarging the size of human personality to the domain of brands. It is found that the brand identity system is a framework for brand assessment. When creating a brand identity, the firm should consider four dimensions of brand identity: the brand as a product, an organization, a person, and a symbol. The brand identity created by the firm is communicated to consumers, who then interpret it as the brand image. Based on different brand image theories we developed a framework that in our opinion represents a good foundation for the creation of brand image in the minds of consumers according to David Aaker (1996) Brand personalities are created in different ways and with different tools. However, the development always includes active communications on the side of the firm: the personality has to be disseminated to be alive. Advertising is heavily used in this process of personality creation. This follows logically from the fact that personalities are particularly useful for the creation of brand associations. Brand associations influence the evaluation of other stage in common consumer buying behavior models. 2.31.3. ABSTRACT

People are constantly constructing and reconstructing their self-identity (McCracken, 1993). In a consumer-brand relationship the consumers choose brands that help the individual reconstruct the self, where the brand personality is used to make the identity change. Hence, relationships also help the individual to change the self. Consumer-brand relationships also help the individual to maintain the self-identity. Consumers will engage in relationships with brands that have similar personalities to their own. A long-term relationship with that particular brand makes sure that the self-identity is maintained. 2.31.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 2.31.4-1 Customer based and Financial Brand Equity

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Figure 2.31.4-2 Customer based Equity and the Consumer Buying Behaviour Model

Figure 0-1 The Brand Image

Figure 0-1 The Brand personality creation and transfer (adapted from Dingena, 1994)

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Figure 0-2 Model of How Advertising works including the brand personality creation and transfer

2.31.5.

PROPOSITIONS

1.

In consumer-brand relationships, consumers search for

brands that have

personalities that are similar to their own, or personalities that represent the ideal personalities, in psychological/emotional terms 2. Consumers engage in relationships with brands that represent their age, stage in life cycle, gender, social network, and culture More investment in consumer-brand relationships leads to greater loyal The brand personality creation of the advertised product requires that consumers link the inferred human qualities to that advertised product The brand personality transfer to the self occurs when there is a match between the personality of the advertised product and the own or ideal personality

3. 4.

5.

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6.

A consumer-brand relationship is established when the brand personality transfer is followed by a purchase Brand personality is created by consumers during advertising processing The order in which affective and cognitive stimuli are processed influences the creation of brand personality The intermediate responses of advertising (brand knowledge) indirectly influence the creation of brand personality through advertising Brand behavior and experience indirectly influence the creation of brand personality The brand personality creation of the advertised product directly influences the brand knowledge (intermediate response), especially the brand image The brand personality transfer to the self directly influences the brand behavior and experience Involvement directly influences the creation of brand personality (through personal goals) as well as indirectly (through brand knowledge and experience) Ability directly influences the creation of brand personality (through the level of intelligence and general knowledge) as well as indirectly (through the brand knowledge and experience) Opportunity indirectly influences the creation of brand personality

7. 8.

9.

10. 11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

2.31.6.

CONCLUSION

In this paper we integrated an extensive advertising model with a model of brand personality creation. A number of researchable propositions were derived. Research in this area strongly recommended. The managerial importance of the topic seems evident. Advertising is by far the most important communication tool in marketing and with every advertisement brand personality is built. Understanding how brand personality is created in the minds of consumers is essential for effective use of a companys marketing tools. Effective brand management, encompassing brand personality, is of paramount importance in reaching the overall company goals of satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability. Brand personality is an important, yet largely neglected area in brand management research. Brand management as such has proven its importance and significance. Consequently, we hope to have put brand personality on the research agenda according to the lines set out here. 2.31.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN In this paper we integrated an extensive advertising model with a model of brand personality creation. A number of researchable propositions were derived. Research in this area strongly recommended. The managerial importance of the topic seems evident. In Pakistan Advertising is by far the most important communication tool in marketing and with every advertisement brand personality is built. Understanding how brand personality is created in the minds of consumers is essential for effective use of a companys marketing tools in Pakistan.

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2.32. ANZMAC 2009 A SHORT SCALE FOR MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY SVEN KUENZEL, UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH* KLAIROONG HAWA PHAIROR, UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH 2.32.1. KUENZEL, S. (2009). A SHORT SCALE FOR MEASURING BRAND PERSONALITY. UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH, KLAIROONG HAWA PHAIROR . INTRODUCTION

2.32.2.

Brand personality enjoyed some status and application among marketing practitioners, intellectual notices. In order to relate homogenous brand personality scales to single brands or specific product categories without precise scale testing as they may not be valid in these contexts Austin et al (2003) To take a break in the making of a brand remained limited as its convenience was impeded by the deficient of a standardization, organization and empirically suitable operationalization (Kassarjian, 1971). Distinctiveness are termed as to as traits which are defined as any noticeable, relatively lasting way in which one entity differs from others (Guilford, 1959, p. 6). Research by Aakers (1997) have shown that brand personality scale is responsive to the cultural background in which it is used and several studies have attempted to adapt the complete scale or parts of it to countries outside the US (e.g. Ferrandi et al, 2000; Aaker et al, 2001; Smit et al, 2002; Ambroise et al, 2003; Mller and Chandon, 2003). 2.32.3. ABSTRACT:

A brand personality scale is developed and tested with a large and carefully selected sample of car owners in Germany. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate the actual structure of the brand personality scale. Recent research has swiftly leapt ahead to crosscultural brand personality research without paying very much attention to the correct application of brand personality scales to single brands. This paper shows the usefulness of the scale and highlights the importance of vigorous scale testing. The presented scale may be a viable alternative to Aakers (1997) popular scale. The focus was on one country and on one industry and therefore offers potential for further testing. The study provides managerial and theoretical implications and areas for future research are suggested. 2.32.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

The first aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability brand personality scale using a large random sample of owners of an automotive brand. 2.32.5. RESEARCH DESIGN

The extraction technique is principal components analysis (PCA) as it is suited for identifying and reducing the number of dimensions (Tacq, 1997). A number of previous brand personality studies have used an orthogonal rotation method assuming that the factors are uncorrelated.

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2.32.6.

METHODOLOGY

Using the companys national customer database as a sampling frame, primary data for this study were collected from a random quota sample of 5000 brand owners. The sample was drawn via a standardized selection process that minimizes systematic sampling bias. Out of the 5,000 sent questionnaires, 1170 usable responses were received, yielding a response rate of 23.4%. We investigated the likelihood of non-response bias using the extrapolation method. 2.32.7. TESTS:

Exploratory Factor Analysis. Thus, the final and validated scale which correctly captures the personality structure of the single brand under investigation in this study was organized into two factors each containing four traits. The results emphasize the importance of vigorous scale testing when brand personality scales are applied to contexts which are different from the context they had been generated upon. 2.32.8. CONCLUSION

If brand personality is to become an accepted tool for modern brand management, marketing researchers and marketers are in need of a reliable and valid measurement instrument. 2.32.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN In Pakistan this methodology can be replicated as it is in Toyota, Honda and etc by using the companys national customer database as a sampling frame, primary data for this study were collected from a random quota sample of brand owners. The sample could be drawn via a standardized selection process that minimizes systematic sampling bias. Data can be collected through the Questionnaire. After the data Collection Exploratory Factor Analysis can validate scale which correctly captures the personality structure of the single brand under investigation The result will emphasize the importance of vigorous scale testing when brand personality scales will apply to contexts which are different from the context.

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2.33. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INTO THE IMPACT OF COLOUR AND PACKAGING AS STIMULI IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS FOR A LOW INVOLVEMENT NON-DURABLE PRODUCT JUDY REX, STUART WAI AND ANTONIO LOBO FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ENTERPRISE, SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY 2.33.1. REX, J., WAI, S., & LOBO, A. (N.D.). AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INTO THE IMPACT OF COLOUR AND PACKAGING AS STIMULI IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS FOR A LOW INVOLVEMENT NON-DURABLE PRODUCT. FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ENTERPRISE, SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. INTRODUCTION

2.33.2.

Brand equity refers to the customers subjective assessment of the worth of a brand above and beyond its perceived value, and brand equity has been shown to be a dominant driver in the sales of low involvement grocery products in general (Harvard Business Review, 2004). Grossman and Wisenblit (1999) suggested that although there is no theory of color in marketing, the concept of associative learning could help to explain consumers behavior. Consumers may develop preferred colors for particular goods due to learning through association (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999), A reduction in spending on usual brand creation mass-media advertising has also guided to identify the volume of packaging to create differentiation and identity for relatively homogenous consumer non-durables (Spethmann, 1994; Doyle, 1999). However, according to Underwood (1996) there has been little theoretical development in the area of packaging and its communicative effects (p. 209). Packaging communicates brand personality through many elements, including a combination of brand logo, colors, fonts, package materials, pictorials, product descriptions, shapes and other elements that provide rich brand associations (Underwood, 2003). During each visit to a supermarket, todays consumers are come to know to thousands of messages (Nancarrow, Wright and Brace, 1998), and often the package may be the only source of information about the product (Garber, Burke and Jones, 2000). While some colors have the ability to make goods stand out from their competitors among the clutter of the goods and promotional material at the point of purchase (Heath, 1997, and Key, 2000) other colors do not have this effect (Key, 2000). Increment in non-durable product buying decisions at the store shelf (Prone, 1993) and increasing recognition by management of the need to use packaging to create differentiation and identity for relatively homogenous consumer nondurable (Spethmann, 1994). Garber, Burke and Jones (2000) showed that the color of the products package is an overlooked tool that marketers can use to gain the consumers attention. The focus of color is related to its ability to help companies who are looking for ways to improve their sales and get a leading market share (Kotler, et al. 1998). 2.33.3. ABSTRACT

There has been little research conducted to determine the crash that color and packaging have as stimuli on the purchasing process for a low involvement non-durable product. Garber, Burke and Jones (2000) showed that the color of the products package is an overlooked tool that marketers can use to gain the consumers attention. The research approach for this study comprised in-depth interviews with a supermarket manager and a design director, and a survey of potato crisp consumers. Potato crisps were chosen, as they are a low involvement non-durable product in a competitive market. This research showed that while consumers did not consciously believe that the color of the packaging affected

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their purchasing decision, it was an important subconscious stimulus through the relationship that color had with the most important stimulus of flavor. Showing a differing perspective, the supermarket manager believed that the quality, brand and price were all important stimuli for potato crisp purchasing, while the director acknowledged the increasing importance that is placed on color and packaging today. It seems that the importance of color and packaging as stimuli may be often overlooked and more research is needed into this area. 2.33.4. KEYWORDS

Colour, packaging, purchase decision, stimuli 2.33.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The definition of a product or good includes attributes such as packaging, color, price, quality, brand, the services and reputation of the seller (Stanton, Miller and Layton, 1994), as well as the level of involvement in the purchase decision (Laurent and Kapferer, 985). Many studies have been conducted on the ways to influence a consumer to make purchase decisions, including the effectiveness of usic; the physical setting of the environment; as well as on the attributes of the product/good itself. Packaging has been shown to be a critical stimulus to the creation and communication of brand identity and in communicating brand meaning and strengthening the consumer-brand especially for low involvement consumer non-durable products relationship,

2.33.6.

CONCLUSION

Overall, the research indicated that the most important factors when purchasing potato crisps were the quality, brand and price of the product, with flavor also being an important factor for the consumers; in this market consumers associated specific flavors with particular colors of the potato crisp packaging; and the brand quality was communicated through the color of the packaging. It seems that in a market such as potato crisps with its proliferation of different brands and flavors, the importance of product differentiation based on color to attract purchase was of vital importance. The importance of the color of packaging as a stimulus in the consumer decision-making process was recognized by the design professional and the supermarket store manager. As an association existed between the color of the packaging and the flavor and brand, this assists in demonstrating that color is an important stimulus, albeit a apparently lifeless one in the consumer decision-making process. which showed that consumers did not consciously believe they were purchasing products because of the packaging but there are strong indicators, of the hidden influence of the packaging on the purchasing process. The color associations with particular flavors and brands, and the ability of packaging to portray the quality of the product, it is supposed that the color of the packaging can greatly help the sales of goods in a market. 2.33.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN non-durable product. According to colour of the products package is

As this paper says that there has that colour and packaging have as

been little research conducted to determine the impact consumers attention.

stimuli on the purchasing process for a low involvement the Garber, Burke and Jones (2000) showed that the an overlooked tool that marketers can use to gain the

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Brand Marketers of Pakistan could replicate this approach by conducting in depth in-depth interviews with a supermarket manager and a design director, and a survey of potato crisp consumers. Potato crisps should be chosen as indicated in this paper, as they are a low involvement non-durable product in a competitive market.

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2.34. THE IMPACT OF BRAND PERSONALITY ON BRAND-AROUSED FEELINGS DR KAREN MILLER SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN QUEENSLAND, TOOWOOMBA, QLD 2.34.1. MILLER, D. K. (N.D.). THE IMPACT OF BRAND PERSONALITY ON BRAND-AROUSED FEELINGS. SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN QUEENSLAND, TOOWOOMBA, QLD . INTRODUCTION

2.34.2.

Brands having traits is comprised on imagery and theory (Aaker 1997; Fournier 1998; Freling & Forbes 2005b), It is also suggested that brands may be taken as possessing reliable attitude with a period of time and may be imbued (Aaker 1997; Fournier 1998; Freling and Forbes 2005a; Wee 2004). Brand personality is in the observation of the users that may be taken a brand as an entity for permanently living with a trait and brand is consider as to delight its customers and to convey its marketing communications, wrap up to its products, and is dedicated to being socially accountable (Aaker 1997; Batra, Lehmann & Singh 1993; Venable, Rose, Bush & Gilbert 2005). Overall, this body of work indicates that around 40% (or more) of the variance in feelings is accounted for by an individuals personality. It is argued that the construct of personality should encompass all of the five factors which includes openness, contentiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism that contribute to personality, to ensure that the effect of personality on feelings is accurately accounted for surrounding some of the five factors is likely to satisfy the conclusions and influence on mistake. Meyer and Shack (1989) and Watson and Clark, (1992) Brand personality may be concluded from the attitude of customers of a brand, and promoting and other market attitude. (Aaker 1997; Batra & Homer 2004; Biel, 1993; Diamantopoloulos, Smith & Grime 2005; Plummer 1984). Brand personality is assemble to have significant concentration in the branding literature since Aakers seminal paper on brand personality (1997), which claimed that brands may be taken as having human personalities traits(Chang & Chieng 2006; Freling & Forbes 2005b; Rekom et al. 2006). Brand personality is the impression of those thoughts that has its beginning in the psychology text and academics (Allik and Realo 1997), Eysenck (1967), Meyer and Shack (1989), Yik et al. (2003) and Watson and Clark (1992) also have clearly portrayed personality and feelings as separate formation to get the results of personality and its consequences on generated thoughts. 2.34.3. ABSTRACT

Brand managers are increasingly using brand personality to differentiate and uniquely position their brand without really knowing its effects. This study begins to addresses this gap by examining the effects of brand personality on brand-aroused feelings across the product categories of sport shoes, mobile phones and surf wear. Using SEM to analyze the data from 324 usable surveys, the findings indicate that consumers perceive brand personality and brand-aroused feelings as two separate constructs and that brand personality has a substantial effect on brand-aroused feelings. On the basis of the findings,

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this study recommends that brand managers consider positioning their brand as original, imaginative, considerate and kind if they want to arouse positive brand feelings. 2.34.4. KEYWORDS

Brand management; consumer behavior; communications

positioning strategy; integrated marketing

2.34.5.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Brand personality is a construct that has had considerable attention in the branding literature since Aakers seminal paper on brand personality (1997), which claimed that brands may be perceived as having human personalities (e.g., Chang & Chieng 2006; Freling & Forbes 2005b; Rekom et al. 2006). Brand personality is in the eye of the beholder, and consumers may perceive a brand as a living entity with a personality; and this may be based on how a brand is perceived to treat its customers, deliver its marketing communications, package its products, and is committed to being socially responsible (Aaker 1997; Batra, Lehmann & Singh 1993; Venable, Rose, Bush & Gilbert 2005). Brand personality may be inferred from the behavior of the CEO, employees or customers of a brand, and advertising and other marketplace behavior (Aaker 1997; Batra & Homer 2004; Biel, 1993; Diamantopoloulos, Smith & Grime 2005; Plummer 1984). This notion of brands having a personality is based on symbolism and animism theory (Aaker 1997; Fournier 1998; Freling & Forbes 2005b), which suggests that like people, brands may be perceived as having consistent behavior over time and from this behavior a personality may be imbued (Aaker 1997; Fournier 1998; Freling and Forbes 2005a; Wee 2004). 2.34.6. HYPOTHESIS

H1: H2: H2a:

that brand personality and brand-aroused feelings are unique constructs brand personality will have a significant effect on brand-aroused feelings positive brand personality traits such as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness will have a significant positive effect on positive brand aroused feelings negative brand personality trait of unstableness will have a negative effect on negative brand aroused feelings the impact of brand personality on brand aroused feelings will be similar across various product categories RESEARCH DESIGN

H2b:

H3:

2.34.7.

To investigate the impact of brand personality on brand-aroused feelings, the method chosen was a survey because the data can be collected quickly, inexpensively, and there is a reasonable degree of sample control (Maholtra & Peterson 2005). To systematically develop
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the survey measures the Netemeyer, Bearden and Sharma (2003) four-step scaling procedures process was used. The first step 7 | P a g e is construct definition and brand personality was defined as a consumers unique characterization of a brand in terms of the extent to which he or she assesses that it displays inner-psychological human traits, this definition along with the definitions of each of the five factors that form brand personality 2.34.8. CONCLUSION

Given that brand personality is receiving substantial attention in practice and in academia (Sweeney & Brandon 2006) the results have implications to both of these domains. Firstly, for academia the results presented here provide more clarity to the branding literature as they help us to understand the role that brand personality plays in the nomological network of consumer-based brand assessments, as an influence on the subsequent assessment of feelings. Further, the results add clarity to the literature on brand personality; because the results clearly differentiate brand personality from the construct of brand-aroused feelings. By separating the two constructs, brand personality and brand-aroused feelings it is expected that future research can examine the impact of brand personality and brand aroused feelings on other brands and on other constructs such as brand value, brand loyalty or purchase intentions to gain a fuller picture of the role that brand personality plays in consumer-based-brand-equity models. 2.34.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN Now Brand managers of Pakistan are increasingly using brand personality to differentiate and uniquely position their brand without really knowing its effects. This study would help Brand Marketers of Pakistan because it addresses the gap by examining the effects of brand personality on brand-aroused feelings across the product categories of sport shoes, mobile phones and surf wear. It can be replicated in Pakistan on Service Shoe, Nokia phones and etc Brand Marketers must their consider positioning their brand as original, imaginative, considerate and kind if they want to arouse positive brand feelings.

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2.35. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE INFLUENCE OF BRAND TRUST ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER & COMPANY IMAGE S UBMITTED TO THE ACADEMY OFF MARKETING CONFERENCE ((AM2005)) SCHOOL OFF MARKETING,, DUBLIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DUBLIN,, IRELAND JULY 5TTH 8TTH 2005 2.35.1. POWER, J., & WHELAN, S. (2005, JULY). A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE INFLUENCE OF BRAND TRUST ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER AND COMPANY IMAGE. ACADEMY OF MARKETING CONFERENCE (AM 2005) . INTRODUCTION

2.35.2.

The outside awareness that a consumer has brand is almost the constitution of an image. The ancient hypothetical idea of similarity indicates that the additional matching a consumers image is with a brands image, the greater the approval derived (Graeff, 1997; Schiffman & Kanuk 2000; Oliver, 1997). Hence the image of a brand is the total image and relationship of a brand in the mentality of the consumer (Berkman, Lindquist and Sirgy, 1997). The Corporate Character Scale (Davies et al., 2004) measures company brands crosswise a number of personality scope to establish a positive or negative image. The Image Congruence Hypothesis suggested that consumers should have a favorable attitude and purchase intention towards brands that are perceived to be congruent or matching with their self-image, and a relatively less positive attitude towards brands apparent to be dissimilar with their personality. Graeff (1996) .The improvement of ones nature is essential for ones ideal self (Malhotra, 1981). Promoters are creating brand personality to hit a fit between the brands image and their intended consumers image (Aaker and Biehl, 1993) .There is a need to be more than just the pull of positive congruent images and feelings to create a relationship living between consumers and brands. Hence the hypothesis indicates that consumer-brand relationships are a matter of perceived objective compatibility between discreet product attributes and personality description. Fournier (1998) 2.35.3. ABSTRACT

The theoretical issue of image congruence is an area of the academic literature which has received great interest over the years. However, to date most of the research regarding image congruity is based on the assumption that the greater the image matches between consumer and brand, the more favorable the relationship between the two (Malhotra, 1981; Aaker, 1997). Recently, there has been an extension to the concept of image congruence and its application to corporate image (Davies et al., 2004; Argenti and Druckenmiller, 2004). We propose that corporate image is every dimension of the brand which is externally perceived by the consumer. It is the aggregate of product brand image, corporate brand image, and CEO image. The management of this externally perceived image is clearly of considerable importance to the field of corporate reputation management. Commentators to date have suggested that a strong brand image is comprised of predominantly positive personality traits. However, we argue that image is not about rating either positively (for example, highly agreeable) or negatively (for example, highly ruthless) on various dimensions of a brand personality scale, but is about having an image which is fitting and competitively suited to the business environment. We propose to use the metaphor of brand as person to measure image and present a conceptual framework to

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illustrate the interrelationship between consumer, corporate brand image, product brand image and CEO image. The influence that brand trust has on this interrelationship is examined, and likewise the influence that brand trust has on outcomes of satisfaction, purchase intention and brand loyalty is also examined. Conclusions and implications for managerial practice are discussed 2.35.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK

The purpose of the conceptual model presented is to change the current perception of image as being good or bad, and define image as being a competitive tool that is company specific, and is always good regardless of classification (Fournier, 1998). We define corporate image as the aggregate of corporate brand image, product brand image and CEO image.

Figure 2.35.4-1 Conceptual Model

2.35.5.

HYPOTHESIS

Based on the above discussion and arguments, we state the following hypothesis: H1: The greater the image congruence between customer image and product brand image the greater the satisfaction with the brand. H2: The greater the image congruence between customer image and corporate brand image the greater the satisfaction with the brand. H3: The greater the image congruence between customer image and the CEO image the greater the satisfaction with the brand.

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H4: The greater the image congruence between customer image and corporate image the greater the satisfaction with the brand. H5: The greater the brand trust the greater the satisfaction with the brand. H6: The greater the satisfaction the greater the purchase intention. H7: The greater the brand trust the greater the brand loyalty. H8: The greater the satisfaction the greater the brand loyalty. H9: The greater the purchase intention the greater the brand loyalty. 2.35.6. CONCLUSION

Brand management as a holistic approach to managing all external images of the organization (corporate, product & CEO) is of significant interest to both practitioners and academics alike. The outcomes of understanding how an organizations image is perceived can aid the development of a successful strategy. This paper has introduced a conceptual model to attempt to explain the interrelationships between the various facets of the brand and outcomes such as satisfaction, purchase intention and brand loyalty. It questions the long-standing theoretical assumption of congruence between consumers and the brands which they purchase. It also seeks to investigate ruthless brands, specifically in light of the nature of the study. Trust is a construct of clear importance in practice and research and thus, has been incorporated into the model as a moderator construct. From a managerial point of view, it is paramount to have a competitive strategy and likewise a competitive image in order to remain successful and to get closer to your customers. Having a thorough knowledge of your brands personality allows you that access and gives you the chance to build a relationship and trust between customer and company. Nevertheless, managers today must realise that, while customers may purchase your brand, they are in fact purchasing the image of the entire company. Therefore, it is essential to manage all externally perceived images of your company so as to have a harmonized and consistent message. Research to date would suggest to managers that successful companies hold traditional positive images. However, our model proposes to shift the current thinking and illustrate to managers that what is important is to have a competitive image that is fitting and in line with your target markets needs and wants. However, behind every successful brand there generally lies a quality product or service. Management need to ensure that the brand purchased by the consumer is what is expected in order for the image to be believable and for brand trust to be established. Our model would propose to managers that if brand trust is evident there are advantages to a loyal customer base and increased satisfaction and purchase intent. Mangers who can build a customers brand trust through the complex interrelationship of the corporate brand image, the product brand image and the CEO image will stand a greater chance of success in todays competitive markets. 2.35.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN In this paper there is neither data collection nor any methodological, but they have developed a conceptual model which could be helpful for Brand Marketers. This will reevaluate the theoretical concept of image congruence. The organization which we will rate, will have previously been rated as having a negative corporate image

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2.36. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING BRANDS OVER TIME BY MEENAKSHI GAUTAM PROFESSIONAL REPORT SUBMITTED FOR COMPLETION OF MASTERS IN ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN 2.36.1. GAUTAM, M. (N.D.). STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING BRANDS OVER TIME. PROFESSIONAL REPORT SUBMITTED FOR COMPLETION OF MASTERS IN ADVERTISING . INTRODUCTION

2.36.2.

Brand awareness that is a problem shows that consumers can still identify or remember the brand under certain conditions. The problem is the breadth of brand awareness that is consumers tend to think of the brand in very narrow ways. To ensure an increase in breadth of brand awareness it is necessary that consumers do not overlook the brand and think of purchasing or consuming it in those situations where the brand can satisfy consumers needs and wants according to Keller (1998), Gardner and Levy (1955) wrote that the long-term success of a brand depends on marketers ability to select a brand meaning prior to market entry and operational zing that meaning in the form of an image, and maintaining that image over time. The fact that several brands have been able to maintain their image for more than 100 years (e.g. Ivorys purity image) supports their position. A brand image has both a direct effect on sales and a moderating effect on the relationship between product life cycle (PLC) strategies and sales (Burleigh B. Gardner 1955). According to (David A. Aaker 1982) perceptual phenomenon affected by the firms communication activities alone. It is the understanding consumers derive from the total set of brand-related activities engaged in by the firm. Unfortunately, positioning/repositioning statements do include what the brand image should be but they do not indicate how the image can be carried over time. Instead, short-term market driven factors such as current consumer needs and competitors are used as a basis for managing the brands image/position and there is no strategic orientation. A brand concept can be viewed as a long-term investment developed and nurtured to achieve long-run competitive advantage. The concept can especially prove useful in establishing, maintaining and enhancing long-term customer relationships. In fact consumers enter into relationships with brands because continuity of interaction, and not the reduction of choice, is an important appreciating factor (Jagdish Sheth 1995). A number of studies in various product categories indicate that consumers prefer a vast range of demands and attempts to minimize consumer choices have often been met with rhinderence (Peterson 1995). 2.36.3. ABSTRACT

The objective of this report is to understand some of the key problems that most brands face in the long-term and explore strategies that can be used in sustaining and rejuvenating brands over a period of time. In Chapter 2, we begin with understanding how the meaning of brand has evolved over the years and the changes that have made managing brands even more challenging than before. The rate of change in all three operating contexts of the brand-consumer, societal and market is increasing faster and we will need all our past learning to manage the future. If the rate of obsolescence of technology and change in our assumption processes is anything to go by, the comfort to sit back and manage change at a slow pace are past and an ever-evolving consumer is posing new challenges. Looking back over the past 50 years makes us realize that brands that have been consistent and held relevant meaning for their consumers have been few and in increasingly changing times the likelihood of many big brands does not seem too strong. The brand failures on the other

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hand are numerous and from that experience we will start to gain an understanding of how to manage brands over time. 2.36.4. CONCLUSION

To use a clichd metaphor, creating and managing brands is a lot like marriage easier to get into, tougher to sustain over the years. The pivotal relationship here is that between the brand and the consumer and like any other relationship it needs familiarity, excitement and an understanding of the future. We have identified some of the crucial problems a consumer-brand relationship may encounter over the years and discussed some of the theoretical approaches and strategies to handle these. These are by no means exhaustive but they are definitely the most likely problems a brand is likely to encounter over its life span. Several other issues are also part of the larger issue of understanding and managing brands in the long-term and some of these include: Understanding and fostering the role of employees as brand Champions, managing change and moving from brand awareness to brand knowledge, usage and loyalty. An increasingly important issue is that of a brands social responsibility and business ethics (especially of a corporate brand) as they become bigger and more political, even if unwillingly. 2.36.5. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This paper highlighted some of the crucial problems a consumer-brand relationship may encounter over the years and discussed some of the theoretical approaches and strategies to handle these. Several other issues are also part of the larger issue of understanding and managing brands in the long-term and some of these include: Understanding and fostering the role of employees as brand Champions, managing change and moving from brand awareness to brand knowledge, usage and loyalty. The three key characteristics that a brand should possess to be able to garner consumer mind share in the long run are those of clarity, consistency and Leadership.

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2.37. THE TRANSFER OF A REDUCED HUMAN PERSONALITY SCALE TO BRANDS: AN INITIAL CROSS-CULTURAL TEST JEAN-MARC FERRANDI CERMAB, UNIVERSITY DIJON(1994) 2.37.1. FERRANDI, J. M., MERUNKA, D., FLORENCE, P. V., & BARNIER, V. D. (1994). THE TRANSFER OF A REDUCED HUMAN PERSONALITY SCALE TO BRANDS: AN INITIAL CROSSCULTURAL TEST. INTRODUCTION

OF

2.37.2.

Brands and human personality exhibit a similar configuration. Brand personalities are described as possessing positive traits rather than negative ones. Ferrandi and ValetteFlorence (2002). The projected personality traits do not cover all levels or domains of human personality that have to be considered to give suitable demonstration of the density of personality and of human beings (Block, 1995; 2001; McAdams, 1992). Brand personality should be defined through traits utilized to distinguish a person and should propose the prospect to relocate meaning from the human personality of consumers to brand personality of the brands they procure. Therefore, we define brand personality as the set of human individuality traits allied with a brand. Aaker (1997) 2.37.3. ABSTRACT

The goal of this article is to test the applicability of a reduced human personality scale (Saucier, 1994) to brands, scale from which have been selected the positive items only. The study deals with 5 international brands purchased in French and Canadian contexts and the test is conducted by means of both a confirmatory factor analysis of the brand personality scale and of a multi-group structural equation model. Finally, an analysis of variance reveals that brands exhibit contrasting profiles on the reduced personality scale uncovered in the two countries. 2.37.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Human personality conceptualization and measurements have been developed for decades particularly in the domain of psychology. The main objective of this research is to test whether this personality scale is replicable in French and cross-cultural setting. Accordingly, we also want to validate the scale structure and examine its ability to differentiate the selected brands. Human personality conceptualization and measurements have been developed for decades particularly in the domain of psychology. This will be presented first, followed by the transposition of the personality concept to brands proposed recently (mainly by Aaker in 1997). Human personality traits Brand Personality

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2.37.5.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Transposition to brands of the human personality concept is interesting mainly in terms of communication strategies and positioning. In this respect, the work of Aaker is interesting. However, the proposed scale contains dimensions and traits that have no direct equivalent in terms of human personality and is somewhat cross-culturally unstable (Aaker and al., 2001; Ferrandi and al., 2000). Ferrandi and Valette-Florence (2002) have proposed to transpose to brands the mini-marker Saucier scale originally developed to measure human personality traits. Its use both at the levels of brand and consumer allows to test the transfer of the consumers self-expression to the brands purchased, since both scales will have the same structure and the same meaning. In this research, we seek to improve previous results by selecting, from the original Saucier scale, the 20 items with a positive meaning and corresponding to the dimensions Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness. This should facilitate understanding of items by respondents and also be more relevant in terms of brand management since usually managers do express brand personalities positively. The main objective of this research is to test whether this personality scale is replicable in a French and cross-cultural setting. Accordingly, we also want to validate the scale structure and examine its ability to differentiate the selected brands. We have used a convenience sample and have studied a limited set of international brands well-known to respondents both on the French and Canadian markets. The study, carried out in France (Nice) and Canada (Quebec), is based on a convenience sample of 200 undergraduates students in business administration within each country, 55% of whom were female. All the students were 19-22 years old and had to evaluate the personality of 5 brands (Benetton, Levis, Adidas, Nescaf and BMW) on the reduced Saucier scale. This sample should be no threat to the validity of the research results since Saucier (1994) proved the stability of results across different groups of individuals including students. 2.37.6. METHODOLOGY

Data analyses have been conducted separately for each country on a set of 1000 observations (200 respondents multiplied by 5 brands). As stated above, we first tested the structure of the scale within the two countries and then assessed whether the scale was able to clearly differentiate the four brands The results presented here are certainly exploratory, given some methodological limitations linked primarily to data collection and to statistical analysis. As far as data collection is concerned, we have considered a limited number of brands (five) which have been evaluated by a convenience sample of undergraduate students. Statistical analyses used were limited to principal component factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis which limits validity of results. Factor analysis does not allow considering the tri-dimensionality of the original data 2.37.7. TESTS

ANOVA and CORRELATION 2.37.8. CONCLUSION

In this research, we seek to improve previous results by selecting, from the original Saucier scale, the 20 items with a positive meaning and corresponding to the dimensions Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness.

This should facilitate understanding of items by respondents and also be more relevant in
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terms of brand management since usually managers do express brand personalities positively. 2.37.9. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN They used convenience sample and have studied a limited set of international brands wellknown to respondents both on the French and Canadian markets. The study, carried out in France (Nice) and Canada (Quebec), is based on a convenience sample of 200 undergraduates students in business administration within each country, 55% of whom were female. All the students were 19-22 years old and had to evaluate the personality of 5 brands (Benetton, Levis, Adidas, Nescaf and BMW) on the reduced Saucier scale. This sample should be no threat to the validity of the research results since Saucier (1994) proved the stability of results across different groups of individuals including students. This could be replicated in Pakistan and china as this study focuses the cross cultural Test by targeting various Universities of Pakistan and China Data analyses technique could also be replicated in Pakistan (1000 observations (200 respondents multiplied by 5 brands). First test the structure of the scale within the two countries and then assessed whether the scale was able to clearly differentiate the four brands which is common in Pakistan and China. Number of Brands could be increased from five which have been considered in this study that could be evaluated by a convenience sample of undergraduate students. Anova and Correlation have been used for testing by this study, Brand Marketers could replicate this or they could use Regression as well.

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2.38. LUND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MASTER THESIS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING AND BRAND MANAGEMENT BRAND PERSONALITY AND GENDER HOW THERE IS A WOMAN INSIDE EVIAN AND A MAN INSIDE NIKE 2.38.1. AZUSIENYTE, M., GUTHEIM, V., & KERVINEN, M. (2008, MAY). BRAND PERSONALITY AND GENDER - HOW THERE IS A WOMAN INSIDE EVIAN AND A MAN INSIDE NIKE. MASTER THESIS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING AND BRAND MANAGEMENT . INTRODUCTION

2.38.2.

But Azoulay and Kapferer (2003) point out that this definition is formulated too widely and is too undifferentiated. From a customers viewpoint the specific design and packaging offers an easy and quick way of identifying the brand. This helps to save the buyers valuable time during the purchase process as it is an indicator to activate pre-existing brand knowledge and hence simplifies the buying decision (Meffert, Burmann, & Koers 2005). Possessions are an important element of sense of self, or in other words they produce an extended self (Belk 1988). It has been said by Tuan (1980, p. 472) easily broken sense of self needs support and having and possessing things to a large degree either deliberately or un deliberately human beings view property as parts of themselves. This fundamental idea of self greatly influences consumer behavior and is the driving force of many marketing plans. By associating brands with personality traits and hence building brand personality, marketers provide consumers with self-expressive or symbolic benefits. In other words "Consumers seek brands with personalities that are matching with either their own or their perfect personalities (Batra, Lehmann and Singh 1993, p. 85). A certain brand personality has, similar to the human personality, to be understood as a developing construct over time (Batra, Lehmann & Singh 1993). As a brand's personality changes in time through marketing communications, so might the gender change. Due to the study's time limit we are not able to measure the brand personalitys development over time sufficiently. The definition of brand personality more specifically as the unique set of human personality characters both appropriate and related to brands" (Azoulay & Kapferer 2003, p. 151). Accordingly, Levy (1959, p. 120) described the gender aspect as "one of the most basic dimensions" within the symbolic meaning of a brand. The minimum of personality that can be associated to every brand is this demographic perspective. Brand personality is imagined by consumers similarly as they perceive human characteristics and also function in a similar way (Wee 2003). It has even been found by Levy (1959, p. 120) being impossible to "evade thinking of inanimate things as male or female. Thus gender plays a middle role within the brand personality. Time after time with the above presented definition of brand personality this gender measurement of brand personality will be defined as the set of applicable and relevant human personality traits associated with maleness and femaleness (Grohmann 2008). 2.38.3. ABSTRACT

The object of this thesis was to examine brand personality in the light of gender studies. The primary intent was to find out if consumers comprehend the notion of brand gender per se. Therefore Research Question One 'Do consumers understand the gender within a brand personality?' was formed. Then focus was laid on the explorative approach focusing if and how brand personality gender and consumer gender are related to each other. This was found through Research Question Two 'How does consumer gender influence the perception

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of brand personality gender?'. Finally, a special interest was given to find out if a consumer's gender influences the brand perception and if there are certain behavioral trends to be detected. This was formulated and addressed in the last Research Question Three 'Do consumers prefer brands from the gender perspective?' 2.38.4. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

More specifically, the brand personality is thereby considered to reflect the stereotypic image of the typical user of the brand. The match between the perceived stereotypic user image and the self-perception of the consumer is used to evaluate a certain brand. "This matching process involving the brand-user image with consumers' self-concept is referred to as self-congruity." (Kressmann et al. 2006, p. 956) In other words, the stronger the correlation between the typical brand-user image and the way the consumer would like to see himself/herself or to be seen, the more likely it is that consumers acknowledge the use of the brand to be of personal value. The self-concept and concept of self-congruency will be further explained in the next parts. 2.38.5. Correlation 2.38.6. CONCLUSION TEST PERFORMED

At a higher abstraction level, our study demonstrates that brand gender might not always be perceived by consumers consciously. But it is still an important factor as it is indeed more indirectly perceived through gender-specific adjectives, which are interpreted and considered by a consumer. Hence, gender should be taken into account while forming branding strategies, with brand personality in focus. The detected brand gender and consumer gender relationship can be materialized and appropriately applied. Consequently, a brand should be examined for a salient brand gender and accordingly marketers can form marketing communication that is designed to enable the target group to establish a positive self-congruency or brand-consumer relationships. Both, this positive self-congruity as well as the strong relationship between brand and consumer eventually influence the level of purchase motivation (Sirgy 1982). This advanced gender based understanding can be used together with other marketing tools in order to create an outstanding brand personality. 2.38.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This topic is relatively new to Pakistan, this thesis highlight the interrelationship of the gender of consumers and brands that how the correlation between consumer gender and brand gender influences the perception of brand personality. Methodological approach i.e. iterative approach can be replicated in Pakistan. As the data is collected through a questionnaire and qualitative interviews in Pakistan as well.

The study is of an explorative nature, investigated quantitatively and qualitatively. An online questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used to gather the empirical data which can be replicated as it is. This could provide about the consumer awareness of the gender dimension within brand personalities.

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2.39.

BRAND EQUITY: CAPITALIZING ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL B Y C H I R A N J E E V K OHLIANDLANCELEUTHESSER KOHLI, C., & LEUTHESSER, L. (2001, MARCH / APRIL). BRAND EQUITY: CAPITALIZING ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL. IVEY BUSINESS JOUNAL . INTRODUCTION

2.39.1.

2.39.2.

Brand name is the anchor of a products identity and the logo enhances recall, what role does a slogan play? A slogan plays a obvious role in advertisements. It captures the essence of a brands positioning, concludes the theme of advertisements, and provides stability when copy is changed both within and across advertising campaigns. In essence, slogans form a link between long-term brand identity and day-to-day marketing activities. Slogans can be so powerful they can become a word of mouth. 2.39.3. ABSTRACT

Brand loyalty is precious, and precarious. Brand loyalty is the sine qua non of brand equity, and it grows from experiencethe promises you make and the promises you keep. Dont be complacent with customer satisfaction surveys that indicate a low incidence of customer complaints, no matter how low. Customer relationships, even the best of them, can hinge on the success or failure of a single incident. 2.39.4. KEYWORDS

Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand logo, designing. 2.39.5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Brand recognition and recall are important objectives, and advertising is central to achieving them. But there are other promotional activities that can be instrumental in creating stronger associations between your brand and your market. Promotions such as contests, sweepstakes and event sponsorships forge stronger connections because they involve your brand in aspects of your customers lives that are meaningful and important to them.

Figure 2.39.5-1 Managing Brand Equity

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2.39.6.

CONCLUSION

Brand loyalty is the most important indicator of brand equity. Without brand loyalty, there can be no brand equity. Any brand that aspires to even second or third-tier market status will require significant brand loyalty. Brands that are market leaders almost always have the highest brand loyalty. And, if we view niche brands as really being market leaders in narrowly defined markets, the loyalty-leads-to-market share rule is essentially absolute. If brand awareness and brand image do not translate into brand loyalty, much of the effort and expense that have gone into building awareness and image will have been wasted. 2.39.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This is only a concept based paper there is neither data collection nor methodological approach to be replicated.

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2.40. THE PERCEIVED BRAND AGE DENIS DARPY PROFESSEUR DES UNIVERSITS UNIVERSIT PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE (PARIS 6) CENTRE DE RECHERCHE DMSP DRM (UMR CNRS 7088 UNIVERSIT DE PARIS DAUPHINE) 2.40.1. DARPY, D. (N.D.). THE PERCEIVED BRAND AGE. ADRIEN LEVESQUE, CHEF DE PRODUIT NISSAN EUROPE . INTRODUCTION

2.40.2.

Social roles are transposable to the brand. First of all the utility of the brand is provided by its single trait the unicity of associations to the brand, perceived difference). The study of consumption of brands by provides the concept of brand age has only been considered as a constituent of the brand character. According to (Rosenberg, 1979; Sirgy, 1982), the age of a brand is termed as more outstanding and autonomous from the character in the self idea theory. Personality is impartially impacted by getting old and relics steady all through lifetime. Personality traits are not enough to determine a person with respect to the age and characteristics traits are not sufficient as they are slightly differentiating flanked by age groups (Deaux et Lewis, 1983, 1984; Kite et Johnson, 1988; Hummert, 1990). By the Lawrence, 1974 concept it is stated as communal aspect is also largely taken into account in the estimation of the age of others .People assigned social status to particular category of family construction. The family life cycle includes social status to age .They are diverse mainly by their quantity of usage and social efficiency. (Barak et Schiffman, 1981) suggested that perceived age is a sociodemographic characteristic of the brand, appreciated in a subjective way by the consumer based on physical aspect of this brand and the specific role which it holds on the market. The cognitive and psychological approach is relatively difficult taking into account information available to the individual to forge a judgement. The perception of the age of others thus seems to be based mainly on physical and social dimensions Social roles are identical to the brand. Beyond, the impressions of output and productivity can be created by all the elements which contribute to create the brand life the novelty, the return, brand extensions, new uses of the products, product modifications. The nomological validation of the scale must take into account the integration of the new concept in a network of relations which will highlight the bond between dimensions of the perceived age and the brand attitude because the programmes of renewal of the brand are future to modify the attitude towards the brand.They show the brand has energy, competences and financial hardness to make move its market and to structure it. 2.40.3. ABSTRACT

Revitalization programs have outlined the importance of the brand age. The perceived age brand is defined as a multidimensional concept based on the physical appearance of the brand and on its market role. Scale development and validation procedures are conducted. The research shows the strong relationship between the perceived brand age, conceptualized as a second order construct and the brand attitude. This link provides the marketer with the appropriate tools to select the best actions he should undergo to rejuvenate its brand.

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2.40.4.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Whatever its age, a brand is regularly undergoing revitalization programs (Aaker, 1990 ; Keller, 1998 ; Kapferer, 1995). Many brands are perceived as young or old without any link to the chronological age. How can a 100 years old brand (such as car makers) may be considered as young by consumers. Brand management literature insists on the negative consequences of the brand growing old. For many researchers, the brand is getting old when consumers begin to neglect it and do not integrate it anymore in their evoked set (Aaker, 1991 ; Lehu, 2004). While the chronological age of the brand is sometimes an asset, the perceived brand age is an important concept for the consumer which is not defined from a consumer point of view. In spite of the importance of the concept for managerial decisions, there is no available tool to measure it. This paper defines the concept of perceived brand age, proposes a measurement scale and evaluates its impact on the brand attitude. 2.40.5. KEYWORDS

Brand management revitalization programs scale measurement brand age brand Personality brand attitude. 2.40.6. CONCLUSION

The study of dimensions on which the individuals judge the age of another individual, and their transposition with the field of the brand, helped in defining the perceived brand age being defined as a socio-demographic characteristic of the brand, appreciated in a subjective way by the consumer starting from physical aspect of this brand and the specific role which it holds on the market. The scale derived from this theoretical framework includes two dimensions, physical appearance and role on the market. Validity and the reliability of this scale are assessed, on a sample of 6 brands. This is a useful measurement tool for managerial purposes to create a typology of brands according to the criterion of the perceived brand age. Hence managers will have opportunities to consider the pertinence of processes of "renovation" and "ageing" through physical appearance and role on the market. We developed the concept of perceived brand age as an independent concept from the brand personality. The study of dimensions on which the individuals judge the age of another individual, and their transposition with the field of the brand, helped in defining the perceived brand age being defined as a socio-demographic characteristic of the brand, appreciated in a subjective way by the consumer starting from physical aspect of this brand and the specific role which it holds on the market. The scale derived from this theoretical framework includes two dimensions, physical appearance and role on the market. Validity and the reliability of this scale are assessed, on a sample of 6 brands. This is a useful measurement tool for managerial purposes to create a typology of brands according to the criterion of the perceived brand age. Hence managers will have opportunities to consider the pertinence of processes of "renovation" and "ageing" through physical appearance and role on the market. The description of these determinants of the age of make possible to refine the analysis of the data and the diagnoses, and to specify management actions for the managers who will want to make evolve/move their brand. Whereas colossal investments are necessary to build strong brands, the managers do not have management tools to precisely establish the age position of their brand and to control it in an optimal way. In particular, the perceived age of the brand, which is hypothesized to be an important and

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discriminating factor in the process of choice of the consumer, is not systematically studied. Many examples made popular in the economic press, show that the strategies of revitalization or renovation programs have been awaiting a significant fall of the sales and a disaffection of the consumers to be launched, thus increasing the cost of these strategies. The periodic study of the perceived age would signal changes in the attitude ahead of troubles as the scale brings three fundamental types of information: (1) the precise knowledge of the brand position on the criterion of the age and a precise diagnosis of its forces and its weaknesses on each component (physical appearance and role on the market); (2) the position of the competitors and proximity with those according to the criterion of the age; (3) evolution of these positions in the course of time. Such a tool thus brings information necessary to carry out a regular assessment of the brand on the criterion of the perceived age, to highlight the evolution of the brand as well as the causes of this evolution, and to adopt an adequate strategy quickly. It thus makes it possible to better anticipate the difficulties and, ultimately, to limit and better control the costs. 2.40.7. REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN This is the new concept for Pakistani perceived brand age as an independent concept from the brand personality. This should be understand by Brand Marketers of Pakistan in order to determine the Brand perceived age and amend their strategies accordingly. The description of these determinants of the age of make possible to refine the analysis of the data and the diagnoses, and to specify management actions for the managers who will want to make evolve/move their brand. Whereas colossal investments are necessary to build strong brands, the managers do not have management tools to precisely establish the age position of their brand and to control it in an optimal way. Many examples made popular in the economic press, show that the strategies of revitalization or renovation programs have been awaiting a significant fall of the sales and a disaffection of the consumers to be launched, thus increasing the cost of these strategies. The periodic study of the perceived age would signal changes in the attitude ahead of troubles as the scale brings three fundamental types of information: (1) the precise knowledge of the brand position on the criterion of the age and a precise diagnosis of its forces and its weaknesses on each component (physical appearance and role on the market); (2) the position of the competitors and proximity with those according to the criterion of the age; (3) evolution of these positions in the course of time. Such a tool thus brings information necessary to carry out a regular assessment of the brand on the criterion of the perceived age, to highlight the evolution of the brand as well as the causes of this evolution, and to adopt an adequate strategy quickly. It thus makes it possible to better anticipate the difficulties and, ultimately, to limit and better control the costs.

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2.41. A NEW MEASURE OF BRAND PERSONALITY MAGGIE GEUENS1 BERT WEIJTERS2 KRISTOF DE WULF3 DECEMBER 2008 2.41.1. GEUENS, M., WEIJTERS, B., & WULF, K. D. (2008, DECEMBER ). A NEW MEASURE OF BRAND PERSONALITY: WORKING PAPER. INTRODUCTION

2.41.2.

The disappearance of traditional barriers and the enabling of near-time interaction with brands enrich customers experience and increase their affinity. The personality trait of a brand depicts the associations that it creates actually with the users. 2.41.3. ABSTRACT

In response to criticism on brand personality measures that embrace other aspects besides brand personality, we developed a new brand personality measure consisting of personality items only. 12,789 Belgian respondents participated in a study on 193 brands. The new scale consists of five factors that show an affinity with the Big Five of human personality. Unlike existing scales, this new measure proved to be reliable for between-brand betweencategory comparisons, for between-brand within-category comparisons, and for betweenrespondent comparisons. 2.41.4. KEYWORDS:

Brand personality, brand attitude, scale development, scale reliability, scale validity. 2.41.5. CRITICISMS ON AAKER SCALE

A first criticism pertains to the loose definition of brand personality that embraces several other characteristics (such as age, gender, etc.) besides personality (Azoulay & Kapferer, 2003; Bosnjak, Bochmann, & Hufschmidt, 2007). This induces a construct validity problem and leaves researchers and practitioners uncertain of what they have actually measured: the perceived brand personality (a sender aspect) or perceived user characteristics (receiver aspects). A second criticism concerns the non-generalizability of the factor structure for analyses at the respondent level (for a specific brand or within a specific product category) (Austin, Siguaw, & Mattila, 2003). Because Aaker (1997) conducted all analyses on data aggregated across respondents (for between-brand comparisons), she actually removed all within-brand variance which led to factor analysis results that are exclusively based on between-brand variance. As a result, the framework does not seem to generalize to situations in which analyses at the individual brand level and/or situations in which consumers are an element of differentiation. Because the latter is the topic of a majority of practitioners research, this is a serious boundary condition. A third criticism relates to the non-replicability of the five factors cross-culturally (Azoulay & Kapferer, 2003). Aaker et al. (2001), for example, found that only three of the five factors applied in Spain (namely, Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication). Peacefulness replaced Ruggedness and Passion replaced Competence. In Japan four of the five factors emerged, whereas Peacefulness again replaced Ruggedness. This shortcoming led several researchers to construct a country-specific brand personality scale. Bosnjak et al. (2007) developed a German scale, Milas and Mlai (2007) a Croatian one, and Smit, van den Berge and Franzen (2002) a Dutch one.

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2.41.6.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The first objective of this paper was to go back to the basics of brand personality and develop a new scale based on a rigorous definition of brand personality that excludes all non-personality items. To have any practical value, the scale should be short and easy to administer since brand personality often is only one of several measures in a questionnaire. In this respect, we took at heart a recent trend to develop ultra-short scales (Burisch, 1997; Rammstedt & John, 2007). A second objective was to assess the generalizability of the revised scale across research purposes and countries. With respect to the former, we investigated the replicability of the scale on (1) data aggregated across individuals for many brands of different product categories (to allow between-brand between-category comparisons), (2) data at the respondent level for several brands within the same product category (to allow betweenrespondent comparisons, but especially between-brand within-category comparisons), and (3) data at the respondent level for single brands (to allow between-respondent analyses). Concerning the latter, we assessed the validity of the revised scale in an additional ten countries. Third, we tested the reliability and validity of the scale further (1) by examining test-retest correlations of the brand personality dimensions for 84 brands with a time interval of one year (in two different samples), and (2) by investigating the relation between brand attitude and the brand personality dimensions for distinct consumer groups to assess nomological validity of the scale. 2.41.7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

First objective of this paper was to develop a scale that is based on personality traits only and that excludes functional attributes, demographic characteristics, user imagery, user appearance, and brand attitudes 2.41.8. RESEARCH DESIGN

Based on 5 quantitative studies. We tested nomological validity by two multi-group analyses. The first multi-group analysis pertained to differences between individuals scoring low versus high on Conservation. In the model we test, brand attitude is a function of the five brand personality factors. First we investigated measurement weights invariance and afterwards structural weights invariance. We tested measurement weights invariance of the factor model by constraining all loadings to equality between samples 2.41.9. METHODOLOGY

Because this study involved only twenty brands, we ran all analyses on the respondent level. Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation of the 40 items resulted in five factors. The five-factor solution largely resembled the Big Five structure 2.41.10. TESTS:

We report the results of a pretest on twenty well-known brands to reduce the items to an efficient, psychometrically sound measurement scale. Next, we tested the remaining items on 193 different brands from twenty different product categories. 2.41.11. CONCLUSION

To conclude, a loose definition of brand personality induces a construct validity problem and leads to brand personality dimensions that do not cover personality traits.
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2.41.12.

REPLICATION OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN PAKISTAN

This paper has provided new personality measure consisting on Personality items only. This was conducted in Belgian where 12789 respondents participated in a study on 193 brands. This sample selection can be replicated in Pakistan. The new scale consists of five factors that show an affinity with the Big Five of human personality. Unlike existing scales, this new measure proved to be reliable for betweenbrand between-category comparisons, for between-brand within-category comparisons, and for between-respondent comparisons. Scale showed high test-retest reliability and crosscultural validity (in the US and nine other European countries). In the light of above this could be used in Pakistan as well as it has high test-retest reliability and cross cultural validity.

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