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SolarPVOverview

KevinLeary,PE
AvocaEngineers&Architects,LLC

Solar PVSystems Overview

BasicConcepts CoreComponentsofaGridTiedSolarPVSystem NetMeterSystem

Basic Concepts

UnitsofMeasure
PowerismeasuredinWattsorKilowatts(KW) EnergyismeasuredinKilowatthours(KWh)
Ex:Ten100 Wattlightbulbs=1000Wattsor1KW Leavetheten100Wbulbsonfor1hourconsumes1KWh

Solar RenewableEnergyCertificate(SREC)
1 SREC=1,000KWhofSolarEnergyproduced

CoreComponentsofSolarPVSystem

SolarPVModules RackingorMountingSystemtosupportmodules InverterstoconvertDCtoAC Connectiontotheutilitygrid Revenuegrademetertomeasureandrecordenergy produced Electricalwiringtoconnectitalltogether

Components SolarPVModules
Types
CrystallineSilicon mostcommoninNJ
Polycrystalline theselookblue Monocrystalline theselookalmostblack

Thinfilm
Amorphoussilicon MicrocrystallineSilicon Copperindiumgalliumdiselenide (CIGS)Solyndra Cadmiumtelluride(CdTe) FirstSolar

Components RackingorMounting Systems


Rooftops
Ballasted nonpenetrating Rails orpipesystems StandingSeam nonpenetratingclamptoseam

Components RooftopRacking
Ballasted System

Components RooftopRacking
BallastedSystem

Components RooftopRacking
BallastedSystem

Components RooftopRacking
RailSystem

Components RooftopRacking
StandingSeam WithRail

Components RooftopRacking
StandingSeam NoRail

Components GroundMount Systems


Raw landorfield
DrivenPostwithrails Screwanchorswithrails Concretefoundations BallastBlocks(concrete)

CarPortStructures
Largevariationsintypes dependingonbudgetand location

Components GroundMount Systems


DrivenPost

Components GroundMount Systems


DrivenPost

Components GroundMount Systems


BallastedGroundMount

FromPanelClaw

Components GroundMount Systems


BallastedGroundMount Landfill nonpenetrating

FromNJ.com

Components GroundMount Systems


ConcreteFoundations

Components CarPortSystems
J&JRaritan SunPower/Solaire

Components CarPortSystems
MennenArena BajaCarports

Components Inverters
GridTieInverters alsoknownasGridInteractive
ConvertDirectCurrent(DC)producedby thesolarPV modules toAlternatingCurrent(AC)usedbythegrid. MaximumPowerPointTracking ProvidesforAutomaticShutdown Notastandalonesystem Cannotbeusedasabackuppowersource Whenutilityloosespower invertersturnoff UL1741andIEEE1547 Requirementtoshutdownonlossof grid safetymeasure.

Components Connection tothe UtilityGrid


ThisiswhereNetMeterandWholesaleSystemsdiffer
NetMeter Connectstothecustomersideoftheutility meter.Utilitymeterischangedtoabidirectionalmeter WholesaleConnection sometimesreferredtoasaPJM connectionordirecttogridconnection.
Typicallyalargesystem Connectiontoutilityisseparatefromanyexistingmeters. Noexistingaccountormetersrequired.Newbidirectional utilitymeter.

Components RevenueGradeMeter

Thisisnotthesamedeviceastheutilitysmeter. Usedtomeasureandrecordsolar energyproduced bysystem. RevenueGrade soitcanbeusedforSRECs


EnergyproductionmeterthatmeetsANSIC.12 standardsforaccuracy

Smallsystems readandrecordmanually Commercialsystems remotereadingoverinternet ordedicatedlines.

NetMetering

ConceptMeasure theproductionofenergyandthe consumptionofenergyatasiteanddeterminethe difference. IdealGoal sizetherenewableenergysystemsothat theamountofproduction equalstheamountof consumption attheendofa12monthperiod.Called NetZero

NetMetering
OutputofSolarduringdaylighthours

NetMetering

NetMeterSystemSize
SystemSizebasedon:
AvailableSpace
Roof Carport GroundMount

SizeorCapacityofExistingUtilityConnection
Servicecanbeupgraded costcanbeanissue

AnnualEnergyUsage
Basedon12monthsofbillinghistory

NetMeter Size Roof


Rooftop Layout
Setbacksfromedge Buildingcode Localordinance Insuranceunderwriter(FMGlobal) Maintenanceaccess Approx 8W/SFto12W/SFofusablespace notinshadow

MostrooftopinstallationsdontrequireZoningorPlanning Boardreview.Buildingpermitonly.

Net Meter ExistingService


ExistingServicecanlimitproposedPVSystemifitis toosmall UtilityCompanytransformerismostlikelythelimiting factor.
Separatefeepaidbycustomerofdevelopertoupgrade service Long leaditem 12weeksormorefortransformers

Net Meter AnnualUsage


Customer orDeveloperAppliestoUtilityCoforNet MeterInterconnection UtilityCompanycomparesestimatedsystem productiontomostrecent12monthsofbilling history.Theywillpushbackanddenyifestimated productionexceedsusagehistory