# 15-462 Computer Graphics I Lecture 8

Polygonal Shading Light Source in OpenGL Material Properties in OpenGL Normal Vectors in OpenGL Approximating a Sphere [Angel 6.5-6.9]

September 23, 2003 Doug James Carnegie Mellon University

• Curved surfaces are approximated by polygons • How do we shade?
– – – – Flat shading Interpolative shading Gouraud shading Phong shading (different from Phong illumination)

• Two questions:
– How do we determine normals at vertices? – How do we calculate shading at interior points?

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• Normal: given explicitly before vertex
glNormal3f(nx, ny, nz); glVertex3f(x, y, z);

• Shading constant across polygon • Single polygon: first vertex • Triangle strip:Vertex n+2 for triangle n

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• Inexpensive to compute • Appropriate for objects with flat faces • Less pleasant for smooth surfaces

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Flat Shading and Perception
• Lateral inhibition: exaggerates perceived intensity • Mach bands: perceived “stripes” along edges

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• • • • • • Enable with glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); Calculate color at each vertex Interpolate color in interior Compute during scan conversion (rasterization) Much better image (see Assignment 1) More expensive to calculate

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• Special case of interpolative shading • How do we calculate vertex normals? • Gouraud: average all adjacent face normals

• Requires knowledge about which faces share a vertex—adjacency info

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Data Structures for Gouraud Shading
• Sometimes vertex normals can be computed directly (e.g. height field with uniform mesh) • More generally, need data structure for mesh • Key: which polygons meet at each vertex

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• Interpolate normals rather than colors • Significantly more expensive • Mostly done off-line (not supported in OpenGL)

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Michael Gold, Nvidia

Single pass Phong Lighting Gouraud Shading
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Two pass Phong Lighting, Gouraud Shading
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Two pass Phong Lighting, Phong Shading
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– Set vertex normals – Calculate colors at vertices – Interpolate colors across polygon

• Must calculate vertex normals! • Must normalize vertex normals to unit length!

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Outline
• • • • • Polygonal Shading Light Sources in OpenGL Material Properties in OpenGL Normal Vectors in OpenGL Example: Approximating a Sphere

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Enabling Lighting and Lights
• Lighting in general must be enabled
glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);

• Each individual light must be enabled
glEnable(GL_LIGHT0);

• OpenGL supports at least 8 light sources

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Global Ambient Light
• Set ambient intensity for entire scene
GLfloat al[] = {0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0}; glLightModelfv(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_AMBIENT, al);

– The above is default

• Also: local vs infinite viewer
glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_LOCAL_VIEWER, GL_TRUE);

– More expensive, but sometimes more accurate

• Angel Typo: (p.296)
glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDED, GL_TRUE)

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Defining a Light Source
• Use vectors {r, g, b, a} for light properties • Beware: light source will be transformed!
GLfloat light_ambient[] = {0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0}; GLfloat light_diffuse[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat light_specular[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat light_position[] = {-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 0.0}; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, light_ambient); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_DIFFUSE, light_diffuse); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPECULAR, light_specular); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, light_position);

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Point Source vs Directional Source
• Directional light given by “position” vector
GLfloat light_position[] = {-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 0.0}; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, light_position);

• Point source given by “position” point
GLfloat light_position[] = {-1.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0}; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, light_position);

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Spotlights
• Create point source as before • Specify additional properties to create spotlight
GLfloat sd[] = {-1.0, -1.0, 0.0}; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPOT_DIRECTION, sd); glLightf (GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPOT_CUTOFF, 45.0); glLightf (GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPOT_EXPONENT, 2.0);

[Demo: Lighting Position Tutor]
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Outline
• • • • • Polygonal Shading Light Sources in OpenGL Material Properties in OpenGL Normal Vectors in OpenGL Example: Approximating a Sphere

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Defining Material Properties
• Material properties stay in effect • Set both specular coefficients and shininess
GLfloat mat_a[] = {0.1, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0}; GLfloat mat_d[] = {0.1, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0}; GLfloat mat_s[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat low_sh[] = {5.0}; glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_AMBIENT, mat_a); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_DIFFUSE, mat_d); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_SPECULAR, mat_s); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_SHININESS, low_sh);

• Diffuse component is analogous [Demo: Light material Tutor]
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GL_COLOR_MATERIAL Mode
• Can shortcut material properties using glColor • Must be explicitly enabled and disabled
glEnable(GL_COLOR_MATERIAL);
/* affect front face, diffuse reflection properties */

glColorMaterial(GL_FRONT, GL_DIFFUSE); glColor3f(0.0, 0.0, 0.8);
/* draw some objects here in blue */

glColor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
/* draw some objects here in red */

glDisable(GL_COLOR_MATERIAL);

• E.g., highlighting picked faces
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Outline
• • • • • Polygonal Shading Light Sources in OpenGL Material Properties in OpenGL Normal Vectors in OpenGL Example: Approximating a Sphere

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Defining and Maintaining Normals
• Define unit normal before each vertex
glNormal3f(nx, ny, nz); glVertex3f(x, y, z);

• Length changes under some transformations • Ask OpenGL to re-normalize (all tfms)
glEnable(GL_NORMALIZE);

• Ask OpenGL to re-scale normal
glEnable(GL_RESCALE_NORMAL);

• Works for uniform scaling (and rotate, translate)
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Example: Icosahedron
• Define the vertices
#define X .525731112119133606 #define Z .850650808352039932 static GLfloat vdata[12][3] = { {-X, 0, Z}, {X, 0, Z}, {-X, 0, -Z}, {X, 0, -Z}, {0, Z, X}, {0, Z, -X}, {0, -Z, X}, {0, -Z, -X}, {Z, X, 0}, {-Z, X, 0}, {Z, -X, 0}, {-Z, -X, 0} };

• For simplicity, avoid the use of vertex arrays

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Defining the Faces
• Index into vertex data array
static GLuint tindices[20][3] = {1,4,0}, {4,9,0}, {4,9,5}, {1,10,8}, {10,3,8}, {8,3,5}, {3,10,7}, {10,6,7}, {6,11,7}, {10,1,6}, {11,0,9}, {2,11,9}, }; { {8,5,4}, {3,2,5}, {6,0,11}, {5,2,9}, {1,8,4}, {3,7,2}, {6,1,0}, {11,2,7}

• Be careful about orientation!

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Drawing the Icosahedron
• Normal vector calculation next
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES); for (i = 0; i < 20; i++) { icoNormVec(i); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][0]]); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][1]]); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][2]]); } glEnd();

• Should be encapsulated in display list

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Calculating the Normal Vectors
• Normalized cross product of any two sides
GLfloat d1[3], d2[3], n[3]; void icoNormVec (int i) { for (k = 0; k < 3; k++) { d1[k] = vdata[tindices[i][0]] – vdata[tindices[i][1]] d2[k] = vdata[tindices[i][1]] – vdata[tindices[i][2]] } normCrossProd(d1, d2, n); glNormal3fv(n); }
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[k] [k]; [k] [k];

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The Normalized Cross Product
• Omit zero-check for brevity
void normalize(float v[3]) { GLfloat d = sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]); v[0] /= d; v[1] /= d; v[2] /= d; } void normCrossProd(float u[3], float v[3], float out[3]) { out[0] = u[1]*v[2] – u[2]*v[1]; out[1] = u[2]*v[0] – u[0]*v[2]; out[2] = u[0]*v[1] – u[1]*v[0]; normalize(out); }
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The Icosahedron
• Using simple lighting setup

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Sphere Normals
• Set up instead to use normals of sphere • Unit sphere normal is exactly sphere point
glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES); for (i = 0; i < 20; i++) { glNormal3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][0]][0]); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][0]][0]); glNormal3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][1]][0]); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][1]][0]); glNormal3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][2]][0]); glVertex3fv(&vdata[tindices[i][2]][0]); } glEnd();

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Icosahedron with Sphere Normals
• Interpolation vs flat shading effect

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Recursive Subdivision
• General method for building approximations • Research topic: construct a good mesh
– – – – – Low curvature, fewer mesh points High curvature, more mesh points Stop subdivision based on resolution Some advanced data structures for animation Interaction with textures

• Here: simplest case • Approximate sphere by subdividing icosahedron

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Methods of Subdivision
• (a) Bisecting angles • (b) Computing centroid • (c) Bisecting sides

• Here: bisect sides to retain regularity
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Teaser: Loop Subdivision

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Sphere Subdivision: Bisection of Sides
• Draw if no further subdivision requested
void subdivide(GLfloat v1[3], GLfloat v2[3], GLfloat v3[3], int depth) { GLfloat v12[3], v23[3], v31[3]; int i; if (depth == 0) { drawTriangle(v1, v2, v3); return; } for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) { v12[i] = (v1[i]+v2[i])/2.0; v23[i] = (v2[i]+v3[i])/2.0; v31[i] = (v3[i]+v1[i])/2.0; } ... 09/23/2003 15-462 Graphics I }

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Sphere Subdivision: Extrusion of Midpoints
• Re-normalize midpoints to lie on unit sphere
void subdivide(GLfloat v1[3], GLfloat v2[3], GLfloat v3[3], int depth) { ... normalize(v12); normalize(v23); normalize(v31); subdivide(v1, v12, v31, depth-1); subdivide(v2, v23, v12, depth-1); subdivide(v3, v31, v23, depth-1); subdivide(v12, v23, v31, depth-1); }
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• In sample code: control depth with ‘+’ and ‘-’
void display(void) { ... for (i = 0; i < 20; i++) { subdivide(&vdata[tindices[i][0]][0], &vdata[tindices[i][1]][0], &vdata[tindices[i][2]][0], depth); } glFlush(); }

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Icosahedron Unsubdivided

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One Subdivision

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Two Subdivisions
• Each time, multiply number of faces by 4

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Three Subdivisions
• Reasonable approximation to sphere

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Example Lighting Properties
GLfloat light_ambient[] = {0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.0}; GLfloat light_diffuse[] = {1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0}; GLfloat light_specular[] = {0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, light_ambient); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_DIFFUSE, light_diffuse); glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_SPECULAR, light_specular);

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Example Material Properties
GLfloat mat_specular[] GLfloat mat_diffuse [] GLfloat mat_ambient [] GLfloat mat_shininess glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, glMaterialf (GL_FRONT, = {0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0}; = {0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 1.0}; = {0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 1.0}; = {20.0}; GL_SPECULAR, mat_specular); GL_AMBIENT, mat_ambient); GL_DIFFUSE, mat_diffuse); GL_SHININESS, mat_shininess);

glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); /* enable smooth shading */ glEnable(GL_LIGHTING); /* enable lighting */ glEnable(GL_LIGHT0); /* enable light #0 */

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Summary
• • • • • Polygonal Shading Light Sources in OpenGL Material Properties in OpenGL Normal Vectors in OpenGL Example: Approximating a Sphere

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Preview
• Either
– Basic texture mapping – Curves and surfaces

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