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Drilling operations

Drilling Operations

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Training Special Project SP 2

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Drilling operations

a) Overview of drilling plants, equipment, components b) Overview of drilling fluids: muds, cements & chemicals c) Outline of drilling techniques. Innovative vs traditional drilling. On-shore & off-shore drilling d) Blow out prevention and control e) Drilling site organisation f) Cutting disposal: problems and solutions

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Whats the purpose of well drilling? The main goal is to reach the target!

Original Well Path

Directional well Vertical well Reservoir

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How should you drill a well?

0m 30" 20"

Sand Sand + shale

2000 m 13 3/8"

4000 m 9 5/8"

Shale Limestone
Hy d

ar oc r

n bo

Reservoir
7"

6000 m

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Whats the purpose of well drilling?

Reservoir

Reservoir
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Drilling Rigs

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Type of rigs

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Drilling Rigs

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Drilling Rigs

Swamp rigs Land rigs

Floating rigs

Stationary platforms

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Land Rig

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Off-shore Rigs

Stationary Platform

Jack up rig

200 m

100 m

(Anchored) drilling ship Semi sub rig

1000 m

Tension legs (Dynamic positioning) Drilling ship

Maximum operational depth

3000 m
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Off-shore Rigs

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Inland Drilling Barge

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Inland Drilling Barge

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Posted Barge

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Non Posted Barge

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Submersible Rig

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Platform Rgis

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Platform Rigs

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Platform Rigs

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Tender rig type

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Tender Unit

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Tender Units Type

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Tender Units Type

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Stationary Platform

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Off-shore Rigs
Jack up rig

Surface Wellhead

0m 100 m

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Jack-up rig

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Jack-up rig In legs-out position

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Off-shore Rigs
Semisub rig
Subsea Wellhead

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Semi-sub rig

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Off-shore Rigs
(Anchored) Drilling ship

Subsea Wellhead

Drilling Operations

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Off-shore Rigs
(Dynamic positioning) Drilling ship

Subsea Wellhead

Drilling Operations

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Drilling Ship

Ultra Deep Water Drillship SAIPEM 10000


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Off-shore Rigs
Max Water Depth
3000 2500 Expl. 2000 Prod. SHELL SHELL SHELL ELF 1500 TEXACO EXXON SHELL EXXON HUMBLE OIL EXXON + 1950 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001
Drilling Operations

TotalFinaElf

SHELL PETROBRAS SHELL

Subsea Tree TLP

PETROBRAS SHELL PETROBRAS SHELL

1000

500 0

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Rig Equipment

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Hoisting System
E A) Top Drive A) Asta motrice B) Mobile mobile block B) Taglia pulley C) Hook C) Gancio D) Derrickman Floor D) Piattaforma del pontista E) Fixed pulley block E) Taglia fissa F) Winch table F) Water G)Drillers cabin G) Argano H) Injection del perforatore H) Baracca head I I)) Jacket hose Testina d'iniezione L ) Drill pipes L) Rotary hose M) Mast di perforazione M) Aste N) Blow Out Preventer (BOP) N) Tool joint O)Wellhead O) Torre

D M L H A B C I F

N O Cellar
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Ground Floor

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Rotary system

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Old Rotary System


The old rotary system comprises: kelly kelly bushing rotary table injection head hook travelling block

Drilling line Kelly

Travelling block

Section Bushing

Hook

Rotary Hose

Injection Head Kelly Rotary Equipment Hoisting Equipment


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Drilling Gear and Wellheads

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Drilling String
Drill Pipes Heavy Weight (intermediate stiffness pipes) X-over Drill Collars (Heavy weight pipes) Jar (Shock tool to be activated while drilling string stuck) Drill Collars Stabilizer (for hole reaming) Drill Collar Shock absorber (vibrations damper) Stabilizer Drill Collar Near bit Drill bit
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Drilling String

Drill pipe

3-joint drill pipe stand

28,5 m - (94 ft) Drill pipe

9,5 m (31 ft)

Drill pipe

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Drill Bits

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Drill Bits
PDC BITS

Steel Body

Matrix Body

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Drill Bits
NATURAL DIAMOND BITS

Nat. Diamond

Impregnated

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Coil Tubing

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Coil Tubing

Coiled tubing can be used in several wellbore operations: perforating, fluid pumping, bridge plug setting, etc. It allows to carry out operations in a well while other operations are performed in a second well It can also be used in the drilling phase

Drilling Operations

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Drill Pipes

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Steel for drill pipes


Steels used for drill pipes are alloys of: Iron-carbon Manganese Silicon Molibden Nickel, etcin different percentages. In these alloys impurities must not exceed the following values: 0,060 % of sulphur 0,040 % of phosphorus (API Standard)

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Material of drill pipe

Tubular goods are classified according to the Minimum Yield Strength. TYPES OF STEEL Minimum Yield Strength Minimum Yield Strength

psi Common steel X_42 Mud pipes X-52 42000 52000

kg/mm2 29,52 36,55

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Pipe body and pipe joint


The drill pipes, are composed by : Drill pipe body Tool joint Drill pipe body Hollow cylindrical pipe with upset at the end. Built using different tipes of steel (E, X, G e S). Tool joint Box or pin end of the drill pipe: Build using 120000 steel type

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Upset
An upset is done at the two ends of the drill pipe body in order to have higher thickness in the end part and therefore a gradual change in section from drill pipe body to tool joint There are three kinds of upsets:

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Tool Joint

Finished Tool Joint

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Tool Joint

The connection of a drill pipe body and a tool joint should be provided by:

FLASH WELDING

FRICTION WELDING

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Non-destructive Tests

Types of a drill pipe inspections :


Visual Inspection Magnaflux Penetrant Liquids Ultrasounds And Gamma Rays

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Non-destructive Tests

PENETRANT LIQUIDS: They enable the identification of discontinuities having an outlet to the surface. Unlike the MAGNAFLUX method, with penetrant liquids it is possible to survey discontinuities (cracks) also at high depth only with an outlet on the surface. ULTRASOUND AND GAMMA RAY: These nondestructive test methods are very effective. They are able to survey not only the presence of discontinuities inside the drill pipe, but also its position and extent. They also enable to verify the thickness and transversal section of the drill pipe.

Drilling Operations

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Heavy Weight Drill Pipes

The Heavy Weights are semi heavy drill pipes: something between DP and DC (drill collar) They have similar configuration to normal drill pipes. However, the tool joints are much longer and have an upset in the centre, working as stabilizer. Both the tool joints and the centre upset are protected from wear by hard facing bands.

Drilling Operations

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Heavy Weight Drill Pipes


Heavy Weights are normally installed between the drill pipes and the drill collars to connect the flexibility of the drill pipes and the stiffness of the drill collars, reducing the fatigue stress acting on the last drill pipes, just above the DC. HWDP are design to work also in compression: their positioning above the DC enables the compensation of the shifting of the neutral point during normal drilling. Their function is providing weight to the bit, when the well conditions require fewer drill collars. In deviated wells characterized by high dip, they can be used instead of DC. They must work in tension when used in vertical wells with high diameter. Field experiences have shown that excessive bend, in high diameter wells, damages the HWDP:
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Drill Collar

The drill collars (heavy drill pipes) are manufactured from a solid bar, externally turned, internally bored and thread at its ends.

Drilling Operations

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Drill Collar
External Configuration:

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Drill Collar

They are produced in a wide range of dimensions Minimum external diameter: Maximum external diameter: Minimum internal diameter: Maximum internal diameter: 2 7/8 14 1 3 1/4

Drilling Operations

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Drilling Muds

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What are the main functions performed by drilling mud?

Containing formation fluids by exercising a hydrostatic pressure at bottom hole Consolidating the borehole walls by creating a filter cake Cooling and lubricating the drill bit Conveying drilling debris from the bottom hole to the surface Keeping cuttings in suspension when circulation is halted Providing information on drilled formations

Drilling Operations

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What Is A Drilling Fluid? Mud is a two-phase compound:

- LIQUID PHASE
Fresh H2O Salt H2O Low Toxic OIL Sintetic OIL Foreign elements

- SOLID PHASE

Weigh-down materials Solids incorporated in mud

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How many mud types do we know?

- (inhibiting or non-inhibiting) WATER-BASED MUDS

- (direct or reverse-emulsion) OIL BASED MUDS

- AIR-CUT MUDS (seldom employed)

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Control Formation Pressure: Density


One of the main functions of drilling fluid is to keep the formation pressure under control The pressure exerted by the mud column in static conditions (without circulation) is called hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the product of the mud weight and the True Vertical Depth (TVD) of the well. If the hydrostatic pressure of the column of drilling mud is equal to or higher than the formation pressure, formation fluids cant flow into the wellbore

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Control Formation Pressure: Density

Formation pressure typically increases with depth To compensate for this we increase the density of the mud with barite Mud weight must be limited to the minimum necessary to control the well, maintain its stability, and still stay below the fracture gradient

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Cool and Lubricate the Drillstring and Bit


Circulation of the drilling fluids cools the bit and the drillstring assembly, to temperatures lower than the bottom-hole temperature
Mechanical and hydraulic energy generated by pumping mud to the bit, and abrasion between the drill string and the hole, produces a great amount of heat Since the formation is a poor conductor the heat has no where to go Circulating fluid helps to dissipate this heat at surface Because of the composition of the mud, it has a lubricating effect which also cuts down on the heat production. Indicators of poor lubrication are high torque and drag

Drilling Operations

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Transmit Hydraulic Power to Bit


Hydraulic Power is used to: Maximize penetration rate (ROP) Remove cuttings from under the bit and up to the surface Run downhole motors and other special equipment The hydraulic program is based on using the right diameter nozzles in the bit, the pumps efficiency, and choosing the proper circulation pressures and rates for the hole conditions

Drilling Operations

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Mud Circuit

Mud chemicals store

Mixing hopper Shale shaker

Drilling Operations

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Directional Wells

Drilling Operations

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Logistical problems

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Environmental concerns

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Multi-target wells

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To aim at a different target

Original Well
Corrected Well Path

Sidetrack

Original Well Path

Sidetrack Original Well

Reservoir

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Unapproachable targets

Reservoir

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Relief Wells

Reservoir

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Horizontal Wells

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Why use horizontal drilling? To increase well productivity

Horizontal well Vertical well

Horizontal wells have wider drainage areas than vertical ones


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Different types of horizontal wells

Long Radius

Medium Radius Short Radius

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Directional Drilling Tools

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Downhole Motors
PDM - (Positive Displacement Motors)

Bent Sub & Motor


1/2 - 3/100ft (30m) Large BOS No Surface Rotation Bent Sub

Kick Off Sub (KOS) Motor

Double Kick Off (DKO) Motor

6/100ft (30m) Large BOS No Surface Rotation

1/2 - 3/100ft (30m) Smaller BOS No Surface Rotation Kick-Off Sub Double Kick-Off Sub

BOS = Bit offset

BOS

BOS

BOS

Drilling Operations

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Basic Steering Concept

Rotating shaft

Movable piston

Non-rotating sleeve
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AUTOTRAK (for deviated wells) AutoTrak Features


Rotary Closed-Loop Drilling System It can change direction while rotating Expandable ribs create a side force on the bit, producing a controlled closed loop with the MWD tool

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Standard Steerable Drilling System compared to Autotrak

Standard steerable

Autotrak

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Casing

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What is a Casing ?
Casing is metallic pipe that is lowered in a well in order to cover the open hole, isolating it from the drilled formations. Once positioned at the desired depth, casing is cemented in place by pumping a slurry inside it. The slurry goes out of the casings bottom, which is called shoe, and rises in the casing/open hole annulus.
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What is the casing function?


To support the wellhead and the BOPs To allow mud circulation to the surface To isolate formations having different pore pressure or fracture gradients To exclude formations that can cause problems to drilling activities on account of their geological characteristics To isolate productive formations

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Different Types of Casing

Conductor pipe Surface casing Intermediate casing Production casing Liner (a casing string that does not extend to the top of the wellbore)
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Cementing Operations

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What is casing cementing?


Casing is cemented in place by pumping slurry in the open hole/casing annulus. As the slurry solidifies, it acquires the necessary mechanical resistances.

Why a cement should be use?


To cement casing in place (single-stage or multi-stage operations) To run cement plugs (permanent abandonment, plugs to start a sidetrack, isolation of depleted productive formations) To squeeze cement into a formation to avoid lost circulation

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Manufacturing Portland Cement


The following reactions take place during the product baking stage: 100 C 600 C 900 C 900 - 1200 C evaporation of free water dehydroxylation of clay minerals crystallization of dehydroxylated clay minerals reactions between CaCO3 and CaCO with the aluminiumsilicates 1250 - 1280 C start of the liquid phase above 1280 C the material becomes Clinker

It will then be ground and mixed with gypsum to become CEMENT.

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Properties of cement slurry


The characteristics of a cement slurry can be altered depending on its use. These characteristics can be summed up as follows: 1. Easy mixing and pumping. 2. Ideal rheological characteristics for the removal of the mud. 3. Rapid development of compressive strength. 4. Capacity to prevent the passage of gas. 5. Maintain a good level of compressive strength over time. 6. Capacity to fix to the surfaces. 7. Elasticity. 8. Capacity to maintain these characteristics at high temperatures.
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Reasons for using cement

Filling the annular space between the wall of an uncased hole and the casing is the first operation after the bit has been run out of the hole and the casing has been run in for the following reasons: a) To support the casing and anchor it to the borehole wall. b) To prevent the borehole from caving. c) To protect the casing from corrosion. d) To protect the casing from crushing or bursting. e) To isolate adjacent zones of the borehole and prevent the different formation fluids from mixing. f) To extend and optimize the life of a well. g) To increase well safety and control.

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Types of cementing jobs

Cement slurries can be used in three types of jobs: a) Cementing of casing or strings (primary) b) Remedial or complementary cementing c) Cement plugs.

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Casing Cementing

Depending on the order, their position and purpose, casing can be called: a) b) c) d) Surface casing Intermediate casing Production casing Liner

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Most common diameters

The normal dimensions of the casing or liner and in which open hole they are run in are shown below; the dimensions are given in inches: casing/ liner dimension (inches) 20 18 5/8 13 3/8 9 5/8 7 5 open hole dimension (inches) 26 24 17.5 12.25 8.5 6.5

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Types of casings

Conductor pipe Surfaces Intermediate Production Liner

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Main characteristics of cement slurry


YIELD This is an important value on which the calculation of the final volumes, in bottomhole conditions, depends. There are additives such as Sferelite whose microsfers tend to break under pressure and so undergo fluid invasion when they are in the well, increasing the need for mixing water compared to the 0 pressure conditions on the surface. It will therefore be the down hole yield, based on the volume of liquid cement required for the job, which will therefore tell us the quantity of powdered cement needed. Yield is expressed in litres of slurry per 100 kg of cement, or in cubic feet per sack. For a class G cement without additives, these values are around 760 lt / 100 kg, or 1.15 cuft / sk.
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Main characteristics of cement slurry


THICKENING TIME

This is perhaps the most significant and closely examined value in a lab report. For a very good reason, because the Thickening Time (T.T.) is the value which allows us to carry out the job in safe conditions. Underestimating the time can result in disastrous cementing which can even lead to the well having to be abandoned in the most serious cases.

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Main characteristics of cement slurry


RHEOLOGY (Fann Reading) Cement slurry is classified as a non Newtonian fluid; i.e. a fluid whose viscosity is not constant but varies with the speed at which it flows through a pipe. Rheology measurements on slurry allow the characteristics of its flow to be predicted as well as its capacity to suspend solids. The PV (Plastic Viscosity) and YP (Yield Point) values can be obtained on the basis of the apparent viscosity values, determined for example using a Fann Viscosimeter. These values tell us to what extent a slurry is fluid and if it is able to transport solids and keep them in suspension. Moreover, the Flow Index (n) and Consistency Index (K) are obtained and allow us to estimate the pressure loss caused by friction during the motion of the slurry and its flow type; that is, if it movement is plug, laminar or turbulent.

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Cementer

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Operational sequence of casing cementing


Fang o Malta Fango
1)Displacement of cement by a drilling 1)Displacement of cement by a drilling mud mud 2)The plugs are in contact and 2)The plugs are in contact and displacement is completed. displacement is completed. Cement starts to solidify Cement starts to solidify

Fango

The time needed the cement to set The time needed the cement to set at the end of displacement (WOC) at the end of displacement (WOC) will vary according to the type of will vary according to the type of used slurry used slurry

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What is the chemical composition of cement?

Cement is a complex mixture of silicates and calcium aluminates. Its grinding fineness determines its hydration capacity. A little difference in the chemical composition or in the physical condition of cement can cause a strong performance variation. It is essential to perform lab tests before each operation, using water, cement and additives samples obtained from the site where the operation will take place.

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Difficulties in drilling operations

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Lost Circulation
PARTIAL LOSSES Absorption up to a maximum value of about 8 m3/h TOTAL LOSSES Mud doesnt return to the surface during drilling operations Absorptions are caused by: High-porosity and high-permeability formations Fractured formations Underpressured formations Karst

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Lost Circulation

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Stuck Pipe

Main stuck pipe causes are: Key seats Differential pressure (sticking) Wedging in (Packing off) - While the drill string is being lowered - While the drill string is being pulled out A collapse caused by: - Total circulation loss - Unstable formations - Debris accumulation in caved-in boreholes

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Stuck Pipe: Key Seat Block

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Sticking Block

Drill pipes

Borehole
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Fishing Operations

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Overshot

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Magnetic Fisher

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Underground Blow-out

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Underground Blow-out
Gas Migration Charged formation

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Underground Blow-out - 1
Gas Migration Shear Rams (open)

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Underground Blow-out - 2
Gas Migration Shear Rams (closed)

Fracturing below csg. shoe

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Underground Blow-out - 3
Gas Migration Shear Rams (closed)

Initiation of underground blow out

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Well Capping Techniques

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Capping 1) Well Flowing 1) Well Flowing

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Capping
2) positioning BOP 2) positioning BOP

= Valves Closed Guide Line


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Capping
3) Set Up Choke & Kill lines 3) Set Up Choke & Kill lines

BOP open

= Valves Closed

Choke line

Kill line

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Capping
4) opening Choke & Kill lines 4) opening Choke & Kill lines

BOP open

Choke line = Valves Open

Kill line

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Capping
5) Closing BOP 5) Closing BOP

BOP closed

Choke line

Kill line

= Valves Open

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Capping
6) Gradual Closing of Choke e Kill lines (the well is in pressure) 6) Gradual Closing of Choke e Kill lines (the well is in pressure)

BOP closed

Choke line = Valves closed

Kill line

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Capping
7) Well Killing by pumping through kill line. 7) Well Killing by pumping through kill line.

BOP closed

Choke line = Choke closed = Kill open

Kill line

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Surface Bop Stack


Used on land, offshore, jack-up, tender rigs and stationary platforms

Bag Preventer

Double rams Preventer

Single ram Preventer Drilling Spool

The BOP stack components are: Bag BOP Ram BOPs Drilling spool (optional) Choke valves Kill valves They are usually built according to API 16 A standards.

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Snapshots of real operations....

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Snapshots of real operations..

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Relief Well Techniques

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Relief well

Reservoir
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Relief well

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Surface Bop Control System


.

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Well Control

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Kick: Rise in Pit Levels


0

LOSS GAIN Indicator placed on the drillers console

Pit Gain

Suction Pit

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Causes of a kick

Drilling in an over Drilling in an over pressurized formation pressurized formation


Gas Gas

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Blowout Control Systems

Blowout control systems can be divided into: Blowout control systems can be divided into: Primary (active): these are the systems that prevent the Primary (active): these are the systems that prevent the occurrence of a blowout (i.e. hydrostatic load of a mud) occurrence of a blowout (i.e. hydrostatic load of a mud) Secondary (passive): all safety equipment contributes to Secondary (passive): all safety equipment contributes to close a wellbore when a serious possibility of blowout exists close a wellbore when a serious possibility of blowout exists or when a blowout is already under way or when a blowout is already under way

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Logistical Services

Road transports Sea transports Communications

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Road Transports

This service provides logistical assistance and transport of materials in onshore operations

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Sea Transports Supply Vessel Helicopter


The Supply Vessel Service provides logistical assistance and transport of materials in offshore operations The Helicopter Service provides in out rig personnel transport

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Communications

The Communications Service allows data transmission in the rig operational district headquarters loop

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Drilling Waste Management And Cycle

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste

Drilling Waste
Drilling Cuttings Exhaust mud Wash water Drilling fluids Municipal solid wastes
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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste

Drilling waste from WBM (mud and cuttings): non-hazardous Drilling waste from OBM (mud and cuttings): hazardous

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Operations priorities: Reduction at source Recycle Re-use Recovery
Treatment
Disposal

Waste Reduction

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste

Guiding criteria
Waste volume reduction Re-use of wash water Storage by type

Use of dedicated corrals


(excluding shallow wells)

Solids control equipment

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Disposal methods:

On-site treatment Transport to treatment plant

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste

Semataf: aerial view of treatment and disposal site (2B type) in Lanciano
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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Cuttings


Cuttings can be treated chemically, physically or mechanically in order to separate or fix contaminants to reach legal standards

Consolidation/stabilization Thermal treatment Biodegradation


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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste


Consolidation and inertization
Shale shakers
Cement

CORRAL excavator pomp Mixing conveyer

silos

Sodium Silicate

Landfill
CONSOLIDATION CORRAL

Re-use
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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste


Thermal treatment of cuttings
The process consists of heating the cuttings to reach a water-oil gaseous stage and subsequent condensation low Temp 250 - 370 (oil recovery) high Temp >900 (incinerator)

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste


Biodegradation
A natural process where adapted microorganisms degrade complex hydrocarbons to a more elementary chain that can be easily reduced to environmentally acceptable Carbon compounds Operationally simple

Does not need special equipment (farm equipment) Does not generate a biproduct: recyclable cuttings/soil
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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Disposal methods: On-site treatment


Cuttings Exhaust mud Washing water
Re-use on rig Waste water depuration plant Discharge Depuration process
Drilling Operations

Landfill Re-use

Dehydration process

Solid Water

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste


Dehydration

Filterpress for dehydration of exhaust mud


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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Off-shore disposal methods:

Up to 1987 :

From 1987:

Discharge into the sea of cuttings (OBM/WBM) and muds (WBM) Zero-discharge and consequent transport to shore of solid and liquid waste (WBM - OBM)
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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste


Closed Loop System

Cuttings washer

vibrovagl Shale shakers i

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Cuttings slurrification and re-injection Options : -- Existing well (production well) -- Drilling and re-injection simultaneously well -- Dedicated well

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Management And Cycle Of Drilling Waste Cuttings re-injection


cuttings Exhaus drilling fluids water

Injection fluid characteristics: Particle size in suspension Concentration (volume) Density <300 micron 15-25% 1.2-1.6Kg/l
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Waste Management

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What kinds of waste are produced in a rig site ?


Drilling debris Exhausted mud Washing H2O Intervention fluids Urban solid waste

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Why to carry out a waste management ?

To reduce the environmental impact with respect to the regulations in force

To maximize waste recycling (cement, brick and expanded clay plants, environmental restoration, RSU dump covers)

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How we can manage waste disposal? ONSHORE : OFFSHORE :

Rig site treatment Zero discharge: solid and (consolidation and liquid waste (WBM dehydration) OBM) is transported onshore Untreated waste disposal H2O recycling ( a closed-loop system allows reduction of waste volumes to be disposed of by recovering water from exhausted mud)

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