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Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building

Developed by:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers The American Institute of Architects Illuminating Engineering Society of North America U.S. Green Building Council U.S. Department of Energy

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

This is an ASHRAE Design Guide. Design Guides are developed under ASHRAE’s Special Publication procedures and are not consensus docu- ments. This document is an application manual that provides voluntary rec- ommendations for consideration in achieving greater levels of energy savings relative to minimum standards.

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

This publication was prepared under the auspices of ASHRAE Special Project 133.

PROJECT COMMITTEE

Bing Liu

Chair

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Merle McBride

Don Colliver

Vice-Chair

Steering Committee Ex Officio

Owens Corning

University of Kentucky

Daniel Nall

Erin McConahey

AIA/USGBC Representative

Member at Large

WSP Flack + Kurtz

Arup

Mick Schwedler

Brian Thornton

ASHRAE Representative

Analysis Support

Trane, a division of Ingersoll Rand

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Michael Lane

Weimin Wang

IES Representative

Analysis Support

Lighting Design Lab

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Mathew Tanteri

Lilas Pratt

IES Representative

Staff Liaison

Tanteri + Associates

ASHRAE

STEERING COMMITTEE

Don Colliver

Chair

Bill Worthen

Jerome Lam

AIA Representative

DOE Representative

Rita Harrold

Mick Schwedler

IES Representative

ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 Liaison

Brendan Owens

Adrienne Thomle

USGBC Representative

Tom Watson

ASHRAE Representative

ASHRAE TC 7.6 Liaison

Lilas Pratt

ASHRAE Staff Liaison

Any updates/errata to this publication will be posted on the ASHRAEWeb site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates.

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers The American Institute of Architects Illuminating Engineering Society of North America U.S. Green Building Council U.S. Department of Energy

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ISBN 978-1-936504-05-3

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30329 www.ashrae.org

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Printed on 10% post-consumer waste using soy-based inks.

Cover design and illustrations by Emily Luce, Designer. Cover photographs courtesy of ASHRAE and Michael Lane.

ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.

No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—with- out permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at www.ashrae.org/permissions.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Advanced energy design guide for small to medium office buildings : achieving 50% energy savings toward a net zero energy building / American

Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers p. cm. Includes bibliographical references.

...

[et al.].

Summary: "Designed to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings over the minimum code requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for small to medium office buildings; allows contractors, consulting engineers, architects, and designers to easily achieve advanced levels of energy savings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analyses"--Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-936504-05-3 (softcover : alk. paper)

  • 1. Office buildings--Energy conservation. 2. Office buildings--Design and construction. I. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Conditioning Engineers.

TJ163.5.O35A38 2011

725'.0472--dc22

2011006680

ASHRAE STAFF

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS

Mark Owen

Editor/Group Manager of Handbook and Special Publications

Cindy Sheffield Michaels

Managing Editor

James Madison Walker

Associate Editor

Elisabeth Parrish

Assistant Editor

Michshell Phillips

Editorial Coordinator

PUBLISHING SERVICES

David Soltis

Group Manager of Publishing Services and Electronic Communications

Jayne Jackson

Publication Traffic Administrator

PUBLISHER

W. Stephen Comstock

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Contents

Acknowledgments .

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. Foreword: A Message for Building Owners and Developers

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ix

xi

xv

Chapter 1 Introduction

1

Goal of this Guide

2

Scope

2

How to Use this Guide

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4

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7

Principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)

 

8

Using IPD to Maximize Energy Efficiency

 

10

Details by Project Phase

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11

References .

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19

Chapter 3

Integrated Design Strategies

21

Introduction .

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21

22

Building and Site Design Features

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Climate Features

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23

Building

Features.

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34

Envelope

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34

Lighting .

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37

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

vi

| Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

 

Plug

Loads .

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Service Water Heating

 

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HVAC Systems

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41

HVAC Controls

 

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43

Quality Assurance

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44

Multidisciplinary Coordination for Energy Efficiency

 

44

Overview .

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Multidisciplinary Recommendations

 

45

Use of Energy Modeling as Design Guidance

 

63

References

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67

Chapter 4

Design Strategies and Recommendations by Climate Zone

 

71

Introduction .

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71

Climate-Related Design Strategies

 

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Hot, Humid Climates (Miami, Houston, Atlanta)

 

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Hot, Dry Climates (Phoenix, Los Angeles, Las Vegas)

 

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Mild, Humid Climates (Baltimore)

 

74

Mild, Dry Climates (Albuquerque)

75

Marine Climates (San Francisco, Seattle)

 

75

Cold, Dry Climates (Denver, Helena)

 

76

Cold Climates (Chicago, Minneapolis)

 

77

Climate Zone Recommendations

 

78

Zone 1

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Zone 2

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Zone 3

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Zone 4

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Zone 6

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96

Zone 7

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Zone 8

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102

References .

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105

Chapter 5

How to Implement Recommendations

 

107

Envelope .

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107

Opaque Envelope Components

 

107

Vertical Fenestration

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121

Window Design Guidelines for Thermal Conditions

 

122

Window Design Guidelines for Daylighting

 

125

References .

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126

Daylighting .

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127

General Recommendations

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127

References .

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139

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Contents

|

vii

 

Electric

Lighting .

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140

Interior Lighting

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140

Exterior

Lighting .

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151

References and Resources

 

154

Plug Loads

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155

Equipment and Control Guidelines

 

155

References and Resources

 

156

Service Water Heating

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158

General Recommendations

 

158

Resources .

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160

HVAC Systems and Equipment

 

161

HVAC System Types

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161

HVAC System Considerations

 

170

References and Resources

 

184

Quality Assurance .

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186

Overview .

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186

References and Resources

 

189

Additional Bonus

 

190

Daylighting—Toplighting

 

190

Natural Ventilation

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193

Renewable

Energy .

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194

References .

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197

Appendix A

Envelope Thermal Performance Factors

 

199

Appendix B

International Climatic Zone Definitions

 

201

Definitions.

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