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International Security Studies

TERRORISM
Mohamed Thaj 5307559 Institute of Diplomacy and International Studies Rangsit University

Contents

I. II.

Terrorism History of Terrorism Terrorism in the early years The Origins of Modern Terrorism International Terrorism Terrorism in Twenty First Century The Definition League of Nations Convention UN General Assembly Resolution United Nations Security Council Resolution UNODC Conventions Multilateral Conventions OAS Convention European Convention SAARC Convention Arab Convention OIC Convention OAU Convention CIS Treaty United States Department of Defense Federal Bureau of Investigation United States Law Code Terrorism Act 2000, UK Types of Terrorism State Terrorism Bioterrorism Cyberterrorism Ecoterrorism Nuclear terrorism Narcoterrorism Realistic Perspective in Terrorism Conclusion Reference

1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 15

III.

IV.

16 17 17 18 18 19 19 22 i

V. VI.

TERRORISM
Terrorism, the word which makes the headlines in the media all around the world, which had made and is making an impact in the present day society, is not something new. It has long exited as early in the time, which has caused rise and fall of great kingdoms allowing people to gain power in the region. Terrorism acquired new face with the 9/11 incident, is what have been in existence long ago, history of terrorism in this paper will give a brief description on the early terrorism and to the post-9/11 terrorism. this will also focus on different ways people around the world tried to classify terrorism, with different types of terrorism. This paper will focus terrorism in a realistic approach view.

History of Terrorism

Terrorism in the early years

The acts of terrorism is dated back as long as the 1st Century BCE, where Sicarii, Jewish Zealots group, who carried out murders and assassinations Romans and their collaborators with short daggers in an attempt to end Roman direct rule over the Jews by expelling them from Judea. While through the 11th to the 13th Century a secretive Islamic sect active in Iran and Syria, the Hashhashin, executed assassinations of Abbasid and The Seljuk Turkss political figures which terrorized their generations.

Both the Sicarii and Hashhashin were not really terrorists group when in the modern sense. Terrorism is best thought of as a modern phenomenon. Its characteristics

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flow from the international system of nation-states, and its success depends on the existence of a mass media to create an aura of terror among many people.1

The Origins of Modern Terrorism

The first use of the word terrorism was during the period of the French Revolution. Terrorism comes in 1793 from the Reign of Terror by one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution Maximilien Franois Marie Isidore de Robespierre, had enemies of the French revolution killed, and installed a dictatorship to stabilize the country. He believed Subdue by terror the enemies of liberty, and you will be right, as founders of the Republic2 and it was necessary in the transformation of the monarchy to a liberal democracy. His sentiment laid the foundations for modern terrorists, who believe violence will usher in a better system.

The idea of terrorism of Ireland terrorist model was used as an attack against an existing political order which was taken up by numerous nationalist movements through the world. In between the two world wars, terrorism was associated with independence and far-right terrorist movement. During this period, many states manipulated various movements in order to weaken their oppositions or opponent. The period following it was manifested by a common will to overturn the system and upset the status quo. During and after the Second World War, terrorism was organized in support of certain resistance movements.

about.com, The History of Terrorism; http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/p/Terrorism.htm

Fordham University: Modern History Sourcebook: Maximilien Robespierre, Justification of the Use of Terror, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/robespierre-terror.html

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International Terrorism

During the late 19th century, radical political theories and improvements in weapons technology spurred the formation of small groups of revolutionaries who effectively attacked nation-states. Terrorism in the sense of nationalism grew throughout the world in which the nation and the political state were combined. As states began to emphasize national identities, peoples that had been conquered or colonized could opt for assimilation or struggle3.

Most terrorist groups justified violence with a deep belief in the necessity and justice of their cause. Terrorism in the United States also emerged with groups such as the Weathermen grew out of the non-violent group Students for a Democratic Society turned to violent tactics, from rioting to setting off bombs, to protest the Vietnam War4.

Terrorism in Twenty First Century: Religious Terrorism and Beyond

During 1990s saw the emergence of new face of the world of terrorism, the rise religiously motivated terrorism is considered the most alarming terrorist threat today. Not just groups that justify their violence on Islamic grounds but also Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and other religions have given rise to their own forms of militant extremism. These terrorists movements organized in networks have a cause, which is not confined to any one state and whose adherents were willing to commit suicide if they could thereby inflict carnage and destruction on their adversaries. Since their aims were vague and apocalyptic, there was little scope for any kind of compromise or negotiation.

Early History of Terrorism http://www.terrorism-research.com/history/early.php about.com, The History of Terrorism; http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/p/Terrorism.htm

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These terrorist can be termed as violent extremists who manipulate religious concepts for their own purposes.

The Definition

There is no single official definition for terrorism, that have been agreed by the nations, or organizations throughout the world, and definitions of terrorism inclined to depend heavily on who is doing the defining it and for what purpose. Terrorism has been defined by some on focusing on the group of terrorist and while others have defined it methods of terrorist attacks. Yet others look at the context and ask if it is military or not. One researcher did a review of writing on terrorism and found 109 different definitions5.

The only defining quality of terrorism may be the fact that it invites argument, since the label "terrorism" or "terrorist" arises when there is disagreement over whether an act of violence is justified. Louise Richardson commented that The only universally accepted attribute of the term terrorism is that it pejorative. Terrorism is something that bad guys do.6 This view is powerfully challenged by the slogan one mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighter.7 To facilitate prosecution on terrorist in their acts and to differentiate violent acts from war and other kinds of violence that disregard both global, international and domestic institutions, there have been a need to define the term terrorism.

US Army Training and Doctrine Command, A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century (US Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2007) Louise Richardson, What Terrorist Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat (New York: Random House, 2006) Stephen Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

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League of Nations Convention

To encourage world stability and peace due to ethnic violence, earliest attempts in defining the word terrorism in international arena made during the time of League of Nations where it proposed 1937 Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism, which never entered into force, defined "acts of terrorism" as "criminal acts directed against a State and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or a group of persons or the general public"8

Moreover, the International community has been slow to formulate a universally agreed; legally binding definition of this crime but United Nations has never succeeded in developing an accepted comprehensive definition of terrorism. Although the United Nations attempted to define the term during the 1970s and 1980s but struggle to come up with one mainly due to differences of opinion between various members about the use of violence in the context of conflicts over national liberation and self-determination. Some broad political definitions of terrorism have been put forward by some United Nations Organs in corresponded to the criminal law codification.

UN General Assembly Resolution

The non-binding United Nations Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, annexed to the UN General Assembly Resolution 51/210, condemned terrorist activities On December 17, 1996, as " (1) The States Members of the United Nations solemnly reaffirm their unequivocal condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism as criminal and unjustifiable,

1937 Convention For The Prevention And Punishment Of Terrorism, League of Nations

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wherever and by whomsoever committed, including those that jeopardize friendly relations among States and peoples and threaten the territorial integrity and security of States; (2) The States Members of the United Nations reaffirm that acts, methods and practices of terrorism are contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations; they declare that knowingly financing, planning and inciting terrorist acts are also contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations; (3) Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them."9 Antonio Casses, the first President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), argued that the language contained in the United Nations Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, sets out an acceptable definition of terrorism."10

United Nations Security Council Resolution

In 2004, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 condemned terrorist acts as criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act, which constitute offences within the scope of and as defined in the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, are under no circumstances

United Nations General Assembly; A/RES/51/210 Measures to eliminate international terrorist; http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r210.htm

Wikipedia: Definitions of Terrorism, Definition of Terrorism in other UN decisions; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_terrorism#Definitions_of_terrorism_in_other_UN_decisions

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justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature,"11

UNODC Conventions

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has come up on several universal conventions, international agreements and protocols against terrorism signed since 1963. Although many states have not signed them, all seek to create consensus that certain acts count as terrorism with the purpose to create processes to prosecute them in signatory countries. United Nations conventions deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations include 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, with 25 signatories and 17 state parties12; 1979 International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages, with 29 signatories and 168 state parties13; 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, with 58 signatories and 164 state parties14; 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, with 132 signatories and 173 state parties15; 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, with 115 signatories and 76 state parties16,17

11 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004), Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts; http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=S/RES/1566%20(2004)&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC

1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents
13

12

1979 International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

14

15

16

17 United Nations, Treaty Series: Text and Status of the United Nations Conventions on Terrorism, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/DB.aspx?path=DB/studies/page2_en.xml

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Multilateral Conventions

Other multilateral conventions that depositaries in different agency includes 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization, with 40 signatories and 185 state parties18; 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, deposited with the Governments of the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America; 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, deposited with the Governments of the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America; 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, deposited with the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with 45 signatories and 145 state parties19; Protocol on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation 1988, deposited with the Governments of the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and with the Secretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization; 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization; Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation 2005, deposited with the SecretaryGeneral of the International Maritime Organization; Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf 1988, deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization; Protocol to the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located

18

1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

19

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on the Continental Shelf 2005, deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization; 1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization; 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, with 164 state parties; 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in resolution 54/109 of 9 December 1999.20

OAS Convention

1971 OAS Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance, deposited with the Secretary-General of the Organization of American State, stress on terrorism in the article 2, deals with kidnapping, murder, and other assaults against the life or personal integrity of those persons to whom the state has the duty to give special protection according to international law, as well as extortion in connection with those crimes, shall be considered common crimes of international significance, regardless of motive.21

European Convention

Aware of the growing concern caused by the increase in acts of terrorism, to achieve a greater unity between the member states of the Council of Europe

20 United Nations, Treaty Series: Text and Status of the United Nations Conventions on Terrorism, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/DB.aspx?path=DB/studies/page2_en.xml

21 1971 OAS Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance

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wishing to take effective measures to ensure that the perpetrators of such acts do not escape prosecution and punishment; put forward The 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, stress on article 1 For the purposes of extradition between Contracting States, none of the following offences shall be regarded as a political offence or as an offence connected with a political offence or as an offence inspired by political motives, (a) an offence within the scope of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970;(b) an offence within the scope of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 23 September 1971; (c) a serious offence involving an attack against the life, physical integrity or liberty of internationally protected persons, including diplomatic agents;(d) an offence involving kidnapping, the taking of a hostage or serious unlawful detention; (e) an offence involving the use of a bomb, grenade, rocket, automatic firearm or letter or parcel bomb if this use endangers persons;(f) an attempt to commit any of the foregoing offences or participation as an accomplice of a person who commits or attempts to commit such an offence.22

SAARC Convention

1987 SAARC Regional Convention on suppression of Terrorism, deposited with the Secretary-General of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, The Member States Of The South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation (SAARC) with aware of the danger posed by the spread of terrorism and its harmful effect on peace, cooperation, friendship and good neighbourly relations and which could also jeopardise the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states to take effective measures to ensure that perpetrators of terroristic acts do not escape prosecution and punishment by

22

1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, Council of Europe

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providing for their extradition or prosecution, and to this end, have agreed as terrorism acts as described in the Article I of the convention as Subject to the overall requirements of the law of extradition, conduct constituting any of the following offences, according to the law of the Contracting State, shall be regarded as terroristic and for the purpose of extradition shall not be regarded as a political offence or as an offence connected with a political offence or as an offence inspired by political motives; (a) An offence within the scope of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at the Hague on December 16, 1970; (b) An offence within the scope of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on September 23, 1971; (c) An offence within the scope of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, signed at New York on December 14, 1973; (d) An offence within the scope of any Convention to which the SAARC member States concerned are parties and which obliges the parties to prosecute or grant extradition; (e) Murder, manslaughter, assault causing bodily harm, kidnapping, hostage-taking and offences relating to firearms, weapons, explosives and dangerous substances when used as a means to perpetrate indiscriminate violence involving death or serious bodily injury to persons or serious damage to property; (f) An attempt or conspiracy to commit an offence described in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), aiding, abetting or counselling the commission of such an offence or participating as an accomplice in the offences so described.23

Arab Convention

1998 Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism, adopted by the Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior and the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice in

23

1987 SAARC Regional Convention on suppression of Terrorism

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Cairo, Egypt define Terrorism as Any act or threat of violence, whatever its motives or purposes, that occurs in the advancement of an individual or collective criminal agenda and seeking to sow panic among people, causing fear by harming them, or placing their lives, liberty or security in danger, or seeking to cause damage to the environment or to public or private installations or property or to occupying or seizing them, or seeking to jeopardize a national resources.24

OIC Convention

1999 Convention of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism, deposited with the Secretary-General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, defines Terrorism as any act of violence or threat thereof, notwithstanding its motives or intentions, perpetrated to carry out an individual or collective criminal plan with the aim of terrorizing people, or threatening to harm them or imperiling their lives, honor, freedoms, security or rights, or exposing the environment or any facility or public or private property to hazards or occupying or seizing them or endangering a natural resource or international facilities or threatening their stability, territorial integrity, political unity, and sovereignty of independent states, and it defines Terrorist Crime means any crime executed, started or participated in to realize a terrorist objective in any of the Contracting States or against its nationals, assets or interests or foreign facilities and nationals residing in its territory punishable by its internal law.25

24

1998 Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism 1999 Convention of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism

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OAU Convention

1999 OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, deposited with the General Secretariat of the Organization of African Unity, explains terrorist act in the article 3 of the conventions as (a) any act which is a violation of the criminal laws of a State Party and which may endanger the life, physical integrity or freedom of, or cause serious injury or death to, any person, any number or group of persons or causes or may cause damage to public or private property, natural resources, environmental or cultural heritage and is calculated or intended to: (i) intimidate, put in fear, coerce or induce any government, body, institution, the general public or any segment thereof, to do or abstain from doing any act, or to adopt or abandon a particular standpoint, or to act according to certain principles; or (ii) disrupt any public service, the delivery of an essential service to the public or to create a public emergency; or (iii) create general insurrection in a State. (b) any promotion, sponsoring, contribution to, command, aid, incitement, encouragement, attempt, threat, conspiracy, organizing, or procurement of any person, with the intent to commit any act referred to in paragraph (a) (i) to (iii).26

CIS Treaty

1999 Treaty on Cooperation among States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Terrorism, deposited with the Secretariat of the Commonwealth of Independent States, defines Terrorism as an illegal act punishable under criminal law committed for the purpose of undermining public safety, influencing decision-making by the authorities or terrorizing the population, and taking the form of : Violence or the threat of violence against natural or juridical person; Destroying

26

1999 OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism

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(damaging) or threatening to destroy (damage) property and other material objects so as to endanger peoples lives; Causing substantial harm to property or the occurrence of other consequences dangerous to society; Threatening the life of a statesman or public figure for the purpose of putting an end to his State or other public activity or in revenge for such activity; Attacking a representative of a foreign State or an internationally protected staff member of an international organization, as well as the business premises or vehicles of internationally protected persons; Other acts classified as terrorist under the national legislation of the Parties or under universally recognized international legal instruments aimed at combating terrorism; 27

United States Department of Defense

United States Department of Defense define terrorism in reference to military terms as The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.28

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation of United States defines terrorism as The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.29

27

1999 Treaty on Cooperation among States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Terrorism The Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms; http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/

28 29 The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Definition of Terrorism; http://www2.fbi.gov/publications/terror/terror2000_2001.htm

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United States Law Code

United States Law Code, which governs the entire United States, contains a definition of terrorism in Title 22, Ch.38, and Paragraph. 2656f embedded in its requirement that Annual Country reports on Terrorism be submitted by the Secretary of State to Congress every year, defines as As used in this section - (1) the term international terrorism means terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than 1 country;(2) the term terrorism means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents;(3) the term terrorist group means any group, or which has significant subgroups which practice, international terrorism;(4) the terms territory and territory of the country mean the land, waters, and airspace of the country; and (5) the terms terrorist sanctuary and sanctuary mean an area in the territory of the country (A) that is used by a terrorist or terrorist organization (i) to carry out terrorist activities, including training, fundraising, financing, and recruitment; or (ii) as a transit point; and (B) the government of which expressly consents to, or with knowledge, allows, tolerates, or disregards such use of its territory and is not subject to a determination under (i) section 2405(j)(1)(A) of the Appendix to title 50; (ii) section 2371 (a) of this title; or (iii) section 2780 (d) of this title.30

Terrorism Act 2000, UK

The United Kingdom's Terrorism Act 2000 defined terrorism as (1) In this Act "terrorism" means the use or threat of action where:(a) the action falls within subsection (2), (b) the use or threat is designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public and (c) the use or threat is made for the purpose of

30

United States Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para. 2656f(d)

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advancing a political, religious or ideological cause. (2) Action falls within this subsection if it: (a) involves serious violence against a person, (b) involves serious damage to property, (c) endangers a person's life, other than that of the person committing the action, (d) creates a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public or (e) is designed seriously to interfere with or seriously to disrupt an electronic system.31 The Terrorism Act 2000 defines terrorism so as to include not only violent offences against persons and physical damage to property, but also acts "designed seriously to interfere with or to seriously disrupt an electronic system" if those acts are (a) designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public, and (b) be done for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause.32

Types of Terrorism

Terrorism can be classified in to 6 different categories.

State Terrorism

State terrorism is as controversial a concept as that of terrorism itself. Terrorism is often, though not always, defined in terms of four characteristics: (1) the threat or use of violence; (2) a political objective; the desir to change the status quo; (3) the intention to spread fear by committing spectacular public acts; (4) the intentional targeting of civilians. It is this last element--targeting innocent civilians-- that stands out in efforts to distinguish state terrorism from other forms of state violence. Declaring war and sending the

31

Terrorism Act 2000, United Kingdom Wikipedia; Definition of Terrorism, United Kingdom; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_terrorism

32

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military to fight other militaries is not terrorism, nor is the use of violence to punish criminals who have been convicted of violent crimes.33

Bioterrorism

Bioterrorism refers to the intentional release of toxic biological agents to harm and terrorize civilians, in the name of a political or other cause. The U.S. Center for Disease Control has defined bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot.34

Cyberterrorism

In

cyber

terrorism,

Terrorist

use

of internet based

attacks

in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses. Cyberterrorism can also be defined much more generally as

33

about.com; State Terrorism - - A Definition of State Terrorism; http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/a/StateTerrorism.htm 34 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bioterrorism Overview, , 2008-02-12, retrieved 2009-05-22

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any computer

crime targeting computer

networks without

necessarily

affecting

real

world infrastructure, property, or lives.35

Ecoterrorism

Eco-terrorism usually of terrorism, violence or sabotage committed in

refers support

to

acts

of ecological, environmental,

or animal rights causes against persons or their property.36 Eco-terrorism is defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as "the use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against people or property by an environmentally oriented, subnational group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often of a symbolic nature."37

Nuclear terrorism

"Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. These include attacking nuclear facilities, purchasing nuclear weapons, or building nuclear weapons or otherwise finding ways to disperse radioactive materials. According to 2005 United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Nuclear terrorism denotes the use, or threat of the use, of nuclear weapons or radiological weapons in acts of terrorism, including attacks against facilities where radioactive materials are present.38 In legal terms, nuclear terrorism is an offense committed if a person unlawfully and intentionally uses in any way

35

Wikipedia: Cyberterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberterrorism Wikipedia: Ecoterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecoterrorism Federal Bureau of Investigation; Congressional Testimony, http://www2.fbi.gov/congress/congress02/jarboe021202.htm 2005 United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

36

37

38

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radioactive material with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; or with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or to the environment; or with the intent to compel a natural or legal person, an international organization or a State to do or refrain from doing an act39

Narcoterrorism

Narcoterrorism has had several meanings since its coining in 1983. Narcoterrorism is understood to mean the attempts of narcotics traffickers to influence the policies of a government or a society through violence and intimidation, and to hinder the enforcement of the law and the administration of justice by the systematic threat or use of such violence40. In the last several years, narcoterrorism has been used to indicate situations in which terrorist groups use drug trafficking to fund their other operations.

Realistic Perspective in Terrorism

International Political theories offer differing viewpoints on terrorism. Varieties of reasons lie behind for the purpose of terrorist activities by terrorist groups or individuals. Paul R Pillar, veteran of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a visiting professor at Georgetown University for security studies and a member of the Center for Peace and Security Studies, chief of analysis at the Agency's Counterterrorist Center (CTC) in 199341 lists political or diplomatic disruption, influencing the behavior of a fearful

39

2005 United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism Wikipedia; NarcoTerrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narcoterrorism Wikipedia, Paul R Pillar ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Pillar

40

41

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population, leverage for bargaining, provoking a government into reacting harshly and indiscriminately, showing the flag, revenge, simple hatred, and the carrying out of a divine mandate as reasons for terrorist activity.42 Revenge against a real or perceived injustice has been means for several terrorist groups to have used terrorism. The problem with identifying terrorism as a criminal matter is that it limits the range of options available for combating it to those available to law enforcement agencies.

Realism posits that states are the only actors within the international system. According to the realist approach, international affairs is a struggle for power among self-interested states and is generally pessimistic about the prospects for eliminating conflict and war.43 States seek to preserve their power through the use of military force, or war. According to Andrew Fiala, From a realist perspective, war is a necessary expedient for preserving power44

Most of the terrorist organizations are transnational actors, operating within the international system which case the states to react to them and visa versa and most of them are actively engaged in military-type campaigns against multiple nations and cultures are well equipped and well trained. Andrew Fiala states Terrorism is an international problem involving international victims and perpetrators as well as targets involved in international activities such as airliners and embassies.45

42

Paul R Pillar, Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001 Stephen M Walt, International Relations: One World, Many Theories, Spring, 1998

43

44 Andrew Gordon Fiala, Terrorism and the Philosophy of History: Liberalism, Realism and the Supreme Emergency Exemption, 2002

Andrew Gordon Fiala, Terrorism and the Philosophy of History: Liberalism, Realism and the Supreme Emergency Exemption, 2002

45

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In realistic perspective it is necessary to determine who is responsible for the acts of violence committed, as realists view the state is the main actor in international relations. In order to define terrorism in realistic perspective a connection between acts of terrorism and a state responsible for the acts of terrorism must be established. The leaders of the states view terrorism as part of the struggle for self-preservation and power among states. The designation of terrorists as agents of a state is important for realist theory to be applied. Supporters of targeting states in the war against terrorismsay that a strategy that only focuses on groups and individuals is doomed to fail because terrorists depend upon government support46 stressed David Masci and Kenneth Jost.

Realism is really all about the relations among states, especially among great powers. In fact, al Qaeda is not a state, it's a non-state actor, which is sometimes called a transnational actor. My theory and virtually all Realist theories don't have much to say about transnational actors. However, there is no question that terrorism is a phenomenon that will play itself out in the context of the international system. So it will be played out in the state arena, and, therefore, all of the Realist logic about state behavior will have a significant effect on how the war on terrorism is fought. So Realism and terrorism are inextricably linked, although I do think that Realism does not have much to say about the causes of terrorism47 answered John Mearsheimer when interviewed with the question What does a realist theory of international politics have to say about terrorists?

The objective of war is to preserve power and a way of life against those who are bent on disrupting power and destroying this way of life. The goal of selfreservation takes over from all other concerns. From this perspective, terrorism might be

David Masci, and Kenneth Jost, War on terrorism: can the U.S. contain the global terrorist threat? Congressional Quarterly, inc, 2001
47 John Mearsheimer Interview: Conversations with History; Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley, The Problem of Terrorism, http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people2/Mearsheimer/mearsheimer-con5.html 46

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justifies in the struggle against a political power that is viewed as a threat to ones way of life. In the same way that a no-limits war against terrorism might be justified as an attempt by the other side to preserve power and its way of life. History has shown that the use of force and violence is occasionally necessary for those in power to preserve power and their way of life.48

By approaching terrorism as part of the overall struggle among states for power and self-preservation and by dealing terrorists as agents of a state that supports or sponsors terrorism, Realism offers a reasonable approach for states to deal with terrorism by using military force to exert power and defeat the terrorist enemy.

Conclusion

Realists focus on the role of the state as the key actor on the international political stage and recognize that all states are locked in a constant struggle for power and self-preservation. Without support from a network of states that aid them as part of their struggle for power, terrorists cannot sustain their activities. Realists recognize the relationship between the people committing acts of terror and the states that support and sponsor them. Terrorism is part of a larger battle, and war can only be answered with war. Carr says, The successful answer to the terrorist threatlies in the formulation of a comprehensive, progressive strategy that can address all terrorist threats with the only coercive measures that have ever affected or moderated terrorist behavior: preemptive military offensives aimed at making not only terrorists but the states that harbor, supply, and

48 Andrew Gordon Fiala, Terrorism and the Philosophy of History: Liberalism, Realism and the Supreme Emergency Exemption, 2002

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otherwise assist them experience the same perpetual insecurity that they attempt to make their victims feel49. Realism provides the answer to the terrorist threat. Realists recognize that there can be no accommodation with terrorists or terrorist states. Violence of this sort can only be met with violence. Walt conclude, Although many academics (and more than a few policymakers) are loathe to admit it, realism remains the most compelling general framework for understanding international relations50

49

Caleb Carr, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians. New York: Random House, 2002 Stephen M Walt, International Relations: One World, Many Theories, Spring, 1998

50

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References
Conventions 1937 Convention for The Prevention And Punishment Of Terrorism, League of Nations 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation 1971 OAS Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance 1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents 1977 European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, Council of Europe 1979 International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material 1987 SAARC Regional Convention on suppression of Terrorism 1988 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation 1991 Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings 1998 Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism 1999 Convention of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism 1999 OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism 1999 Treaty on Cooperation among States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Terrorism

2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf 1988 Protocol on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation 1988 Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation 2005 Protocol to the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf 2005 Terrorism Act 2000, United Kingdom

Internet Links about.com, Definitions of terrorism, http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/ss/DefineTerrorism.htm about.com, The History of Terrorism, http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/p/Terrorism.htm about.com: State Terrorism, http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/a/StateTerrorism.htm about.com, Types of Terrorism, http://terrorism.about.com/od/whatisterroris1/tp/DefiningTerrorism.htm associatedcontent.com: Differing Viewpoints: Realism, Liberalism and the Phenomenon of Terrorism, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/40654/differing_viewpoints_realism_liberal ism.html?cat=37 British Broadcasting Cooperation (BBC): The Changing Faces of Terrorism, Professor Adam Roberts, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/sept_11/changing_faces_01.shtml Columbia International Affairs Online: Convention of the Organisation of The Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism, http://www.ciaonet.org/cbr/cbr00/video/cbr_ctd/cbr_ctd_25.html Council of Europe: European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/090.htm

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EBSCO Publishing, Conor Cruise O'Brien, Liberalism and Terror, http://ebscohost.com. Fordham University: Modern History Sourcebook: Maximilien Robespierre, Justification of the Use of Terror, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/robespierre-terror.html Humboldt State University; Andrew Fiala, Terrorism and the Philosophy of History: Liberalism, Realism and the Supreme Emergency Exemption, http://www.humboldt.edu Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs: The Evolution of International Law and the War on Terrorism, http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief2-14.htm Mount Holyoke College, Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/morg6.htm ParaPundit: Terrorism and the Assumptions of Classical Liberalism, http://www.parapundit.com/archives/000970.html. Scribd: Terrorism, http://www.scribd.com/doc/3034572/TERRORISM-introduction Terrorism Research, Early History of Terrorism, http://www.terrorism-research.com/history/early.php The Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms; http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/ The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Definition of Terrorism; http://www2.fbi.gov/publications/terror/terror2000_2001.htm The Institure of International Studies: The University if California, Berkeley; John Mearsheimer Interview: Conversations with History, http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people2/Mearsheimer/mearsheimer-con5.html United Nations General Assembly; A/RES/51/210 Measures to eliminate international terrorist; http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r210.htm United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Treaty on Cooperation among the States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Terrorism, 1999, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,CIS,,,47fdfb290,0.html

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004), Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts; http://daccessods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=S/RES/1566%20(2004)&Lang=E&Area=UND OC United Nations, Treaty Series: Text and Status of the United Nations Conventions on Terrorism, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/DB.aspx?path=DB/studies/page2_en.xml United Nations: UN Action To Counter Terrorism, http://www.un.org/terrorism/instruments.shtml United Nations: UN General Assembly, Measures to eliminate international terrorism, http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r210.htm United Nations: UN Security http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions04.html Wikipedia, Paul R Pillar, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Pillar Wikipedia: Bioterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioterrorism Wikipedia: Cyberterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberterrorism Wikipedia: Definitions of Terrorism, Definition of Terrorism in other UN decisions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_terrorism#Definitions_of_terrorism_in_ot her_UN_decisions Wikipedia: Ecoterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecoterrorism Wikipedia: Narcoterrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narcoterrorism Wikipedia: Nuclear Terrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_terrorism Wikipedia: Terrorism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism Wikipedia; Definition of Terrorism, United Kingdom; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definitions_of_terrorism Council, Resolutions,

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Publications Andrew Gordon Fiala, Terrorism and the Philosophy of History: Liberalism, Realism and the Supreme Emergency Exemption, 2002 Benjamin Netanyahu, Fighting Terrorism, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2001 Caleb Carr, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare Against Civilians. New York: Random House, 2002 Christian Walter, Silja Vneky, Volker Rben, Frank Schorkopf (eds), Terrorism as a Challenge for National and International Law: Security versus Liberty?, Springer 2004 Connor Cruse O'Brien, Liberalism and Terror. National Review, Vol. 48 Issue 7, 1996 David Masci, and Kenneth Jost, War on terrorism: can the U.S. contain the global terrorist threat? Congressional Quarterly, inc, 2001 David Masciand Kenneth Jost, War on Terrorism, In G.P. Hastedt (Ed.), American Foreign Policy 02/03, Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin Grard Chaliand, Arnaud Blin The History Of Terrorism: From Antiquity To AlQaeda, University of California Press, 2007 Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, Fifth Edition, Revised, 1978 Louise Richardson, What Terrorist Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat Random House New York, 2006 Paul R Pillar, Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001 Randall Parker, (2003). Terrorism and the Assumptions of Classical Liberalism, 2003 Robert Farkasch, Online Lectures on Realism and Liberalism, Political Science 5551, (2004) Stephen M Walt, International Relations: One World, Many Theories, Spring, 1998 Stephen Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War, Cambridge University Press New York, 2010 Walter Laqueur, History of Terrorism: Walter Laqueur with a new introduction by the author Transaction Publishers, 2001
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bioterrorism Overview, 2008-02-12, retrieved 2009-05-22 Issue in Terrorism and Homeland Security: Selection from CQ Researcher (2nd Edition), sage Publications, Inc United States Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para. 2656f(d) US Army Training and Doctrine Command, A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, US Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2007

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