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Pllnitz, Karl Ludwig von (1692-1775). The memoirs of Charles Lewis baron de Pollnitz.

, being the observations he made in his late travels from Prussia thro' Germany, Italy, France, Flanders, Holland, England, etc., in letters to his friend, discovering not only the present state of the chief cities and towns, but the characters of the principal persons at the several courts. The second edition, with additions. 1739.

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THE ME M O OF I RS

The OBSERVATIONS He madelrfis ^^fat^AAVELs from PruJJiathro'


1, -1~ s ..a 1 1

CHAR LES-LE WIS, Baron de Pollnitz. B E I N G~3~ ;rf^t]


FI4ANDERS* HOLLAND,
Friend.

ENGLAND, &c.

^pMTTERSto his

S Hfcovering only PRESE+'V'T TAT E not the C tlf? i <f Chieif itesandTowns BUT TheCHARACTERSofthePRcMAi.pBasoNs atthSewral COURTS. In TWO VOLUMES. TheSecond Edition, with Additiovs. 7~ 0 0 S P^td for DanielBrowns,at theBlack wan, N..DCC.xD:eXe ~choUt_r"

To the Right Honourable

PHILIP,

Lord

Hardwicke

in the Baron of Hardwicke^ of Gloycefler-y County LORD HlGH CHANCELLOR of Great Britain $
AND

One of the Lords of HisMajefty moft 's Honourable Privy Council.


MY Lord,

THE

good Reception thefe Memoirs, which 1 moft humbly offer to your Lordfhip, have met with Abroad; and the Protection and Favour the Author has obtain'd at one of the Chief Proteftant Courts of EURO encourageme, tho' PE with the profoundeft SubmTion, to intrea^ your Lor.dfhip'sfavourableAcceptance of this Tranflation
A 2 'Tis,

iv

DEDICATION.

'Tis, my Lord, the only Homage I am capable of paying your Lordfhip, and the beft Teftimony I can give with what Zeal and Pleafure I join in the Congratulation of the Public for that illuftrious Regard paid to your Lordfhip's Merit, and Their Wiflies,by hisSACREDMAjESTY,thisDayinCouncU. That your Lordftiip may very long enjoy a fufncientPortion of Health, equal to the Abilities of your Great Mind, for fupporting you under that tft Weight of Servicewhich you have now taken upon you for your King and Country, is the heartyPrayer of ail good and ENGLISHMEN; particularlyofHm, My LoRD, who has the Honour to fubfcribe
YOUR LORDSHIP'S

Mofi

Devoted,

Mofi Obedient,and Mofi HumbleServant

PREFACE, By the T r a n s l a t o r.

E Author of thefe Metnoirs^ who H is a Perfon of an honourable Family in Truffa, and confefs'd by all that know him to bc a Gentleman of extraordinary Talents, is one that may be truly faid to have feen the World he having not only travell'd twice thro' the principal Parts of Europe, but by his Acquaintance with People of the firft Rank, and a diligent Inquiry and nice Infpeftion into Men and Things, attaincd to that Knowledge of Both, which is of fuch Service and Entertainment to Mankind in the general, and fo particularly neceffary for AU who attend to what is doing in high Life. He has fucceeded very happily in the right Narrative Stile; and the French Language, in which he wrotc the following Letters, feems to be as natural to him as if it w;s his MothcrTongue. But the Thing which has moft contributed to the Demand for thefe Memoirs, is the Multitude of Characrs that the Baron has interfpers'd, not only of the Dcccas'd, but even

A t>? 3

*he

TrnslatorV

of Perfons that are tlill living, and diftinguifh'd by the exalted Spheres in whrh they move. That every one of thofe Charaers is equally juft, or that every Circumftance relating to them is told with the utmoft Exa&nefs, is not to be imagin'd For fuppofing the Author to have been ever fo circumfpe: and imparrial, how was it poffible for him to take the true Likenefs of every one, in fuch Vaticty of Perfonages of both Sexes, and to be perfe&ly furc of every Particular that he mentions fince he could not be Eye-Witnefs of every thing, and muft be oblig'd for many to Information from other Perfons, of whom, 'tis no wonder if fome wcre prejudic'd ? But to do the Baron Jufticc, it muft be allow'd, that he no where fails in that Refpc: and Decorum to Princes which are their due and that he has not difcover'd a predominant Pcflion for Satire becaufe where he has painted in the ftrongeft Colour^ and reprefented his Subjefts in the moft difadvantageous Ligbt, they were fuch whofe Follies or whofe Victs were too flagrant and notorious to be eithcr conceal'd or difguis'd And) confderlng the Groupe of Courtiers whom he has erouded into his Canvafs, the Reader will rather be furpris'd to meet with fo few Imperfections in his Charafters, and fo many excellent Qualities. By this means, his Memoirs have, upon the whole, donc Honour to his Underftanding, without oifending his Confcicnce, or hurting his For-

tunef

P R E F A C E.

vil

tune he being, at this very time, upon a handfome EftablHhment at the Court oifPrujJia. It cannot poffibly efcape the Obfervation of the Reader, that the Baron, when he wrote thefe Lettcrs to his noble Friend, ws a profefs'd Member of the Church of Rome but that neverthelefs, he was not fuch a Bigot to its Cbnftitution, nor fuch a Believer in the Legends of its Writers, or the pretended Miracles of its Saints, as to incur the Characlec of a blind and furiotis Zealot it appearing on the contrary, from feveral Declarations of his Mirid in the following Pages, that he did not want Charity cither in his Nature or Principlcs for thofe from whom he differ'd in religions Sentiments. Such a Catholic Spirit, affted by his good Sente, made it, rio doubt, much eafier for him, after refle&ing upon the Fopperies and Impoiturcs which he had feen in chat Church during his TraVels, to abjure the Rvtaijb and to embrace the 'Protejian Religion, which he did accordingly with great Dvotion laft Summer, at Berlin; after which, his Ttuffian Majefty was pleaed to diftinguift him with peculiar Marks of his Favour and Eftecm, by declaring him one cf the Gentlemen of his Bedchamber, and Chief Cup-Bearer of his Court and he hasvery latcly given him a confiderable Prebertd. To the new Edition of his Memoirs, from which the following Sheetsare tranflated,therc's not only agreat numberof matcrial Additions in the Body ofthe Work, as is obfcrv'd by the Edi-

A4

tor

vi The TranslatorV

Preface.

tor ofir, zxAmfterdam, but feveral new Notes: In this Tranflation, thefe Notes are likewife confiderably augmented, for the fake of continuing the Thread of the Hiftory to the prefent Time, by the Notice taken of certain remarkable Altrations, or other curious Particulars that have happen'd to the Perfons or the Places mentioned, finct 1734. when the faid Edition was publifh'd. One great DefecT:or which the foreign Edif tor has bcen very much blam'd, was the want of a Table to thefe Memoirs which, if not abfolutely necefiary in a Work of this kind, wherein fo many Perfons and Fas are mentioned, cannot be neceffary for any Book whatfoever tbat cornes from the Prefs. To fupply this Defcct, the Tranllator has added an AlphaVolumes which betical Index tocach ofthe two Indexes are the more copious, that the Reader might know where to turn in an Inftant for fome Account of the Charafters, Condu, or Familys of thofe public Pcrfonages, whofe Names fo oftcn occur in the News.Papcrs.

THE

THE

AUTHOR'sPREFACE TO THE
FIPST EDITION. are veryfew Bookswithout a rreface and tbat there are fc, is in a great THERE meafureowingto tbe Fancycf AfoBookfellers, who tbink tbemto beabfolutelynecej/ary,and too often judge of the merit of a Copyby tbe Fligbts of its Prface, and tbe infinuating Tone of tbe Author's Voice in reading it. 1 bad tbe misfortune tofatt into tbe bands of one of tbefeBookfellers, i fond of Prefaces, f wbomnotbing wouldferve but be tnuftbave oneat tbe Head of myMmoire. My telling bit tbat I dld not know wbat to put into a Preface, ftgniffd no more tban if I bad beentakinv to a Pofi for be tbreatned to get a Preface composaby an Autbor who wrotefor Wages. Tbisftarted me, and I trembledfor tbe fate ofmy Book,not doubtingthat a Preface written by a Man of Letters, wbomade it bis profeffion comfofe to fttcb marvellousPices^ would altogetber eclipfe tbe few Excellenciesin tbis Work of mine. Wbat, faid to myfef, theSale ofmy Bookthen muft dependonly on the Goodnefs f the Preface, whicb, wbentbe Reado ers comparewitb tbe Bookit felf, they willfay, O 1 ivbat a wonderful Man is the dutbor of the Preface Wbat a pitiful Writer, the Compiler the Memoirs t of No, faid agair. to myfelf, I am refolv'd tbat tbe Preface and tbe Book fiallrun tbe fam rijk andfince

Chance

The Authors P REF ACE

'd Chance bas enter1 me an Autbor, Fil play ont thl tuholepart of one. Iam told that the Defignof a Preface is to give the Publick an account, in tbe firft place, of tbe Reafons tbat bave engag'd the Autbor to compofebis Work ihat tbeti b is to inform tbe Publick, tbat *lis in meer Complaifance bis Friends, and becaufetbere to are mangledCopiesof bis Manufcript abroad, tbat be bas beendetermined ta put it to tbe Prefs and finally, that be is to condudewitb a fort of Ptition, wberein be is to beg tbe Reader* Indulgencefor bis Productions. Tbis, Ibave beenajfured,is tbe Plan of a Preface let t us nowfeebowwell I car, executeit. As to thefirft Article, viz. wbat Motives 1 bdd ta write, Ifincerely ovm tbat wben I fet Pen to Paper, Imeant nothing morethan to amufe myfelf. I was the fartbefi in tbe World from thinking that I Jhould one day be overtakenwitb ihe Temptation of fetting up for an Autbor. I wro'eLetiers to a Friend of mine, purely to divert bimwith an Accountoffuch tb'mgsas camein ntyway tbe Minutes ofwbicb Letters I preferved till I bad infenfibly formed a Volume of *em and baving notbing elfe to do, I augmented and digefted tbemin tbe manner that I nowgive tbem to tbe Publick. tfhe trutb is, that my Friends bave not ufed tbe leaft Importunity witb me to commitmy Manufcript to the Prefs, nor was it poffiblefor any fpurious Copiesof it to get abroad, becaufeno bodye* verfaw it till 1 put it into tb; bands of tbe Bookfeller. me But IJbal be ajtfd, wbat peffefs*d to commence Autbor, and bowcameI to befo idleas toput myName at tbe Head of a forry book ? t muji anfwer again, tbat H was downrigbt Indolence. As to my Name, it it wouldbave been very diffieuh to bave concealed from Perfons ta wbm I bave the greatefi Obligations. ta bave beenfufpecJed bavebeentbe Autborof I Jhould tbefeMemoirsat certain Courts, for wbicb I bave a RefpeiJ both by Inclination and tuty , andperbeps,
if

to the Firft Editioli.

xi

to if Ibadeft this Copy tbe wide World, as fome do tbofeFoundlingswbicb theyare afhand ta own^fucb bave Paffgesmight bave beenfeifted into it, as would been.fatber d upon me, infpite of ail Proteftations of tny Innocence. As to tbe Bookitfelf, Tarn apt ta tbink tbere is notbing in it tbat any Perfon whatfoever augbt te take at. When Ifpeak of SovereiguPrinces, 'tis offence witb the Rvrencedueto tbe Lords Anointed and 1 alfoendeavourto bonourthemin their Minifiers^ being taugbt by myReligion tbat I ougbtto bonourGod in bis Saints. I bave donemyuimojlto paintthe true CbaraSsrs of People in Place^ and can fafely fayy tbat tnyAulhorities are not meer bear-fays or fcraps out of News-Papers forttbank to Gsd^ my Birtb and Fortune bave put me in a capacity to fee, bear% andjudgefor myfelf. It will be tbougbtperbaps, tbat whenfpeak of Ar<Honsingeneralyljttdgetoorafhly. It may befo tbis d in beingan Article efpecially wbicball Men anot think alike. TbeFrench bave a quite different Idea of tbe Germans/rw -mbattbe Engtifh bave, and tbe Englifh do not pafs tbe fam FerdiH on the French as tbe Swedes do. 'Tis tbe fam in private Life. Every onemakesbis own Conditiontbe Standardof bis Judgment. Tbe Man of Quality, tbe Citizen, the Sol dier, the Mercbant, hve ail diffrent Ideas. Tb: Traveller judgesofthe Nation wherebe m,by tbe Company be keeps. AFrenchman who in Germany converfes witb ndnebut tbofeof tbe fecondClafs, willfay tbat the Germans are boneftPeople, but downijbj wbercas anotber, who keepscompany wi(b Perfons of Oyality, or thoje in Offices, ill agree, tbat the Gerw mans are morepolite e thanthey bave beenpainted by certain French fFriters, wbo bave beentranfplanted to Germany eitber by tbeir Biftreffes, or by meer Chance. Sot a German. wbo, when be is at Paris, than tbe Marcbioneffes the fees no better Company of

Sttburb

xii

The Authors Prfac

Suburb ofSt. Germain, imaginesibat ail the IVomeft bothat Court and in tbe City are like tbem. In fine, a Foreigner who takes up bis Refidencein the City of London, will entertain a diffrentIdea of the Englifh from what another Jhall do who odgesat St, James'j end of tbe town. Tbeyare, as oftemayfay^ fo manydiffrent Nations in oneand tbe fame State, wbicbftand in little relation to oneanotber, andfontetmes attribute Virtues and Vicesto eachotber without due Conftderation. A Foreigner tberefore can form a folidJudgment of nonebut tbofewitb wbombe is converfant and if be bas tbe good luck to pitcb bit Tentwell, be entertains an advantageousOpinion of tbe Nation in gnral. Let Foreigners, , wben tbey return borne, after baving kept fuch various forts of Company, it downto draw tbe CbaraSers of tbe f Nations tbeybave feen, I do but tbink wbat aftrange diffrencevuotddappear in tbeir Defcriptions Tbe of Judgment tbereforewhicb I make People,is founded I upon tbe Company kept, and uponwbatI beardfrmn fucb Inhabitants of the Countryas appear'd to me ta be altogetberanprejudiced, and werepleafedto honour tne-witb tbeir Information. I do notfay but, after all, I may bave beenmiftaken for I do not prtend to have painted tbings in any other ligbt tban as tbey appear'd to me. If, nevtrthehfs, any particular Perfon tbinks himfelfparticularly intended wben 1 fpeak of the Inbabitants of any Province or Town in general, I beg bimto remember, tbat I confefsin my Memoirs tbere art worthyPeople in all parts of tbe doesnot fForld, and'tis not ryfault if bis Confcience permit bim to rank himfelfin tbat number. No doubtIfball he rtproacid for relating toomany Trifies, andpaffmg too ligbtly over things efgreater Importance. Tofpeakfreely again, I will makeno iffitultyto owr.ytbat, if wben I begantbefkMemoirs, I bad ever tbougbtofprinting tbem, tbe efire ofprowiting tbeir Sali migbt peraps bave put m uponin.

Jerttng

to the FirH

Edition.

xiii

lomitted, as no: Nothings <which ferting a great m&ny it worib wbile to charge ray Meraory witb tbinking 'cm. fbe far greateft part of what the World reads is 7'rifles, and a Hfiory will makeits fortune not by the inftrutlive FaSs that are in it, but by the Romantic urn the Autborgives it. Befides, I ara not fo vain as to write with a defignof Infirutting j'or wbat cotdI relate in myTravels wbicb others hve not donebeforemein betterTerms? Totalk of Learned and Men, to makea Catalogueof Books MSS. tbat are to be met witb in Libraries, to ranfack tbe Cabinet of the Curions, ta publijhInfcripiions, ta treat of antique Medals, ta affirmtbat I bavefeen an Otho of Braf, which is known to be but of Silver, wbat a Pojfe of Men of Learning would rife up againft meg Whereas, now Ifear noting tbe Learneddon't read Trifles, or if tbey do, tbey fcorn ta criticife them. I jhall to themremain unknown,or at leajt^myMeannefs be so'dl my ProteSiionagainft their Indignation. I would fain be as fecure againft the Criticifm of retbofe,vfboreadingfor ibefake of tbeir amufement, quire an exal, lgantStile in Trifles, tbat is, adorn'd witb the Flowers and Garlands of Rbetorick. But howfball Igain tbeir Indulgence? If I ownto tbem tbat I could do no bettert they will fay to me, and juftly encugb-,Alas then what made you write? 3V wbicb I fltall anfwer, as I faid before, tbat it was meerly want of fometbingelfeto do. If tbey will for but forgivemetbis timt, Iajfure tbem tbat I not only will never relapfeinta tbe famerrer, but tbat Ifball not be forry if tbey difdain to take Notice of myBook And if tbe reading of tbefe Memoirs inclinesthem ta fleep, Ifball tbink myfelf very well rewarded for baving contribuiedto tbeir Repofe. After all, I au moreparticularly obligea to ajk pardon of the French tban any otber Nation *Ttsin tbeir lnguage Ibaveprefumedtowritet and tbey are mynoper Judga, Suehh tbeir Politenefsand tbeir Readinefi

xi v

The Authors PREFACE,

Readinefs to affijt Foreigners, tbat I doubt not ofMercy. And in return, I promifethem, that if a Frenchman ever voucbfafesto write in the German Language, I vai forgive bim any Errors tbat be tuay commit. by the EDITOR. N.B." T^ H E S E Memoirs went off fo quick, X that before they had been out fcarce. fix Months, the French BookfeJlerwas obJig'dta prparefor this Second Edition to which, there. are cpnfiderable Additions both in the Body of the Work and in the Notes, of curious and inteV refting ads and Charaders, and the principal Altrations that have happen'd at the feveral * Courts, fince the firft Edison. There is added in particular, a very circumftantial Account of the prefent Eledor of Saxony's t Family, hisMinifters, and OiBcers and in fhort, of the Chief Perfons of both Sexes belonging to his Court and Houfliold. This is prefix'd jn the, ' Original, at the Head of the Memoirs but the V Tranflator thought it more regular as well as more, confiftent with the Method obferv'd every where * elfe by.the Author, to place it at the End of his Defcription of the City ofDre/den. The Baron has dedicated that Account to the prefent Eleflor K ' {Augvftusy ingof Po/and) and introduc'd it with, * the following Preface." ADVERTISEMENT

PRE-

PREFACE, To the Second Epition.

PRESENT STATE OF THE COURT OF wbicb is addedto tbis Edition, bas Saxony, no needof a Preface to recommend tbe very Title it, Jhewingthat 'tis wbat concerns everySaxon efpecially to be acquainted with. Ail Subjetls baye a defira ta knowfometbing of their Sovereign and private Menin everyState bave this Curiofity, witb refpei ta their Minifters and Courtiers. 'Tbefeare tbe GbaraEters wbicb I bave I ventured to draw, tbo' I own, tbat I don*t t tbink have always bit tbe Life> for want of tbat Penetration and Delicacy of Imagination wbicb Nature, to me a Step~Motber^bas denfd me and alfo becaufe it would bave been neeeffary me to bave for ftay'd longer tban I did at Drefden. bree Montbs at Refidence fo great a Court, are bardly fufficientte makea Man acquainted witb it, were bis Fund of Knowledgeeven as deep as mine is fballow. 'Tben hata Prefumptionwouldit befor meto tbink I bave attained to it 1 tbat this Bookwitb all its ImImufi not dijfemble, tban perfeftions,bas cqjt memoretrouble in compofing tbat onemucb larger would bave doneupon a SubjeEl bad beenmrefamiliar to me. Tbere was a necejfiiy for me to make Inquiry into any Particularsy and to get fome of myInformation from-a private band. I ownmyObligationto tbe CiviHtyof M. Konig, tbe Caunfellor tbe Court, for tbe IntelligenceI wantei of

retanng

xvi

PREFACE

to

relating to fomt of the Court-Nobility. If I had beat fa happy as to bave found out but oneor two Perfons moreas aftivefor meas be was, myfVorkwouldbave beenmorecorreft and more extenjive. Sucbas it isx Iintreat the Reader to accept it, and to forgive any Errer in it, in conftderetion tbat I am the firji wba bas venlured to treat offucb a SubjeEt. I own, tbere is a certain degree of Rajbnefs in the Undertakingx but tbe nobleMotive tbat bas induc'd me to it, feems to plead for my excufe. AU Saxony knowsin general, that 'lis govern*d by a Sovereign,gracious, and vigilant to render it bappy. It were needlefs fet the Kinfs Virtues and to Aftions before their Eyes, wbicb the People already admire, and pray for bim. But as tbis Great Prince does not want thofewbo envy bis Glory, they are tbe Perfons whom I bave cbofeto make fham'doftbemto felvcs and bave endeavoured, if poffibley reclaim otbers whoma fatal blindnefskeefs at a ifiancefrom bis Majeflys Perfon AU that ever bad the bonour of approachingAuguftus III. will agree witb me tbat be aderns tbat ICbrone,upen wbicb a refpeilful Nationbas plac'd bim and tbat wbatever 1 bave faid of tbis Monarcb d, isfhort ofwbat migbt be mention* How is it poffible to give tbe true Portraiture of a Kingborn witbout Vice, by Principle virtuous, and religiouflygood ? To admire bim in filenceis the onfyway topleafe bim, whicb I know too well, not to conform to it and tberefore I bave not prefum'd to expatiate fa far in bis Praife as tbe Sublimityof tbe Subjeff demands. Tbefame Averfionof tbe ilueen toPraife, bas confin'd me witbin tbe fame bounds. How many Virtues bave not I beenforc*d to fmotber? Wbat Tbougbts bave to TheReader w willpleafe oWerw,that tt6 Preface as thelate Dillraftions Poland, efore Maleb the written in during to to content ordshadrcconcil'd L (hemfelves theirAllegiance theirlawful overeign. S

to ihe Second Edition..xvii


have not I facrific'd, left IJhould offend nobleMothe deftyof tbat AugujlPrincefs, who witb a Simplicity attending ber Grandeur, makesber Gloryto conjijlin beinghumblein tbe midft of Honours ? I belicve no bodywill difpute tbe ruth of wbat I bave advanc'd relating to tbe PRINCEROYAL and his tbe ELECTORAL, PRINCES Brothefs, andth; Princesses HIS SISTERS. Tbehopes1 bave raifed ofwbat may be expeftedfromtheir Royal HighNESSES, furelybe confirnfdby Timet and by ail will thofewbo bave accefsto tbem. Tbe Aftions of tbe Duke John-Adolphus of SaxeWeflnfels are fo well eftablijb'dthat I lave not tbougbtfit to anticipate e Hijlory, y wbicb they are to b be confecrated Andfor tbe fam reafon, I bave but juft toucb'd upon the amiable Qualifies of bis Mind, wbicb are rever'd bothby the Court and tbe Artny. As to tbe Princefs of Saxe-Weiflnfels, 1 frankly own, tbat as I bad not the bonourof paying my Court to ber, wbat I have faid of ber Virtues bas no otber Autbority tban tbe Voiceof tbe Publick, wbicb can neverfpeak enougbin ber Praife. in Ibavebeen morecopious treating of'tbeMinifiers and wbat I have faid oftbem is fo true, tbat tbey who know tbem not may tberebyform a juft Idea of wbat tbey are. I bave taken as viuchnoticeof tbe principal Lords and tbe moftdiftinguifh*d Ladies of tbe Court, as tbe little time I bad for tbis Work, and tbe Limits to wbich Iwas confin'd, would permit. I flatter myfelf tbeywillforgive tbe Freedomwitb wbich I ufe tbem and hopeI bave preferv'd a Decencyin myLanguage ixhich willfecure mefront Reproacb.

AD-

,~1-

w lm P-euti a

v s

ADDENDA

toVol.I.

15. M. Beaufobre, Minifter of the GoPAR j- fpel at Berlin, and Author of avrai Jearned Treatires, died in May 1738. P. 26. The Princefs of Brandenburg- Scbwedt, fourth Daushter of the King of Pruj}iat wasdeliver'd of a Daughter in Afril 1738. P. 27. The Count de Trucbfes Walbourg, Major-Genera! in the Service of the King of Pruffia, died at Berlin in April 1738. P. 34. In July 1738, his Pruffian Majefty, together with the Prince Royal and Prince William, made a Tour to Holland, and paid a Vifit to his moft Serene Highnefs the Prince of Orange. P. 66. His Excellency Baron Hattorf, Secretary of State for the Affairs of Hanovtr., died in Augufi 1737. P. 70. Cbriftina- Louifa, Princefs of tingert, died in 1736. P. 72. Pbilippina-Cbarlotte, Duchefs of Brunfwic-Wo/fembuttle, and third Daughter to the King of Pruffia, after having had two Sons by Duke Charlesher Hufband, viz. the firft born in 1 TiSt and the other, who is called GeorgeFrancis, in 1736, was deliver'd alfo of a Daughter in September1 7 37, who in the Month following was baptiz'd by the Names of CbrifiinaScpbia-Maria. P. 105. M. de Miltitz, who was Tutor to the prefent King Augufluswhn he was Electoral rnuce of Saxony, died in Marcb 1738. P. P.

Addenda to Vol. I.

xix

P. 113. The Princefs Royal of Poland was married in July 1738, to Don Carlos King of Naples and Sicily. P. 130. The Count de Sulkow/ii mjanuary 1738 fell under fome Difgrace, fo that his Majefty order'd his Papers to be fal'd up, and excufed him from farther Attendance on him, but was willing he (hould keep the Title and Rank of Minifter of the Cabinet, and General of the Foot, with 6000 Crowns Penfion. P. 140. Aolphus de Brubl was in January 1738 appointed Grand-Mafter of the Horfe, at the Saxon Court, in the room of the Count de Sulkowjki. P. 142. The Count de Mofchhjki died in September 1737. P. 147. The Count de Diedricbftein died at Prague in September 1737. He was Baron of Hollenbourg,Finckenftein, Dablberg and Lanrfkroon,Hereditary Great Huntfman of Styria^liereditary Cup-Bearer of Carintbia, Knight of the Order of St. Jobn of Jerufalmt Grand Prior in Bobemia,Moravia, Silefia, Carintbia, Styria, Tirol, Aujlria and Poland, Bailiffof the aforefaid Order, and Commander of the Commanderies of Little Oels, Furftenfed and Mofling, a PrivyCounfellor of the Emperor, and Governour-General of the Kingdom of Bobemia. P. 168. The la Duke of Saxe- Merfcbourg mention'd in the Note of that Pa^e, died in May I738P. 182. In April 1738, the Emperor appointed the Prince of Saxe-Gotha Lieutenant VeltMarihal of his Armies and in Septemberfollowing he folicited the Diet of Ratijlon for the Poft of fecond Velt-Marlhal General of the Empire, in the Difpolof the Prpteftant States, vacant by the Death of the Baron de IVutgenau.

a2

Y.

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Addenda to Vol. I.

P. 182. Augufta Princefs of Wales was deliver'd of a Princefs on the 3ift of July 1737, who was baptized after her own Name; and on the 24th of May1738, Ihe was deliver'd of a Prince who was baptiz'd George-WilliamFrdric. P. 208. The Margravine of Brandenbourg-Cultni>acb, Mother to the Queen of Denmark, died at Copenbagenin Auguft 1737, in the 7Oth Year of her Age, very much lamented. P. 220. Count Pbilip Kinjki was made Chancellor of Bobetnia, in May 1738, in the room of the late Count de Collovrat. P. 233.. The Archduchefs, Wife to the Duke of Lorrain, had a Daughter, born January 25, 1737, and another born in Septmber 1738. P. 264. The eldeft Son of the Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria, died in jfpril ty 38. P. 266. The Count Maximilian de Fugger died at Viennat in January 1738. P. 266. The Count de fbirbeim died in January 1738, at Lintz, the Capital of Upper Auftria. P. 285. Charles-Alexander Duke of JVtrtmbergStutgard, died on the ift of March 1737, and wasfucceededby his eldeftSon Eugne-Lewis the prefent Duke, who was born the 3Oth of January 1728. P. 298. The Margrave of Baden-Dourlacbdied the firft of May1738, at Carelfrube, who hav* ing no Iflue living, is fucceeded by Frederic ot fVitgenftein,,who is marry'd to the Princefs Augufta-Amelia-Jlbertina of NaffauSiegen. The Deceafed was 58 Years and near 11 Months of Age, being born the i7th ofjune 1679. He was a General in the Emperor's Army, and Great Mafter of the Artillery in the Circle of Suabia. By his Wife, a Daughter of the Duke of Wirtembtrg-Stutgardy he had four Children, who are

alJ

Addendato Vol.t

xxl

ail dead. When he laid the Plan and Foundation of the City and Caftle of CarelfruJbe,he gave equal Liberty of Confcience to the Luthenuis, Calvinifts, and Roman Catholics. died in Augufi P. 52 1. The Cardinal da Scbonborn 1737. P. 335. The Baron de Beveren, Grand Marftial at the Eledtor Palarine's Court, died there in January 1738. P. 357. In January 1738, the Prince of HeffeHombourg was married to the Velt-Marihal Trubetjkaf* Daughter. P. 362. After the Death of the Count of Hanatt without lflue, the Succeflon was awarded to the Prince of Darntfad as next Heir, on condition of his paying 200000/. by way of Compenfation to the Houfe of Cajfel.

ADDENDA

to Vol.

IL

14. Cardinal Biffidied in Augufi 1737. J[. AG. P. 44. Cardinal Olivierit Secretary of the Pope's Briefs, died at Romein February 1738. P. 61. Prince James Sobiejki died in Deccmber l737P. 136. On the 28A of June 1737, the Great Duke of Tufiaxy died in the 67th Year of his Age, and was fucceeded by Francis Duke of Lorrain (who married the Emperor's Daughter) for whom poflffion was immediately taken of the Duchy by the German Forces. Ferdinand^

xxii

Addenda to VoL II.

Ferdinand, Duke of Courland, who is mentioned in the fame Page, died in 1737; and the Nobility affemblingat Mittau elefted Count Biron, a Native, to fucceed him. P. 150. The Affairs of Corfica are very much alter'd fince the firft Edition of thefe Volumes. Baron Theodorehaving left the Ifland, and promis'd to return foon with Succours, went to Amfterdam, where he was confin'd for Debt but being foon difcharg'd by the Intereft of fome foreign Power, he proceeded to Paris, and thence to Marfeilles, in order, as he gave out, to put himfelf again at the Head of the Corficans But during this the French having undertaken to be Mediators betwixt the Corficans and Genoefe, ave, with the Approbation of both, h fent a General thither with fome Troops, and the Corficanshave agreed to fend over a dozen of their chief Men to the Court of France as Hoftages for their good Behaviour but fince this, Thodore fet his Foot again upon that Ifland. has P. 257. The Duke of Liria, Son and Succeffor to the late Marftial Duke of Berwic, died at Naplesin May 1738. P. 260. TheMarlhal d'Eftrees died the 5th of December1737. P. 309. The Marihal de Wrangel, Governour of BruJJehy died in Augufi1737, in the 87th Year of his Age. P. 332. TheSucceffion to the Duchies of Juliers and Berg, is an Affiir which has been very much canvafs'd for feveralMonths paft, between the Eledtor Palatine and the Courts of Pruffia and Saxony. The maritime Powers of Great Britain and Holand have propofed an Accommodation, with regard to the Succcffion, ihto which the Eledor Palatine is willing to enter; but the Courts of France, Pruffia and Saxonydon't con-

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Addenda to Vol. II.

xxiii

eur with it and France has guarantee'd the actual Poffeffionof thofe Duchies to the Prince of Sultzbacb. P. 447. On the 2oth of Novmber 1737, Wilbelmina-Carolina Queen of Great Britain died of a Mortification in her Bowels and on the 1 7th of Decemberfollowing fhe was privately interr'd in Weftminfier-Abbey.

B t3~ K

x~t ~ed,

Tbwdiod Founi^teif* of tb MMQIRS f 'i.pHE 'Mt",OI. 'l'T'' F.OU.4.t t j[. HE.Third. ao.d CHAttLEt-LT~sBAtO~jtt~MttK~e~theOitefM- I\$.~ tics he raaden hh kK^w*ft6&J*/p*%hKQ'PoUnJ, Gtr~ wasy, Itaty, Wrvtei, Spaia, tUndt, mj&td, E*W, Sec. Jifcoveringnot only the prefent State of inechiet Ctie and Town, bit the Charactos of tbc principal Peifor at the lve' V rai Courts. . CYGLOP&DIA or, An UniverfalDjaionary of ARTS awi SCIENCES: Cootuining, An Explictsion of die Terms, and sa Acconnt of the Thinga fignificd tfexeby io the ferl Arts, both Liberaland Mecbanical,and the fiarra)Sciences, Homan and Divine The Figures, Kiads, Properties, ProJuion;, PreparitioftEMd Ufej of Things, Naturel and Artificial Tbe Rift, Pjogicfi, and State of Thioes, Ecclefiaftical, Civil, Military and Corarnercitl j with the feveral Syftems, Ses, Opinions, etc. aoog Philofopheri, Divines, Mathematicians, Phyciau, Anquaric**Critia, -fct. . TJWhole iniended as Courf of Anticnt and Modern Lnrning, extrjed from tbc beft Authors, Diionaries, Jourtul, Memoirs, Tranfaions, F Epheroeridei.&c. in ftverai Ungugej. By R. Ckambers, . H S. The Second Edition, eorrefted sd amended,eirith foneeAanrtions. In Two VlHones, olio. F BAYLE's Gbgat Historjcal and Critical Dictiohaby, the fcond Edition carefullyCdllatedwith the fevetalEdition of the Original i in wntch many PaffagesMe reftored, and the Whole augmentai particukrly with aTrandatton of the greatly Qitotuiont from emioent Writew in various Languages To which is prefixed,the Life of tbe Author, revifed, correed and cnlarged, by Mr. Des Miixeaox, FtUow cf the Royal Society i F copleat in f Volumes, olio. 4- A Tour thro' the -wnoie Iind of Great Britiin, divided into Circuits or Journks, gmog particukr and entertaining Account of whatever u Curious, and worth Obfervation, via. t. A Defcriprion ofthe principal Citiesand Towns, their Situa ation, Goretoment nd Commerce. 2. TheCuftomi, Mnner, Exercifes, Dierfions, asd Empteyraeot of the People. 3. The Produce and lmprovemeot of the Landt, the Tride and Msnufaury. 4. The Sea-Ports nd Fortificationa, the Courfe of River.. and tbe Infcod Navigatten. f. The Public Edifices,Seata and Palacesof the Nobility, and Gentry. Inteifperfcd witb ufeful Obfcrvations. Partictilarlyfitted for the Peru&l of fuch as defire to travel over the Iflind. The fcond Edition, with very great Additions,Improvements *nd Correions, which bring it down to the beginning of the Ycar 1738, in three acat Pocka Volumes. Prit*, tiitt ShiUi*SiAU prinred for D. Irowks, without Ttmftt B*r.

ME

MO O F

I THE

Baron

de Pollnitz. to

LETTERS In SEVERAL Mr. L. G D> S. LETTER I.

Berlin, S I R, June6. 1729. FR O M Breflawto Berlin 'tis 40 German Miles of very even Country, well peopled ~J and cultivated. There are 1 know net how many little Towns in the Road, not worth mentioning. The firft Place of any Importance is CROS e i. s This City is the Capital of theDutchy from whence it has its Name, which formerly made a Part of Silefia, but is now annex'd to the Eleflorate of Brandenburgb. There's a Bridge at Crqffn,by which we pafs the River Oder, defended by Fortifications. The Town is fituate in a pleafant fruitful Country. The Houfes,which are sl ofBrick, are uniform, and the Streets as ftrait as a Line. The chief of them, B Vol. L terminate

2 Crosse

n,

Francfort,

Berlin.

tcrminate in a great Square in the middle of the Town, where there is a Statue of the King of Pruffia. The River Oder is of great advantage to the Commerce CroJJ'en, which carrieson aconfiderable of Trade in Linnen-CIoth and Earthen Ware. Going out of Croffen, we pafs this River by a Bridge, as wedoalccond time overto Francfort, a confiderable City of the Marquifote of Brandenbourg, famousfor its Fairs, and its Univerfity. This City has ftood the Shock of various Revolutions. It wa-sput under the Ban of the Empire by the Emperor Charles IV. for having difobey'd his Orders and the Inhabitants to make him eafy were forc'd to pay him down 1 2000Marks of Silver, which at thattime wasan immenfeSum. In 1631 i the Stvedesbefieg'd and took it by Storm, when they put ail the Inhabitants to the Swordin reprifal for the Maflcreof 2000 Swedes,whom theEmperor's General Count Tilfy had inhumanly put to death in the City of Brandtniourg. Bythe Peace of Munjter, or Wejipbaliay which eftablifli'd the Tranquility of the Empire, Francfort was reftor'd to the Eletor of Brandenbourg lawful Sovereign. its Hre is a Univerfity founded by Joacbim I. (Margrave of Brandenbourg)in 1506, which is very much frequented by the Silefianstand by the Hungarian Proteftants. There are two Fairs a Year at Francfort, which renderit a trading City, and its Commerce confifts in Linnen-CIoth, and Fells. 'Tis ten Miles from Francfort to Berlin, and a flat fandy Country. The Road leads thro* Mantbcnbourgi a little Town chiefly inhabited by the I>;fcendantsof FrencbMen, who left their Country upon the Revocation of the Edift of Nantes. -Thenearer one cornes to the Capital of Branden^ Mjirgf the more fandy is the Soil, yet the Country and Fruits. jttBUaces rtexity of Corn

Berlin-

Berlin.

.B e R1 1 n is the common Refidenc of the King of Pruffia^ and one of the Jargeft, beft built, and beft govern'd Cities in all Germany. The Streers are fpacious, ftrait, neat and well pav*d. The Situation is advantagious for tho' it lies in a very fandy Soil, yet it is encompafs'd with agreeabJeGardens produing Fruits and,excellent Pulfe, and its Commerce is much improv'd by the River Hpreei which paffesthro' the City, and has a Communication with the Havel, the Oder, and the Elbe. The Freneby who for the fafceof Religion became Refugees, hvecontributed inan exrraordinai y manner to the Eftablifhment and Aggrandifemenc of Berlin, by the eftablifhing of ail iorts of Manufactures, and the introducing of Arts into it;and it may belidofthem, thatthey have omitted norhing to teftify their Gratitude to the Eleftor FredericWilliam,andhis *ofterity, for the geperous Rception which he gave them in his Dominions: Berlin is divided into five Wardsexclufve of the Suburbs, whih are very extenfive. 1 will run thro. thefe Wards in the drder of their Situation: But before I do this, I proppfe to fhew you what is moft remarkable in the Suburbs where the Houfes aregeneraliyof Timber, but fo well plaifter'd thac they feem to be of Stone and the Streets are broad, lightfome and ftrait. f In the Suburb of Spandau the Queen has a dcjightfui Houf and Gardens. The Houfe is called Monbijoa a very proper Name for it, becaufe 'cis really a Jewel. 'Tis a Pavilion, the Apartments f which are laid out with Art, and furmlh'd with great Judgment and Elegance. The Gardens are harming, and lie finely open to the River. This Houfe was built by the Countefs de Wartemberg, Wife to the Prime Minifter ofKing Frdricl. As c her Hufband's Power and Favour wereat that time fo grt, that he did whji ever he plcas'd, ail the B King'y

Berlin.

King's Workmen and Architefts us'd the uttnoft Diligence to ferve her welJ. But fliedid not enjoy *his fine Houfe long; for it was fcarce compieated when the King removed the Count from all his Employments, and baniVdhim to Francfort on the Maine. However, he fettled a Penfion upon him and lus Lady of 24000 Crowns, and the Countefs by way of Acknowledgement gave the King this Houfe, which of ail the immenfe Treafure that ihe had amafs'd, was the only Pice that fhe cou'd not carry with her. The King gave this Houfe to the Princefs Royal now Queen, who has added great EmbelJifliments to it, and brought it to its prefent State of Perfc&ion. In the Suburbs of S trahit is the Houfe and Gardens of Belvdre, belonging to the King. Reli Superintendant of the Finances to the Eletor FredericWilliam> caus'd this Garden to be made, in which he laid out confiderable Sums; and asthis Minifter wasat other very great Expences, it fo impair'd his Fortune, that he was oblig'd to throw up all and retir'd to Kolland; and being very much in debt to the Eledtor, his Garden was forfeited to that d Prince, whomadea Prefent of itto M. e Fttcbst one of his Minifters. King Frederie I. purchas'd it of th latter, and after having embellilhed it, made a Prefent of it to the Queen his third Wife; but that Princefs's ill ftate of Health obliging her to retire to Mecklenbourgher Native Country, Belvdre became neleted. Near thts Royal Houfe is the magnificent Garden. of Craut* whafrom a Boy bchind the Counter rais'd himfelf by his Induitry to the Poft of Paymaflcr General of the Army, and atlength to that pfMinifterof State. He was to have been call'd to account in his laft ftagc of Life, but he cunningly divertedfhatStorm by feignin himfelf Lunattc; Wdymc, hleftanmTmenfcEltatc.partqf^hich fell

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fell to the King by way of Reftitution, and the reft to his Nephew, who makes a grand Figure at Paris. 1 enter'd Berlin thro'thatcall'd the Gate Royalt, which hashad that Name ever fince the Day that Frederic I. made his Entry there, after his Coronation at Kmingsbergin Pruffia. This Gate is defended by a Half-Moon, and two Baftions fac'd with Brick, and fronts that call'd the Street Royale; one of the longeft and moft frequented in all the City. There are very fine Houfes in it, particularly that of M.deCatfcb, a Minifter of State, that of and Grumkau% the Poft-Houfc, which laft Building was begun by order of the late King, for his Favourite the Connt de Wurtemberg*who was here. ditary Poft-Mafter. Thro' the Street Royalethere run fine, fpacious and beautiful Streets. The firft is call'd la Rue du Cloitrt, in which we fee the Royal Manufaftory. Frederic I. who bought it of the Heirs of the Marfhal de Flemming, eftablifhed an Academy of Nobles there fo that, on the Payment of three hundred Crowns, they had Lodging, Provifion, and Inftruttion inevery thingthat ic'snaturalaMan of Quality lhoud know. This EftabliSment exifted a few Years, but funk at laft meerly thra' the Negleftof Perfons whofe Buiinefb'twastotakecare of it. The prefent King has changM this Fabrick into a Work-houfe, and allowed Lodgings in it for 0 feveral Woollen Manufafturers. Adjoining to the Royal Manufaftory, there are public Warehoufes, which were eftablihed and built by the late King; and being deftroyed by Fire, the prefent King caus'd them to be rebuilt. Oppote to the Warehoufes ftands the Houfeof M. de Creutz, Minifter of State; which has fine Apartments, and is very neatly furnifh'd. Higher in the fime Street there's the Houfe of M. Duvaine,
B 3 a

Berlin.

a Trench Man by Birth, and Lieutenant-Generalof his Prujftan Majefty's Forces Andcontiguoustohis Houfe, which makes a fine Appearance, is the Calvinifts new Church, a Structure rais'd after the Model of Grunberg, an Architedt who had before acquir'd a Reputation, which did not futrer by his onirivanceof tins great Fabrick: The Front of it is magnificent, but the infide plain, as areall th Churches of the Cahinifts, which you know don't admit of Images, The fubterranean Places or Catacombs, for interring thofe that worfhip here, are worth feeing. Several Perfons have been intprr'd there of 'great Note, particularly Cajjmir de Colbe, Count de Wurtemberg, Prime Minifter, Great Chamberlain, Mafter of the Horfe, PoilMafter General, Proteftor of all the Acadmiesin the Dominions ofthe King of Pruffia%and Knight of th Order of the Black Eaglc. Being banifli'd in 1711, to Francfort upon the Maine, where he died the Year following, heorder'd that his Corpfe lhou'd be carry'd to Berlini and his Will was acordingly fulfilPd. He was fo dear to King Fre~ deric I. that he was very loth to part with him but was, as it were, compeH'd to it by a Cabal; who pppos'd his Miniftcrial Authority; thof he was provok'd at the Infolence of Wartembtrgs Wife, and at his mean Submiflon to her. The King made an Offer to him afterwards, by the Count ( Cbrijicpble de Debna,who wasthen his Ambafador at Francfort, for the Election of the Emperor,) t6 corne and refume his Emp'oyments, on condition that he wou'd not bring his Wife with him but Wartetnbergrefus'd, faying, he was engag'd in honour not to forfake her. Perhaps he was very glad pf this Excufe for not returning, becaufe he had pnc experienc'd the Viciflitude of Fortune, and knew we that he had been too powerful a Man who was denot to be hated. King FretrU firous 1.~

Berlin.

firous to fec his Funeral pafs by, cou'd not refrain Tears; which undoubtedly was the greateft Chara&er thac he cou'd give of his Minitter. Next to the Count de Wartemberg's Tomb, is that of Hwrietta de Poltnitz, Wit to Francis Count de Duhamel, the Venetians Generaliiimo. Her Huftnnd dying in the Morea^ this Lady return'd to Venice% propofing to go and end her Days at Berlin, where fhe was born but while fhe was performing her Quarantain the died, after defiring her Body to be carry'd to Berlin which was accordingly donc by two of her Nephews, and one of her Nices, whom flie made her Heirs. There is alfo the Tomb of the Count de Denboff, Lieutenant-Gnral of the King's Armies, Knight of his Order of the Black-Eagle, Minifter of State, Governour of Memel, and AmbaiTador at the Treaty of Utrecht, where he acquired a high Reputation among the foreign Minitters. The Marihal de Villars, who had known him at Vienna, when he the Marflul rcfided there in the quality of Minifter, to take care of the Affairs ot France, faid to me one day, fpeaking of the Count de Denbofft that.the King of Pruffia cou'd not do enough to reward the Count's great Merit. If be vm'd bave beenrufd by me, added he, be wou'd bave beenin tbe Serviceof tbe King myMafter. t The fecondStreet that croflfeshe Street Royale, is the Jews Street, whichruns into the Square MolckeMarc~E;where the Hotel de Scbwerin makes a fine Appearance. Within a few Houfes lower down, there's a Manufaftory of Gold and Silver Lace, Whichone Scbindlerhas effablithed with good fucefs This Houfe belong'd to the Wife of M. de Wenfen, Marthal of the Court to King Frederic I. but fhe refign'd it as part of Payment of a Fine, to which her Hufband had been condemn'd by th Count de Wartemberg, then prime Minifter
B 4 who

Berlin.

who confin'd M. Wenfenin Cvjlrin Caftle, becaufe he had prefum'd to repreferit to the King that the Table ofthe prime Minifter, which wasferved by his Majefty's Cooks.and Butlers, was more expenfive thaii his Majefty's own Table.. Wenfen however, upoh the PaymentofthisFine, obtain'd his Liberty, and was banifh'd tohisLandsin the Dutchy of Zell. In the middle of Molcke-Marck is the Statue of Frederic I. Father to the prefent King, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mande on his Shoulders. The Statue was caft by order of Frderic . himfelf, who intended to have it plac'd in the Court of the Arfenal but dying before it cou'd be brought about, the King his Soncaus*dit to be fet up where itnow ftands, which is indeed much a better Place for it. The Spandau Street, which is the third that croffes the Street Royale,containsthe Town-Houfe, and other fine Buildings The StreetSt. Efprit is altogether as beautiful,asis the Kay, which frontsthe Caifle or Palace of the King. Upon this Kay we fee the Houfe of the Baron de Vemefobret whofe An. ceftors being Frencb Proteftant Merchants, fettled at Koningjbergin PruJJia* He was in France at the time of the Miffiffippj lague, which, tho'fo fatal to P others, prov'd fo fortunate to him, thathegain'd fe. veral Millions of Livres, with which hecame and fet upat Berlin, where hehastakento building, having purchas'd the Eftate of Hobenfibnfrom Monfieur de Borflel, one of the beft Gentlemen of the Country, procur'd himfelf the Title of Counfellor of State, and cuts a Figure now among Perfons of Quality. The Churches of St. Mary, St. NUbolas* and that belonging to the Garrifon, are as magnificent as any of the Proteflant Churches. St. Marys has a beautiful Spire. When Frdric I. made his royal Entry here, at his return from his Coronation, a Man afcendcd to the Globe of this Spire, and faJuted

BE

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luted the new King by flourifliinga pair of Colours. The Church of the Grrifon was founded by the late King, but was very much damag'd fome Years Magazine of Gunago by the blowing pofa Powder in the Neighbourhood, juft as they were removing it to a fafer Place. King Frederic WU liam has caus'd it to be rebuilt with more Magnificence than before. The Organs are very fine, and rhe Galleries very well contriv'd. That Ward of Berlin which 1 have now run through, is feparated from that of Coin or Cologne by the River Spree, over which there are four Bridges, whereof there is one of Stone, call'd the Pont-neuf. FredericI. in imitation of the Pontneuf at Paris, famous for the Statue of Henry IV. caufed the Equeftrian Statue of his Father, the E leftor Frederic-William, to be erefted upon this Bridge, with very great Pomp and Splendor; for no Prince in Germany ftrove more than he did to copy Lewis XIV. in Magnificenceand every thing elfe. When this Statue was dedicated, the Count de Lottum, who was then Grand Marfhal of tha Court, accompanied by moft of the Courtiers on horfeback, and by the City Companies, aflifted at the Ceremohy, which was performed with an Apparatus, till then unknown in Germany upon the like Occafions but had been praftild at Paris, when the Statue of Lewisle Grand was ere&ed in that City. This entire Monument was defign'd by one Jacobi, who afcer feveral Years Labour and confiant Application to it, has brought it to its prefent State. This fkilful Operatorhas reprefented the Eletor in a Roman Drefs, and in an heroic Stature that is to fay, above the natural Size. The Statueis placed on a magnificentPedeftal of whiteMarble. At the four Corners of the Bafe, are placed as many'Slaves in Brafs, who iemas if they were chain'd to it.
When

10

Berlin.

When one has pafs'd the Bridge, the King's Pa lace offers itllt to view a great and ftately Far bric, which Frederic I. began in the Year 1699, and a worthy Monument of that Prince's Magnificence, who was of Opinion, that of all the Sums expended by Sovereigns, thofe which they lay out in Buildings are leaft liable toCenfure. And indeed Magnificence is well beftowed, and even Profuon feems juftifiable in Architecture, becaufe grand Edifices are the principal Ornament of any State. The Palace has been the Workmanlhip of feveral Architecte the Name of the firft was Schluter, but he not giving Satisfaction was difmifs'd, and went into the Service of the Czar Peter Akxiawitz. Whatever he did is extremely incumber'd with Qrnaments which have not a due Proportion. His Succeflbr was Eofander, a Swede% who is a Lieutenant-General in the Service of theKiug oiPoland: He was oblig'd in fome meafure to purfue what Scbluterhad begun fo that if he has not corne off well every where, he has at leaft that for his Excufe. The third was Bot, a Frencbman, and now General Officer in Poland who without difpute was a much better Artift than the others. Evcry thing that he has done is more fimple, yet more grand, noble, and complete. Thefe diree Architects having gone upon different Plans, you will eafily imagine that the Fronts are not perfedtly regular yet for all this, had the Palace been finifh'd according to the Models approv'd of by the late King, it wou'd have been fe erior to no Edifice for Grandeur and Magnificence, excpt the Louvre of Paris. King Frederic-rilliam does not think fit ta carry on this Building, but leaves that Honour to his Son, the Prince Royal. As to giving you all the Particulars of this vaft Palace, you will be fo good as to excufe me Be
la-

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iz f

fatisfied if I only tell you, that it confifts of four Stories The Apartments are large, hve fine Cielings, and are royally furnifh'd. In no part of the World did I ever fee fuch a prodigiousquantity of Plate, Tables, Stands, Luftres, Chandeliers, Scretns, Looking-Glafs Frames, Couches, ArmChairs, all of Silver. The late King left Plate to thevalue of two Millions eight hundred thoufand Crowns, not reckoning theFafhion. In that call'd the Knights Hall, there's a Beaufet which takes up one intire fide of the Room, where there are Cifterns and Bafons Silver gilt, ofan extraordinary Size. The Furniture of the grand Apartment is very rich there's a fine Gallery adorn'd with Pi&ures, the Cieling of which was painted by one Peine, Frencbman, who in divers Compartments bas ikilfully reprefented the principal A&ionsof King Frederic I. At the End of this Gallery there's a Saloon, which was formerly magnificent to the laft degree, being wainfcotted, if may fo call it, with Amber But the late Czar coming no Berlin in his return from Rollandand France, and not a little admiringthis Furniture, which was the only thing of its kind, the King made him a Prefent of it fo that what had been amafs'd with great Care and Coft by feveral Eletors, fell in ori Day into the hands of a Nation, which, no longer ago than the beginning of the prefent Century, was reckon*dBarbarian. The Palace had fineGardens belonging to it before they were deftroy'd, and converted into a Place of Arms, and a Parade for the Guards. Hard by the Palace are the King's Stables, a very grand Building, facing the great Street. The Architeure without is Gothic, but the infide is more tnagnificeitt the Stables are broad and foacious, very

12

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very lofcy, and very lightfome the Mangers are of Stone, and the Pillars which mark the Stands for the Horfes, are of Iron, and adorn'd with the King's Cypher, gilt Over the Mangers are feveral great Pictures o the fineft Horfes that ever came out of his Majefty's Studs. The Backfide of the Stables projets towards the River Spreet to which they can lead the Horfes by a Stair-Cafe without Steps, buijt in the form of a Horfe-Shoe. The Main Body of the Houfe contains grand Lodgings for the Mafter of the Horfe, and the Officers under him. Over the Stables are great Rooms where they keep a deal of fine Furniture, both for the Horfe and Mule magnificent Sleds, with convenientHarnefs, adorn'd with Bells a great number of fine of Silver, or Silver gilt Arms; the rich Accoutrements of the Horfe which ferv'd Frederic I. on the Day of his public Entry all the Ornamenrs of the Bridle, the Breaft-Leather, and Crupper, as well as the Bits and Stirrups, being of Gold adorn'd with Brilliants. Over tlie Riding-Houfe is the great Theatre, where, in the late King's time, Interludes and Comedies us'd to be aed before the whole Court but the Opera of Roxana and Altxandtr was the laft that was afted on it. It was play'd in 1708, upon the Marriage of King Frederic I. with Sopbia of Mecklemberg. In 1 706, an Interlude was aed there, on account of the Arrivai of the Princefs Royal, now Queen intitled, Beauty triumpbing at which the Markgraves Fredericover ~ff~J Albert and Cbri;fian-Lewis, the late King's Brothers, danc'd, with all the young Courtiers. As we go farther down the great Street, we corne to the Fifh-Market, where isthe Hotel of the City of Cologne, and Dorfflings Hotel occupied by the Count de Finck. This Family is oblig'd for its Rife tothe Marlhal Dorffling,whofroman Appren-

tice

Berlin.

13

tice to a Taylor rais'd himfelf by his Valour and Merit to the higheft Pofts in the Army. The Story goes, that whenhe had ferv'd his Apprentiesfhip at 'tangenmnity having a mind to go to Berlin, he came to a part of the Country where he cou'd not proceed without crofling the Elbe, but not having wherewithal to pay his Pafge, the Ferry-Men refus'd to carry him over; which fo vex*d him, that hethrew his Knapfackinto th River in a Pet, curs'd the Trade of a Taylor, and went back to Tangertnunde,wherehe Hftedhimfelf Soldier. There being a War at that time all over Germany^it was no difficult matter for the youngWarrior to find an Opto fhew his Courage; and he fignalied it portun ity m fuch a manner, that his Officers, who were ail in love with him, ftrove to advancehim, and therefore made him known to the Eletor Fredtric-William. This Prince who lov'd, rewarded, and was a good Judge of Valour, did not depend upon what Fame reported of him; but in order to fee his Officersand Soldiers fight with his own Eyes, condufted them himfelf to the Enemy, and very foon took notice ofDorffling. He faw him at every part of the Field where there was Honour to be won He faw he was a fenfible induftrious Fellow, that he hated Parties and Cabals, and that he had that Germanic Probity which was the diftinguifh'd Virtue of our Forefathers, but which we now content ourfelves with admiring. The Eleftor obferving fuch a Stock of Virtue in Dorffling, hought himdet ferving of his Favour, advanc'd him to the tip-top Employments, and made him very rich. Envy, which is as old asthe World itfelf, and which like that, neverftandsftill, made feveralofthe Courtiers jcalous ofthe Fortune'or rather the Merit of Dorffling, and there were fome who did not ftick to fay, that -ifthe Marihalcameto beever fogreat a Nobleman, he wou'd always retain the Air of a Taylor. This being

14

Berlin.

being carry'd to Dorffling, True enougb, faid he* I was a Taylor, and I bave cut out Clotb\ but n&wy faid he, clapping his Hand to the Hilt of his Sword, 1 bavean Infiniment in myHand, witbwbicb l'll cut off tbe Ears of anyMan tbat Jlanders me. This brave Fellow liv'd to a great Age, and left a Son who was one of the Kingof Prw^a'sLieutenant-Generals, and Colonel of a Regiment of Drageons, but died without Iflue. He had not quite tlie Vivaciry ofhis Father; but hehad his Honour and Integrity. Going out of the Fifli-market, as wc turn to the right, one perceives the Lutberan Church of St. which isa confiderableStru&ure and then Peter we come into that caJJ'd the Fryars Street, the Houfes of which are all well built. In this Street ftands the Palace where the Aidic Council meets, which in France they caJJthe Parlement 'tis here that all Civil Caufes are try'd, and from thence there lies an Appeal to the King's CounciJ. Beyond the Palace there is a Square, on the Right fide of which there's a Church with Cupola which belongs to the Cahinifts, and is Jook'd upon as the Cathedral of Berlin For you know that the lace King madetwoBilhops, one in PruJJia and the other at Berlin, and they were the Prelates that crown'd him. They are fince dead, and the prefent King lets their Sees lie vacant. In this Church is the Tombof the Royal Family. There's a great Row of Buildings over againft it, which conflits of feveral uniform Houfes belonging to Merin ThisChurchbeingdeftroy'd Ligbtning 1730,n by rchuilt. The2 in of fvjl1734,the new magnificently Spire ofic, whichhadbeenxYearjere&ing, carry'd tothe andwsw up the Heightof about Feet, fellat 9 o'dockst Nightupori too Roofof theCharch,whereby andtheneighbouTing Houle that fuffer'd no very ygreat Damge. Howit happen'd, bodyyet o knowsfome layit wascaus'd Thunder, thers y an Eanhb by a ofitsownaccord. willhaveit thatitfclldown quake, ndfome
ch?nts

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chants, and fupported by ftately Arches with Shops undetthem, where are fold all forts of Goods. Turning round by that Piazza, brings one to a fecondBranch of the River, whichdivides the Ward of Coin from that of Werder. This River, which has three wooden Bridges over it, is confin'd in a Canal lin'd with Freeftone, and form'd by two fine Kays. The moft confiderible Edifices in the Ward of Werder are the Royal Cuftom-Houfe, fo commodiouflyfituate that Boatscancorne up clofe to it: The French School, and theirChurch, which is ferv'dby able Minifters; fome of whom,as the late M. Lenfant (Author of the celebrated Hiftory of the Councilof Confiance, c. and Chaplain to the King & of PruJ/ia) M. de Beaufobre and M. Jacqueiot^ &c. haveacquir'd a Reputation in theRepublicofLetters. The Royal Hunting-Houfe is a large magnificent Structure for lodging the great Huntfmanand allhis inferior Officers There too is the great Dog- Kennel and the Magazines for ail the Hunting Equipage. Near this place is the Hotel or Palace for Ambaffiidors, where are likewife entertain'd fuch Foreign Princes as are not of a Rank high enough to be accommodated in the King's Palace. This Hotel belong'd formerly to theBaronde Danckelman,Prime Minifter to KingFrederic whenhe was only Ele&or, and being built by the faid Minifter at a time when he wasfuch a Favourite that he did almoft whathe pleas'd, he fpar'd no Coft to render it a Manfion worthy of his high Station. I was affur'd by PerfonsofCredit then alive, that after it was built, the late King had a Defire to fee it, upon whichocafion M. de Danckelmanmade a great Entertainment for him and that while the Queen and the whole Court were dancing, the King retir'd into his Minifter*sClofet, to have a private Conference with him and looking very earncftly on a certain Picturc 4

i 6

Berlin.

ture there, M. de Danckelmantold him, that Picture and all that he faw would foon be his Majefty's. The King not knowing what he meant, defir'd his Minifter to explain himfelf whereupon he made anfwer, That he fhou'd very Ihortly incur his 1 Difpleafure that his Fall wou'd be attended by the Forfeiture of all his Eftate that he Ihould be arrefted and committed to the Spandau Prifon i and that thera he Ihould be confin'd ten Years, at the Expiration of which his Innocence wou'd be made to appear, his Eftate wou'd be reftor*d to him, and he (hou'd be taken again into his 1 Majefty's Favour.' The King, who was at that time very fond of his Minifler, and did not think he cou'd ever do without him, ridicul'd what he had faid as the Surmife of a Vifionary, and was going to fwear by the New Teftament then upon a Table in the Room, that this fad Prophecy rou'd never corne to pafs. But the Minifter held his Hand, and begg'd him not to take an Oath which it wou'd not be in his power to keep. I tell you this Story juft as 1 had it from a Lady of Quality to whom the King himfelf told it But in lhort, let the Story be as it will, 'tis very certain that M. de Danckeimanwas difgrac'd, committed Prifoner to Spandau, and from thence remov'd to Peitz, without any Companion but his Wife, who generoufly defir'd to fuffer Imprifonment with him. His Confinement lafted much longer than he had prophefy'd, and when at length he obtained his Releafe, he was not reftor'd to his Employments, nor even to his Eftate. 'Tis faid indeed that the prefent King, who on his cceffion to the Crown fent for M. de Danckeltnanto Berlin, offer'd him the Miniftry but that the Baron excus'd himfelfby reafon of his great Age and his tedious Imprifonment, which had made him lofe the Conncftion of Public Affairs. This Minifter died lately 5

Berlin.

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lately, havnglived to the Ageof forfci-re. HisremarkabJeDifgrace, andfifteen YearsConfinement in a Prifon, had not funk his Spirits, aor fhock'd his ConftancyofMind and one fhall fcrtrcemeet with an Inftance in Hiftory, either before or fince, of more Merit and more Misfortune in oneand the fame Perfon. He was a paflionate Admirer of Learned Men, and a Rewarder of Virtue. In a word, by the Difgrace of this Great Man, the State loft a faithfuldifinterefted Minifter, and Men of Learning loft a Mecnasyfull of Zealand folid Knowledge, who never fail'd to fupport by his own Authority, and to procure ARward from his Mafter, for all Perfons that apply'd to him with any Propofal that was ufeful and uncomrnon. To go fromthe AmbaflaorsHoteltotheNewTown, one rhuftpafs before the Houfe belonging to the Governour of Berlin* who is at prefent the Marfhal Count WartenJkben a Nobleman whofe Virtues, long Services, and great Age, challenge Veneration. The Houfe he lives in wasbuilt by order of the Elector Freerk-Wiliiam^ for the Reception of the Marinai de Scbomberg,who refign'd the Battoon of the Marfhal of France to Lewis XIV. after that Prince had revok'd the Edibof Nantes, and came with a numerousRetinueof Gentlemen, todefire Employment under the Eleftor Accordingly that Prince gavehim the Command of his Troops, but the Marfhal quitted that Employment, to accompanythe PRINCEof Orange to England^ in his famous Expedition againft his Father-in-Law and he likewife attended that Prince to Irelaud, wherehe acquir'd great Glory, but was kill'd in paffing the River Boyne. for Thb Houfes nolongerthe Govemonr's;theKing,who i hascaufed Addition be made it, basgiven to the to to it great Prince ofthe Printt RoyaP$ Royal,andit goes theName Pa. by Itut. The Governonr at prefent theStreet lives in t Reyalt,he the Kinehaving urchag'd fineHoofe Catfitherepurpfely of p r r^' the Govenuwu'j Spr 1, Refidence.

VOL. I.

/C

The

BERLIN. The Governour*s Houfeisfeparatedby a great Square from the Arjenal, which is one of the compleateft Fabrics in Europe, and was built according to a Model defign'd by Bety whom 1 mention'd to you beforc which fkilful Architeft has, upon thisoccafion,cqualJed any thing that waseverdonebythefunousBernitt. The intireStrufturcconfiftsof fourmain Bodiesof Building, which form a fpacious Quadrangle in the middle. The lower Story isof Ruftic Architefture, with arch'd Windows. There are three great Porticots at the Entrance to each Front. Over the principal Gate there's the Pifture of the late King, m a great Medal of Brafs. The four Cardinal Virtues of a Gigantic Size, are plac'd on Pedeftals by the Portico, and feem to look towards the King's Effigies, which is fupported by Fame and Vitory. The Coritttbian Ordr prevails throughout the firft Story, and is very artfully executed. A Gallery or Balluftrade runs round the whole Edifice, and is adorn'd with Trophies and Statues, particularly txvery perfet one of Mars, fitting upon a Heap of Arms of different forts and the Dcoration of all together isnoble and majeftic. Studs of lron in form of Cannon are plac'd at proper Diftances, and fupport Iron Chains, hung in Feftoons, whichhinder People from clambering up to the Windows. The Infide of this Arfinal is as magnificent as the Outfide. The lower Rooms are ftor'd with a great number of Brafs Cannon. The Walls and Pillars tiut fupport the Arch are garnifh'd with Cuirafls and Hclmets. In the upper Story there are feveral Rooms full of Arm?, rang'd in fuch Order as can never be enough admird, Behindthe Arfenal there'theHoufe of the General of the Ordnance, which alfo contains the Foundery,t where Men are continually at work. Befides this Arfenalt there are feveral others in B,trlin, where they keep Field-Pieces, Iron Cannon, and

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ig

nd all that belongs to the Train of Artillery. 'Twas the late MargraVe Philip*, Brother to Frdric I. who when he was Great Mafter of the Ord. nance began to put the Kings Arfettals into a good State. But King Frederic-Williamhas finifh;d what his laid Uncle began, and has put the Attillery on fuch a footing, that 'tis a queftion if anyArfenal in Europe is on a better Rgulation. A Rampart and a Ditch feparatethe JVerderfrom tht: Dorotby-Stadtyor new Town, which is for moft partinhabited by .FraHiFamilies. Ithd the Name HDarotby-Stadtin honour of the Eletrefs Dorothy bf Holjtein-Gluckjburgi fecond Wife oFredercthe IVilliam, who with her own Hand planted the firft Lime-Tree of the feven great Rows which divide th's Ward into twoParts. "fhe middlemoft kowj which isthewideft, isinclos'd withBalluftrades, and forrhs a pleafant Grafs-Walk for Foot Paffcngers. The Walks on each fide are pav'd, and krve as a Ring for the Coaches. Nothing is more bnficiaiandagreeable than taking the Air in thisPlace, whereyou may liave any thing that canbe defir'd in City. At the end of oneof thefe Walks is a Gate which opens to the Park, the Walks of which being above a Leagui: in length, forni a fine Point of View. On both fides the Lime-Tree Rows, are Houfes, among which the Palace of Madame the Margravine, Dowager t to the Margrave Philip, Brother to the late King, is one of the beft. The late Mar This Prince iedat SctweJt,Dtc. d 19.1711. HeIcfttwo o was in tothe Pritlcefs Darotbea Son*, neof whom marry'd 1734, the then f Sapbia Kingof PnMa'tfourth Daughter, about ifceen marYcars ftge. SothathisMajefty o j whohadfii Daughters, riedfourof themwithin fpacc fourYean, andhasnqw the of buttwomore difpofe to of. is and(beis theyoungeft Sifter t HerName Jtan Charlotte, ofPrinceinpoUrt Anbalt the o De bcing Daughter f rhe fir/C Princetbii-Gttrgt byHenrietta atbtriiu,Daughter J II. o P itric-tttnTj rince fQrangt.

a2

grave

20

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grave purchs'd this Palace (which at that time was inconfiderable) of the Wife ofWeillerColonelof the Artillery, who had thrown up his Employments, Wife, Children and all, to go with a Lady of Quality, that was in love with him, to Vienua. ThisGentlewoman pafs'd for a modem Sappho, every body and talk'd of her Virtue and good Senfe. But being a Slave to the Folliesof Lov, and alham'd to let them be feenat Berlin, where ftie was counted an Oracle, ftie refolv'd to quit the Place of her Birth, and engag'd her Lover to leave ail and follow her. The Margrave made confiderableAugmentations to tliis Houfe, and render'd it very commodious. The Furniture of the Palace alfo is rich, and worthy of the Princefs who refides in it. Oppofite to the Margravine's Palace is a Building which was formerly call'd the King's Little Stables, but has been metamorphos'd into Caferns for the Gendarmery they difcover the Magnifi* cence of Frederic I. who caufed them to be built. The Apartments that run over the Stables are occupied by the Academy of Painters, and that of Arts and Sciences. Behind the Stables there's the Obfervatory, with a great number of Aftronomical and Mathematical Initruments, of which there are many of a new Invention. of Frederic-Stadt, which is the fifth Ward Berlin, communicates with the New Town and the Werder. This is one of the pleafanteft Wards in tht whole City, the Streets being fpacious, lirait, and planted with Lime-Trees*. Perhaps Since Original poblifh'd, the wu thisWardhasbeenJeng* f then'dtwothirds. ThereisooeStreet o long,thatin thisrethat i fpedtherearefew equal t 'tisasftraitasaLineand teri with mintesnan Oval,furrounded veryfine Houfes.A new a Wardisalfoeretedt theEndof thatcall'dtheNewTownJ i b o fromwhencet ranges ehind FrtJtric-StaJt. Hremoft f tbe H o ntherthanHowfes. ehtffNobilityrebvildiog otels rPalaces, a II

Berlin.

21

Perhaps 1have dwelt too long upon the Metropolis of the Eleftorate of Branenhurgh 1 thought but that as there had been no true Account yet givea of thisCity, you wou'd not be forry to haveit from me. The next day after my Arrivai here, I had the Honour to fee the King, who was then feeing his Soldiers mountguard. He isa Prince of a middlirg Stature, and in very good Plight of Body: His Air commandsRefpedt; yet, when pleafes, no Prince lie in the World can be more gracious. 1 heard him fpeak to his Officers in fuch a kind manner as cou'd not but charm them I admir*d Genius for mihis litaryDifciplne, and perceiv'd that withtheGlance of an Eye he cou'd diicover the leaft Fault committed againft that wonderful Exa&nefs which is introduc'd in the Evolutions of his Troops. Aftcr the Guards had perform'd their Exercife, the King ftay'd to fee them file off. 1 never yet faw Troops march with more Order and State, fo that it feem'd as if they were all mov'd by one Spring. Ail the Soldiers are young, of aneven Stature, and the clevereft Fcllows that Nature ever form'd they are wellcloth'd, and have fuch an Air of Neatnefs, that even the private pafsfor Officers. 1 remember you Centinelsmightall was prejudic d againft their Clothing their Clothes you laid were too ftrait, and too fhort. I was of your Opinion once, and think fo ftill, when happen to fee one of their Officers and Soldiers fingly among us, who wear NightGowns rather than Coats but when I fee a whole Body of f 'ruffianstogether, I am of another Opinion, and think their Drefs givesthem a warlike Air which other Troops have not. Youwill tell meperhaps, that the Clothing of the truffions is good in a Garrifon, but that in the Field their Garments are not C3 ln a word,if theNomber f theInhabitants Berlin prewas o of tothatoftheHoufes,t would thefineft, ndthe i be a poraonable volt dourilhing Townin all Gtrmaty.

22 B R L I N. not wide enough to cover the Soldiers in the Night. J anfwer, that the Pruffian Soldiers are in no danger of not being cover'd, becaufe when they are it> rhe Fk-ld, every Caprain is to carry as many CoverIjds, as there are Comrades in his Company. But ycu'U fay, this muft be a very great Incumbrance, and take up a deal of Equipage. 'Tis true, it may r^quire tv/q S.ampter Horfes in a Company, but a Soldier fares the btter for it becaufewhen he gces wet into the Camp, he can get his Clothe$ dry'd in the Night while he is under his Coverlid. After ail, the Incumbrance is no greater at prefent, for thofe Troops, than it was at the time when ail the Frujfian Infantry had Cloaljs, which the Soldiers wore, was the Weather ever fo hot, folded over their Shoulders, and ty'd both before and behind by their Belt. If they had any hafty Marchto make, fuch as 1 faw they made in Flanders in 1708, when they went to attack the French near tidenardeythe Ffujfians Lft their Cloaks behind with a Guard, ^nd when the Battle was join'd, the Captains were oblig'd to fend for their Cloaks. In fhort, what piakes me think the Pmfftan Clothing the moil convenient fpr a Soldier, is, that moft of the Germau Princes are now come into it, and like it well The Troops of Sasony, and Brunfwic in particular, are cloth'd like thofe of Prujjia. The Prufian Troops, which are new cloth'd eT vsry Year, hve Breechesof Woollen Clorh for the Winter, and of Linnen for the Summer and they are allow'd Shirts, Necks and SpatterdaJhes Their and regular the Soldieris compell'd to Pay is good do his Duty, but when he does it, enjoys more Liberty than in the Service of any other Nation U\ ithat were 1to carry a Mufket, 1 fancy it wou'd be in the ServiceofPrufia, wherefuch a iftrtDifcipline is obferv'd, that the Soldier is no Swearer, and is not allow'd to game, and where in a word he does not abandon

Berlin.

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abandon himfelf to Licentioufnefs. On Sundays and SaintsDays they are requir'd to go twice a day to hcar a Sermon The Catholicks have the liberty of going to Mafs. In fhort, good Manners are introduc'd and obferv*din thofe Troops to fuch a Nicety, that you would wonder at it. AH the Infantry is cloth'd in b!ue. It depends on the Colonel of every Regiment, to order what Waiftcoats and Trimming he pleafes for the Clothes. The Horfe and Dragoons wear white, but the Houfhold Troops blue, with Campaign Coats of Gold Lace. The Huffars Clothing is rcd, but the Garbs of the Officers both of Foot and Horfe are plain, and only differ froni the Apparel of the Soldiers in the finenefsof the Cloth tho' there are fome Regiments whofe Waiftcoats are bedaub'd all over with Gold or Silver Lace. The Colours, which are uniform in ail the Rgiments, are white, with theKing's Device, reprefenting anEagle flying towardstheSun with this Motto, NecSoli cedit. There's fucha Uniformity preferv'd in all things throughout the Army, even in their Guns, Swords, Bayonets,fcff.that in every Rgiment they wear the very lame, even to their Shoe-Buckles. The fame Regularity is obferv'd in the Horfe and Drageons, which ride both upon black Horfes and indeed they are not permitted to have any others, the Officers themfelves being not exempt from this Rule, when they are at the head of their Squadrons or Companies. The Houfings and Equipage of the latter are of the fame Pattern, and extremely Nrich. Ail the Horfe wear Buff-Coats, and underheath Cuiraflcs. They perform their Exercife on i'oot like the Infantry, and with the fame Exadnefs. The Ketde-Drums and Trumpets of all the Horfe are of Silver. There is not a Captain in ail the Prtffian Army but has at laft ten fupernumerary Mcnj fo tnat C4

24

BE

RLIN.

that thefe included, the King's Forces amount to near iooooo, all pick'd Men. You cou'd not but admire if you were to le how they behave infomuch that whenever they take the Field, *tis pity but Fortune fhou'd favour them. Not many Days after my Arrivai here, the King being gone to vit his Kingdom, 1 had the Honour of waiting on the Queen. This Princefs, whofe Name is Sopbia-Dorotbea, is Sifter to the prefent King of Great Britain, being the Daughter of GeorgeI. the late King, and of Sopbia-Dorotbea Princefs of Brunfivic-Zell. And fhe docs every thing that is worthy of her Auguft Extraction for furely never did Daughter more refemble a Father fhe has the faine Bemgniry and Wifdom, the fame Equity and Juftice, and Sweetnefs of Temper. Like him Ihe knows the Charnu of a private Life, and Friendfhip, on a Throne Like him fhe is ador'd by her Subjes and her Domettics, and is the chief Blefling and Darling of both. To extend Goodnefs and AffabUity farther, were impofEble there being no Foreigners but what are charm'd with the gracious Manner in which this Princefs receivcs them. To a thoufand Virtucs worthy of Veneration, fhe has added the fingular Talent of fpeaking the Language of feveral Countries which flie never faw, with as much Delicacy as if they had been herMotherTongues. The Frencb Language efpecially, is fo famihar to her, that one wu'd take her to be a Princefs of the Royal Family of France; and the Grandeur and Majefty that accompany ail her Avions, induce thofe even who don't know her, to be of Opinion that Ihe was born to reign. That which ftUl more endears this Queento her People, is the Care fhe takes of the Education of her Family which confiftsof four Princes, and fix Princcfes. The eldeft of the Sons is ftiltt the Prince

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Prince Royal*. This young Prince is handfome, charms every one by his Kindnefs and Good-Nar tare and loves Reading, Mufick, the Arts, and Magnificence: His Sentiments, his Bebaviour, and his AHons, make it probable, that if he cornes to the Crown, his Reign will be one of thofe mild and peaceable Reigns, which procure Kings that Love of their People, wherein confifts their true Glory. The Care of the Prince Royal's Education was committed firft of ail to Madamde Camke, one of the Queen's Ladies of Honour, and Governefs of the Children of Pruffia. But this Lady left the Charge of the latter to the Sub-Governefs, Madam de Rocoule, and her Daughter Madamoillle de Montbail. Madam de Rocoulehad alfo the honour to be Sub-Governefs to the King fo that ihe was no Novice in the forming of young Princes. As fhe talks nothing but Frtncb, fhe has taught it to the King's Children who fpeak it with as much eafe as they do the GermonLanguage. At feven Years of Age the Prince Royal was taken out of the Hands of the Women and the Count de Finch,of i=if/t<r^rt,Lieutenant-GeneraloftheKing'sForces, a Knight of his Order, and Colonel of a Regimenc of Horfe, was appointed his Royal Highncfs's Governour and the Baron de Kalefteinwas rnade SubGovernour. The King's Choice of both thefe Gentlemen was univerfally applauded. The eldeft of the King's Children is FredericaSepbia-fPtlefaina, the Princefs Royal who was born in 1 709. 1 was at Berlin at the Ceremony of her Baptifm, which was performed in the Chapel of tbe Caille, in prefenec of Frdric IV. King of DenHe married Juin 1733,)thePrinccfi lixabtth E Cbri. (in and Jtina of Brumfuiu.LuHtnburgb, Bcvim, Daughter of Ferdinand AlbertDukeof BrunfwH-Luncnbitrgb, andBivtrn, Gnerai f theArmies f the Emperor Emo and o Field-Marlhai Hoir pire and Prsi'umptive to tbc DukeRgentof Brunfwe fV*nburg Woiftmhuttlt,

26

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Denmark, Frttric-Augufius King of Poland, and Frederic I. King of Pruffia. The Birth of this Princefs, and the Circumftances of three Kings asd a Queen attending at her Baptifm, gave occafion to a great many Copies of Vcrfts. AH the Poets laid that the Prefence of thefe three Kings, was a Sign that fhe wou'd one day have Poflflon of three Crowns. They had then in view th Crowns of Great Britiny that were to devolve to the Family of Hanover in which there was a young Prince who, it was then imaginM, was to be in time the Hufband of this Princefs. Whethcr this Match will ever take place, and whether the Princefs will be Queen, l can't fay but if Ihe is not, Fortune will not do Juftice to her Merit. The Princefi Frtderica-Louifa%the King's fcond Daughter, is lately married to the Margrave ot BrandenburgbAnffach. Tis faid that his Majefty's third Daughter, th Princefs Philippine-Charlotte, is promifed to t Charles, hereditary Prince o Brunfinie Beveru^ Nephew to the Emprefi Regent. The other Ptinces and Princefls, the King's Children Q, are as yet too young to fiirnijh any ParticuJars for their Characler. In a word, pyt them ail together, they form a very fine Family. The Margravine, Dowager of the Margrave Philip, This washisRoyal ighaefs, nowPrince Walet. Ail of H in Europe, fliort,thought, did the PoeaofthatTime; and mark'dontthePrincefsorthisPrince. t f eiery oneingnerai wj thentoothe Defireof bththe Qoeew andthe Princelj f herfclf eem'dto hvebeenbronght p in that Notion. But n whea'twu leaftof Uejtycfled, certainReafoot f Statecano t cell'dal) thef:Views andth#Kingof TruJJUt thonght6t m i to of Oanghtern 1731 th Hereditary rince P marryhiseldeft B Brantitnburg-Bartitbs King a GttrgtII. of Grai ritain,in fit S toher Highneb,Ju1756,thought to marryhiseldeft ola Sifter fthe o o gifla, yoangeft was prefcntDake f S*xt-GHh. them, in t The Marriage ausllycelcbntedbetween July 1733. in th |j Thefburthmarried 1734,ta the Kmg'aCouDi Margravef Brandenbitrgh-Scbvcedt, o

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fbilip, Brother to the late King, is the firft ia Rank at Court, next to the King*s Children Sh was born Princefs of Anbalf-Dejfau. Her Roya i Highnefs was lately chofe Abbeis of Herford, a fqy^reign Abby in Wejtpbalia^ (in a Town belonging to the KingofPruJ/a, as part of the Principality of Ravenfbergv)whofeCanonefsniuftbeallPrincefls, or Contefls of the Empire. This Princefs, tho* fhe is paft her Bloom, is ftill the Ornament of the Court and no Perfon can be more civil than (heis to Poreigners fo that 'tis as much a Plcafugs as a Duty to pay one's Court to her. When the King is at Berlin, and the Queen has no Drawing-Room, Court repairs to the Margravine's Houfe the whole where her Royal Highnefs daily keeps an lgant Table to which fhe admits the Quality cf botlj Sexes. She is the Mother of two Princes and a Princefs; the Sons are the Margraves Frederic and Ile/try, and the Daughter is married to the hereditary Prince of Wirtemberg. The young Margrave Frederic refides at Scbwedtqpon the Qder, where he has a very fine Houfe but does not come to Coure f>utwhen he can*cavoid it. The young Margrave Henry refides commonly at Berlin. Both thefe Princes are handfome, lufty, and well fliap'd. The Margrave Albert, the King's Uncle*, lives in his Majefty's Palace, tho? he is eight Months of the Year at Fredericbsfelde, a Pieafure-Houfe about a League from Berlin. He is the fecondSon of the Eleor Frederic-William, and Dcrotby of Holfiem CluckfTh Prince diedin 1731. His eldeft on.the Margrave S f of him of Cbwrltt,uecceded inthGrand Mafterihip theOrder of andhadhisRegiment FootintheService Pruffia. of St. Jtbm\ fecond Prince rtdtric,his RoyalHignncfe's Son,hadhis RegiF in rnew theService theStates enerai of oftheUmttdPrmtrituts G andtheonut Tnubfei-Walbourgb, dt hadhis a Major-General, of Ltmdt Regiment Horfe.Hewasfent to compliment XV. and on nponhisCoronation; afterwards the fameCommiffion to the Bmperor Prtgue. His Wit and Pplitenefs ap* at were at plandd boti thofeCourts.

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Clucksburg He is well fliap'd, has a noble Air, and has been in his time a very good Dancer He is fond of Grandeur and PJeafures. Ar the beginning of the laft War he diftinguilhed himfelf very much at the Siege oKeyferfwaert, and other Places, where he commanded the Troops of the King his Brother. His Royal Highnefs is Governor of Pomerania, Knight of the Black Eaglc, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and of another of Hori? in the King's Service He has alfo a Rgiment of Foot in the Service of the United Provinces and is Grand Mafter of the fix Commanderies of the Order of St. Jcbn of Jerufalem* whp, at the Alteration of Religion in the time of Lutbert withdrew from the Grand Mafter ofMalta, and aflum'd to themfelves a Right of chufing a Grand Mafter under the Protection of the Ele&or of Brandenburgb. The Margrave marry'd a Princefs of Courland, Heirefs to the Freehoids of her Uncle Duke Ferdinand, the laft of her Fami'y. This Princefs, tho' not reckon'd a Beauty of the firft Rate, has 4 grcat Share of Charms and Good-nature, Modefty and Politenefs. Their Royal Highnefls are perh fcclly civil to thofe who ave Accefs to them which is the reafon, that notwithftanding the little Concern they have in Bufinefs, they hve always a numerous Court. They have three Princes, and two Princeffes. The eldeft of the Sons is Charles, a Prince whofePerfon andCharaerare very amiable. The eldeft of the Daughters is married to the Duke of Saxe-Eyfenacb. laft 1 The Prince of th Royal Family, is the Marthird Son of theEleor Fregrave CbriJtian~Le*riSy ~~c-~~M<t by the fecond Marriage.This Prince is Governour of the Cityand County of H*lberfiadt% he has a Rsinent of Foot, is Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, and Commander of dut w ofSt.7ft&. Hcftudicdato'(ii 1after hich, he

ferv*4

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ferv'd with diftindtion in taly. He now lives retir'd from Court ztMacbau, a Houfe about aMile from Berlin, which the late King bought of the Heirs of M. de Fucbsy his Minifter f State. There the Margrave, who hasa Relifh for the Pleafures of private Life, paflcs his Time in Hunting,, Reading, and every innocent Pleafure that an agrecablreCountry is capable of furnifliing. This Prince has been a handfome weil-made Man he has a grand Air, and there's fomething heroic in his PhyGognomy In the very Flower of his Youth he was a conftant Admirer of Virtue, and might ever be quoted for an Example of Sobriety. He is fo exceeding fat, that it's fcartt he won't live ta be a very old Man*. AU the Princes of the Royal Family wear the Prufjian Order, viz. that of the Black Eagle and reccive it as foon as they are born. 'Tis an Orange Ribband, to which is appendant a Crofs enamel*d with blue, refembling the Crofs of Matta. A Star of Silver is embroider'd on the Coat and in the middle of it is an Orange Efcutcheon, over which is a black Eagle crown'd with Wings dilplay'd, holding in one of its Talons a Crown of Laurel, and in the other a Thunder-bolt, with the Motto, SVUM cuique, in Letters of Gold. This Order was inftituted by Frederic the fixth of Jamiary 1701, O. S. on account of his Coronation at Koningsberg. Hecall'd it the Order of the Black Eagle, becaufea Black Eagle forms the Arms of PrFrr a and he chofe an Orange Ribband, in memory of the Eleftrefs his Mother, who was a Princefs of Orange; in Right of whom he pretends to be next Heir to William 111. King of ngland, and Prince of Orange. The He died(bddenly J^ufi l7H> u Malchm, gcde7, in a borathe+thof M*, \bllt O. S. He w notmarried. bdag

BERLIN.

The Princes of the Royal Family are not exempr from paffing thro' the Degrees of military Service t and 'us not here as in other places, where they hve Regiments andGovernments as foonas they are born. The King will have them to know how to obey, before they corne tocommand and'tisan Encouragement to the OfHcerso findthemfdves fofar honour'd, t as to be on a Par in the Service, with thofe who are born to be their Sovereigns. The Prince Royal lias a Regiment of Horfe M. de Lofelf, a MajorGeneral, commanded that Regimentformerly, but the Kir.g preferring him to the Government of Cufirin+ this Regiment has for Colonel M. de Wreecb^ a Perfon of a good Family in the new Marquifate. His Father, who was one of the King's Lieutenant-Generals, had ferv'd the late Ele&orFredericWilliam^ the late King, and his prefent Majefty. M. de IFreecby whom I am fpeaking of, was, at his return from his Travels, appointed by the late King a Gentleman of hisBed-chamber After that Prince's Death, his prefent Majefty enter'd him into his Service, and gave him a Troop of Horfe. This Gentleman difHnguifhed himfelf greatly in 1708, at the Battle of Audenarde where he was Aid de Camp to the Marfhal de Natzmer, then General of the Cavalry He had a Horfe kill'd under him, and was taken Prifoner but the Enemy in their Flight not watching him very ftriftly, he found means to get off when the Night came and put an end to the Battle. He lay hid in a Ditch till next day, in danger every moment of being knock'd on the head by our own Men but when the Day broke, he rejoin'd his General; who had receiv*da t flight Tbe Kingthought fieTomeimeago, to confer Rethis t of Son, giment Horleuponbisfecond Prince Aiguftus-lFiliUm, and to givethePnnceRoyal Rgiment a ofFoot. died of t M deLefel thebeginning 1733,in nis GovCTBUKnt of Cuflrin.

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TVoundin the Head. M. de Wretcb is one flighr ofthe richeft Subjefts the King has but he is worthy of his Fortune, and ufes it like a Man of He is certainly a valuable Gentleman, has Quality. a noble Soul, and Senfe and Knowledge enough to capacitate him to ferve his King and Country both in Peace and War. Berlin is not a City where you ought to look for the moft lively Diverfions; the King, to whofe Will every body conforms, not bring fond of themhimfelf. Yet when once a Man is known there, he will find Amufement enough for the People are affable and civil, make plentiful Entertainments, and hve very good Wine. When the King is abfent, the Queen has a Drawing-Room every Ni t, from feven o' clock tili ten when her Maje fups with the Princes and Princefles of her Family, and other Perfons of Diftinftion of bothSexes. But when the Kingis at Berlin, the Queen keeps noDrawing-Room, unlefs fome Foreign Prince happen to be there. Then there are AiTembliesin the City alternatively, among Pcrfons of the firft Rank, at which they fometimes dance and the King and Prince Royal frequendy honour thefe Aflcmblies with their Prefence, When there is nogrand Aflmbly, thereare particular Societies, where they fup, and play at fmall Game. The Minifters of moft confequence at this Court are Meflieurs d'IIgen, Grumkau, and Knifbaufen* thefe are they who treat of Foreign Affairs, and thro' whofehands pafs the Secrets of State but th King's Prime Minuter is the King himfelf, who is nform'd of every thing, and is defirous to know every thing. He gives great Application to Bufinefs, but does it with extraordinary Eafe and nothing ibme The firft andthelait bave beradead Years,andtheir who Places Btri b fnpply'd y Meffieurs andPodJfwitx., havea of juftTkleto theinrePofleffionth King'sConEdencc.

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thing efcapeshis Pntration, norhis Memory, which is a very happy one. No body knows better than he where his Government is ftrong, and where 'tis weak and no Sovereign in the World is of more eafy Accefs, his Subiets being aually permitted to write to him, without any other Formality than (uperfcribing the Letter, To tbe King. By wriring underneath, To be deliver*dinto bit Majefty's own Hands, one may be fure that the King receives and reads ir, and that the next Poil h: will anfwer it, either with his own Hand or by his Secretary thefe Anfwers are lhort* but peremptory, and they prevent a tediouspainful Attendance. The King, who is an Enemy to vain Pomp and Pageantry, always goes abroad without any Guards, with only a fmall Retinue, and fometimes too walkson foot; he makes his Greatnefs to confiftin folid Power, in the having his Troops well difciplin'd, his Places kept up in good Order, his Arfenals well provided, and his Treafury full enough to enable him to oppofe his Enemy in cafe he be attack'd. He never aims fo much as to difturb his Neighbours, much lefs to rob them I heard him fay one day, that be bai no Intention of attacking any bodyt nor of beginning a War; but if ht ivas attacka\ be woulddfend bimfilf tbe bcfi becould a Condu which he has religiouiy obferved ever fince he has been placM upon the Throne, even towards Charles XII. King of Sweden, notwithftanding what is faid of him by a certain Author, who from forry Memoirs has wrote that Princes Life. But 1 will not deviate from my Subjecl. There's no Town in all the King of Pruffia*& Do. minions, except Neuf{btet where he has not boen } no Province which he does not know full weil not a noble Family but he can tell their Revenues; nor a Court of Jufticc but he is well acquainted with their chief Members. His Behaviour is plain he
knows

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knows no Gallantry, and does not eafily pardon it in his Officers. He is fo true to his Confort the Queen, that he wifhes all Men would follow his Example, and that every Hufband would live only with the Woman whom God has allotted him. His Diverfion is Hunting and for this reafon, he refides commonly at Potzdam or Wujierhaufen, which are Pleafure-Houfcs four Miles from Berlin. Yet he generally goes on Saturdays into his Capital, where he holds a Coundl on Sunday, and returns on Monday. In the Winter he makes a longer ftay at Berlin but let him be either here or there, he is on the Parade every Day at ten o' clock, when his Soldiers mount the Guard after which he gives Audience to his Minifters, and holds a Council, or goes abroad for the Air. At Noon the King appears in a great Saloon, where are all the Generais and Officers, the Foreign Minifters, and all the Court in gnerai There he converfes a few Moments, and then goes into another Room, where he dines with the Qrieen, the Princes and Princefles of his Family, and any other Perfons whom he has caufed to be invited. His Table is commonly fpread for eighteen Guefts. After he has fate about an Hour and half at Table, he retires to his Clofettill fix at Night, when lie appears again in the Room where he held his Leve There his Majefty gives Orders to the Marfhal Wartenjkben Governor of Berlin, and to the Marfhal Natzmer Commandant of the Gendarmery. After this, he talks a-while with thofe that are prefent, and then palfes into a Room at fome dillance from his Apartment, to which the Qjeen repairs fometimes with one or two Ladies in company. There are ten or a dozen Officers whom the King honours with his Confidence, who play here at Picquet, Ombre, and Backgammon. Here they alfo fmoak, and to this Place th King fends for fuch as he has a mind to Vol. I. D t.Uk

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talk with about fpecial Affairs. 1 have been thete twice upon fuch an account. Here there is no manner of Reftraint, but every bodyfits down, heKing t that is due to him, difpenfing with all the RefpecT: and at eleven o' clock he dil'mifies the Company and retires. The King hunts when hc is at Potzdam and IVufterbaufen but in other refpeds he leads the fam Life there as he does at Berlin. At Potzdam he hunts the Srag, having for that end caufed a great Foreft to be paled in, where he has made noble Roads. The Caftleat Potzdam, which is very convenient, wasbuilt by the Eleftor Frdric-William, who commonlyrefidedatit; andafterhavingrun hisglorious Race, died here the igiofspril, t 688. KingFrede. ric I. made confiderableEmbelifhments to i t, particularly thegreatGateopeninginto the main Courtofthe Caftle, which is an admirable Piece of Architecture that was defign'd by M. Bot, my Hero for Buildings. But ail that the late King did, does not corne up to the Works that have been added to it of late has Years. The Town of Potzdam been augmented two Thirds; the Streets are as ftrait as a Line, with Trees pJanted, and Canalscut in them after themanner of Holland the Houfes are uniform and built with Bricks. Befides a great Hofpital, which the King has founded here for his Soldiers Orphans, here is a confiderable Fabric for Armourers, who make all thofe Arms for the Forces and Arfenals, which were formerly made at Liege. This Town is the Garrifon for the firft Battalion of thofe Tall Grenadiers, fo much talk'd of in Europe. I proteft to you that they exceed the common Report, being the compleateft, the fineft, and beft-difciplin'd Body that can be imagin'd. The Men are of all Nations, there being fcarcea Prince in Europe but takes a pleafur in fending Recniits
to

BerliK.

35

td t. Some of thefe Grenadiers have had i5oo Crowns Lift-Money and feveral receive two FJch tins per diem Some of them are very rich others there arewhotrade, and havegood Houfes atPo/zdam. The talleft and the beft Man among them all was one call'd Jonast (lately dead) who work'd heretofore in the Mines of Nortay. The famous Huguetan, whom Frederic IV. King of Denmark created Count de Guldenftein,took him from the Mines, and prefented him to the King. He then ftoop'd in the Shoulders, and hobbled in waJking; but by tricking him up, they gave him that good Air which he wanted. 'Tis certain, there are na Troops in the World where the Peafant fooner fhakes off the downifh Air, and mofe eafily affames the military one. This gigantic Regiment has requir'd great Pains, and confiderable Sums to eftablifh it; and 1 am affured it has coft the King more than fix other Rgiments. But'tis all his Majefty takes delight in; and furely this Prince cannot but be commended for giving into a Pleafure fo noble, and fo innocent. Having given you fortieAccount of Polzdam, t muft alfo mention Cbarlottenbourg another Royal Houfe* a Mile from Berlin. This Caftleftands on the Spree, fo that one may go to it by Water but the common Way is thro' the Park which is at the end of the great Walk from the new Town. In thelateKing'stime, wheneverhewas at Charlottenbourg,all th Road from Berlin to this Palace was lighted by Lanthorns erected on both fides. Cbarlottenbourgwas formerly call'd Ltitzenbourg* It was a fmallVillage belongingtoM. Doberginfiy^ Stewardof the Houfhold tothe Queen, (the King's Mother.) He had built a triflingHouf there, and that Queeo taking the Air there one day, lik'd the Situation ofthe Place fowell, thatiheboiightit, and fet about building there; but fhe died beforeall the D2 Works

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Works fhe had undertaken were fini/hed. Howr ever, her Hufband King Frederic I. caufed them to be carried on, and made confiderable Additions to them; andin order to perpetuate the Queen's Name, which was Sophia-Cbarlotte, he caufed Lutzenbourg to be called Cbarlottenbourg, This Caftle is one of the moft confiderable Structures in Germany the Apartments are grand and fplendid, and the Furniture very rich. There's a Cabinet adorn'd with the choiceft Porcellane, ranged in fuch order as is furprifing: In another Cabinet thereare Luftres, a Tea-Table with Difhes, a CofFee-Pot, and the whole Equipage in Jhort of folid Gold. The Chapel is one of the moft fuperb that can be every fide being adorn'd with Gold and Painting. The 0rangery is one of the moft rnagnificent in Europe not only with regard to the Beauty and Number of its Trees, but the Greatnefs of the Building in which they are kept ail the Winter. 1 could tell you of feveral more Houfes which the late.King had in the Neighbourhood of Berlin butas they were fuffer'd to run to ruin after he died, I think I had better entertain you with the Characters of the prime Nobility at this Court. The Count de Wartenflebenis the oldeft Marfhal. He is by Birth a IVeftpbalian, and pafs'd his early days in the Service of France. He was Commander in chief of the Troops of the Duke of Saxe-Gotbat when King Frederic I. called him to his Service. The Count de Warlemberg, who was at that time the Chief Minifter, wanted a Perfon to be at the head of the Troops, who fhould be intirely devoted to himfelf This wasan Obedience he did not to expecT: find in the Courts deLot tum, Dbona, and Denboff, nor in the other Generais whofe long Services and Birth inight make them afpire to this mititarjr Dignity. He believed the fitteft Perfon to be his Tool would be a Foreigner that lhould- be

oblig*d

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oblig'J to him for his Fortune Therefore he caus'd the Marlhal's Batoon to be given to the Count de Wartenfleben,who anfwer'd to a tittle the Intention of the Minifter his Benefadtor. 'Tis tme, that he never feconded his Revenge, but neither did he oppofeit. Hedid the Bufinefsofhis Office, and meddled not with the Intrigues of the Court. le may be faid of him, that he never deviated from the Path of Equity, and in Juftice to him it mu!t be own'd that he always did good, when it was in his power. Since the Death of the late King, his Authority and Intereft are very much leffened. Befides, he is too far advanc'd in years to concern hiinfelf with almoft any Bufinefsat ail. The' General whofe Power is moft rever'd, is the Prince Leopoldof Anbalt-Dejfau. In confideration of his high Birth, and the Rank of Sovereign which he holds in the Empire, 1 onght to have nam'd him firft only the Count de Wartenjlebenis the oldeft Marflial. The Prince of Anhalt is Marfhal, Governour of the City of Magdebourg, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. This Prince, who isa Perfon of a good Stature an noble Prefence, happy Features and a lively Afpet, was born with all the Qualifications of a General and aSoldier, being vigilant, laborious, indefatigable, equally patient of Heat and Cold, Want and Abundance Brave even toIntrepidity, and poiTiblynever equalled in this refpe, unlefs we except CbarlesXll. Kingof Sweden:BeingaMan of unexampled Rigour in Military Difcipline, he will be obey'd;but then he rewardshis Soldiers when they do their Duty, and fometimes makes himfllf familiar with them A warm and conftant Friend, but an implacable Enemy when he thinks himfelf not weil us'd haughty to his Equals, civil and courteous ta his Inferiors. In his Youth, he wasa Wine-Bibber, and a Debofhee D 3 bat

38

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butithasbeenobferv*d, that neither WinenorWomen can detain him, when he is in the purfuit of Glory. lie is a religious Obferver of his Promifes, and never makes any but after mature Reflection. He is an Enemy to thePompand Conftraint of the Lives of Great Men; an conomift, perhaps more than becomeshis Dignity and is an abfolute Maftcr in his Family and his Government, having poor, but dutiful Subje&s, and well-regulated Fi. nances. The Care of the Prince of AnbaWs Education was committed to M. de Cbalifac, a Native of Guienne. This Gentleman found an ungovernable Temper in the young Prince which hehadmuch ado to minage. The Prince happen'd very early to have a likingforMadamoifellerff Fobfen,(whomhe after. wards marry'd) which being not at ail pleafing to his Mother, (who was born Princefs of Orage) Ihe thought the beft way to cure him of his Fondnefs for her, woud be to fend him abroad and therefore appointed M. de Cbalifac to travel with him to Itafy, and accordingly they made that Tour. Cbalifac, who was my particular Friend, and whofe Memory I honour, told me that this Princc's s extraordinary Vivacity and Intemperance, had often made his Heart ake but that whenever he happen'd to run aftray, he was fure to redaim him by fetting the Motives of Honour and Ambition in his View. To this purpofe he reiated what happen'd when they were at Vemcc, viz. that the Prince came home one Morning very much in Liquor, after having fpent the whole Night in a Dbanch and IA. de Cbalifac reproving him, perhaps a little too fharpl^, as the young Prince thought, he ran and fnatch'd up a Piftol, and returning with it to his Governour, faid, Tou P<i I muftkill you. M. de Cbalifac, withoutap-

pearing

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pearing furpriz'd, looking fternly at the Prince, but Ibink made him anfwer Sbootme fyott/K~ how wertby a Figure you' tnake in Hijiory, whcn itjbal be recordedtbat a Prince of Anhalr, a Prince of a Family tbat bas given Emperors to Germany, tmrder'dbis Tuter. Thefe Wordsfpoke with an Air of Authority madefuch an Impreffion on the young Prince, that he laid down his Piftol faying, Tauare indeedin tbe rigbt I Jlmdd bave commited a vil t lainousAftion. The Prince on his Return from Ilaly to Dejfatt fhew'd that Time and Abfence had not that Effed upon him as they generally have upon Lovers. He returned as much in love with Madamoifelle de Fobfen as he was at fctting out. He married her in 1698, and foon after, viz. il 1701, fhe was by the Emperor acknowledged a Princefs of the Empire. He has had five Sons and two Daughters by her, the eldeft of whom is dead. B'Jt the Embraces of a tender Spoufe cou'd not keep him at home; a Warrior hz was born, and a Warrior hewould be. The War being then kindled between the Empsror and the Irencb, the Prince went to ferve in the Army on the Rbine, and was prefent at the taking oiKeifirfivaert. Scon after, King Frederic I. gave him the Command of 6000 Men, whom he fent to the Emperor's AHftance in Italy, where he fignaliz'd himfclf in every Campaign, but efpeciallyar the raiiingof the Siegeof Turin. The Duke of Savoy, afterw;irtls King of Sardinia, with whom th Prince had net a viry to t:t!!c good Underftanding, doing me the to me about him one day, faid, Tue Prince of An n hait bas toomucbFire but wben beis ripai 'd in- Jge, be will be a great General. He -.vasbem witb ihc Genius of a Captain, end-bebas contribuiedto /ave MyCrown. Whcn D4

40

BERLIN.

When a Neutrality was agreed on forltaly between the Emperor, his Allies, and France, the Prince of Anbalt was recali'd, and the King gave him the Command of his Troops in Fianders, where he maintain'd the Repurationwhich he had acquir'd in Italy, and was continued in his Command till the Peace oWtrecbt. The Obftinacy of CharlesXII. King of Swedenn i refufing to hearken to a Treaty for the Scqueflration of Steiin, having oblig'd the King of Pruffia to make war upon him, the Prince ot Anbalt ferving under the King, who then commanded his Army in Perfon, had the Honour to defend the Ifle of Rugen, againft the King of Sweden, who came in the Night and attack'd it with Fury; but the Swedes were repulfed, after having loft a number of confiderable Officers in the Action. Since th Treaty with Sweden, this Prince has had no occafionto fignalize his Valour. He refides commonly ztDeJfau, or at Magdebeurg and does not corne to Court but when Affairs call him. He haa three Sons in the King's the Service, of whom two eldeft have Regiments of their own, and the third commands his Father's. The King, who has a great Affeft ionforthe Prince of Anbalt, makes no confiderable Regulation with regard to his Troops, or in any thing relating to the War-Office, without his Advice. His Majefty has given him confiderable TracTsof Land in Pruffia^ where 'fis faid the Prince is building not only Vil. lages, but entire Towns. M. d.drnbeim is the third Marihal. This old Gentleman, who is paft fourfcore,learnttheArtof War under two Great Mafters, the Eleor Frederic-tilliam of Brandexbourg, and Montecuculithe Rival of urenne. The Marihal de Natzmer isanold Soldier all, who t bas ferv*dunder feveralCommanders with verygreat

Diftincuonj

Berlin.

41

Diftinionj particularly the Prince oWaldeck, General of the Dutcb Forces, the Prince of Orange afterwards King of England, and laftly under the Duke of Marlboroughand Prince Eugneof Savoy who had ail an Efteem for his Valour and Military Experience this Marfhal having been in all the Battles which thofe Generais fought in the Netherlands, and having been always wounded or had a Horfe Ihot under him. o After having mentioned the chief Commandersf the King's Forces to you, I thing it incumbent on me to give you an Account of thofe Perfons whofe Credit or Employments have the greateft Influence upon the Government; in which you will pleafe to excufe me, if 1 do not follow that Order 1 have hitherto obferv'd in my Narrative. The Baron d'Hgen Firft Minifter of State, was born of an obfcure Family in Wefiphalia. After he had finifhed his Studies, he commenc'd Secretary to M. de Meinders, Minifter of State to the Elclor Frederic-William, and to King Frederic I. His Difcretion and hislnduftry foonprocur'd him the Favour of his Mafter, who put him Governour over his Nephew the BarondeHeidekam. M. d'Hgen travell'd with the young Baron to Holland, England, and France, in which Tour they fpent two Years. At his Return to Berlin, M. de Meindersenter'd him in Bufinefs, and the Eleftor Frederic-Wlliamdying not longafter, he procur'd him the Office ofSecretary to the new Eledor. In this Employment he behav'd with fuch Circumfpeftion that he is ftill continued in it, notwithftanding the many Changesthat have happen'd in the Miniftry. The Baron deFuchs one of the moft able Minifters that ever Germanyproduc'd, being charm'd with his Genius, gave him fuch a Recommendation to the late King, that he preferr'd himto aSeat in tlie Council, where Ilgen foon found out the way to make himfelf necefliiry. The

Count

42

BERLIN.

Count de IVartemberg, whofe Abilities were not fo great but he ftood in need of a Second, being then at the Head of the Council, confulted in all matters with M. d*Ilgen% who, after the Count de Wurtembergredred, had the Province of Foreign Affairs committed to him folely, and has kept it ever fince. M. d*Hgenhas bothGaiety and Solidity in his Temper, a lively, fruitful Imagination, and a mort pleafing Afpet. He is extremely fober, and an excellent conomift, being as great an Enemy to Pleafure, as he is a Friend to Riches. He is humble fometimes, even to excefs revengeful, crafty a Mafter of his Temper, his Countenance, his Tongue, and his Eyes, which he accommodates altogether to the Situation of his Affairs. As by his Parts he raifed himfelf, fo by his Parts he fupports himfelf. He is the foie Repofitary of his own Secrets, having no Confident nor Favourite to fhare them. He is fo indefatigable, that he compofes and writes all himfelf, keeping his Secretaries only to copy. In fliort, he works like a Day-labourer, and makes the Miniftry, as it were, a Handicraft. He fpeaks well, but writes better heaffcfts double Entendre*in his Anfwers, and artfully has recourfe, when he needs ir, to an ambiguousExprefiion. He has fo little fcruple, in point of Oaths, that hetakes and breaks them with equal Indifference. He never made himfelf a Crature, but always removed and humbled thofe that ever gave him any Umbrage. That which heightens his Chara&er, and proves his Genius, is, that he has fupported himfelf a long time, without Kindred, Frienis or Creatures, and perhaps without beins; too much honoured by the Favour of his Mafter M. Sincethe writing this, heis dead,andfucceeded of inthe of Affairs M.ir Bortt, Lientciunt- eG by 'ManagementForeign neral

Berlin.

43

M. de Gramkau Minifter of State, LieutenantGeneral of the King's Forces, Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew of Mufcovy,andof the White-Eagle oPoland, of is defcended an illuftrious Familyin Pornerania. His Father was Grand-Marlhal of the Eleftor Frederic-Williatn, and died in that Poft, at the beginning of the late King's Reign. M. de Grumkau being left a Minor, was fent very young to France, to learn his Exercifes, where he acquitted himfelf with Diligence, and the Approbation of his Superiors. At his return toBerlin, Frederic I. appointed him Gentleman of his Bed-chamber, and gave him a Company of Foot. Soonafter which, he married Madamoifellede la Cbevallerie, who was Maid of Honour to the Queen Sopbia-Cbarlotte. It wasnot long before he was advanced and during the laft War he ferved as a Brigadier in the Army in the Jfctberlands. At the fame time he had the Care of the King's Affairs with my Lord Duke of Marlhorongb, and Prince Eugneof Savoy. His manner or Beneralofth King's and Forces,Knightof the Black-Eagle Sr. of ofa of ?tbm,Goveroor Stitin,andColonel Regiment Foot. his Gentleman defcended is froma very in goodFamilv Pomeraaia, ndferved a with Diftinion the Armyin Flandtrs. in Sincethe Peace Utncbt,hehasbeen of twicecharged withthe a C King'sAffairs t the Emperor's ourt,wherehe washighly efteemed, by efpecially Prince Eugne Savoy. ThofeForeign of Minifien whohaveto dowith him, andwhoknewM.dlhen, abferve greatContrarktyn the Charaaers f thetwoMioia i o fters. The onewasMan of Intrigue,Crafc,andMyfiery, the other, of Candoor,oincerity, nd a nobleFranknefs. a M. JeTublmtier, tothelateM.fllgtn, who Secretary is Nephew ofState Forerga ffairs, asit v.ere, orntotheBufinefs for b A was, j been having trafiedfronthis Youthby his lateUncle. Tl>e Minifters well fhim heis veryaffiduuus inhis Foreign fpeak o and Office, indeed fufferso Bafinefs fleep hishand?. n m in The Perfon hohathe Aflairs riminal Cognizance, w C inhii is M.Ayia. Minifter f State,andAuditor eneral Army. o G ofthe isaNative andashewa HefucceededKif.AC<j//?A; otCologn; Relations Friends, isAdvancement or at Btrliuwitbout h isorly to beafcribcd hisowaMeritamd to Abilitiea.

44

B E R L I isr.

Behaviour thewd that he wasfit to be empioyd in great Affairs but ~he Count Wart~mLerg, Fathe vourite, and Prime-Minifter, being jealous of his Share in kept him as rnuch as he cou-id out of any Genius, Authority, and chofe rather to prefer him by War, than to employhim in the Miniftry. The Favourites (Metiieurs d~ Can,ke~ who fucceeded Wartembcrg, perceiving M. de Grrrm~Eau's fuperior the Count was. He was ~S~?-~ preferr'd to be a MajorGeneraiat one of the laft Promotionsthat wasmade by the late King and Fr~d~ric-yyilliam,on his Acneral, and Minifter of State. M. de Grum~au is good-natued, civil, and affable. He has the Mannersand Sentiments of a Man of ~a1ity, as he reallyis he is generous, liberal, i loves to them addifted Splendorand Pleafures, but is not fo much as to neglea the Affairs of the Mi- i niftry. He is laborious, has a clear and quick Apprehenfion alively, pand leafnt, penetrating Fancy and is no Enemy to Satyr, when it does not attack his of a beneficent Neighboues Reputation. As he is 1 Temper, he has Friends, and makes himfelf Creatures, Of to the King with the all the Minfers, he fpeaks i greateft Freedom and l beof Favourites. leve one mayfafeIy venture to put himin the Rank and Commander of the ~~d~~& Order of St. Jolm, is defcended of an illuffriots Family the Chamber, ihcChamber, which is properly, Si~Mcntcf Superintendant of the Finances. NoMinifter has been more Embaffies. He was the King's employed in Re{dent in Spain, with Cbarlra III. the prefent Emperor he was He into fell Difgrace, afterthisA~ ten. himwaswritanddiedat h$COIIUDandery.

j i .J 1

Berlin.

45

was the fame in Denmark, Mufcoyy, and France and every where fupported the Dignity of his Mafier, and the Honour of his Character. So many Embaflies had very much difconcerted his Affairs; and talking to me one day at Paris about his Lady, who was the Daughter of M. d'llgen, 1 know, c faid be, that her Rank is not equal to mine, and that I may be reproachd for having married her but I can return the fame Anfwer which they report of the Count de Lude (Governor to Gajion of France, Lewis XIIIth's Brother) who, when he was ruin'd like me, married a Tradefman's better, faid he, wbenlwas Daughter i Couldldo ferfecutedDay and Nigbt by tny Creditors, tban ta tace Refuge in a Sbop, ratber tban becarried to an Alms-Houfe?' M. de Knipbaufen has a wonderful natural Genius, and wculd have every Talent requifite for a Minifter, if ke was not quite fo averfe to Labour but being as lazy as his Father-in-Law is laborious, Affairs fuffer in his hands by delay. Not but that he knows how to difpatch them, if he will, for nobody is more lively nor more vigilant than he, when he fetshis heart upon a thing but he is naturally indolent, being fond of his Eafe and good Cheer. The Baron de Gobren, who is Director of theChamber of Finances, and of the Po#-Office, is a Man of a good Family in the Marquise of Brandenbarg. He has not been many years in the Miniftry, but has the Reputation of an upright Man, and one not to be corrupted. He is very referved, and a Perfon of few Words, which gives him an Air that thofe who are not converfant with him miftake for Haughtinefs. M. de Creutz has a happy Phyfiognomy, being a mixture of hard Features with mild ones, that carry an Air of Probity and Franknefs, which of all external Appearances is undoubtedly the moft
ad-

advantageous. Heis polite, and magnificent his an extraordinary Vivacity, an admirable Facility of expreffing himfelf, and an eafy, affable, and genteel Behaviour. He never promifes but when he means to perform, and his Vvord may be fafely de* pended on. 1 always found him very fincere, and 1 cannot help faying, I love him. Freinte-William called him to his Councils, he having been his Secretary when he was Prince-Royal. His Afliduity and Punduality in performing the Duties of his Office, had procured him the King's Affection to fuch a degree that his Majefty continues to honour him with his Good-will, and gives hecd to his Reprsentations*. M. deCreutz is one of the richeft Subjes in the Country, having had a very great Eftate by his Wife She has alfo brought him a Daughter, an only Child, who is faid to hve a great deal of Wit; and beinga rich Heirc into the bargain, ihe will not fail of Suitors. M. de Vierec a Man of Quality, and a Native '.s of Mecklemburg his Father was Counjllor of State to the late King, and his Envoy-Extraordinary in Denmark. The Son, of whom 1 am now writing, Ulric of Bruf quitted the Service of Duke Anthonyvric-Wblfemhtttk, to be a Gentleman of the late King*s Bed/chamber. When he came to Court, he had no Relations there, but he was fo happy as to raife himfelf Friends; for his modeft Air, and his polite and fubmiffive Deportment, gain'd him the Good-will of the Favourites and as he lovd Play, he foon made himfelf acquainted with the Court*}A.Jt Crtutx diedthebeginning Ad.i 733,leaviog nljr of o who M. ooeDaoghto-, ismirriedco deUaeie,aGentkmanofa good Family,and his Majefty'. andFaronnttf. Aid.de-Camp This Marriage folemnized a greatdealof Pomp,and was with honoured withthePrefence theirMajeflie, whole of the Royal Familjradthe Dukeoflorrain.

46

Berlin.

Berlin. 47 Court- Ladies, who always gave him their good Word. In 1711, when the Count de Dobna went as the King's Ambaflador to Francfort, for the Election of an Emperor, he defir'd of the King that M. de Vierec^ who was reckon'd the moft fober young Man at Court, might be Marfhal of the Embafly, which was perform'd at the King's Expence. M. de Vitre acquitted himfe!f fo well in that Employment, that he hadthe fame Poft at the Congrefs of Utrecbt. He had afterwards, for a while, the Care of the King's Affairs at the Court of France, when the Duke of Orleans was Rgent and at his Return from thence, he was employed in the Regency of Cleves from whence he was called home to better Preferment, by means of Gerftorfy whofe Daughter he had married. For this Generai's only Son being killed in Siaiy, his Majefty, in order to comfort the Father, whom he lov d, and who he faw took it very much to heart, declared M. de Pierec hisSon-in-Law, inifterof State. M..deGerfierf*s M Daughter dying afterwards, M. de Vierec thereby came poflefled of a very great Eftate, and married again to the Daughter of the Count de Finck, who was formerly the Prince-Royal's Governor. M. de Vierecis perfedtly polite, and altogether as modeft now as he was befoce he was a Minifter but he is clofe and referv'd, myfterious more than needs muft, and jealous. His Circumfpeion, which extends to the minuteft things, gave him the Air of a Minifter, before he had a thought, perhaps, of ever being one. What with his Kindred, his Eftate, and his Preferment, he is become powerful at Court. Thefe, Sir, are the Perfons of the greateft Confequence at the Court of Pruffia, with whom I had a particular Acquaintance. 1 am not fo vain as to think 1 have painted them in their true Colours but

48

Berlin.

but fuch as they appear'd to be in my eyes, I have reprefented them to you. Men are not always the fame nor do they appear in the fame light to all that fee them every Man having his own way of thinking, and few judging folidly. I have now told you all the Particulars that 1 know of this Court. What remains for me is to mention fome things to you, which are worth your fe-eing, if ever you live to come hither. Such~arethe King's Cabinets of Medals and Antiquities; that of Natural Curiofities, in which are a great many things not to be feen elfewhere the Chymical Laboratory, with its Furnaces and Inthe magnificent, itruments of a new Invention Theatre, which the King caufed to be built for Anatomical Dcmonftrations, with all the Curiofities and Inftruments which are there kept the Royal Library, one of the moft valuable and compleat in ailGermatty, where, befides fcarceBooks and Manufcripts, is a very curious CbinefePrinting-Prefs. Ail thefe things would be worth particularizing; but to do this, a Man muft have a larger Acquaintance here than I pretend to Befides, my Relation is already fpun to fuch a length that 1 believe 'ris time to conclude it. 1 will, however, juft acquaint you of a Foundation by the prefent King, m favour of the young Gentlemen of his Dominions, which are the Academies of Cadets, in Berlin, Magdebourg, and other Towns. where they are taught the Rudiments of War fo that "risa Nurfery from whence the King makes a Draught of good Officers. His Majefty has moreover ordered his Gnerais of Foot to take each a young Gentleman, whofe Fortune does not happen to be equal to his Birth, to keep them as Pages, and to make them learn their Exercifes, and every thing that an Officer ought to

know.

Oranje

bourg.

4.9

know. An excellent Inftitution this, and a fine Refource for the poor Nobility 1 am preparingtofet out forthwith for Hamburgb, Hanover, and the Court of ~ra~/w~ and after 1 have made that Tour, you (hall have a fecond Letter from me. Mean-time, 1 am, (c

LETTER

II.

S I R, Hantntrgb, Jum20. 172p. Othing gives me greater pleafure, than the Approbation with which you are plcafed, j~~j to honour the Account 1 fent you of the Court ofPruffia; which I efteemasan infinite Reward for the little trouble it coft me. You muftnot imagine that 1 can ever be weary of writing to you 1 can never do any thiag more agreeable to myfelf, thantocontributetoyourAmufement; and fhall think myfelf exceeding happy, if I can fucceed. 1 fet out from Berlitupon the ioth of June, and' in lefs than four Hours came toOaANjEBouRo, a royal Seat, which King Frederic I. caufed to be built, and to which he gave the Name of Oranjebourg, to perpctuate the Memory of his Mother, This Prince, great whowasbornrrincefsofOtf^. in every Action, fpar*dno Coft to render this Houfe T worthy of his magnificent afte. The Situation of this Place is very charming, in the midft of fine large Meadows, with Canals eut in them after the manner of Holland. The Apartmcntt of the Pa-

Vqi.. I.

lace

50

Oranjebourg,

FERBELLIN.

lace are grand, tho' the rich Furniture it had formerly has been removed to Berlin. The prefent King not taking a fancy to it, all runs to ruin the Gardens, which were the fineft in Germany% are not kept in order; the great Veffelsof Porcellane; .which were not to be match'd in Europe, the late King having procur'd the choiceft Rarities of that Ware, that were in the Magazines of Holland all thefe fine things, 1 fay, are pafs'd into the hands of the King of Poland, at Bref dm. The Gallery and the Salonof Oranjebourg,whichwere furnim'd with them, and which were reckoned among the Beauties of Germany, are of no account now but for the Richnefs of their Cielings. From Oranjebourg, I went and lay at Ferbellim, a Town which is only remarkable for a Victory gain'd here by the Eletor Frederic-WilUam over the Swedes. The latter enter'd his Dominions, while he was engag'd with his Army in defence of the Empire then attack'd by the French on the Upper-Rbine. The Elector being inform'd of the Invafion of his own Country by the Swedes, came away from the Rbinewith his Troops, and by one of the braveft Marches that ever any General made, deliver'd it from the Enemy. He furprized them in Ratenau, a Town in the Marquifate of Brandenbourg, the Garrifon of which he made Prifoners and then continuing his March, he came up with the Swedesnear Ferbellin, at a time when the latter thought him ftill upon the Rbine, and gain'd a compleat Viftory. A venerable old Gentleman, who was very near the ElecWs Perfon at this Battle, told me, that before the Engagement began, the Prince being at the head of hts Army, took out his Piftols, fir'd them in the Air, and lifting up his Eyes to Heaven, laid, "Tisto tby Gloryy tbat I difcbarge my Arms defend GreatGod, my Caufe, tbcu knoweftit ta bejujl\ punifb my E-

ntvttts.

H A M B U R G H.

51

Hernies. Then drawing his Sword, and turning about to his Soldiers, My Comrades, faid he, I defire no other Defence, nor no otber Weapons, but tbe Proteffion of God, your Courage, and my Sword. Followme tberefore, my Friends, do as I do, and bi ajfur'dofViiory. In this Battle, Forbenius, the Ele&or's Gentleman of the Horfe, perceiving that a white Steed which hisMafter rode, madehis Perfona very plain Mark for his Enemy, fo thatthey had fingled him out to fire at, defir'd the Prince to change Horfes with him. The Elelor, who had a great Sol,above all Fear, refus'd at firft to do fo, but upori the repeated Instances of Forbenius, he confentedto it; and the Moment that the Gentleman mounted the Horfe whichthe Eleftorquitted, aCannon-Shot kill'd him dead upon the Place, fo quick, that he expir'd without the Comfort of knowing that he had thereby preferved the Life ofhis Mafter. a Hanfe-Town in the Circle HAMBURGH, of Lower Saxony, is, without difpute, one of the: i richeft andmoftconfiderable Townsn ail the Empire of Germany. It depends folely upon its Magiftrates, who are chofe by the Burgers themfelves. Its Liberty has been often contefted by the Krags of. "enmrk, who as Dukes of Ho~ein, pretend that Hamburgb is built upon their Territory, and thattherefore they ought to be the Sovereigns of it. The Eledtofs of Brandenbourg, and the Princes of the Houfe tif Brun/wic, always oppoled the Incroachments of the Danes nor will they fuffer any, Power whatfoeverto opprefs the City of Hamburgb, becaufe, if it were poffible, they would be glad to annexitto their own Domains. The City being expofed to thefe Attacks, has taken ail the Ma-, fures poffible to be in a condition to dfend its Li-berty. 'Tisvry well'fortified, maincains a gbod
E 2 G~. il..

Hamburgh. 52

Garrifon, and has an Arfenal provided with all Necefiries. The Commerce of Hamburgbsconfiderable, tho* i 'tis very much leflen'd fince Frederie IV. King of Denmark, prohibited the Importation of Merchanto dize fi omHamburgh his Dominions*. The manner of living in this City is different from that of ail theHanfe Towns. Hereis a toJerable Opera ail the Year round t charming Walks, choice Company, much Vifiting and hearty Cheer. Thereare lverai good Houfesofthe Nobility,wher Foreigners are well receiv'd. The Merchants are moft f them in their youth trao affable and civil vel to the moft remarkable Countries of Europr, where they then pafs for Gentlemen of Holftein. As they are rich, they can eafily afford to make a good Appearance where-ever they come. There they learn that polite Air, and that Behaviour which one would wilh to fee in ail Gentlemen of good Families. The only thing for which 1 find fault with them, is, that they treat their Wives too much like the Levant People, where the Women are only fuffer'd togo to the Mofques; fo here, the Women fcarce go any where but to Church, or if they at any time take th Air, 'tis in company with their ThisRefolution takenby hisMajeftyn 1725 was i onico count fa Recoinage, theHamburgbtn which n thought eceffiuy, theirSilverfrombeing carried outof partlyin ordertohinder theirCity to Dcntnark. his Difpute confiderable T had Confeof not quencn; fothatthe King Denmmrk beingableto bring the Hambwrghtrthis Terni , pufli'd to Matters fofar astofie 1 outa couple Frigats of tocruife t theMoutb theElbe,which a of feized Mrrchant all for Shipsbound tbatCity.. But in Morch w happily accommoda ted. 1736,theAffair as of on, f Jt wasfetup, carried anddireed tome th Foby at had reignMinijten refiding Hamiurgb,who eachhisparticular Province; othat M. f/i f a prefidedt the Rehearfals, M. Jt Wthe a had reeolated Dances, nd M. St the theorderingof theClothes, he Head-drefls, Paintandthe Patcheiofthe flrefis. A

H A M B U K G H.

53

their Hufbands and a Foreigner is fo fedom admitted to their Aflmblies, that whenhe is, thofe poor Women are as much aftonilh'd at the fight of him, as a Sultana would be to fee a Capuchin enter the Seraglio. There's a great many worthy People here. I have madean Acquaintance with. M. de Brocks, one of the Magiftrates, who has acquir'd a Reputation for his Skill in Poetry, by fucii Compofitions as cannot but convince Foreigners, whounderftand the Higb-Dutcb, that as good thirigs may be faid in that Language, as in any other This M. de Brocks is ofan amiable Charadter, civil, and complaifant, and has acquir'd the Love and Efteefn of all that know him. Moft of th European Princes have Redents Jiere, for whih reafon here are feveral Chappels, f p th Roman Catholicks, who otherwife would.bebjiliged to go tOjthe hurch zt ,Menat as thftC^Tvtnifts are forc*44fio the Lutberan bebg di ftedo, Jigion that i uppermofl: at Hamfargb; bui the Jews hve their Synagogues hre. What an od Ettablifljment is this maa Chriltian Country t how uncharitable, and eyennonfeniical and hjr muft it make th Turks laugri! 'We grant Synagogues to the JtWt the Enemiesof Jsus Christ^ who would crucify himagain, ifthey had not clone it alreadyj andwerefufe Churehos and Temples Thisis whatforce bas of, tnybody' doabted batPreBo*. burt. f The Hatnburghtri nothing fear fromthe ytw/j, have to withregard theirRepublic, theycannot welltruft the to but fo turbulent enterpriring emper f the^e* atholi eiand T O whoaim at theirChurches.o The popular* Commotion* gy, whjchare buttoo frquent t Hambw%b, foonfurnifli a >ul4 thofe Gendemen an Opportuuity re-aflerrCliinS with to which areincompatible the prefent iljeritjr with ofthe^hy Bitthis L Pretext, plaufible how foevern favonr Fthe i o Papifts,is notat ail conclufive at who againfthe Calvinilli Humbttrrb, furely t mightbeas&feTytoleratcdathe7w/ -

E3

to

54

H A M B U R G H.

to thofe that believe as we do in J e sus Ch r s t No, were you to call me Heretic a thoufand rimes, would fay, HOLLANDFOREVER where'tis a Maxim, to ieave every Man to his Confcience and where they think it would a Con radidionto admit be r PeopIetobetheirFellow-Citizen?, and roden-)rthem the Libertyofworfhipping Godin theirown way. The Emperor's Minifter, who-hs the Title of Ris Impertal Majefiy's Plenipctentiry to the Crcle pf Lower Saxony, commonly relides at Hamburgh. The laft Gentleman that had this mployment was the Count de Mt/cb* and (nic his being maje Vice-Prefident of th mpcror's Julie Council, h has not been filPd up-f*. The Populace of Hamburgh%\vf,fuch another Mobs, having ungoyernabte Her as the Amft'trdam taken it into their heads fome ycat~ go,out of rti(ifo.rtt)f2eal for Religion, tdpluhder the Houfe a't\ffCh&pl of th, Empe'ror's Rdidnt the City In "oi-der to 'rta:ke,Sarisfkaion ^b**theInlblt, wa^s jcpVdmned'tpisialda Hooft Wliich was to be the |lfidence of th^" Emperor*sMinifter always for the' future, Fr'this end, th City bought the Baron de Grtzy a Man of great Palace of the limit Patitre in th ^Hiftory of Charles XII. King of Swe'eiis and wh6fe Fortune and ataftrophe are worjhy your norice, Henry B^ron eGortz wasbornof an independent "Faniily inirawircs/tfjwhichisaProv'incethatabounds wifh Nobility of Piftinftion. Ijfe enter'd young ^nt th Service of the kikeoi^o^ein^cUe/wic, ftnd rofetp be his-Minifter. He was a Mangene'LJ~<J -r' rOLl.9 rous i.oofLower axoey, of the S Hispoil o^U^ipogntaiy Circle it one Count Seckentiorf, of the 1733 ^pon the oftheEbjwason&rr'dm 1Emperor'& l-Matenant-Gener! the Funkuu but baffyare petfoW'dt ,(heBaronit Kurizrei,the Imprial t>y Prefident. of Vice-ChancellortheEmpire, t Jn >734the wasinftall'd who in the 100m of oftheCountt Scbtnltra, ifliop Bambtrg, i B retir'4.

HAMBURGH.

55

rous, noble, and magnificent, even to Profufion vigilant, full of Projets and Stratagems a Man whom nothing could furprize, nothing difaade from a Defign that he had once form'd whofe Ambition was boundlefs, and who always aim'd to do fomething to be talk'd of. In the North there was no Intrigue in which he had not a hand, and into which he did not likewife draw his Mafter, whom he pufli'd upon Enterprizes fo far above his Power to excute, that h thereby loft his Dominions. The Baron de Gortz thought Holjein too narrow a Sphre for him to move in, and therefore he attach'd himfelf to Charles XII. King of Swtien% after that Prince returnd from his long Stay at Bender. Cbarles was juft fuch a Mafter as the Baron wanted, and he juft fuch a Minifter as was necefary for the King of Sweden nor was there ever in the World a greater Sympathy between two Men. Gortz was born to form great Defigns, Charles toput them in excution and the conftant Defign of both was only to throw Europe into a Ferment. The Baron, befides other happy Gifts of Nature, had the Talent of infinuating and p'eafing. He foon got an Afcendant over Cbarles, to fuch a degree that tho' this Prince was never to be advis'd by his Minifters, yet the Baron's Opinion wasa Law to him. Gortz frighten'd Europe, and made Sweden tremble being as much fear'd and dreaded there as the King himfelf. The Swedeswere uneafy to fee fo great a Share of Author:ry vefted in a Foreigner and therefore form'd Parties and Cabals to ftrip him of it } but they durft not difcover their Defigns. The Minilcr knew all the while they envy'd h:m, but was in no manner of Concern about it for being fure of the Favour of the King, he defpiied the Hatred,

E 4-

both

56

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both of the Populace and the Great Men . But after the Death of Cbarles XII. who was kiJJed at the Sige of Frederick/hall, in the Month t of December, he Swedesdid not fail to punifh him for the Baron, before he cou'd hve Intelligence of theKing's Death, was auallyput underan Arreft and upon tha Occafion faidto the Officcr, Surely he the King mujlbe dead! From that Moment he was never once heard to complain or murmur; for he was intrepid even to Death; the Sentenceof whichhe received with a wonderful Conftancy of Mind, chofe to die like a Philofopher, and thought too freely of Religion to the very laft. A Divine, who is now one of the King of Denmark'sChaplains, turn'd his Heart, and brought him toacknowledge that 'twastheHandof God which fmotehim, He wasconductedto thePlace of Execution ina mournrode ing Coach,inwhich t he Chaplain with him. He had a long Robe of black Velvet, ty'd with Rtbbands over his Shoulders; and as he was mounting the Scaffold, which was hung with black Cloth, perceiving one Duval, a Fren.-bman, who was his Steward, he held out his Hand, faying, Farewell Duval, Ijhall eat nomoreof tby Soups. When he was on the Scaffold, an Officer of Juftice read a Paper to him with a loud Voice in which it was declared that he was degraded from the Rank of Nobility, and that the Queen had order'd him to am born a free be beheaded. lasl faid he, Baronof tbe Empire. Sweden cannot take fromme V)batit never gave me; and if I had reallj defen/d to bedegraded,nonebas a Right to doit but tbe EmHaving requir'd oneof his Valets de Champeror. bre Thecomon eople himforbismancou'd never P forgive withailthe Coffers rofraifing Tax; byfillingth Kinfs ofita iaftead CoppaMoSU veroftheKingdo, andfubitituting theCoins e o his will rey, which perpetuate Memoryefpeciallywhichue t whichhe caus'dthe fevenPlanetsobeengrav'd ofhis after, u feugbt andkoarded pas Monuments Adminintioa,

Al

e n a.

57

bre toundreii him, hedeliverM the Ribbandof thc Order of the BlackEagle of Pruffia to a Gentleman who ftopd near him, and enjoin'd him to carry it to pne of his Kindred, that he might return it to the King of Pruffa. Then he fell on his Knees, without fhewing the leaft Sign of Fear and receiv'd the Stroke of Death with a Conftancy of which there are very few Examples. His Head being expofed to the People, was a pleafing Victim to their Hatred and Revenge. The Baron's Corpfe was interr'd, at the Place of Execution, from whence one of his Footmen took it away in the Kight-time, put it into a Barrel, and carry'd it to Hamurgb', where it was laid upon a Bed of State, and bury'd withall the Formalities fitting the Rank which he had held in the World. Within a Cannon-Shot of Hamburgb, ftands the TownofALTENA, which belongs to the King of pennark. The SwedijhGeneral, Steinbeck,reduc*d it to Aflies, the gth ojanuary 17 12, by way of Reprifal, as he faid, becaufe the Dattes had burnt Staden but there was this Difference, that the Danes had befieg'd Staden in forms and deftroy'd it by their Bombs whereas Sieinbockzsd the part of an Incendiary. As foon as he appar'd bebefore Altena-, he fent in a Meflage to advife the Inhabitants to retire with whatthey could carry off, for that he was going to deftroy their Town. The Magiftratcs came out in a Body, and falling at his Feet, begg'd for Mercy, and offer*d him a confia derable Sumof Money.Steinbeck infilingon more, they granted him his whole Demard, only they der*dTime to go to Hamburgb for the Money. The mercilefs General would admit of nofuch Delay. The poor Inhabitants were oblig'd to turn out; the Mothers carry'd out their Infants the young Fellows, the paralytick old Men fome groan'd ynder Loads of Furniturc all lamentedthetr Fate, and

c8

A L T E N A.

and uter'd Cries that wou'd have almoft pierc'd a Stone. The Swedes ftood at the Barriers, with flaming Torches in their Hands, to fee them pafs i and before the poor Inhabitants were all gone out, they enter'd the Town, and fet fire to all parts of it not fparing even the Vaults of the Dead. Never was a greater Defolation known but what compleated the Ruin of the Altenois, was the Neceffity of the Times, which was fuch as oblig'd the Hamburgbers not to entertain them. Several prejudic'd Authors have faid that the Hamburgbers, infenfible, if not overjoy'd at the Calamity of their Neighbours, kept their Gates Ihut, that they might fee them perifli. But the truth is, that the Hamburgbers were oblig'd ta be thus ftri becaufe the Plague raging at that time in Holftein, the Eleftor of Hanoverhad forc'd them to ftop all Commerce with thatCountry threatning them, that if he heard they had the leaft Communication with Altena^ he wou'd prohibithis Subjefts from ail manner of Correfponaence with the City of Hamburgb. Befides, it wou'd not have been prudent in the Hamburgbers to have open'd their Gates in the Night-time for the Swedijb Army being fo near, they could not tell but the Swedes might corne into the Town as well as the Altenois. To the Misfortune of the Times therefore muft be afcribed the Diftrefs of the Inhabitants of Altena, mon: of whom perithed with Cold, Want, and Defpair. Frdric IV. King of Dent/tari, being touched with Cornpaflon for the Misfortune of hisSubje&s of Alina, relieved them as far as the Neceffity of the Times wou'd give him leave. He caus'd them to be fupply'd with Materials for rebuilding their Houfes and now Altena has recovered her Loffes: for the King of Denmark as not onlygranth ed it many newPrivileges, buthas caus'd a Harbour
to

ALTEN

A.

59

to be made there; and does ail that is in his power to draw a Trade to it. This City being a privilegM Place for Bankrupts, many of that Characr come from Hamburgb to fettle here and there is a general Toleration for thofe of ail Religions, who have their Churches and Temples here; which draws fuch numbers of People, that in time Attna will probably become Hanbvrgbt and Hamburgb Alttna For the Hamburgbers, on the contrary4 wilt tolerate no Chriftian Ses; tho' they grant the Jews the public Exercife of their Religion, as bas been already obferved. The Governour of Danijb Holftein refides here, who is the Count de Reventlau^ Brother to the Queen of Denmari. Iam, ic. Wifeof King Second FreJtric IV. whodiedin OOeitr onch infavour iththatPrince.wasthe w 1730.rier beinzfo after canfeof her Diwsce the DeathofthatM<aarch and fheretr'd thefie ofTvbntn, to tvhere iheleads venr mehs a cholyLifc.

LET.

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H A R B OU R G.

EETTER
SIR,

III.

Hmmver, Jaly, 1749. I S Letter is to acquaint you of fome H things that 1 remark'd in the Road from JL Hamburgb, and in this City itfelf where 1 have now been thefe thrce Days. I fet out from Hamburgb the 22d ofjune, and went by Water to Ha r bourg, having fent my Chaife thither the Day before. This Town is a Dpendant on the Dutchy of Lunenbqurg^and belongs to the Eleflor of Brunfanc-Lunenbourg. It has nothing very remarkable but its Caftle, which is a Pentagon, lin'd with a good Cover*d-Way. Madamoifelle fOlbreufe*, whom the Dukeof Zell marry'd, had theTitleof Madame de Harbourg, till Ihe wasrecogniz'd by the Emperor Princefsof the Empire. For by the Laws of Qermatty^a Prince of a Sovereign Family can marry rione but a Princefs, or a Countefs. If he wedj a private Gentle. woman, he not only marries bclowhimfelf, but his Wife does not go by his Name; and the Children of fuch Marriage cannot fucceed, unlefsthe Emperor declare the Mother aPrincefs; as hecommonly does in favour of Princes of antient Families. Between Harbourg and Zel%which is twelve MiJfs, there is fcarce any thing but Heath. The Poll-Stagcs, which are of four Miles, are very ill fervU Shevascalled andwastheDanghter of Eltomrt Emiers, t a o Altxoxdtr Olbnufc. GentlemanfPtitm.

Z E L L.

6l

ferv'd, and the Inns the worft in Germany; all which together render the Road extremely difagreeable. ZELL is a little Town with great Suburbs. Ail its Buildings are of Timber, cxcept the Churches, the Caftle, and the Houfe of Correction, which are of Brick. There is a Trade from hence to Bremen, by the River Aller. Afrer the Death of George-William^ the lait this City, and its Dependency, Duke of Zell the Dutchy of Ltmenbourg, devolv'd o his NeGeorge,Eletor of Brunfwic-Hanover, afterphew wards King of Great Britain. This Prince had a Reg^ncy at Zell, which judged all Caufes, without any Appeal but to the Council ofState at Hanover. The Prefidentofitatthistime, is theBaron<&Friefa Perfon of a good Family in the Country of iergt Eildejbeim; who has been a iong time theElector's Envoy at the Diet of Ratijhon, where I knew him, and received a world of Civilities from him. He is cfteem'd for the prudent Management of his Office, and his noble manner of living. There are a great many Perfons of Quality fettled at Zell, who for a trifling Expence enjoy the Pleafures ofagreeable Society. They vifit and recale one another very much, and are not wanting m Civilities to Foreigners. Monfieur de Scbuler.bourgb f, Lieutenant-General of the Hanoverian Horfe, and Knight o The Hcmfc f Bnurfwthu foritsHead Enuft ofZtll, and whoby Btrward Jlbtrt the Great, theSon of Otbothe f Infant, defcendedromthe Familysof Eftt and Witikini. t to Duke Getrg+miKam ofZtll, was Grandfon William,he of fecoid ofEnuJ t fromwhomcamethetwo Branches Son both whichwere LwnieergZdl, and Luntnbomrg-Hanwcr Deathof the of uaited th fingle in Family Sam-ver, y the b marriedto w left DukeofZrf/, ho no Iflfuebedes Daughter a of of bit CnmnGttrgt King GrtatSritain, aswellasElcctor I. Hamvtr. died ofthe Year it t Moafienr Stbuhnbnrgb thebeginning .733*

Z ELL. KnightoFtheP# Order of the Black Eagle, is the Governqur ofthis Town. He isa Gentleman of good Extraction, of Behaviour,Noble, Polite, and Eafy and though he is Father of a numerous Family, he affe&s to live grand, and keeps a very good Table. One of his Sons is in the Service of Profita, the others are in that of the King of England. 1 mention them to you, becaufe they are worthy Gentlemen; and whoever knows them, cannot but efteem them. Here are a great many Frencb People, Catbolick as well as Proteftant, of whom the former have a Chapel, and the latter a Church but the Religion which is predominant, is the Lutheran. The laft Dutchefs ofZell, of the Family of Olbreufe,being a Frencb Woman, filld her Hufband's Court and Guards with her own Countrymen who were even preferr'd before the Natives of Zell. I have been tokLthat thefe Frenebmenreally thought themfelves fo much afhome, thattherehappen'd to be one day no lefs thn a dozen of 'em at Dinner at the Duke's Table, who all except the Prince were Frencimten; which one of them obferving, faid to the Duke, My Lord, tbis is really very pkajant t~bereis no Foreigner bere but you 1 In th Neighbourhood of this Town there's the Caftle of blcnj where, (about nine Years ago,) the unfortunate Daughter of the laft Duke of Zell, ended her Days, after by Madamoifelle d*Olbreufet fhe had been retir'd thither about thirty fix Years She had beenpromifedin Marriageto Augufius-Wlliam, the hereditary Prince of Brunfwic-Lunenbnrg-JVofembuttle but her Father the Duke, by the Intrigues of the Princefs Sophia, Dutchefs of Hatover, marry'dher againft her Will, and againft the Confent of her Mother, to the hereditary Prince George-Lewis, who was afterwards Kingof Great Britam, by Right of his Mother, and who died in the 62

HAN

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63

the Year 1727, ashe came to makethe Tour ofhis hereditary Dominions. She was fixteen Years old at her Marriage with that Prince, who was then twenty-two. Tho' there's a good deal of Heath between Zell and Hanover, yet the Country is very well cultivated for the Inhabitants not only make Turfs of the Heath for Fewel, but it ferves alfo for Pafturage, and for Manure. 'Tis about five German Miles from one Town to the other, and I travell'd it in lefs than five Hours. Hanover, the Capital of theEleftorateof Brunfwic-Lunenbourg,is bigger than Zell. The River Leine divides it into the old and new Towns, which are both encompafs'd with Ramparts that fcarcedeferve the Name. There is nothing very extraordinary in the Palace or Caille, which is rather commodious than magnificent and the Town of Hanover, generally fpeaking, is but ill built. The moft remarkable Structure in it, is the RomanCaibolickChurch, which was granted to thofe of that Communion by Erneft-Auguftus of Brunfwic-LuKM~oK~MO~~r that being one of the Conditions which the Emperor Leopolddemanded of him when he honour'd him with the Electoral Dignity. That Prince moreover engag'd to admit of an Apoftolkal Vicr in his Dominions; and to give him leave to refide at Hanover, as Spiga, <who lately died at Francfort* did for many Years. Divine Service is perform'd in this Church as regularly as in a Cathedral and they- who officiate in it are Miflionaries. Thenumber of Catholicks is very confiderable but few Perfons of Quality are XII. to PopeClemtnt on his Acceffion the Pontificate, aptor a Native pointed hisSucceiTor Schorror, ofHelenopolis, Bifhop of Bonn, n the Ele&orate Csiogne a Prelatc s amiable i ai of a a vencrabk.

64

H A N O V R.

are of that Communion, the Nobility being all Lutberans. When GeorgeI. King of Great Britah left his German Dominions to take pofieffion of hi; Kingdom, he was willing that ail Affairs at Hanover lhou'd continue on the fame footing as they were before he was called to the Throne and hc left be-> hind him Prince Frederic his Grandfor, now Prince of Woles; who not only had a Dt ~wingRoom every Day, but the fame Attendance as had the Eleftor before he was King. His Majefty King GeorgeII. has made no Alte. ration in the Eftablifhment of the King his Father. When he fentfor the Prince of Walet to Englani, he order'd the Courtiers to continue theirAfiembliesat the Caftle and that his Table ihou'd always be ferv*d in thefame manneras ifhehimfelf wasat Henover. His Majefty keeps up the fame number of Gentlemen, Pages, Domeftics, and Guards and the fame number of Horfes, Grooms, &ff. in his Stables. There's a Frencb Comedyafted three times a Week at the Palace, to which all People are admitted and gratis and there are frequently Concerts, Ba11s AflTemblies. The Gentlemen who do the Court. Honours at thefe Entertainments, and who invite Perfons to dine or fup at the King's Table, are either M. de Hardenbergy the Grand Marflial, or,1 in his abfence, the Baron de Gortz Chief Steward of the Houfliold* or elfe M. de Rbeen, Captain of the Caftle of Hanover. In the King's abfence, the Government is compos'd of a Cbuncil of State, whcreof M. de Hardtnberg is Chief or Prefident; which meets every day in an Apartment of the Caftle. To this all the Courts of Juftice in the Dominions of Hanover are fubjeft, and accountablc. The Council of He retir'dfomeVon fincefrw Covt, to h Eftattat Stblitz,in Franttma.

A N 0 V E A.

65

of State receives its Orders immediately from the King; and they are counter-figned either by the Count de Botbmar^or by M. de Hattorf, the two German Minifters that attend his Majefty's Perfon. The Count de Botbmar is an old Gentleman, who for a long time refided in quality of the Elector's Envoy at the Court of England, where, by his prudent Management for his Mafter, he cheriflied the moft inconteftable Right that a Prince can poffibly have to a Crown; 1 mean, the Voice of the People. M. de Hattorf is not only the Minifter's Son, but has been his Co-adjutor, for they had both the War-Office in their Province; for which reafon they were called Louvoisand Barbefieux,a Comparifon which does no Difhonour either to the one or to the other for if the two Hattorfs have not made fuch a Blaze in the World, 'tis becaufe they had not a Lewis XIV. for their Mafter, for they werenot inferior to the FrencbMinifters in Capacity and Application to Bufinefs, and had not their Pride and Arrogance. M. de Muncbaufen is one of thofe Minifters of State who bears the moft Sway. He is of a Temper beneficent, mild, civil, very candid, fober, and religious. He lives with Dignity, and his Houfe is as open to Foreignersas any in the Cicy. The Marfhal Baron de Bulau, is Commander in chiefof the Forces t. He has nomannerof Dependance of TheCount eBotbmar at Lonienn the beginning d i died ina by An.17321 veryadvanc'd andmuchlamenced ail Age, thatknewhim. The Baron e Hatterffucceeded himin the d tothe Kingas Eleftor. Miaiftry
t Since this was written, the continual Ailmenta and great Age of M. de EmUut, hve obliged the King to make an Alteration in the Command of his Troops. M. de a Hardtnbirp, Knight of the Ttutonic Order, is Commander in Chief 01 the Hon'e, and M. Melvit, who is defcended of a noble Family in Vo l. I. Scotland. F

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dance on the Council of State,, and receives his Orders immediately from th King, by M. de Hattorf the Secretary at War. The Promotion which the King makes of Officersis bythe Recommendation of M. de Bulau and fuch as would enter into the Service muft make their Application tohim. He ferv'd with Diftin&ion in the Netberlatids, under my Lord Duke of Marlborougb. He has aftually under his Command 1 8000Men, which is the Complement of the King of Great Britaitfs Forces, as Elector. His Majefty indeed, keeps in pay 12000 HefJiattSi, and 4000 Men of the Troops of Wolfenbuttle. 'Tis true, thofe Forces are paidby England, but to me it feems they are only to defend the King's Dominions in Germany. Tho* the Sovereign is abfent, yet here are not wanting Amufements there being many good Families, and a number of amiable Perfons. The lovely Countefs of Delilz, Niece to the Dutchefs of Kendal, cou'd not fail of Adorers, even in the moft barbarous Countries; for the Charms of her Mind are not inferior to the Beauty, Sweetnefs, and Gracefulnefs of her Perfon. No Lady can have a better Temper or Behaviour than the Baronefsde Bulan, Daughter-in-law to the Marlhal, and Daughter to the late Countefs of Platen: her Hufband is a worthy Gentleman, and keeps a very good Houfe. The Count de Platen, hereditary Poft-MafterGeneral, is one of the richeft Subjeds in the EJectorate, and one that fpends the moft Money. A Foreigner will always have caufe to fpeak well of M. de Rbedcn, Captain of the Caftle, and M. de Wagenbeim,the great Cup-Barer. Me&eurs d' lit en live hasthe Command the Foot. Theyare bothOf of Scotland, thelat ficenofRputation, fignaliz'd and their Valour uring d ytm. Forces becnoflate ean disbanded. y TkeftattiGary have

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67

live fplendidly and both the Brothers, the eldeft of whom is a Colonel of the Guards, are amiable and infinitely polite. If ever you corne hither, you will certainly have reafon to be fond of their Company. The Situation of Hanover is very agreeable and in its Neighbourhhood are feveral pretty Seats. Among thefe Herenbaufen (the Houfe of the Lord, or the Mafter) is a Caille which was built by Order of the Eleftor Erneft-Auguftus, the King's GrandFather. This Houfe, to which a ftrait Walk leads, bears no proportion to the Magnificence of its Gardens, which are undeniably fome of the fineft in all Europe; being particularly adorn'd with WaterWorks that throw the Water up much higher than the famous Fountain at St. Cloud, which was always look'd upon as the moft confiderable of the kind . Between Hanover and Herenbaufen,there are two fine Seats of which, one is call'd Fantaje, i. e. the Whim\ and the other, Monbrillant, or, MountPleafant. They were built by two Siftqrs-in-law, viz. Madame de Kilmanfeck, (who after her Hufband's Death, was by King GeorgeI. created Countefs of Arlington) and the Countefs of Plate. Thefe two Houfes are a Proof of the good Tafte of thofe Ladies, who were really an Honour to Germany, for their Beauty, good Sente, Manners, and Genius. They both died in their Prime, a little time after one another my Lady Arlingtonin England, and the Countefs of Platen at Hanover, to which fhe was not only an Ornament, but a Luftre. The F 2 Thefe Works fetupby theDirection Wm. were of Bekfor soN,Efq;whowentover Hanover that purpofe 1716, to in after wasfoon made Works of His Surveyor-General Majefty's in England, nowoneof the Auditors the Imprelt. andij of

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The Dominions of Hanover are fo confiderable* that I have been affured the Revenues are no lefs than fix Millions of Crowns per An. Whether this be true, 1 do not know but 1 tell you what I was told myfelf. Hamelenupon the Wefer is the only Town that can be reckon'd a Place of Defence. Hanover, Zell, and Lunenbourg, have Ramparts; Harbourg, a Caftle, or Citadel but ail fo inconfiderable, that they are not worth mentioning. There are few Sovereigns whofe Finances are in fo good a Condition as this Eleiftors; which has been the happyProduce three fucceeding Reigns of and the good Oeconomy wherewith they were managed by the three 1aftPrinces of the Electoral Family, has contributed infinitely to the Figure it makes at this time. Mean-while, notwithftanding thefe Regulations, the People werenever opprefs'd, and the Princes always lived with a Splendor fuitobtained able to their Grandeur. Erneft-Auguftus the Electoral Dignity, notwithoutmakinggreat Prefents to the Court oVienna^ at a time too when his Power was limited to the Dutchy of Hanever, and the Bifhoprick of Ojnabrug. Tho' this Prince had a numerous Family to provide for, he lived with Splendor, was fond of Magnificence and Pleafures, gallant, generous, and libral and when he died, he left no Debts to pay, and his Finances were in a goodState. George I. his Son and Succeffor kept up a confiderable Body of Troops, and had a very f plendid, Court. As his Acquifitions were great, he diftributedhis Favourswhere-ever he was inform'd there was a Neceffity and when he cameto the Throne, he made no Reform in this Court f that their not feeing him was the only Token of his Abfence. At his Death, he left immenfe Sums in his Trealury,t

B R U N S W I C.

6g

fury, and fo glorious a Chara&er, that his Subje&s ftill biefs the Memory of his Reign. GEORGE his Son, and the Heir of his Crown, II. a his Dominions, nd Virtues, behaves in the very fame manner. While he lives and adb like a King, he neither gives, on the one hand, into the Extravagance of vain Pomp and Pageantry, nor on the other, into that fordid Thriftinefs which debafes Royal Majefty, and extinguifhes the Love of Subjefts. He accumulates Treafure without opprefling his People, who love him, and offerup their Prayers for him, as 1 do for your Prefervation and Am, &c.

LETTER

IV.

S I R, Blamkcnhourg, 30, 1729. July W A S fix Hours travelling from Hanover to the t BRUNSWIC, Capital of the Durchy of that Name, which is a very great City, with Houfes foi the moft part of Timber. It was formerly a Free and Imprial City, andoneof the Hanfe-Tovins but falling under the Sovereignty of the Princes of the Houfe of Brunfwic, they reduced it to a level with the other Towns of their Dominions. It belongs to the Duke of Brunfwic-LuncnbourgWolfmbuttlc, The Duke Rntbor~-Ulric began to fortify it; and his Son Augufiui-William, the prefent Duke*, perF 3 feted Hediedin Marcb,1731,withoutIffuebyeitherofhis three Wives who were, t. ChriftiwStfbiaof Brmhmc.
2.

Brunswic. 70 feft :dwhat remained unfinifhcd at hisFather'sDeath, and made Brunfwic a Place which cannot be befieged without a numerous Army But then on the other hand, it would require fuch an Army to garifon it as the Duke could not frnifh without the help of his Neighbours, and which befides, wou'd not perhaps be extraordinary convenient for him to introduce. The faid Duke has caufed a new Palace to be built, which is large and magnificent, and the Furniture is rich, new, and excellently well chofen. Among the reft, there are very fine Pi&ures, and a Cabinet full of Curiofities. The Duke ofBlanckenbourg,Brotherto the Duke of WolfembuttUihas a particular Palace, where he refides in the Fair-time, but it did not appear to me to be a Houfe of anyconfequence. The Fairs of Brtmfwiccontribute very much to make it a rich and famous City, there being two held every Year, and a confiderable Trade carried on at both. There is very good Diverfion during thefe Fairs for then all the Ducal Family is generally at & wic\ to which foreign Princes come often, and there is always a great Concourfe of the Nobility. The Duke fends every Morning to invite theQuality of both Sexes, who at Noon repair to the Palace. The Grand-Marlhal, for avoiding all Difputes about Precedency, caufes the Ladies to* be match'd with the Gentlemen by the drawing of Tickets i" andfometimes ithappens that a Dutchefs is of and 2. Sapbia-JmtGa Htlfttin-Gtttnf, 3. Elix*httb-$ofbia a whom of HtlpiM'Nitmirg. helefta Widow, fter twoYcars DokeofBrnmfimi'u-LuL Marriage. Hi*Brother t*vis-R*Mpb, fnccecdcd him. He wat born in a mtabtari ndBioatntmrf, by oFOrtegsn, 1671,and in lomarnedCbr~iaas-Loiafa whom hadthtcPaughten theeldeftof whomwasmarbe C t riedto the Emperor borla VI. the fecoadotheCzenmiitt, omof Ptttr the Great; and the third, to the DokeFeriiand tmd'Jtttrt pfBrunfwit-Lu*nlfvi Bruira.

71[ is at the lower end of the Table, which is ferved with very great Magnificenceand Elegance. When there are too many Guefts to fit at one Table, the two Brothers keep each a feparate Table at his own Palace. At Night, the Company repairs to isGernuin Opra, which being ended, they pafs into Rooms joining to the Theatre where they play, and fup, and then dance. The Bail is open'dby the Gentleman who happened to draw the firft Number in the Morning, and continues till Day-break. The Ducal Family of BrunfwicWolfembuttle conbut the fifts now of twoBrothers; the eldeft of whom, Duke* Augujiiu-William, hashad three Wives, but no Iflue. He is married to a Princefs of HolfteinNorbourg. Thefe two Princes are fo far advanced in Years, that the Duke Ferdinand-Albert of Brunfwic-Lunenbourg-Bevern,Son-in-law to the Puke ohianckenbourg\yis looked uponastheirt^ "mptive Heir. Europe produces few rrinces 01 .nore diftinguimed Merit, whohve equal Knowledge, more Learning, and Integrity, or more Valour and Experience in War. He has acquired a noble Reputation in Hungary and he is not only a Brother-in-!aw to the Emperor, but one of his favouriteGnerais, and has a Regiment in his Service ||. His F4 Brunswic.
The Branch of Brx~rfu~ic-Bcvrrn is dektuded frotn Hexr> de Dan*tbtrg, eldeft Son of Duke Erneft, Head of the Bmnfwic Family. Henry left two Sons the youngeit of whom, jiu^uflus of Wolftmbuttlt, had three Sons who form'd three Branches, Bruiifwic, WalfcmbuttU, and Bt-vern. The two firft were united in Anthony Ulric. Ferdinand- Albert I. Chief of the Line Three of bis Sons of Bevcrn, left 6ve Sons and a Daughter. are dead of whomthe Eldeil \o&.his life at th Battle ofSctelienburg, in 1704; theThird died in 1706, when he wa> ProvoftofSt. BlaifecS Brumfwici as didthe Fifth alfo, in 1706, at theBattle of Turin. There remain two Sons, /&. Duke Ferdinand- Albert Il. and Duke Erntft-Ferdinand.

Note. t Seethefbregoing of g This Princewas Vcit-Mulhal-Geafnl the Emperor' Forces,

72
His

BrUNSWIC.

Family conGfts of four Sons and three Daughters*byhis Wfejfntonietta-AmeliaofBrunfThefe are very hopeful young wic-Blanckenbourg. Princes. The eldeft, whofe Name is Charles +, is of a lovely Make, and has Senfe infinitely beyond his Years. The eldeft Princefs, Elizabetb-Cbriftitta ||, at twelve Years of Age may pafs for one that is compleatly grown her Air is noble and modeft; her Features regular in a word, ihe is form'd to make that Prince happy who is one day to be her Hufband. Thc Court of Wolfembuttle is numerous, and not want for Magnificence. when afembleddoes The Minifters of moft Power are the Baron The former Stein t, and the Count de Debn , is Forces, as in that Qnality he commanded the Emperor'a Army. in the War which Fratue declared againft his Imprial Majjfty in 1733. He acquired great Reputation at the Headofavety weak Army, by hindering thtFrttcb from doing any thing more than taking Fort Kehl in the firft Campaign, when the Emperor was furpriz'd and unprovided. At the Opening of the Campaign in 1734. this Prince oppos'd the Defiens of the Marflial Brrtuici, byLiaes whichhe caft np at MmtiJerg,and which were ofgood ferviceto Prince E*gct, ta fkdlitadng hisRetreat Coantowards Heilbm, when he came to take upon the mand of the Imperial Army. That great General own'd he never faw any thing look better, or that was ttronger and better difpofed than thofe Lines, wbkh the Dnke of Btvtrm had goarded tfll then, with an Army of not 15000 Men. His ooft Serene Highnefs watin 1734 declaredby the- Dyet of the Empire, Velt-Mumal-Genual ofthe Armies ofthe Empire. He had foortcea Children, v'. ftren Sont and feven Danghters, thelaftofwhomwasbotnin 1732. t He married Philipfiitm-CbarLtte, the King of PruJfiJs thiid Danghter, in 1733. | This Princtfs was married tothe Prince Royal cifrnffia, in 1733. t The Baron having quitted the Serviceof folfmbtttle, is aMinifierof State at Hoaovtr. acVually The Coont dt DAm. fter a being difgrac'd. went to Dt*and mari, of which he already worethe Orderof DomuebrtcL-. obtaned th Title of ose of th Kiug'j CoqnlcUon of State. From

B R U N S W 1 C.

73

is defcendedof an illuftrious Family in Swabia He was in the Service of the Landgrave of Darmjiadt, and his Envoy at the Dyet of Ratisbon,and feveral Courts, where he made himfelf confiderable by his Eloquence, the Juftnefs of his Sentiments, by the Eafe with which he exprefles them, and by his Politenefs. The Count de Debn is a Native of Mecklemurg, where he was born of a good Family, and enter'd very young a Page to DukeAnthony-Ulricot Brunf'wic-Wolfembuttle. He had the Happinefs to pleafe that Prince, but much more his Succeflbr, the Duke Augttfiui-Williatn, who of his Page, m*de him his Favourite and Minifter, heaped Wealth and Honours upon him, and match'd him to the Daughrer of his Chancellor, who was one of the richeft Heirelfes in al) Germony. The young Minifter finding himfelf rich and powerful, quickly thought the Court oWolfembuttle too narrow a Stage for Action. He had chofe the Count de Fleming, Prime Minifter of the King of Poland, for a Model. He faw that this Minifter, under pretence of important Negotiations, went to the chief Courts of the Empire to make a Parade of his Riches; and young Debn long'd with Impatience to imitate him. He procur'd himfelfto be nominatedthe Duke's EnvoyExtraordinary toHolland and France^ where he vy'd in every refpe with the Ambaflkdorsof the chiefCrowns. In fine, after havingftaid about eighteen Months t Paris, he went away very much lamented by the Merchants and Workmen with whom he had dealings. He came to Wolfembuttk receive the Applaufes of his Mafter, to and From time ftay'd hisEftate the Coantry that he in tt oiWolfemof Denmark buttlt,tillthcYear1734,that the King appomted himto gotoPtttrsburg, fillup th Poilof hisEnvoy to Extrav ofAl.ffefifhal. ordinaryacant the Deaih by

741

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UN

SW

C.

and to refthimfelf after the Fatigues lie had undergone in his important Negotiations. As Count Flemingwas honoured with the Orders of Denmark, RuJJia, and Poland, his Rival too thought he could not do without one Ribbon at leaft and thinking the Order of Dannebrockthe moft proper for him, becaufe it was white, he demanded and obtained it of Frederic IV. the King of Denmark. When he faw himfelf thus adorn'd, he procured himfelf to be fent to Yienna. What bafinefs he hadthere, 1 knownot; but he wasfcarce ever from the Emperor, and in order to be nearer to his Perfon, he lodged juft by the Palace of the Favorita. He often relieved the Cares of the Miniftry by making fome Entertainment or Ball. He had an admirable Geniusfor Dancing, fo that every body thought him the Inventor of Country-Dances. The Emperor gave him the Title of a Count, with which he returned to his own Court. When Glory has once fir'd a noble Soul, nothing can keep it within Bounds. The Count de Debn had loft his firft Wife, who left him the Heir of three great Eftates; and he married again to an amiable Lady, who return'd him Love for Love. Tho' he wasdear to his Mafter, yet he could not refol veto continueat Wolfembuttle,becaufehe had a Tafte for nothing but Treaties and Negotiations. He returned a fecond time, as EnvoyExtraordinary to the States-General, but did not ftay long at the Hague; for after having had his publick Audience, wherein he affured their High-Mighcinefles of the fincere Affe&ion of his Mafter for their Republic, and of his own perfonal Joy to find himfelf feated in an Arm-Chair in their Affembly, he went over to England to refide at the Court of his Britannic Majefty. He was admired for his Grandeur, as much in England aselfewhere but the Air of that Country not agreeing with the Delicacyofhis Conftitution,

B R U N S W I C.

75

ftitution, he return'd to Germany and, after having made a tour to the chief Courtsof the Empire, where he ftays in he is come back to Wolfembutte^ expectation that fome great Event or other will turn up, that he may be employd in fome remarkable Embaify, whereby Europe^ attentive to every thingthat relates to h:rr, may have frefh Proofs of his great Talents. The Baron de Hagen is Commander in Chief of the Duke'sTroops, which atually amount to above 4000 Men, and*tis faid, that his Highnefs's Revenues exceed two Millions of Crowns. His Subjefts are not the worft ufed of any in Germany. 'Tis a good fruitful Country th Peafants, who are fober and laborious, are as clownifh and as ftupid as thofe that herd with the Hogs in IVejlpbalia; but they are robuft, ftrong, and good Soldiers. In Brunfwic there is a Catholick Churchwhich is fmall, but neat. The Duke jiHtimy-Uiriccax&' it to be built at the timehe embraced the Catholick Religion; which he did, after full Conviction, not many Years before his Death. Saltzdabl, a Pleafure-Houfe belonging to the Duke, is a League from Brunfwic, and from Wolfembuttle. It was built by Duke Antbony-Ulric,one of the moft magnificent Princes of his Time, and one who had the moft lgant Tafte. This Houfe isworthy of nice Obfervation. It has a great Gallery with a Collection of Pi&ures in it by the chief Painters, which is not to be met with elfewhere. In one great Cabinet there is very fine Porcellane and in another, a vaft number of Veflelsand Urns painted by Raphael. In fhorr, the Curious can't want here for Entertainment. The Road from Brunfwic to Wolfembuttle is as pleafant as moft Roads. We crofs a little Wood through which there are feveral Routes eut, and as we

WOLFEMBUTTLE.

we corne near the Town, feveral pretty Seats ap. pear in view. is The Town of fVolfemhuttle not half fo big as Brunfwic nor is it better built, theHoufesbeing of Timber. The Fortifications feem to me to be in good Repair. The CaftJe, or Ducal Palace, is ancienr, and makes no great Appearance, but'tis commodious, and has good Lodging-Rooms. That which moft deferves the Attentionof a Traveller, is the Library, whichis oneof the beftchofen in Europe, and contains very fcarce Books and Manufcripts. As 1 had left the Court at Brunfwic I did not ftay many Hours at Wolfembuttle^ but came to lie where 1 have ail that hereatBLANCKENBOURG, Heart can wifli for. The Duke is as affable and as civil a Prince as any in the World. In his Youth he vifited the principal Courts of Europe, where he contrafted a great Politenefs, and a folid Tafte of Elegancy. He loves the BellesLettres, protefts the Arts and Sciences, and looks out for Men of Ab>lity to ferve him. He is magnihcent, generous, a good Prince, and a kind Mafter. He was at one and the fame time, the Fatherof arEmprefs, and the Grand-Father of an Emperor. As a Father, he has a confiderable Penfion from the Emperor of Germany and as a Grandfather, he has been honour'd with the Order ofSt. Andrew of Mufcovy, founded by Peter the Great, which is a blue Ribbon, with St. Andrrufs Crofs appendant to it enamell'd with blue. This Prince is alfo a Commander ofSuplenbourg, a Commandery of the Order of St. Jobnt annexed to the Houfe of Brunfwic. He has had three Daughters by his Wife EUzabetb-Cbriftinaof Cetingen. The Dutchefs, tho' advanc'd in Years, retains an Air of Grandeur and Majefly which ftrikes the Beholders, and her Features difcover the Marks of
that

Blanckenbourg.

77

that fliining Beauty which lhe had in her Youth. But what renders this Princefs more venerable than even her Birth, is her folid Piety, herjuft Difcernment, her lively Imagination, her noble and eafy manner of expreffingherfelf, and her Principles of Humanity, accompany'd with a Generofity free from all Oftentation. 1 had the honour to pay my Duty to her at Brunfw/V, fome Years ago, when fhe receiv'd me with fuch Tokens of Goodnefs as rejoic'd my very Heart and upon all Occafionbfince, lhe has been pleas'd to give me frefh Proofs of it. As 1 can be of no fervice to this Princefs in any Cafe, nor fo happy as to be able tocontribute to her Glory, 'tis my Ambition to make every one, and you, Sir, in particular, fenfible of the Refped and Attachment with which I amdevoted to her, and of the grateful Senfe I have of the Benevolencewith which fhe has honour'd me. The Courtiers of Blanckenbourgre, like their Maa fier, very polite. M. de Muncbaufen is the chief of the Duke's Council, and was formerly in the Service of the Duke of IVolfembuttle.He is a Gentleman of greatLearning, Labour, and Vigilance, and has a diftinl and noble Manner ofDelivery. He is heartily attach'd to his Mafter and the Courtiers feem'd to me to have an Efteem and Affe&ion for him. Men of folid Judgment, and who have been converfant with this Minifter than I, have afmore fured me that he is one of the greateft Genius's at this prefent, in Germany M. de Sporckis the. Grand-Marfhal, which Employment he acquits himfelf in with very great Politenefsand Care. Heiscomeofa good Family, his Father Sincethe Dukefucceededis Father,M. deMuncbaufen h is become Minifter f State,andmanages firft o alltheBranches of that Office ith that CareandJufticc w him whichprocure univerial and Efteem. Love

yS

Blanc

ke

nbou

rg.

Father being Minifter of State, and Diretorof the Dutchies of Zell and Lunenbovrg. M. de Polentz does the Honours of the Court under him, in qua. lity of Great Cup-Bearer. As he had his Educa. tion at Court, he is vaftlypo lite; and Foreigners cannot but be pleasM with his good Behaviour. The Dukeand Dutchefs deIight to fee Foreigners at their Court, whom they load with Civilities, and will have them always to dine and fup with their Highnefls. After Dinner, they take the Air, or make Vifits; and in the Evening there's an Aflembljr in theDutchefs's Apartment, wherethey play, then fup, and afterwards every one retires. We have had a Comedytwice or thrice, which is a#ed by the young People of the Family, who perform their Parts very well efpecially in the Tragedies of Corseille and Racint, tranflated into Higi-Datcb. The Pleafures of the Carnival are more gay, at whichtime the Duke makesEntitainments There's a Ball, a Mafquerade, and Comedy at Court, every Day and for the time there's fo great a Concourfe of Strangers here from the neighbouring Towns, that fometimes 'fis impoffibletoget a Lodging. is fmall, and The Town Of Blanckenbouro the Houfes ill built, and inconvenient. The Duke has done all in his powerto engage the Inhabitants to build; he has offer'd them Materials gratis, and has moreover endeavour'd to infpire them with a Tafte for the Arts but all without Succefs. 1 never in my whole Life, faw People more in. dolent and clownifh than thofe of Blanckenbaurg* and the neighbouring Towns. They are fo bigotted to old Cuftoms, that they fay, MYFather linfi foy andfo will I; My Fatber didnct do tins, nor will I. 1 cannot conceivehow People, fo dull as they are, and fo ftrongly attach'd to the Inftitutions of their ForeHeisat prefentMarfhal f the Court; M.JeMi/fitis o Gre Cup-fiearer, andM.deRt>jfi*t Great-Hondaun.

BLANCKENBOURG.

79

Fore-Fathers, came to give into Lutber's Reformation is Blanckenbourg a petty County, which Duke intbeny-Ulric yielded in his Life-time to his fe. cond Son, to make him fomefort of Compenfation for the Right ofPrimogeniture, which he had newly introduc'd into his Family, to that Son's prejudice For the Princes of Brunfwic had for a long time been us'd toa Partition of Lands intheir Families. The Hanover Branch was the firft that abolith'd that Cuftom, pemicious to great Families. Duke atbony-Ulricwas nly reftrain'd from it by Pr. o Lewis his fecond Son, whom he lov'd more than his eldeft and not caring to leave him without Dominions, to the Discrtion of a Brother, he gave him Poffeffionof thisState in his Life-time becaufe he wasof Opinion, that after his Death, his Will wou'd have the Fate of not being executed by his Succeffor, according to the Cuftom introduc'd amongSovereigns. With them 'tisa Right of Regale, but for us to do fo, is a Crime. As the County of Blanckenbourg does not give Admittance into the College of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire, fo it does not give the Rank of a Sovereign Prince to the Peron in poffeffion of it. The Duke, in order to procure himfelf both thefe Privileges, made a Treaty with the Elector of Hanover, whereby he got that Prince to yield him the Vote and Seat which he enjoy'd in the Dyet for his Dutchy of Grubenbagen And the Duke, on his part, engag'd never to vote at the Dyet but in conformity to the Sentimentsof the Eletor. After his Dcceafe,"or if he happensto fucceedhis Brother, the The reafonis, perhaps, becaufeut of thtir Attacbment o told to Cuftami, hadthe Curioiity go a littlebigherback they thanthir Fathers.

80

Magdebourg.

the Vote and Seffionfor Grubenbagenrevert to the Eledor . This, Sir, is aU that I can fay to you at prefent. Their Highnefles being to fet out in a few days for Oetingen, where they ufe to go every Summer, I propofe to go forthwith to Leipjtc and Drefden And at the latter Place1 hope to hear from you. 1 am, &c.

LETTER
S I Rt

V.

Drefdtn, Augufl30. 172g. Blanckenbourg we hzve rill'd Lands, and fruitful Fieldsj with Woods of Oalcin*JL FROM terfpers'd all the way, till we come to MacDEBOURG, the Capital of a Dutchy ofthat Name, an Archbifhoprick, but feculariled at formerly the Treaty of Weftpbalia, i favour ofthe Houle j of Brandenbourg, to whom that Dutchy was yielded in exchange for their refgning Hither Pomerania to Sweden. This City has for thefe two CenThe Duke of Bkncktnbturg being becomeDokc of Woiftmkuttlt, by the Death ef his Brother, has farce mscte ny Altration in his Court. The Peribu who were heretofore his Creatnre and Favourites continue in the fam Employments. The Dutchefs Oowager remaios at Bnmfivic, in the fine Houfe which the late Dukecaus'd m be boilt; and of which thedd Prince nude a Prtent to her. with ail its rich Foraitore. This Prince il immenfely rich, and livet with very great Dignity. Her Steward i M i* Wtdtrhff, who was formerly Privy Counfcllor to the King of Dmutrl, and bis Envoy itraordiaarjr at the Court of Front.

MAGDEBOURG.

8i (

Centuries paft, fuffer'd very much. It was befieg'd by the Emperor Charles V. who fqueez'd confiderable Sums from it. But it fared worfe in that unhappy War which divided Germi;ny during the fpace of 30 Years; for the Counts de Tilly and Papnbeim commanding the Imperial Army in 1631, took it by Storm, put the Inhabitants to rhe Sword, and reduc'd the wholeCity almoft to Aflies. Neverthelefs, 'ris fince pretty well recover'd, and has fome fine Houfes. Thegreat Square before the King's Palace has few equal to it for its Extent, and for the fine Houfes that encompafs it, which are all uniform, three Stories high, and were all raifed in this Reign. In this fame Square there's an Arfenal, which really is not fo magnificent as that of Berlin, but may be rank'd among the chief Arfenals in Europe. This is a populous Town, and has a more flourifhing Trade than any other City in the King of Pruffia's Dominions. The great Church, which was formerly the Metropolitan, is ancient, and one of the largeft and moft magnificent Buildings in Germany. It has ftill fome Reliques to Ihew, particularly the Bafin in which Pilate walhed his Hands, after having pafs'd- Sentence of Death upon our Saviour the Lanthorn which Judas made ufe of whenhe went to apprehend him a Thorn of the Crown that was planted on his Head and things of the like kind. The Chapter of Magdebourgis ftill, bating the change of Religion, on the fam footing as before the Reformation. The Canons muftall make Proof of heir Nobility tho' 'tis a PunElilio with which the King, who confers all the Prebends and Dignities of the Chapter, fometimes difpenfes. The preVol. I. G fent The Treafry St.Dtimiti ner of Paris, boaftsalfoof this Lantborn fo that Judat- maft havehad at leatt two Lanthorns.

82

Magdebourg.

fent Provoft is the Duke of Saxe-Barbi, who fuc ceeded his Father in that Dignity, which brings hini in 12000 Crowns a-year. He lives in a fine Houfe on the great Square, fronting the Palace, built by the Order of King Frederic I. who alfo caus'd a Citadel to be erefted here, on the other lide of the Elbe, over which there is a Bridge. ThatKingbegan likewifeto fortify the Town; and KingFrederic-tFilliam, whocarriedon, andfinilh'd the Fortifications, has now made Magdebourg ne of o the moft important Places in Europe. M. de Walrave, Chief Engineer, had the Direction of thofe Works, which are a Proof of his grear Ability. The Margrave Albert of Brandenbourg Brothe- to the late King Frederic I. is Governour of the Dutchy of Magdebourg as is the Prince of Anbalt-Deffau of tie Town, where he has a numrousGarrifon under his command. The Arfenal, which is a fine Structure,and full of Cannon, and fmall Arms, is worth feeing. The King of Pruffia having it much atheartto render Magdebourga flourifhing Town, has tranf. ferr'd the Regency of the Dutchy hither, which was heretofore at Halte; and for this reafon there are feveral good Houfes in the Town. The Dutchy of Magdebourgis one of the beft Provinces in the Pruffian Dominions. It has a great Income from the Elbe, and the Salt-Works. The Carholicks are allowed a Toleration of their Religion in the Dutchy, and have Churches in the Town. The Roads from Magdebeurg to Leipfic, are fo bad at this time, by reafon of tho Rains that have fallen for fome Days paft, that 1 have been three Da in getting from the one Town to the other. Indeed I went fome Leagues out of my way, on and purpofe to fee BARBI COHTEN. The firft of thefe Towns belongs to a Prince of the Houfe of Saxon); o Hediedia1731, asisbeforc bfenred.

Barbi,

Cohten.

83

Saxony, of the Branch of Weiffenfeld\ and has nothing confiderable but the Princs's Palace, which makes a good appearance, and has commodious Apartments, elegantly furniihed. There is a Salon, and a Clofet, the Cielings of which are painted by Peine, and not the worft thirgs he has done. The Palace has Gardens delightfully fituate by the fide of the Elbe. The Duke de Barbi is the only Prince of the Houfe of Saxonywho profefles the Calvinift Religion, in which he was educated by his Father, who was at firft a Lutberan. This Prince is a comely handfome young Man. He married H. de iVirtemberg-Oels* but has no Cnildren. He has been in the Service of Pruffia^and is Grand Provoftof the Chapter of Magdebourg,and Knight 0 of the Order of the White Eagle of Poland. COHTEN, which is bigger than Barbi by one half, belongsto a Prince of Anbalt t; the only one of his Branch, tho' he has had two Wives. 1 defired leave to kifs his Hand; but he excus'd himfelf by pretending an Indifpofition. 1 have obferved that petty Princes are always more difficult of Accefs than great ones. The Town has no Fortifications and 1 walk'd about a good while to fee if there was any thing remarkable, but 'twas to no purpofe; and I was oblig'd to confine myfelf to my Inn, whichwas one of the worft in Europe. LEIPSIC ftands in a fruitful Plain. This City, fo famous for its Fairs, and for its Univerfity, may G 2 juftly Her Nameil J^ua-Louifa, he was bornthe uth of f of Duke Jmmutry698.andis the Daughter Cbrifitan-Vlric, 1 of Wirttmberg-Otlt Btrnftadt,by his 3c! Wife, Sofbia, and of Wilbtlmina, Eafi-Fritjland. his facceeded Brother f Thisis Aitgmjtui-Ltviis, in 1728, wbo Hisfeoaiod Emimof Wife Pnmmiz, yingin 1732,h Lmp$U. d w nuny'd hit SifterAumFrtMf of Promnitx; hich Match, at that uk, Bade a verygreatNoife. The Curions arere. ferr'dtoa Papercall'dIl Guoum-, orthe Gleaner, ublifhedn i p bashadChildrea. 1733,forwbatwatfaidnponit. ThiPrince by lui tlliccWiva adpra Somin particalar y hisfccoad. b

84

L e i p s i c.

jualy pafs for the Jcwel of the Elcftorate of Saxeny V>ot only for the Beauty of its Structures, but for xhi confiderable Revenue which it yields to its So. vereign, the King of Poland. 'Tis fmall, and fac'd with Ramparts, and a Ditch but all thcfc Fortifications are of little confequence. lis Caftle, or rather Ciradel, which joins to the Town, is a Place of greater Importance. There is always a good Garrifon and Governour in it, who is at prefentGeneral Baumgarttn. AstheCaftlepaflesunder the Denomination of the King*sHoufe, the Roman Catholicks have had a Chapel there ever fince Au* guftus II. embraced their Religion. The Suburbs of Leipfic are very large. The City has four Gates newly built of Free-Stone, which are magnificent, tho' not according to the Rules of Architecture. At each Gate they have newly fet up a MilePoft, fuch as the RomanshaAformerly. There are the like Pofts at the Gates of-all the Towns, and even at the Villages in the Eleftorate of Saxony. From hence they count the Leagues, which are divided at the end of every Quarter of a Mile, by other Pofts not fo big, upon all the great Roads, fhewing the Diftances of the Places, and of the chief Towns; which is a mighty Convenience to Travd-kfSj who wer heretefereofien^impos'd upon by the Poft-Maftcrs, as tothe Lcngth of the Roads. The Houfes of Leipficare large, very high, and fubftantially builtof Free-Stone and their being adorn'd with great fine Windows helps to fet them offto the Eye. The Ground- Hoors of moft of the Hoiills are Warehoufes, in which the foreign Mer-chants ftoretle Goods they ftl at the Fairs, which are three in number every Year, wz. ac --The jMFB.~6CT' Concourfe of Foreigners here at the Fair-Seafon, is fo great that 'tis oftena hard matter to get a
Lodg-

L E I PS I C 85 Lodging here for Love or Money. 1 myfl-lf faw in 1709, at the New-year's Fair, tbe late King of Prujfia, the King and Queen of Peland, and 44 Princes or Princetfes of Sovereign Families. The two Kings and the Queen lodged at the Houfe of Appel, a Merchant; where the King of Polandalways refideswhen he comes to Leipfic. The Univerfity, formerly fofamous, is verymuch decay'd That of Halle, irs Neighbour, and its Rival, in the King of Prujfta*sDominions, takes away a great many Students from it. They l'aythat for fome time paft there have been more able Proteflbrs at Halle, where befides 'tis much cheaper living than at Leipfic; and where thr, Students arc not fuch Spendthrifts, nor fo much addi&ed to Expence and Gallantry. The Gardens of MelEeursAppeland Pofe, Merchants, in the Suburbs, are worth feeing. The firlt is large and magnificent: In the fcondare very uncommon Plants, cultivated with very great Care. TheGardeners of Leipfic, who are reckon'd the beft in all Germany,value themfelves upon forcing Nature; fo that 1 have feen here, at Eajler Fair, the Fruits, Flowers, and Pulfe, of all the Seafons. The A1paragus here is delicious, and extraordinary Jarge. Another Nicety at Ltipfic, is its Larks, whichreTnt overall Germany\ nay, to Poland, Hollartdand Denmark. I was affured, but I will not vouch for the Truth of it, that the very Cuftom-Duty paid for Larks at ipficy amounted to 12ooo Crowns a-year which Sum 1 thought the more confiderable, becaufe think I have heardit faid, that 60 Larks pay but a Grofli the Duty judge then how many there muft be to make up the ^um of 12000 Crowns. But be it true or falfe, *tiscertain that there is not a Country in the World where thefe Birds arc taken in fuch quantities; for, from G3 TUthe 24thptrtof a Dollar, raboatzJ.iSHrliq. o

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from Micbaemafs to Martinmafs, the Fields are C >ver*d wirh *em. Another Singularity is the multitude of Nightingales, in rhe Woods near Leipfic whereof they take great numbers, and keep them in Cages The Innkeeper's Daughter, where 1 lodged, had feven of them and I have feen a great many at other Houfes. Tis furprizing that fo -plentiful a Country as Saxonyfhou'd have no better Ordinarys. 1 don*t mcan Leipfic and Drefden, where, confidering one is in Germany, we come off pretty well tho*were it fo in Holland, the Nctberlands* or in France, we Ihou'd not think ourfelves well us'd. 1 meanthe liule Towns and Villages in aRoad fofrequented as that frotn Leipfic to Drefden. There's Provifion to be had at thefe Ordinarys, but then "tis fo ill drefs'd, and the Houfes fo naity, that 'tis enough to tum one's Stomach. Setting out from Leipfic, at the opening of the or HvGates, I came betimes to Wermstorf, bertsbourg, (St. Huberfs Palace,) a magnificent Hunting-Seat, which the Eledoral Prince of Saxonyh building ai the Entraoceof a Foreft, where there are feveral Roads eut. This Houfe is five Miles from Leipfic, and eight from Drefden and when 'tis finifli'd, will be large and magnificent Men are hard at work upon it, and the main Body of it is already compleated. Their Royal Highhunt hre nefes, the Prince and Princefs, ally at Spring and Autumn. Th Equipage for the Stag-hunting is very fine, the Liverics being Yellow, withFacingsof blucVelvet, and Silver Lace at ail the Sams. After 1 had walk'd an Hour or two at Hvhcrtfiourgt 1 proceeded on my Journey, and came to Dinncr at Miissen, the Capital of Mijkia. This City bas nothing particular, befideits Manufdure
of

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of Porcellane, which is fo finely painted and enamell'd with Gold, thatit ismore beautiful than the Porcellane of Japan, and much dearer. The Invention of it is owing to an Alchymift, or one that pretended to be fuch , whohad perfuaded a great manyPeople hecouMmakeGold. The King of Poland bd\ev*d it as well as others, and to make fure of his Perfon,caus'd himto be committed to the Caftle of Konigftein, three Mi!es from Drefden. There, inftead of making Gold, that folid precious Metal, which putsMankind on committing fo many Follies, he invented Brittle Porcellane by which, in one Senfe, he made Gold, becaufe the great Vent ofthat Ware brings a dealof Money into the Country. Afterhaving pafs'd the Elbe, over a wooden Bridge, going out of Meijfen, I came in lefs than three Hours to Dresdetf, the Capital of the Electorate of Saxony. The City is pretty large, fortify'd with Art and Regularity , and very lightfome. Its Houfes are high and fubftantial, the Streets broad, ftrait, well pav*d, neat, and in the Night-time well lighted. There are great Squares in it; and the whole City is fo well laid eut, that Drefden may be rank'd among the fineft in the World. The Elbe divides it into twoParts which are diftinguUhed by Old and New Drefden, and join'd together by a Bridge of Stone. In order to give you a more perfe: Idea of this City, 1 (hall point out to you fuch things as1 took moft notice of. 1 (hall begin with Old Drefden, which is the firft that we come to from Metffen. At the Entrance of the Town, on the right hand, there is agreat Houfe, called the Palace ofthe Indiu, or Hclland Houfe, which the King bought fome Years ago of his Prime Minifter, the Marfhal Count de Fltmiug. AU the Rooms of dus Palace, G4 which

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which confifts of three Stories, are fo many Clo&ts of Japan and China Wares. 1 don't beJieve that all the Warehouis in Amjhrdam put together, arc capable of furnifhing fuch a quantity of uncommon old Porcellane, as is to be found here. The value of it is computed at a Million of Crowns. The very Houfhold-Goods are Indian. There is one Set of Furniture, the like of which 1 never faw elfewhere: It confias of Feathers of various Colours, and all natural; in'aidwith fo much Art, thatit might be taken for a fine HowerMSattin. This magnificent Palace basa Garden belonging to it, which looks txr/trds the Elbe. It is adorn'd with Statues of white Marble, which the King caus'd to be purchas'd at Rome,of the Cardinals Annibal and Alexandtr Albanie Nephews to Clement XI. Thefe Statuesare much more priz'd here than they were at Rome. Near the Palace of the Indies ftands that of the Cadets; a magnificent Strudhire builtby die States of Saxony, for maint .ning two Companies of Cadets, ail Gentlemen of the Country; who are there inftrn&ed in ail the Sciences fitting for Perfons of >iaity. Rirther up in the fam Street, there is an Amphithtre, or Arca, for the Battles of wild Bcafts of which a great number is kept for that purpofe. Hereare Lions, Tigers, Bears; in ihort, ail the fierceft Animais from the four Quarters of the World. The Bridge over the Elbe, which joins Old Drefdento theNew, is fearce to be parallJ'd, either for is Length or Subftance. It has lately been made broader by forming Demy-Arches which the Riders on eachfide. The Barriers are fupport of Iron, well wroughr. An Equeftrlan Statue of the King is goingtobsereftedupon it.

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The Palace or Caftle joins to the Bridge, at the Entrance of New DreJden. This is an ancient Structure, which makes but a mean Appearance; and 'tis faid, that the King intends it fliall be pull'd down, and another built in its room and that his Majefty has fet apart eight Millions of Crowns for the Expsnce ofir. The infide of the Caftle furpafifes the outfide. The State-Room is fplendidly furnifli'd. The Great Gallery contains feveral Curiolities, fuch as anrique Bufts, Vefcls, and Pi&ures. This Palace has two Chapels, one of whichbe longs to the Roman Catholicks, and the other to the Lutherans. The firft was heretofore the Theatre for Operas, but the King turn'd it into a Chapel, upon account of the Marriage of his only Son with the Archdutchefs, eldeft Daughter to the Emperor Jofepbi the fecond was always the Chapel of the Ele&ors of Saxony. The King might, if he pleas'd, hve order d Mas to be celebrated in it, but he wou'd not give his Subjefts that Handle for Complaint; befides, the late Queen, his Wife, having always ftuck to the Luther an Religion, in which flic was born, he left her that Chapel for her ufe. of The Tr^eafilre it is extremely rich, and contains Veffels, Chafubles, and other things heretofore confecrated and given to this Chapel by the Piety of the Eleclors. The Royal Treafury, commonlycall'd the Grune Grijsblbey Green Vault,) is in th Palace. They (the are three arch'd Rooms, which contain immenfe Riches, and fhine all over with Gold, Precious Stones, and Diamonds. 'Tis one of the fineft Places in the World. There are feveral Sets of Brilliant Diamonds, Rubies, Emcralds, Pearls, Saphirs, and other Precious Stones. Every Set is for compleat, andconGftsof Buttons Clothes, Loops for Hats, Swords, Hangers, Canes, Sleeve-Buttons,

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tons, Shoe Buckles, Muffs, and Sword-Belts,SnuffBoxes, Watches, Tweezer-Cafes, Pocket-Books inihort, all the Jewelsthatcanpoffibly be imagin'd, even to the Furniture of a Horfe; fo that were 1 to write downeveryParticuIar, fhould furnifli you I a Volume. And they all look the better, for being ranged with wonderful Nicety in Cafesof Cryftal. To the Caftle belongs a Garden, call'd the Zwinger Garteny which is the Tailleries of Drefden, but not.extenfwre enough to deferve the Name of a Garden. 'Tis encompafs'd with Buildings of FreeStone, which are Green-Houfes for Orange-Trees. The Structure confifts but of one Floor, on which are rais'dfix large Pavilions, viz. three in front at the Entrance, two on the fides, and one over the Portico at the Entrance which have ali a Communication with one another, by a Platform thathas Baluftrades adorn'd with Statues. It wou'd be hard to fay what Order of Architecture prevails moft in this Edifice, the Carv'd-Work with which it is decorated, being more of the Gothic than the modem Tafte. Near to this Building there's a Palace which makes a great Shew, but the Apartments are by muchtoo fmall, andtoolowforthe Ornamcntsemploy'd about them. The King caus'd this Houfe to be built for the Countefs de Cofl, at the time when that Lady was in high Favour. No Coft was fpar'd in it but 'tis pity that a more fkilful Architeft had not been pitched upon to conduft it. There are five or fx other Houfes, which are hre calTd Hotels, but in Italy wou'd certainly pafs for Palaces. The Hotel de Fubl in the Street of Pirnitz is one of this number. It was erefted by the Great Marfhal de Fubl who on his Death-bed left it to his Wife, of whom it was purchas'd by the Count dl Fleming. That Minitter fold it foon
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after to the King, who made confiderable Embelifl> ments in it, and furnifhed it richly. In this Condition his Majefty gave it in 1728, to the Marfhal de Wackerbartby tomal him amends when he had been burnt out of the Houfe he liv'd in, as Govemour of Drefden. After this, the Governour's Houfe being rebuilt, the King bought the other Houfe again of the Count de IVacktrbartk^ andhas made ita Depofitaryof hisMedals, Antiquities, and Curiofities. To be fure you have heard that this Fire broke out at the Governour's Houfe in the Night-time, while the King of Pruffia was here. His Majefty aftually lodg'd at the Governour's Houfe; and was in Bed when the Fire burft out with fuch fury that he had but juft time to make his Efcape in his Night-Gown, and to fave a little Box m which there were Papers of confequence for the Floor of his Bed-Chamberell in, the moment after the King f was gone out of it. An Officer, his Wife, and her Maid-Servant perilh'd in the Flames. The Count deWackerbartb only fav*dhis Wardrobe and his Plate for his fine Library, and a noble Collection which he had of Drawings, one of the compleateft and beft chofen Setts in Europe, were confum'd. The Hotel of Hoybmis the moft confiderable Building in Drefden. In about fix Years time it had four different Owners. It was founded by the King'sFavourite, the Count de Fitztubm*, his Great Chamberlain, and Minifter of State; who having been kill'd in a Duel at Warfaw, by the Count de St. Hehadbeen the King'sService in everfince wu onJy he Prince a Favoorj behe oSaxutf, ndalwaystookcaretokcepin t the Share ing,ofall the Favourires, Perfonhathadthegreateft of thePrince's onfidence everthelefc, heowMhis dvanceA C N Poft of t ment,andhis illuftrious of Minifier the Cabinet,o the Intereft f the Countefs e Ctjit, whocaos'dthe Chancellor o d bear t who Minifter,obe Beicbling, had always the Faroarite um'doat.

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St. Gilles, a Piedmontefethat came to Poland to feek his Fortune, his Widow fold it to Marfhal Fleming, who dying at Viennanot long afrer he had purchafd it, the Houfe fell to his Son, a weakly Child, who did not long furyive him. His Mother, who was a Radzivil, washis Heirefs, and oneof the greateft Matches in Europe. She was foon after lhe into married again to a Polaxder vAiom folio w*d bis own Country and when fhe left Drefden, ihe fold her Houfe to the Count de Hoym, who at prefent occupies it. Not far from this Houfe are the King^ Stables, which are well worth feeing, there being a great number of wonderful fineHorfs, and fome of ail forts of the nirtft Breeds. Over the Stables, are Rooms fu -lof fine Equipage, confiftingoffumptuous Sjddles and Houfings, Sleds and magnificent Harnefs. Many of thefe Equipages are of the Turkijb Mode, and plated with mafly Silver, adorn'd with precious Stones. The Arfenal, which is muchboaftedof here>cannot be reckon'd a fine one by any but fuch as have not feen the Arfenal of Berlin, to which it is not to be compar'd. There are feveral Rooms in it full of Arms, Brafs Cannon, Helmets, and Cuiraflcs, which are the Tapeftry of Arfenals. Thus, Sir, you have ail that 1 obferved in Drefden: it remains for me to give you fome Accoupt ,of its Suburbs,and of the Pleafre-Houfes which the King has in rhe Neighbourhood of this City. The Suburbs of Dreflen are very extenfive, but have no Building ofconfequence, except the Palace in the King's great Garden, built by his Majefty's Mother, and thatcaJl'd the Turtijb Palace, becaufe it is furnifted entirely after the Turkijb manner. The King gave an Entertainment at this Palace to the Princefs his Daughter-in-law, on account. of
her 4

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her Arrivai at Drefden, which was fo particular that 1 think ir defervesa Digreflion. Upon the Feaft-Day, the whole Court appeared at the urkijb Palace, in the Habits of Turks. The King came in the Drefs of a Sultan, but without any Attendance, His Majefty was foon after follow'dby the Princefshis Daughter-in-law, with her Ladies. Her Royal Highnefs, for whom the Entertainment was made, found a Body of Janizaries drawn up in the Court-Yard of the Palace. The King receiv'd heratthe Entrance of his Apartment, and condufted her into a Hall fpread with fine Tapeftry, and laid with Cufhions richly embroider'd. The King and Princefs being feated, were ferved by twenty-four Negroesin fumptuousDreflcs, with Sherbet, Coffee, and Sweet-Meats, in great Veffels of maffy Silver nor were fcented Waters, and perfumed Handkerchiefs forgot. After this Collation, they drew near the Windows to fee the Pillas (which is the Rice of Turky)andthe King's Bcunty-Money diftributed to the Janizaries. This was followd by a Comedy, with an Entertainment of Turkijb Danes. Then came the Supper, the Guelts fitng crofs-legg*d upon the Cuflons, and the Courfcsbeing ferved up after the fafhion ofl'urky, by the Negroes and young Turks. While they were at Table, the Company wasdiverted by the various Leaps and Poftures of certain Tumblers and Rope-Dancers. Supper being over, they went into the Garden, which was illuminated with feveral Thoufands of Cryftal Lamps. There was Tilting, and lhooting at the Mark, and whenever the Mark was hit, a Sky-Rocket was fent up, which for the time feem'd to fprinkle Thoufands of Stars among thofe in the Firmament. After this, the Company retir'd into the Palace, where the King and the Princefs open'd the Bail, and tliere was dancing till five o' cluck in

the

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the Morning, when the Bail was concluded with a fumptuous Breakfaft that was fcrv'd at the feveral Tables, after the manner of our own Country which, with the leave of the Muffulnun% as good is as theirs. The fineft Royal Houfes, are Pilnitz and Moritzbourg. The King, who is certainly of ail Sovereigns the moft magnificent, keeps Men continually at work, in embeliifliing thofe Places. The Works are carried on by the Direction ofMonf. Bot, whom 1 think to be not inferior to Bernini, and I doubt not, fuch is my high Idea of him, that as he is fupported by the Gencrority of a Great King, he will accomplith fuch Works as are worthy of himfelf, and of his Mafter too. 1 have now done with the Defcription of the Palaces and Royal Houfes, in which, 1 own 1 have been defedfcive, nd would gladly havebeen excus'd a from giving it; but you would haveit, and Icou'd not help gratifying you. I pafs now to fomething more important and lhall entertain you with the prefent State of the Royal Family, and theCharacters of the moft diftinguim'd Perfons at Court. Frederic-Avgustus II. Kingof Poland, and Eledtor of Saxoty, is the Chief or this Auguft Family. This Monarch, whom no Man furpafi'es in Strength and Dexterity, and whom few Princes equal in Generofity, is the fecond Son of Jobn GeorgeIII. Elector of Ssxony. He fucceeded his Brother Jabn GeorgeIV. in the Eleqftomt,andwas chofeKingofP^W after the Death of the Great Sobieski, notwidiftanding the Intrigues ot the Emifideclared for the Prince of Ctnti, ries of France who When Frederic-Auguftuiafcended the Throne, he brought all the Virtues to it fitting for a Great King. The Agreeablenefsof his Perfon, his Majeftic Air, his Heroic Strength, his Good-Nature, his Politenefs, and his well-known Valour, were

thc

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the laft of his Qualities. Never was any Prince more magnificent, uordid any one either give more, or with a better Grace. As a General and a Statefman, he was never too much lifted up by Profperity, nor lhockd by Adverfity fo that he was obferved, when in the depth of his Misfortunes, to adband treat even with his Enemies, with that Air of Complaifance and Satisfaction, which Meninurd to great Affairs know how to affume, in the midft of the cruelleft Mortifications. This Prince, in his Youth, travelled to the chief Countries of Europe, admirM for hisStrength, and where-everhe came, was his Air, and Dexterity. Amongft other Adventures, a very odd one befel him in his Travels, at Venue. There happen'd to be in that City a famous Aftrologer, who had the Reputation ofbeing well read in the Book of Fate. The King, who was only Prince at that time, had a mind that he Ihould calculate his Nativity, and for that purpofe went to the Aftrologer's Houfe, accompanied by two Gentlemen. They were all three drdsM in plain Apparel, and the Prince, to difguife himfelf ftill the more, had conceal'd his brown Hair under a fair Peruke. He enter'd the laft Man, into the Aftrologer's Houfe, and feem'd to be rather as an Attendant, than a Companion of the others. But to him the Aftrologer firft addrefs'd himfelf, calling him by the Titles of My Lord and Higbnefi. The Prince told him that his Rank in the World was much too iman for fuch high Compliments but the Aftrologer made anfwer, he knew very well whom he fpoke to, and that it wasin vain for him to think of concealing himfelf from fuch a Man as he. The Prince and his fmall Retinue were then conduAed by him into a Clofet, where hs thewed him a Looking-Glafs. Cajt your Eye ou tbat Mirror, faid he to the Prince, and there youvrillfee tbe principal Evcnts ofyour Life. The Prince without

any

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any fcruple, look'd accordinglys and faw himfelf at firft in th Habit ofanledtor; afterwards, with a Crown on his Head, and a royal Mantle on his Shoulders and at Jaft, full of Wounds, and bath'd in his Blood. This Story, which I ftiould not give you for true, if 1 had not heard it from a great Nobleman who told me he had it from the King's own Mouth, is however, not withoutaParallel for it is pretended, that a Mafon told Madam de Maintenon, when flie was no more than Madam Scarron, what her Fortune andTlank would be in France. I could mention feveral other Inftances to you of the fame nature, which all furprize me, tho' they don't convince me. Be it as it will, two Articles of the Predition made to the King of Poland are fully accomplilhed; as tothe third, may Heavenconfound the Aftrologer The King of Poland fpends part of his time in his Kingdom, and part of it in his Eleorate. 'Tis true, that he feems to take more delight in Saxony than in Poland and 'tis in my Opinion very natural for him to do fo; Saxonybeing his hereditary Country, didnottake fortheKingof This partoftheProphecy place, Polanddiedin bis Bedat Warfawthe i&ofFt. 1733,N. S. from ThisMonarch fetoutintheMontb t cijamuary, Dnfdtn,o holdthe Dyetof Palani,whichwu open'dat Warfaw, nd a of like every thingfeem'd to pafsto the Satisfaion the King and Kingdom, thefe fineHopesweredemolilhed the by when the DeathofthisPrince,whoin bis JaftSickneTs, prefcrred neither ear nor FoVy ail F Cluraerof the Hero,betraying } his Wifli eing h b thathe mightlivetoembraceisSon. himfelfn a declining i The King tbund Years. f State, everal feiz'd 0 Dyet DuringtheTaft at GmJm,a Mortification hisFoor forwhich o reafon,M. dePetit, a Surgeonf Paris, whomthe cutoff two Toes,andfet h Majcfly Kingfentforonpurpofe. o l nponbisLegs gain,buttoldhimwithall,hemuft bferveuch a a Regimen he preferibed him, orelfe-itwould to breakout as P again. Botthe Kingfindinghimfelfbetter,negleed etit' ai Jud a Advice, nd died of the Mortification, th. Surgeon fcictold.

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Country, where he is fo abfolute that his Will is the Law of his Subjecis, by whom he is rather ador'd than belov*d befides, 'tis Saxonythat furnifhes him wherewithal to fupport his Dignity, and affers him every thing conducive to the Pleafures of a Great King; and it is there that he has a Court, the moft brilliant in Europe, nqt only for its Splendor, but for Magnificence and Pleafures whereas in Potend, he has only the vain Pageantry of Royalty being under greater Limitations than any Sovereign in the World fo that the leaft Innovation, the leaft At of Authority, makes the Ples clamorous, and they prefently think they are excufed from paying him that Obedience which they owe him. Ail the Gentlemen here are their own Mafters and the Noblemen behave fo much likeSovereigns, that they never g to Court but to demand Faveurs, which if they obtain, they go away utigrateful, and if they are deny'd, they retire with the Intention of taking a Revenge on the firft Opportunity For the Climate being rough, the People are fierce and the King, tho' adored in Saxony, is fcarce beloved in Polani. The Electoral Prince, this King's only Son, is lufty, proper, and well made, and like the King his Father is adroit in all bodily Exercifes. He loves Pleafure, but 'ris with Moderation, and is heartily attach'd to the Religion which he has embrac'd. He is ftiff and referved, without being haughty, which is a Temper that he drives from the late Queen his Mother*, whom he very much refembles, To fuch as have the Honour of Accefs to him, and of being known to him, he is graciousvu3pftK^nd ery civil. His Royal Highnefs v his good Qualities in a great has b^^tfit^l^vfor P J T&nt^tfa'AJeiibourg-Bareith Qoeenof alan, and E ied diedat her Scatat hretcbJ1Car at her SeM of pCM and. ylit, Q.oeen the King. t ifr~'

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part of Europe, parycularly in Germany, France, and Italy, where he has fpent feveral Years. No Son can have more refpec to a Parent than he has for the King his Father, whofe Will and Pleafure he never oppos'd in any one Inftance and whofePerfon Of all hehasalwayshonour'deveninhisMinifters. Pleafures he feems to beftow moft Time in Hunting; neverthelefshe makes it only asan Amufement without being paffionately fond of it. His Royal Sulkoiijki aPoHighnefs's Confident is Solckoffkiov lijb Gentleman who was once his Page; and by thus making him his Favourite, for which he cannot but be applauded, he fhews that he is capable of diftintrue Merit. 1 had frequently the Honour guifhing of making my Compliments to this Prince while he was at Paris, and rhis is now the fecond time that I have had the fam favour axDrefden, where I find he s the fame gracious Perfonage asever. The laft time that 1 had the Honour of being introduc'd to him he talk'd a great deal to me about Paris, and when he difmifs'd me, he faid he wasforr y to think that Drefdenwould not afford me fo many Pleafures asParis. The fame Day that 1 waited on the Prince, 1 was introduced to the Princefs his Royal Highnefs's Confort, who is the late Emperor Jofepb's eldeft Daughter. The Voice of the People is unanimous in the Character of this Princefs. AU Mankind agrees that fhe has not her fuperior for Good-natdre, Picty, Charity, Modefty, and in a word for all, the Virtue of theSoul To pleafe her Hufband, and to give her Children an Education fuitable to their Birth, isher principal Endeavour. Tis rare to find a happier Couple than their Royal Highneffes for Marriage, which generally cools the warmeft Paffions, &mson the contrary to have animated their This Prince his fuccesding Fatheria-the EieBonu, and afterwards the Throneof Pilamd, k'i M.Stithfsii to th in n ofa a him Dignity Count, ndappointai hisMafiaoftheHoife, d oneof hisCabinet Miuften.

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reciprocal Affection to fuch a degree that they are a Pattern for the Imitation of their Court. Their Royal Highneffes Children are fo young that 1 (hall fay but little of them Their eldeft Son very much refembles the Pitures that 1 have feen of the Emperor Jofepb when he wasa Child. This young Prince feems to me to be of a very delicite Conftitution, and has fo great a Weaknefsin his Knees that he can fcarce ftand The Phyficians fay it will go off as he grows up, but their Promifes are no Gofpel for me. The two Princes of the Blood, who commonly refideat Drefden, are John Adolpbusof Saxe-Weiffenfels +, a Prince of uncommon Merit, whofe Sentiments and Adions are no difparagement to his Birth and Maurice-William of Saxc-Zeits, the laft of hisBranch. He was perfuaded by his Uncle the late Cardinal de Saxe-Zeits to abjure the Lutberan Religion and to embrace the ecciefiafticalState:i He is Bifhop of Konigfgraiz in Bobemia, Provoft of Alten Ottingen in Bavaria, and a Canon of Cologne, Liege, and Aicbftedt, and is defcended from fuch a Family that it may be prefum'd, he will fome day or other, be advanc'd to the Purple || N. B. Wbatfpllmus, more isa particttlar ccount EleSoJ eftbt rai Familyf Saxony, j State tranjlated tbeBaron" ofit from o wbicbfrefix'd tbt fcond ii to Edition oftheft emoirs. M AuguftusIII. King of Poland Great Duke of Litbuania and Eletor of Saxony,was born the feventh oiOSober 1696. He is the only Son oiAugufius II. the laft King of Poland and of Eberbardina of Brandetibourg-Bareitb. His Grandmother, Anne H 2 Princefs
The Ele&oral Prince (now Ele&or of Saxony and King of Poland) has eight Children, <viz. three Princes and five Princefei; fo that the Eleoral Branch is not like to be extinft very foon. t The Vclt-Marial the Count de Wackerbarth being dead, the Elcftor nam'd this Prince Generaliffimo of the Troops of the EJeorate in 1714. | This Prince has for fome time pafl: refided at Kouirf^ratz^

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Princefs Royal of Denmark, Widow of Jobn George the thirdEletor of Saxony, took care of himin his Infancy, and imprefs'd him with thofe Sentiments of Piety, Humanity, and Juftice, which render him at this day the Darling of his People, and the Pattern of Kings. At a proper Age, the King his Father took him out of the hands of the Women, and committed him to the Care of Monfieur deMiltitz, a Gentleman of a good Family; whom Learning, good Behaviour and folid Virtue render'd worthy of fuch an Employment. The Prince, whoalwaysfoundCharmsin Virtue, was fenfibleof theMerit of his Governor He lov'd him, wasinfeparablefromhim, andreceivMhisAdvice witha Docility, which, athistenderAge, wasa prefage he wou'd be poflefs'd of that Fund of Wifdom which nowrenders him worthy of hisThrone. While the young Prince was under the Cohdut of the Women, God was pleas'd to touch the Heart of the late King his Father That Monarch, who happen'd to be born a Lutberany was converted to the Roman Catholick Religion, and not long after and his Majefty being elefod King of Pola~ convinc'd of the Purity of the Religion which he had embracM, was indin'd to make a Convert alfo of the Prince his Son. Neverthelefs, fuch was th Refpeft the King had for her Royal Highnefs his Mother, that he was loth that auguft Princefs fhou'd be an Eye-witnefs of the young Prince's renouncing a Religion which fhe had taught him,t He and to which fhe was ftrenuoufly attach'd refolv'd therefore to remove him, and fent him to Francfort to be prefent at the Coronation of the Empercr CbarUsVL HisCompanion in this Jourbut as Gentleman% ney, was M. de Miltitx Attachment to Lutber*sDoctrine made the King apprehenfive that he wou'd thwart bis Views, he recall'd

the

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recall'd him, and appointed the Count de Cofta, and the Baron de Hagent to be his Son's Governors. The Count who was a Polander and Palatine of Livenia, was not only of noble Birth, but a Gentleman of folid Piety, profound Learning, great Probity, and as much refpected for his Principles as belov*dfor his good Behaviour and Politenefs. The Baron de Hagen was of a Family of fome Diftinion in the Electorate of Triers He was Ambafldor from the King at the Emperor's Election, and at his Coronation at Francfort His Behaviour was more grave than the Count de Cofta's, but he was not inferior to the Count for Leaming, Integrity, and good Senfe. Under the Conduct of thefe two Gentlemen, the Prince fet out to vifit a part of Germanyand ltaly3 where he embrac'd the Roman Catholick Religion hisProfeflionof which, washowever for a long time as private asit is now exemplary for he did not dcclare his alteration of Religion 'till after the Death of her moft Serene Highnefs hisGrandmother, who died the firft of J.ly 1717 During this the Prince made the Tour of France where, tho' he travelld under the Name of the Count de Mi/nia, Lewis XIV. caus'dall the Honours to be paid to him which were due to the Son of a great King. The Court of fronce was charm'd with that Politenefs, that noble Modefty, and that Fund of Wifdom which accompany*dthis Prince's Aftions and Converfation: They admir'd him and were forry for his Departure. He travell'd a fecond time to I*alyt where ne acquir*dthat fineTafte of Men and Things and that Knowledge of Archite&ure^ Painting, and other curious Arts, which is fo ufeful for great Princes. Germany, upon the return of this Prince, blctt'd itfelf for having given him birth, and offer'd be qpPrayersdiatall itsPrinces might like him. His Royal Highnefs ftay'd a confiderablewhile at Vienna,

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where he maintain'd the Reputation he had acquir'd in the feveral Countries he had feen. He returned at length to Saxony, where there was an univerfal Joy for his Arrivai. The Saxonswere charm'd to fee the Prince that was defign'd by Heaven to be their Sovereign, fo worthy of that Command. One day or other, they faid, wefliall lofethe moft righ-r teous of Kings, and the beft of Mafters, but we /hall find reftord in his Son, his heroic Stature, his majeftic Air, his Magnanimity, the fme Temper for Goodnefs, Equity and Generofity the Spirit of the great Auguftus wi1l be always prefent with us and all our Lofs will be that of his Perfonal Appearance. Not long after the Prince's Return to Drefdeit, Count deWackerbartb* treated AugufiusChrifiopber at Viennafor the Marriage of his Royal Highnefs to the moft ferene Archdutchefs Maria Jofepba, eldcft Daughter of the late Emperor Jofepb. The Count de Flemming, Prime Minifter and Velt-Marfhal of Saxony, folemnly demanded the moft ferene Archdutchefs in Marriage and the Prince repaird to Vienna to efpoufe her. The Ceremony was perform*d in th Chapel of la Favorita, with all the Pomp fuitable to fo great a Match. Some Days after this, their Royal Highneflcs fet out for Dtefden, where they were receiv'd with an unparallell'd Magnificence. AugufiusII. the moft fplendid of Kings, and a Prince who had the beft Fancy for ordering of Entertainments, outdid himfelf he thought nothing too good for celebraring the Nuptials of his fo worthy a Son, with a Princefs whofe Anceftors were ail Emperors. The Rejoicings having lafted forty Days, the King fet out for his Kingdom, leaving the Prince Rgent, as he always did whenever he went from hsEleaorate. la Whedied, Jhguft 13, 1734, a Minifter f th Cabiset, o VeltMarfhal Govemour Prtfdtn. and of

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In 1726, the Prince himfelf took a Journey to Pelant!, to which Country he had once before accompanied the King his Father in 1711, but then -,made no long ftay. There he won the Hearts of the chief Nobility, who from that moment thought bim worthy of fucceeding one day to their Governor, the Great Auguftus. They were pleafed to fee, that he hqnour'd their Countryman, the Count Suikowjki, with his Confidence, and they thought it a happy Omen for their Nation, blefling their Stars, :that die Prince diftingui1hed Virtue in one born among themfelves. His Royal Highnefs being convinced that of ail the Sums laid out by Princes, there are none lefs liable to cenfurethan what they expend in Buildings, undertook that of Wermfdorf, which he afterwards call'd Hubertjbaurg and he finiYd that great Work in a little time, by th affiftanceof the King his Father For, in fhort, it would have been impoffible for his Royal Highnefs to have defrayd ail the Expence of it himfelf. It was already very wonderful to fee with what Prudence he direfted his Finances. His Revenue being fettled, his Expence was fuitable to his Rank he had a numerousHoufhold, lus Hunting-Equipage was fumptuous, yet he did good to ail that made their Necefity known to him } his Charities were truly Royal, every body was paid the Noblemen and the Tradefmen receiv'd and his their PenGons and Salaries pundually Accounts were fo regularly kept and difcharged by the Count Sulkowfki,that the Prince was never in debt. The Prince commonly fpent the Seafon for hunting the Stag at Hubertjbourgyand employ'd the reinainder of his time at Drefdettyin ali manner of Exercifes, being admired in every Action, for the Grce, Strength, and Dexterity with which he perfortn'd it, as well as for the Sobriety and Regularity

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of his Manners for he kept as regular Hours then, as he does now. AuguftusIJI. never knew what it was to be idlc or vicious. Such is his Chaftity and Fidelity to his auguft Spoufe, that he never gave her the leaft Reafon fo much as to fufped his Honour. He games only for amufement, and never plays fo high that the lofs of the Stake can put thofe out of temper who have the Honour to be of his Party. But of ail the Virtues of AuguftusIII. there is none, moft him more the Favouriteof certainly, which has made Heaven, than the inviolable Refpe he always manifefted for the King his Father, who tenderly lov'd him and never was a Son, Heir to fo powerful a Dominion, more affe&ed for the lofs of a Father, than he was when he heard of the death of his. His Affliftion was imprefs'd deeply in his Countenance, when he receiv'd the homage of his capital City, at his firft appearance in publick and to this very day, he is ready to melt in tears at the fight pf any Objefcthat calls him to mind for which reafon the People of Drefden, rather than renew his Sorrow, forbear the mention of a King whom Europe has plac'd in the Rank of its greateft Men. Prince Frbderic-Augustus, when he became Eleftor, did not alter his Manners, but retain'd the fame Piety, the fame Regularity. He kept moft pf the Servants of the lare King his Father, and fettled Penfions on thofe whom he thought fit to difmifs. His firft Care, when he came to the Electorate, was tp provide himfelf with Minifters, whofe Candor and Sincerity were above Envy it feif. For this purpofe, he call'd to his Cabinet Council, the Count de Gabalem-Vackerbartb-SaU mur, M. de Baudiffix, the Count Suliowjki, and M. de Brubl to the two laft of whom he commit-; ed the Direction of Affairs.

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AU Saxonyapplauded this Choice, and doubted not of being very happy under the Reign of a Prince, who was capable of forming fo true a Judgment of Perfons for his Miniflers. But what the Saxonsfawwith extraordinary Satisfaction, was the fure Proof the King gave of his Gratitude and Efteem for Virtue, in recalling M. de Miltitz, heretofore his Governor, who for fome Years paft was retired to his Eftate. This Gentleman wou'd fain have been excus'd from retuming to Court, alledging his great Age, and his being a Stranger to B> finefs when his Majefty fent him word, that he TequirMno more at his hands than what his Health wou'd permit that he knew his Probity, his Love for his Country, and his Attachment to himfelf that therefore he was willing he fhou'd be near his Perfon, and affift him with his Advice, which he knew wou'd be folid, by what he gave him when he had the charge of his Education. In this manner Frdric AUGUSTUS, the difplay of his by Gratitude, an uncommon Virtue (efpecially among Princes) encourag'd his Courtiers to do what might alfo give them a Title to it. Thefe great Qualities procur'd him the Suffrages of the moft iudicious Part of the Republic of Poani which chofe him for King. His Majefty having fent the Count de Gabaleon-IVackerbartbSamour, and M. Baudiffinto Warfaw, with the Charaer of Plenipotentiaries, to take care of his Interefts, thefe Minifters found the Polijb Lords very much divided Foreign Gold, with the Intrigues, Cabals, and enfnaring Promifes of a Minifter who was lavifli of it ail thefe had corrupted a great number of them, and others were opprefs'd, and muft undoubtcdly have fubmitted to Violence, if they had not had a very great fhare of Courage and Love to their Country. God, who never abandons the Virtuous, was their Support and their

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Protector, as well as the Shield of the Plenipotentiaries, whofe facredCharacler could not guard them from all manner of Outrage. And tho' the Blood of the Jagellons, which flows in this Prince's Veins, tho' his being the Son of one of the greateft Kings that Poland ever had, as well as his own Dignity of a Sovereign, ought to have procured him the Refpet of all the Poles, yet everyPerfon and Thing belonging to him at /Farcira;, wasmaltreated. Such was, at that time, the unhappy Fate of Poland; Op. preffion and Tyranny havingfucceeded the glorious, mild, and paceful Reign of AuguftusIL Mean time, thofe generous Noblemen who had fo bravely ftood up in the defen of the Liberties and Honour of their Country, after having tried ail their Efforts to reclaimtheir wandering Brethren, found they could not fucceed, and therefore broke up after which, they met in the very fam Place where Henry de Palois had been eleted, and there they chofe and proclaim'd AucusTOfs Eletlor of Saxony, King of Poland. They then fent a Deputation to his Majefty, to intreat him to corne immediately, with the Queen his Confort, to take The King comply'd pofleffion of the Throne. with their Intreaty,, and fet out from Drefde/tt after having, retum'd folemn Thanks to God, the fovereign Difpofer of Crowns, and of the Fortune of Xings. , In a few days the Queen followed the King, and overtook him at Tar/tovitz, where their Majeilies received the grand Peputation from Poland', and after giving them Audience, procecdedin their Journey towards Cracow. There the King made his Royal ntry on the 14a of January 1734, and on the i7th of that Month, their Majefties were confecratd and crownd by Upfty the Bifhop of .that See.

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Some time after this auguft Ceremony, which, in Poland, is abfolutely necetfary and eflential for a Kiiig Elect, the Queenreturn'd to Saxotty-,but the Kirg ilaid at Cracow, where he held a Diet, in which he made feveral Regulations for reftoring the Tranquillity of the Kingdom. When the Diet was ended, his Majefty march'd towards Dantzic, which the Ruffians, his Allies, had invefted, in ordtx to drive out the Primate and his Adherents, who were retir'd thither. But after a March of feveral Days, which the Severity of the Weather render'd very painful, his Majefty yielded to the Inftances that were made to him from Saxony, to aflift in Perfon at the opening of the Affemblv of States which he was under a neceflity of calling and he returned to Drefden, where his Arrivai caus'd an inexpreflble Joy. Mean time the Army, under the Command of the Prince of Saxe-Weijjenfelscontinued its March towards Dantzic. The King was accompanied by a great number of Polijh Noblemen, who finding themfelves unable to oppofe the Rage of the Primate's Party in their feveral Countries, came to feek lhelter in Saxony, where his Majefty receiv'd them, and ftill entertains them, in a manner which cannot but convince them of his Gratitude, and give them greater Hopes of what Favours they may expe:, when the Tranquillity of Poland is reftor'd. The King, after his Return from Cracow, fummon'd the States of his Eleorate, and open'd the AfTemblywith the ufual Ceremonies. Hewas feated on his Throne, accompanied by the chief Lords of his Court, as well the Polijh as Saxons. M. de MititZy his Privy Counfellor, fat on the Righthand of the Throne and, in the King's Name, made a Speech to the States, wherein he declared to them that his Majefty intended to make no Innovation

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vation in the Affairs of Religion, but to let his Proteftant Subjes enjoy their Privileges, as they had been granted and confirm'd to them by the late King. Then they told him the Motives which had cngag*d the King to call them together, and demanded the neceffarySubfidies for defraying the extraordinary Expences which his Majefty had been neceffarily involved in thro' the Calamities of the Time. M. de HeJUr, Adminiftrator of the Office of hereditary Marlhal of Saxotiy, return'd an Anfwer in the Name of the States, and fpoke with a Dignity, and ail the Decorum due to fo auguft an Affembly, He aflur*d the King of the refpecVul and inviolable Fidelity and Attachment of his Subjes to his facred Perfon. And in truth, 'tis im. poflible for a People to be better affetted to their Sovereign, and moredifpofed to ontribute to every thing that is capable of augmenting his Glory. The King's voluntary Declaration to his States that he wouldmake no Innovation in the Affairs of Religion, won the Hearts of his SubjecTsto fuch a degree, that there is not a Saxon who would tnake any fcruple to facri6ce his Lif and Fortune for his Service. And the faid Declaration does equal Honour to the Juftice of the Monarch, and the Wifdom of his Minifters. While the King was employd with his States in the Happinefs and Tranquility of Saxony, fecuring his Majefty received Advice, that his Army, after having join'd the Rtffianst had obliged the Dantzickers to furrender, and that the PoU/b Lords of the contrary Party petition'd for leave to remove to fomc Place where they might pay him their ho. mage. The King, in imitation of the great Empcror whofe Name he bears, after havmg made a Conqueft, thought, like him, ofnothing more than to make thofe happy whomthe Fortune of Warhad fubmittcd to his Arms. His Majefty did not take

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any advantage of his Vi&ory, but forgetting paft Offences, repaird to the Abbey of Oliva, near Dantzic, where he receiv'd the Submilfion of the Dantzickers, and the Allegiance of the Lords that were the Primate's Adherents. By his Modefty and Godnefs, he charm'd the Vanquifhed, and convinc'd them of their Obligation to pay him that Efteem which before perhaps they did not think was their Duty to grant to him. The Greatnefs of his Soul, which inclines him to fympathize with the Misfortunes of the Unhappy, hinder*d him from entering Dantzic, the defolate State of that City being fo afflifting a Scene to him, that he cou'd not bear to fee it. The Daxtzicktrj, by their fubmiflion, were become his Subjefts their prefent Misfortunes, and their paft Miftakes, affeted him to fuch a degree, that he was fearful of being put in mind of them, and refus'd to appear among them, crown'd with thofe Laureis which he had reap'd by their defeat. So much Modefty, worthy of the moft glorious Triumph, gain'd him the Prayers of the People, in which his Majefty faw more Charms, than he wou'd have found in Trophies, and the moft ftately Triumphal Arches. The King having provided for the preflng Necefficiesof his Kingdom, return'd to his Eleftorate, where the States continued their Dlibrations ever fince his Abfence. Now that his Majefty is return'd, the Care of the State is almoft his confiant Employment. His Rcrations are either taking the Air on horfeback, Hunting, the Italian Opera, or elfe going to Concerts, which the Q2cenr who is a great Lover of Mufic, caufes to be perform'd in her own Apartment. Their Majefties generally dine together, and admit the Nobility of both Sexesto their Table.

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There, the King obferves that Temperance whicb fo much becomes fovereign Princes. AHhis Hours, as has been already obfeiVd, are regulated and ail his Actionsaccompanied with Devotion, good Order, and Equity. Never did King better difcharge that facred Charafter i being alwaysfirm and tranquil, Danger cou'd never afiright him. He accepted the Crown, tho*he &whe cou'd never fix it on his Head without infinite Pains, Peril, and Cares. The Advantage he had gain'd over his Enemies did not feem m have fluih'd him he was forry he had not been able to reclaim them by gentle Methods, and afcribes the happy Succefsof his Arms folely to Providence. Thus have 1 given you a very imperfeci:Account of the Virtues and Actions of a King, which plainly denote that the pcrfeft honeft Man (a Title not unworthy even of the facred Majefty of Kings) forms his Character. As for his Stature, 'tis fuch as, one wou'd think, thofe ought to have who are born to command. He has a robuft and vigorous Conftitution, a found Judgment, a happy Memory, a generous and beneficent Soul, the neceffary Conftituents of the Hero and the Chriftian. His Conduft is regulated by a great Attachment to the Principles of Religion. His Aim and his Application are to render his Subje&s happy and he only longs for Peace that they may tafte the Fruits of it. As to her Majestt the QUEEN, the Name of that auguft Princefs, whom Heaven has endowed of with all manner Virtues, to be the worthy Wife of a King, is Maria JOSEPHA,who was born the 8th (xDtcember 1699. and is the eldeit Daughter of Jffef Emperor of the Romans, and of Wil~ belmna-mlia of Brunfwic-Lunenbourg-Hanover. Her Marriage to the King, then the Prince Royal, was celebrated AtVicnna, the zoth of Augu.fi17 19, betwixe 5

tbe

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of S A X O N Y.

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bctwixt 8 and 9 a Clock at Night, in the Chapel of the Palace of the Favorita, by the Pope's Nuncio, who next day perform'd the folemn Mafs. In a few days after, this Princefs fet out with her Hufband for Saxony. It has already been obferved with what Pomp fhe was received by the King her Father-in-law and the Veneration paid her by the Subjefts, was equal to the Magnificence of her Reception by the King. The Returns that the Princefs made on her part, manifefted a Goodnefswhich nothing cou'd reGft fo that flie had the Homage and the Hearts both of the Courtiers and the common People. Being the Daughter of a Princefs, whom the World refpedts even more for her Virtues than for the Splendour of that extraordinary Grandeur with which fhe is inviron'd, her Royal Highnefs's foie Concern was to walk in the Steps of that auguft Mother, the Pattern of Princeffes, and the Honour of Religion. She conceiv'd a Refpet for the King her Father-in.law, and the Queen her Mother-in-law, from which fhe never departed and now that fhe is a Sovereign, lhe has no other Cares than to render a Nation happy which is worthy of being fo for its Affection and Fidelity to its Eleftors. She is inviolably attach'd to her Duties, full of Tendernefs and Refpel for her Hufband, and always wifely employ'd in what may procure him fblid Comfort. She continually giveshim Exfhe is beneficent to amples of Piety and Charity all that make their Neceffities known to her, and merits her feemsto think every unfortunate SubjecT: Protection. The Care fhe takes of her Children is not only the Care of a tender Mother, but of a Queen, who, in love to the State, is defirous to form their Minds, fo as to render them worthy of being its Sovereigns, and to procure them the advantage of being more refpeced, if poffible, for their Virtues than their Birth.

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Prefent Stt of

The Queen, who went with the King to Cracow and there reccivMthe Crown, return'd after her Co^ ronation to Saxony, where flie is belov*dand reverenc'd by People of ail Ranks. This auguft Princefs feems to have an Air of Gravity, as have all the Princes of the moft ferene Houfe of Aujtria but as flie is ferious, fo fhe is difcreet, modeft, and good-narur'd. She was educated, as are all the Archdutchefles, in the knowledge of Things ufeful for thofe who are born to govern States the lpeaks fevcral Languages veryreadily, and particularly the Latin, in fuch a manner as both charms and furprizes the Ples. SheisMiftrefs of Hiftory and Geography, and bas a folid Taite of Mufick, Painting, and ali the Sciences in gnerai Yet never did Queen take le/s Pride in her Talents for, by kindly coude* fcending to accommodate her felf to the Capacities of thofe with whom fhe converles, the concealsall herSuperiority. Her high Rank ferves onlyto render her affable ihe is the other of the People, and particularly of the Poor. And to fum up the Charaer of this great Princefs, it may be faid in fhort, that fhe is a virtuous Wife, a faithful Companion, a tender Mother, and a corapaJHonatcSovereign. His Royal Highnefs the Princz ROYALand ELECTORA wasborn at Drefde*,the 51of September L 1 722, and baptized in the RomeCatholick Church, by the Name of Frederic-Cbriftia* He is handfome, and bas a Countenance full of Good-nature, and indeed his Goodnefs charms all that pay their court to him. His Knowledge and Learning are beyond one of his tender Years he talks lverai Languages juftly, and with eafe; and his ftrong Inclination to follow the wife Counfcls of his Goveris nor, the Count Gabalem-Wackerbarth-Salwmur% a fure Prefage that when he cornes to the Age of Maturity, he will walk in the glorious Steps of the King his Father.

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As to their Royal Highnefls the other Princes, the eldeft of them, Prince Augustus-Albertwas born rhe 25th of AuChristian-Xavier gujt 1730. He is handfome, full of Life and Spi. rit, and already difcovers a gfeat Inclinationto cvery thing mi'itary. He is infinitely botter pleafed to fee the Officers of his Regiment about him tha! the Women his Attendants. The Noifeof Drums and Trumpets is the moft agreeable Mufic to him, and according to all appearance, 'tis what he will always prefer to the Flte. When he went with their Majefties to Cracow, and heard talk of the Ravages committed by the Palatine of K>owthe faid, he had a mindto go and fight him,and curoff his Head. In fine, all the Actions of this young Prince give hopes that he will add one to the Number of Hcroes defcended from the auguft Blood of Saxony. Charles-ChristianJoseph came into the World July 13. 1733, fo that his Royal Highnefs is too young as yet for any Charaer in Hiftory and I (hall proceed next to their Royal Highnefies the Princefles. t HerRoyalHighnefs MARY-AMELIA,heirMa-^ jefties ldeft Daughter, was born at Drefdent the 24A of September 1724. She is fair, very well ihap'd, and has the Air of her Mother. Her Features are regular, and'tis heartily to be wilh'd that the Small-fox may fpare them. The Care the Queen takes of her Education is fo well beftow'd on her, that fhe is much better form'd titan Prin. ceffesof her Age generally are. Mary- Anne-Sophia was born the 24Aof Auguji 1728. She is brown, and likely to be much ad. mir'd for her Beauty.Thereis fomethingin her PhyOognomy fo fubtle and witty, that fhc has already fccur*dthe Suffragesof the Courtier*.

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The Princefs Mary Josepha was born the 4th of November 1731. Heaven has been pleas'd to grant her a ihare of Beauty with ail the Princes and Princeffes her Brothers and Sifters. Lihould make fome mention of all the Prihces and PRINCESSES the BLOOD,viz. ail the moft of ferene Diikes, Princesand Princeffes of the Family of Saxo/ty,particularly thofe who are deriv'd from the Albcrtine Branch, as defcending with the King from the Eledor Jobn-George I. who formd the four Branches, viz. the Electoral Branch, and thofe oWeifftnfehy Mersbwrg^ and Zeits. But as this is only an Epitome oAugufius IIl's Court, 1 fhall only take notice of thofe Princes who refide there viz. JOHN-ADOLPHUS Duke of Saxe-Weissenof Saxefels, and the Princefs Christiha Weissekfels. The Duke, who was born September t685, 4, is of a good Stature. His Air, Behaviour, and way of thinking, denote his Birth and never was Prince more worthy of being fo. He is beneficent, generous and ail the Qualities which attra Love and Efteem are unitea in his Perfon. After having fpent his early Daysin the Service of Hejfe-Cajly he enter'd into that of the late King; and in the fevcral Campa in tgns which hemade Germanj, Itah, Flanders, and Peland, he alwaysfignaliz'd his Valour and particularly not long ago, when he lupported the Rputation of the King's Arms before Dantzic in a confpicuous manner. His Goodnefs, his Modefty, and hisCare to diflinguifh true Merit, gain him the Love and Venera. tionboth of the Officers andSoldiers. This Prince is actuallya Licut^nant-General in the Emperor's Arof iiiy, Genera.1 the Saxon Horfe and Foot, Colonel of th Life-Guards, ac,d of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Order of the Wintt-EagU. He

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is the Widower of Caroline Princds of Saxe-Eyfemacby and profeffesthe Lutberan Religion. of Saxe-WeissenThe Princefs Christina rLs, who was born the 2/ih of Juy 1690, adheres to the RomanCatholic Do&rine, Prince Albert her Fcher being a Convert to that Communion. She is of a good Stature, has a grand Majettic Air, and herBchaviour isgracefuJ and polite. Her moft ferene Highnefs receives ail that draw near to her with Relpedt and Kindnefs, and demontrtes her high Birth only by difcharging the Obligations ofit. She is fo firmly attach'd to the Virtue that fhe Queen by the Bands of Love and is carefs'd and diftinguilh'd by her and all the Court honours and refpets her more out of Inclination than Duty. You will not perhaps be forry to kno# the Names, ic. of the late King*slegitimated Natural Iffue, who are rank'd immediately after the Princes of the Blood. They are four Sonsand three Daughters, of whom 1 fliall now give you an Account, and who were their Mothers. i. Count Maurice ofSaxtmyistheeldeftof the late Natural Children, by Axrora Countefs of King's Karimi/mark,the moft worthy of her Se* in Europe to be the Miftrefs of a great King and of ail the King's FavouriteLadies, fliekeptlongeft in hisFavour, fo that after her Retirement Ihe acqiittedher felf fo well that fhe continued in the poflcifoh of his Majefty's Efteem and Regard. She is itill living. and after having been a Priorcfs ofthe Imperial jjttbtrs* Abbey of^Htlinbourg Jhe rofe to be the Abbefs. The Count is a Lieutenant-General, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot in France. 2.Tne oext is the CountRotofsktovRutowskiJLca* tenant-Gencral,and Colonel of the Crown-Guards, who owes his Birth to the King's tender Paon for Felima iur&Jb Lady who was taken Prifoner ve-

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ry young, ana fell to the fhare of M. Scboning, a Litutenant-General in the Service of the Eleclor of Brandentcurg, who carried her to Berlin, and had her baptiz'd wichout a'tering her Name, tho' fhe afterwards went by that of Madamede Spiegel. Madamoifel'e de Fkmviing, known by the Name of Brebentau, having married the Palatine of that Name, took a fancy to her, obtain'd her of M.de SchcnHg,and carried her with her into Poland, where irom a Slavefhe became the King's Miftrefs, tho' Madame Brebentaudid not perceive it till Fatima's Waift betray'd her. She had as much Wit as Beauty, and every body faid fhe deterv'd her Fortune. Neverthelefs, fhe did not enjoy it long for Madame de Lubsmirski^who was Wife to the Great Chamberlain of the Crown, fiole away the King's Hcart from her. The CountR ut owski isa MajorGencral of the King's Forces, Colonel of the LifeGuards,iuid of a Regiment of Foot, and Knightof the Order of the tVbitc-Eagle. This Nobleman very much rekmbles the late King his Father, having his Strength, Dexterity, Valour and Politenefs. H had his Education in France and from riience wcnt into the Serviceof ViQorAmadeusthe late King of Sardi8ia. Then he enter'd for a little while into the Service of the King of PruJJa, and at length fix'd himfelf in that of axemy,when he fignaliz'd his Valour at the Siege of Danizic, and afterwards made the Campaign as a Voluntier in the Imperial Armyon the Reine. As for his Religion, he prof euesthc Rema* Catholic. 3. The third of the late King's Natural Sons h George Prince de Tefcbe, otherwife call'd the Ctevalier de Saxony, whom he had by Madame deLulomirski above mentioned, who wasNicceto the famous Cardinal Rajouski ArchbUhop of Gue/na, and Primate of Poland. After this Lady had induiu'd the King's Pafon fhe got a Divorce from

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117 the Court u/Saxony, Prince Lubominki, and took the Tide of the Princcfs de Tefcbettywhich was granted to her by the Emp^ror. This Son of her's was broughr up in the Roman Catholic Religion. He is a Colonel in ths King's Service, and Knight of the Order of the White-Eagle. Hc is a well-fct Min, has a noble Air, and fupports his Title by a great ihare of Valour and good Soife. He is perfect Mafter of military Architecture, aad has great Talents for War, which he cultivtes to fuch a degree that his very Amufements are the Study of what a great Captain ought to know. This Defire of his to be qualify*dfome day or other for the Command of an Army engag'd him, at his return from the Siege of Dantzt to repair to the Army of Prince Eugneof Savoy to improve himfelf in the Art of War under that Great Mafter. 4. The fourth and youngeft of the Natural Sons of the late King of Poland is the Count de Cofel, Knight of the Order of the While-Eagle, whofe Mother was the Countefs de Cofel; which Lady is alfo Mother to the Counteffes of Friejland and Mofcbiniki~ The Count is a tall handfome Youth, modett and relrvM, and more prudent than might be expecd from his Years. This Nobleman, who does not difparage his Birth, is now making the Campaign upon the Rbine in the Imperial Army. He is of the Lutberan Communion. Madame de Cofel is of the Family of Brucbftorf, and a Native of Holftein. She was Maid of Honour to the Dutchefs of Wolfembuttlt,when the Count de Hcym Minifter of State to the King of Poland married her The Count foon after the Marriage carried hcr to Dre/den, where the King fell in love 13 Shediedat Drtfin (bon afterthiswu wriuen. o the f CounthbJcbimiU, Hulbandfthis Lady. wasGreat Treaforerf tbe Court Ptlmd, ud iGreatFaulconer ia ifi Smxiq.

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love with her, and no fooner made it known tp M. de Hoym enher but gain'd her compliance. rag'd at this, demanded a Divorce from her, which his Wife readily came into; fo that the Confiftory of Drefden declared their Marriage nul! and void. M. de Keym married again, and Madame took the Tit!e of the Countefs de Cofel but this Lady ac once loft the King's Favour and lier Liberty into the bargain, and is kept clofe prifoner in a Caftle, where ihe has nothing to do but to indulge her melancholy Rcfle&iona upon the Revplutions of her Fortune DAucHTERsof TheNATURAL the late King i. The Countefs of Bilinski, (Sifter of the are, Count Rutcwski) who was born in Poland as well as -her Brother, and educated in the Roman Catholic Augufius Il. gave her in Marriage tothe Religion. Count Bilinski. The Counrefs's frquent Ailments ebliged her to goto Paris for her Health j fo that not being of this Court, 'rwill not be expeed I ihould give her Charater.

2. The
Madame dfC~J may r}-lk no body bat berrelf for hcr i ihe Di!"grace -for w6en wasin Ko/ai Kceping, fhe had the aifurance to thffaten the King more thaa once that if ever he h abandonVl er fhe woo'd piiicl him. The iog, who knew her to be a Womantliat always kept her word, thought it his beft May to be beforehandwith her, tho*it was not till fome time afrer that he caus'd her to be arreikd. Madameit Cejel, who was retir'd to Berlin, did not diiTejnb'eher Chagrin and 't:s taid fhe drdar'd in pub!ick that the King fiiould pay dear fur being fo kl le to her Threats which His Majefly wc^i'd perhaps bave defph'd, if Madame deCtfcl had not refufedto give him back Promife which he had made to her ofmarrying her in cafe the Queen flwo'd die. Aiean-dme the King defir'd of the King of PruJJSato eiveorder for arrefting her, which wasdonc accordingly; and Madame de Cifil wacarritd under a Guard toSaxmn, where ihe remain'd a Prifoner till the death cf the King. But we have been toJd by tbe puWick NewPapers thal (heebtain'd her Liberty is 1734,

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2. The Countefs ofOrfelska, who was born at Warfawtof one Renard Frencb Woman, and bred good 'up in the RomanCatholic Faith: She is of'a Stature, and-very charming. Of all the late King's Jegitimated Children his Majefty feem'd to be fondeft of this. She was at firft very much negletted, and it did not appearthat the King ever intended to own her. But Count Rotofskifeeing her at PFarfaw in a Plight too mean for her Birth took the freedomto mention her tothe Kingher Father, and told him that the merited fome Kindnefs from him. The King thereupn defir'd to fee her, and lhe came into his Prefence in the Amazonian Habit, which was her favourite Drefs. The King thought Ihe rcfembled him very much, and not being able to refift the tender Impreffions of Nature he embrac'd her, and call'd her his Daughter. At the fame time he order'd the whole Court to acknowJedge her in that Quality, gave her a magnificent Palace, with Diamondswithoutnumber, and fettled great Penfions on her. 'Tis certain, in fhort, that never was Daughter more like her Father; (hehad the fam Features, Temper and Genius. It was impoffible for her to be handfomer with a more grand Air. She is fond of Magnificence, Expence, and Pleafures. One of her Diverfions is to drefs in Mens Apparel. It was in this Habit that 1 faw her the firft time, when fhe wason horfeback, in a purpie Habit embroider'd with Silver, and wore the blue Ribband of Poland. Being all alone, 1 could not learn who me was, but really took her to be fome 1 had not yet feen. young Foreign Nobleman whom I never bcheld any body fit better than fhe did on horfeback, or have a more amiable-Air infomuch, that manyLadies would have been glad of a Lover fo handfome. The fame evening 1 faw her at the Ball, where ihe was ftill drefrd like a Man, only her Habit was more rich than it was in the morn-

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ing, and her di/hevelPd Locks of Hairhung dowrt in fine Curls about her Shoulders; fo that Cupid himfelf was not more tempting when he appear'd before Pfyche. Her good Mien, and rhe gracdul Air with which 1 faw her dance a Minuet, made me inquire who this pretty Youth was? Count Rotoftki, who overheard me, made anfwer, Ibc young Man wbomyou admire wotfd doy eune great burt you bar mif you "itre a IVcman,but ntaypcffibly me, as the Caf Jtpnds; but come along s~citb contiwill make nued he, taking me by the Hand, bim kno'jsnto you, then lecveyou to corne ff witb bim o as wdl a<you can. I guefsd by thefe Word that the Perfon he was going to ulher me to was the Countefs Orfelska; and 1 was con6rmed in my Sufpicion when 1 heard Count Rotofski fay to her, wbo S/fter, bere is a Gentleman bas ail due RefpeSs for you, and who, VUengagewill be readyto fer veyou in wfiatever you Jball require of bim. Madamoifelle Orfelskafmilingat tins Difcourfe, I faluted her with all the RefpefcwhichIow'd to her Rank-,and flie receiv'd me in the moft obliging manner pofJible. 1 faw her next day ifl Womens Apparel, and thought her ilill more amiable, J vifit her every day, andnow whenever I gb.tp her I ixencrally find with her Cbarks Lewisr a younger Prince of the Family of HoJjlcin#eckywho 'tis faid is the happy Man for whom ihe is defign'd in Marriage 3. The Counrefs Mofcbinski^Daughter of the Countefs oCofel, was born at Drefden, and match'd by the late King to the Count de Mofcbtnski, a Po VfhNoblenian. Her fober and courteous Deportment, ThisKfarriagewuawlIjrconfuinmatcd ixDrtfien. But his fince King's eath,the PrinceoiHolfinm abandon'd the hw d fome w Wife,whomhe onl1lnarried itha viewof o,btaining EJeter confideratle froi Employaient theKing. ThepreTent hu eas'dher ofmoof tlit\Ylth whichthe LueKinghad icap'd oner.

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ment, and the Goodnefs of her Temper, have procured her both Love and Reverence. Having now treated of thePrinces of the Royal Family, 1 proceed to give you an account of the chief Noblemen the Court; and in the firft place, of of the Ministres of the Cabinet. Thti are, \.Waldtmar Baron de Lavevdahl Grand Marginal, Knight of the Saxon Order of the iVhite-liagle, and pf the Danijb Order of the Elrpbant, who by his Poft of Grand Marflial holds the firft Rank at the Court of Saxony, becaufethe E'eclor is Arch Grand-Marlhal of the Empire. He is a Bane hy birth, and is defcendedfrom a Count of GuldenlvuM,, a natural Son of the Blood-Royal ofDenmark. He fpent his youthful Pays in the Service ofthe Sta/es* General, and wasrnadea Captain in the Blue Guards;$ whichhe afterwardsquitted, andwent into the Service of the Emperor Leopold, and diftinguifh'd himfelf in qualityof a Liaitenant-Colonel in 1683, at the raifing of the Siege of ~tfM<! after which he return'd to Denmark, where he ferv'd with Honour. But leaving that Courr upon fome Difguft, he came into Saxony,vfhzKduguftusll. declaredhim Prefident of the Chamber, which Office he held when the King of Denmark recalld him home. t was with the Approbation ofhis Mafter the Kingof Peland that he return'd to Copenhagen,where his Dant/b Majeftygave him the Commandofhis Army in Norway againft the Swedes which Commiffionhe difchargedwithfomuch Honour, tbat he was dignify'd withthe Order oftheEkpbant, as he hadalready H been by that of Dannebroc. e might, hnd he pleafed, have enjoy*d the greateft Offices in Denmark; but he had promifed^^ij/?j II. notto forfake him, f;> that hercfus'dail the Advantages which Frdric IV. ofFcr*d him, and return'd into Saxony. After the death of the Count de Pblttg, the late King appointed him Grand Marthal, which Office he ftill

executea

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excuteswirh Honour. Tho' he is now advanced in years he has a found Conititution, and the Air, Beh&viour, and Way ofThinking of a Manof his Quality. Being affable and polite, he does the Honours of theCourt ina Gentleman-like manner, for which the Courtiers rvrence him, and the King profefles an efteem for him. His Majefty is the ixth King whom this Minifterhas ferv'd. He has married to his focond Wife a Lady of the Family of Raiitzau, in the Country of Holfiein^whobears ;i valuable Character, and is as polite is can be defired, fpeaking Frencb as well.as if fh: was born at Verfailks. The Grand Marfhal has two Sons by his firft Marriage witha'Lady of Revendait: his youngcft, viz. IVoldemar Baron de Lowenabl is Major-General ofthe King's Armies, Infpeftor General of the Saxon Infantry, and Colonel of a Rgiment of Foot. He was fourteen years old when the Grand Marfhal fent him to Dttrtxark where hc madea Campaign at Sea underAdmirai Tordenfcbild. At his return to Drefdenhe carried a Mulket. and afrerwards pafs'd throughall the fubaltern Degrees, When hewasbut a Lieutenant he accompany*d Ge.neral Seckenerfto Vienna, where the Marital Count Guida de Staremberggave hima Company in his Regiment, and he diftinguifli'd himfelfin a particular manner at the Sieges of femijwaer and Belgrade, and in Sicily. Since that, he enter'd into the Service of Auguftus II. who gave him a Regiment. Afterwards he made two Campaignsas a Voluntier with the Imperialifts in Corfica\ and upon all occafionsmanifefted that Valour, Skill, and Prudence, as he did lately in the Defence of Cracow where, with a weak andfickly Garrifon, he not only made a vigorous ftand againft the Attacks of the Primate's Poijh Adherents, but alfo obliged them to retire. This Generalis fo fond of fgnalizirighis Bravery, that he wasfeare rcturn'd from PoTand^

bue

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but he went to make the Campaign as a Voluntjer, with the Imperial Army on the Rbine. He lives magnificently, keeps a good Table, and is very civil to Foreigners. 2. AnthonyCQxmttLutzelbourg,whois by birth a Lorrainer, and an exemplary Profefforof the Roptan Catholic Religion, isLieutenant-Genera! ofthe Forces, Knight of the Order of the White Eogle, and General of the Horfe. He is pretty tall, and has.a chearfut Countenancc, with a noble caly Behaviour, which fhews the Man of Quality. His Merit procured him the Honour of beingthe King's Governoyr after the Deceafeof the Count de Coft^ which Poft he held 'till his Majefty came of age, when he was appointed Steward of his Houfhold, and was as much efteem'd by their Royal Higha neflfes s he is valued by th Courtiers, and belov'd by the Domeftics of the Prince who are under his command: but his frequeat Ailments oblig'd him to quit that Office Neverthelefs he was laft year at yitnna^ where he receiv'd for the King his Mafter ,the Inveftiture of the Feudatory States of the EmTreaty of Alliance ftill fub. pire, and concludedthe liftingbetween the two Courts. 3. Henry-Frederic Count of Friefland, is Great Chamberlain, Generalof the Infantry, LieutenantGeneral of theKing's Forces, and Knight of the Order of the-yYbite-Eagle. ;He is defcended from + Family which has for a long time been of illut trious Rank in Saxony. Ht fpent part of his Youth .in the Service of Peter the Great, Czar oMufcovy, and fignaliz*dhis Valeur very much at the Battle of where Charles 3II. King of Swedenin a ftdtma :fewHours loftall the: fruit of nioe years Toil, and of an infinite numberof Viftorics. Soonafter this great Battle he Ihew'd his Wifdom to be cqual to JnBravcryatthe Battle oiPrutb\ which though did not turnout fo much to th Czar's Honour,
waji

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wasaltogctherasfortunatetohim, fincc itextricated that Prince out of th worft fcrape that perhaps ever King was reducedto. Heenter'd afterwards into the Service of the late King who being fenfible of his Merit, raifed him to the greateft Digni j-s of his Court, and married him to one of the Daughters that he had by the Countefs of Cofel. Tac Great Chamberlain, whohas the Looks and ^haviour of a Man of Quality, thinks and afts too like a No. bleman. Few Perfons furpafs him in Politenefs and Learning: He is perfe: Maftcrof feveral Languages, and of every thing that forms the Minifter and the General. He loves Literature and the Arts, and was always their Supporter. He lives handfomely, and has fuch a Prefence as commands the Venerati. on of all that have to do with him. 4- Jcfepb Count de Gabakon-Wackerbartb Salimury the adopted Son of the Velt-Marfhal Augufiiis Cbriftepber Count de Wackerbarth who fuc. ceeded Marinai de Flemmingin the chief command of the Troops in Saxony, and was not only Marihal, but a Minifter of State, Grand Mafter of the Artillery, Governour of Drefdeti, and Knight of the Order of the Wbite-Etgle. The Father was born of a good Family in Mtcklembourg but from his very youth he attach'd himfelf to the Eleor of Saxoity and by his own Merit, and the Friendihip of his PredecefforCount Flmming, he was raifedto the chief Pofts in the Army and the Court. In 1709 he had the Command of the Saxon Troops before Twrtiay, as he had in 171 sbehreStrablfund, when'twasbefieg'd by the Kings ofDenmari and Pruffia, and defended by CharlesXII. King of Swt~ dm. M. de Waelter/Jarlbwas made Count of the Empire by the King his Mafter, while that Prince was Vicar of the Empire, after the death of the Emperor Jofepb. After ing grac'd with this Dignity,

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nity, the Count de Wackerbartb was employ'd in fundryimportant Ngociations,efpeciallyztVienna-, where he married a P//w//Lady,the Dowager of Charles Margrave of Brandenbourg,Brother to Frdric I. King of Pruffia, who when he was but very young at the Univerfity of Turin,, married her by the Lerc-hand, as you know is the Falhion among our Princes when they marry below themfelves. However the Lady went by the Name of Madame de Brandenbourgto the very day that the Count de Wackerbartb married her, being fo proud of the Title that fliewas refolv'd never to part with it 'till (he was married again Notwithftanding the advantageous Offers made to her from the King of PruJJiato engage her to renounce it, her reffal of which wasthe more generous becaufeit wasat a time too when fhe was in narrow Circumftances; yet her confiant Anfwer was, that nothing in the Univerfe fhould tempt her to debafeherfelf and that Ihe had rather be poor, and pafs for the Wife of the Margrave of Brandenbourg,than be rich, and pafs for his Miftrefs. Beforeihe became Madame de Brandenbourg Ihe was die Widow of a certain Count de Salmour, by whom Ihe had a Son whom fhe engaged the Count de Wackerbartby wben lhe married him, to adope for his own. I confefiI never fawthis Lady for at the time of my former Voyage hither Ihe was at Yicn~ra and now fhe is dead. They talk of her ftill as one of the acuteft Women of her time. But to return to the Marfhal he is very civil, lives with great Splendor, and his Houfe is o< pen to ail Foreigncrs. He is mightyintimatewitli the Count de Flemming,Prime Minifter and Favourite of the King fo that they fully contradidledthe VTOvtxbiTbatFire Watercan't agre for Count and was livelyalmoft to the Degree of a Fury, Fltmrning whereas the Count de Wackerbartbyon the contrary,

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We go back now to his abounds with Phlegm adopted Sonjofepb above-mention'd, a PieJmante/e, at prefent one of the Minifters of the Cabinet +. He is alfo Knight of the Order of the WbiteEagle, and Governour of his Royal Highnefs the Prince Royal and Ele&oral. He bears the Name and Arms of Wackerbartb, by reafon of his being adopted as above by the Velt-Mar1hal his Father-in-law upon whofe death, he fucceeded to his Eftate. He took to arms betimes but having reeeiv'd a Wound in the Foot, which he feels to this day, he was oblig'd toquit Profeflon in which he diftinguifh'd himfelf, and applv'd afterwards to Affairs of State. The late King lent him to the Courts ofBavariaand Vienna^where he fupported the Prrogatives of his Charafter wirh Dignity, and gain'd the extraordinary Efteem of their Imperial Majetties and the Minifters. Auguftus II. recalld him from Vietina, and fent him to Rome, to the new Pope ClmentXII. The Romans, thofeMailers in the Art of Politics, were foon convinced that this Miniller knewmore than they could teach him: They admiredthcPrudenceand Refolution with which he behav*d when the Sbirri prefum'd to invade the Franchife of his Quarter and ail own'd that the moft experienced Minifter could not have better fupportedthe Honour of his Mafter. At his-Return from Rom, the late King, to the Satisfaction of all. Men, appointed him Governour to Prince Fredrrict the prcfenc Prince Royal and Electoral the Count having all the neccflry Qualifica-tions to fill that Poft with Honour: For bfidesa good in Ht diedin Augtr/l, 74 andwasfcceedd bisEmI asd o efayments the Princeof Saxe-lVffaiftU, the Couat f by Friejland, Saimour t bunfelf, djftropufeM f The Coavt e Wtkrrbttrth "inthe yew 1733,whenthenewEledorfenthimCoaunifikrjr loPolaiuli here w hemanag'd Intrt of hit the Plenipotentiary Mata foweU,that he waschofc iag. K

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good Share of Religion, heis a Gentlemanofknown Candour, great Experience in Bufinefs, and abundance of Good-nature, Politenefs, and Modefty And he is not only deeply learn'd, but always ftudious how to anfwer the great Truftrepos'd in him by their Majefties; and as the Method he takes to inftrud the Prince has won him his Royal Highnefs's Efteem and Friendfliip, fo it cannot fail of procuring him one day the Praife and Gratitude of thofe who are conccrn'd for the Glory of the Royal Family. When Augujtus III. came to the Government he fent the Count, with M. de Baudijin, in Quality of his Plenipotentiaries, to the Republic of Polard in which Poft he anfwer'd the Expe&ation which the King had of his Capacity. His Wifdomgot the better of all Oppofition and he had the advantage of triumphing over the Intrigues and Cabals of the Primate. After the King had been proclaim'd the Count fwore, in his Majefty's Name, in theChurch atffarfaw, to the Obfervationof the Paffa Conventa drawn up by the Members of the Republic and then accompanied the Grand Deputation of the PoUJb Nobility at Tarnowitz. Twas he that made anfwer, in the Name of their Majefties, to the Harangues of the Bifhop of Cractnodeclaring the Republic's Acknowledgement of his Title, and their Obedience. And the Anfwer he return'd was in the two Languages in which the Prelate addrefs'd him He fpoke in Latin for the King, and in Frencb for the Queen. The Count being return*d to Drefden fince their Majefties Coronation, is whollytaken up in tjie Education of the Prince Royal and his care of him lias been crown'd with fuch Succefs, that we may prophcfy his Royal Highhefs will one day draw downthat Bkfling ofGodupon himfelf, which is upon the Head ofthe juft.

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de 5. Wolff-Hcnry Baudifin, General of the Horfe, Colonel of a Regiment of Carabiniers, and Knight of the Order of the Wbite-Eage, and that ofDanhasall the Qualifies requifiteforawell-borri acbroCy Gentleman, viz. an agreeableAiped, a good Stature* a noble Air, eafy and engaging Behaviour, approv'd Valour, a Generofity free of ail Ostentation and finally whatis fupenor to all thefeQualifies, he has a Fund of Probity and Candour which nothing can corrupt. He isa Native of Holftein, and fpent his early Years in the Service oSwedeityand afterwards in that of the Duke his Sovereign, wno gave him a Rgiment, with which he ferv'd all the laft War in the Netberkmdst in thePoftof Major-General. Auguftus II. callinghim to hisservice, madehim Lieutenant-General of his Forces, and then General of the Cavalry. When AugufiusIII. came to the Go* vernmenthe fummond him to his Cabinet-Counci, and fenhim ashisPlenipotentiarytoP/tfi, where te had a hand in every Tranfaclion for the Advantage and Honour of the King. He afterwards commanded the Army which his Majefty was ob* Jiged to carry into his Kingdom for the Defenceof his oppreffed Subjects and there hefeil fodangeroufly ill that he was obliged to return to Germanytto make ufe of the Watersof Pyrmnt, by which he found benefit and he is now at Drtfdnt, where his Seniority gives him the Command in chief of the Forces. 6. Altxandsr-Jofepb Couht de Suliowsh', Sraroft pf Sckolnick, Chief Huntfman of LJtbuaniaf Mafter of the Horfe, Great Mafter of the Wardrobe, Major-General ofthe King's Forces, Colonel of the Crown-Guards and of a Regiment of Foot, and Knight of the Ordcr of the White-Eagt, is a Pclaniir. B:ing taken into Service very young as Page to the King, then Prince Royal and EleftoraJ, hc accompanied him in his Travels, and there

acquira

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acquir'd a good Fund of Knowledge. His great Sobriety, his Affiduity* his Application to the difcharge of his Duties, his Senfe, and his fincere Attachment to Religion, won his Mafter*sHearr, of which he keeps poflcflion even to this day with a Diftin&ion that does him the more Honour, becaufe hc derives it from th King's thorough conviction of his Merit. The Count is of a good Str re, has a noble and modeft Air, and a Candour in his Converfation and his Action, which is very engaging. He is civil, and makes no other Ufe of his Favour but to do as much Good as he can, without prejudicing the Interefts of the King whom he ferves with Gratitude, Affection, and Zeal. He is a generous Minifter, and his Houfe is open to all Perfons of Diftinion. After he had ferv'd as a Page, he was by the late King made a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber and not long after that, his prefent Majsfty, who was then ftill Prince Royal, deckr'd him Direftor of his Hunting Equipage, and trufted him with the Management of his Domeftic Affairs. The late King alfo appointed him one of his Chamberlains. At the famous Camp at Zeitbaim, the Count commanded an Independent Company. He difcover*d fo great Application, and fuch a happy Genius for the Art of War, that the late King, whofe Penetration nothing cou'd efcape, took it for a good Omen, and gave him a Regiment of Foot. Thus did the Count make his way towards the fplendid Fortune which he nowenjoys. M. de Brubl refigning his Poft of Great Mafter of the Wardrobe, foon after the King's Acceffionto the Governmenr, his Majefty gave that Poft to his Favourite. Hff afterwards can'd him to his Cabinet Council and at his Coronation, he made him Knight of the After the CourtesRcOrderofthcWhitcEagle.

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turn from Cracow, the Count went to the Army beforeDantzic where he gave demonftration of his being as good a Soldier as he is an able Statefman. It being not compatible with his Miniftry to be long abfent, and Dantzic being on the point of capitulating, he went to give the King an account of the Succefs of its Siege, and the Profperity of his Arms. He accompanied his Majefty to the Abbey of Oliva, and by his Prudence contributed very much to put fuch Polijb Lords in mind of their Obedience, who had thought of being exempted from it. And his only View being more and more to deferve that Favour with which the King honours him, and being delirous of havingit in his power to ferve him, as well in his Annies, as in his Cabinet, he went laft of all to the Imperial Army, in order to qualify himfelf for a Command under Prince Eugneof Savoy. To complete the good Fortune of this Count, he married a Lady, who, befides her Birth and perfonal Charms, has a Charadter which gains her the Applaufe and Vnration of ail that know her. She is hereditary Baronefs of Stcin and when he marry'd her, flie was Lady of Honour to the Queen. They are both Members of the Roman Catholic Church. 7. Henry de Brabl, Knight of the Orders of Poland and Pruffia, a Member of the Privy-Council, Prefident of the Chamber of Finances, Director General of the -Excife, and Vice-Prefident of the Taxes, is the Son of John de Brubl, who was of the Privy-Council xoAugufiusII. and Grand Marfhal and Direor of the Privy-Council to the Duke Regent of Saxe-Weiffenfels, He is by Birth a Saxon, and has a Brother who is Knight of the .Teutonick Order. He made great progrefs at Leijlfic in the BellesLettres, and in the Exercifes fuitable to a Perfon of his Extraction. His Recre-

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were Mufic, and Conversion with tions there, of his own Tafte. He fometimes made Perfons Verfes, which were efteem'd forthe bright Thoughts in them, and the Harmony of the Verfification. he quitted Leipfic, he was enter'd Page to When In this Poft he behaved with fo the late King much Sobricty and Affiduity, that his Majefty him from the Croud, admitted foon diftinguilh'd with him and finding he had him to Familiarity found Judgment, a quick Apprehenfion, a Pea what might be expefted from one netration beyond and that he was a Perfon of Difcreof his Age, and inviolable Secrecy, join'd with a noble tion, Freedom, and fuch a happy way of expreffing himfelf as to render the moft difficult Subjefts and pleafant; he readily judg'd that fuch a one eafy in great Affairs. He had a wasfit to be employ'd to inftruft him and having nominated him mind Gentlemen of his Bsd-Chamber, he one of the had him under his Eye. M. de Brubl improv'd fo well from the Leffons of this great Mafter, 10 his Humour, and fo exaft y thoroughly fludy'd fuited himfelf to his Genius, that he made himfelf His Application, his Love to Bufind^ neceffary. Eafe with which he difpatch'd it, won him and the intire Confidence of AuguftusII. who declar d the him Great Mailer of the Wardrobe, and a Privy Counfellor and to him he moreovcr committed the Direction and Rgulation of Affairs, Foreign more and Domeftic. Never had the King fhewn ArFedion or Efteem for any of his Favountes this Nobleman taok ne'er the more State upon yet but living alwayshumble, polite, ar.d him for it, to do Services, he made himfelf Fnent s, ready fecur'd himfelf by that means againft all the and Hatred and Envy with which Courtiers are very to treat thofe who are in Power. ready

Kz

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When the King of Pruffia went to the Camp at Zeithain, he conferr'd his Order of the Black Eagle upon M. de Brubl: The late King alfo honour'd him with that of the White Eagle but this was at a time when this Minifter had no Relifli for Honours, and wou'd have been glad ta have renounc'd them for ever, if he cou'd thereby have prolong'd thc Days of a Mafter fo worthy of Immortality. It was in thofe laft Moments, when the Profeffions of Friendihip cannot be fo much as fufpeted, that AuguftusIl. gave his Favourite his Order, as a certain Token that he retain'd a value for him even to Death. This great King having finiftYd his glorious Carcer, M. de Bruil, without fuffering himfelf to be too much caft down, knowing that an Ocean of Tears was too little to flicd for the Lofs he had fuftaind, thought of nothing more than paying the due Devoirs to the deceas'd Sovereign, and to the Prince, his Son and Succeffor. Having therefore caus'd the Corpfe of the former to be embalm'd, and put a Seal upon ail the Effeds which belong'd to him, befides fecuring the Jewels and Papers of Confequence he came to Drefden to join the Eleclor, now King oPoland^ whoreceived him with fuch Marks of Kindnefs, as were enough to have put the deceas*dMonarch out of the Mini fter's Thoughts, if his Gratitude had not di&ated to him, that fuch a King and fuch a Mafter ought never to be forgot. The King confirm'd him in aU the Employments and Honours which he had held by the Favour of Augujtus II. and moreover appointed him one of the Minifters of his Cabinet. Some time after this, his Majefty decJar*d him Prefident of the Chamber of Finances confequently, this great, this true King, bydiftinguiihingMerit, did farther Honour to th Memory of his auguft Father, fince
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he did what that magnanimous Prince wou'd hve undoubtedly done for his Favourite. At this time the Minifter refign'd to the King his Office of Great Mafter of the Wardrobe, which his various Occupations did not permit him to manage with that Care he thought was neceflfary. After the Return of the Court trom Cracow, wh ther this Gentleman had accompany'd the King, he marry'd the Countefs de Collowrat, one of the Queen's Ladies of Honour, whofe high Birth was fupported with fuch perfonal Qualits as can never be enough commended. The Bride being a Roman Catholic, the Ceremony of the Marriage was performed at Morilzbourg, in prefence of their Majefties, by the Bifhop of Cracow. Never was a Couple better match'd i theLady's Perfon being a Collection of Charms, and M. de Brubl a Man of as noble Prefence as one wou'd wifh to fee which he generally fets off with a rich Drefs of a good Fancy. No body at Court furpaffes him in a -generousway of living; for he keeps a noble Table, and at his Houfe Perfons of Diftintion have their Affemblies. This Minifter has fomething fo attrading in his Looks and Behaviour that he eafily wins the Hearts of People who are the moft indifferent to him. He is fo polite, affable, and engaging, that he liftens attentively to thofe who lay their Wants before him, returns them courteous and diftinft Anfwers and whenever he is conftrain'd to give a Dniai, he does it in fuch a manner as plainly demonftrateshisConcem that 'tis not in his power to oblige. And'tis owing to this Goodinature of his, and to the Kindnefs with which he treats his Inferiors, that he can boaft of pofleflng .the Love and Vnration of the Public. In fhort, the Count de Solkoujki who has the firft place in the Cabinet, and this Gentleman who has the fcond, are th Minifters who dcide ail Affaire

K3

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wi:h the King's good Pleafure. They are Gentlemen who know nothing of Jealoufy nor Envy and, as they aft from one and the fame Principle, fo they have both the fame View, which is to increafe, ifjpoffible, the GJory of the King, and the Happinefs of the-Government. The Office of ail the abovemention'd, as Minifters of the Cabinet, is fo eminent at this Court that it gives thole who are i nvefted with it thePrecedence ofall the Generals, bjth of Horfe and Foot. Bcfidesthefe, there are three other Minifters of the Cabinet, who, tho' retir'd from Court, enjoy the Rank and Penfions annex'd to the Miniftry. They are the Count de Manteuffel, the Count de Promuttz, and the Marquifs de Fleuri. Erneft Count de Manteuffel, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is defcendedof a Family which has been for a long time of diftinguifh'd Rank in Pruflian Tomerania. He was Gentleman of the BedCnamber toFredericl. King oPruffia. Certain Ballads being handed about at Court, which were infulting Lampoons upon the Count de Wurtemberg, the King's PrimeMinifter andFavourite, M. deManteuffe wascharged with being the Author of'em who knowing that the Favourite wou'd not put up with the Affront, retir'd to Saxony, where tne Count de Fkmming, whothen borethe greateftfwayattheKing pf Po/tfH<fsCourt,receiv'd as hisCountryman,and him cmploy'd him in foreign Affairs; which he managed with the Approbation both of his Majefty and the foreign Minifters he had to treat with. M. de Manteuffelkept in with the Favourite without giving into the Flattery which that Minifter expefted from his Creatures; and while theKingwasVicarof the Empire, he tnzdtM.deManteuffela. Countof the Empire. His Majefty had fometime beforehonour'd him with the Order of the White Eagle, and preferr'd him to his Cabinet Council and after Marflul Flemming's

Death,

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Death, M. deManteuffel had the principal Direction of the foreign Affairs. But this able Minifter, and one of the chief Ornaments and Confidents of the late King's Court, retir'd from it in 1 730, to his Eftate in Pmerania, and nowrefidesut Berlin where he ftill enjoys a Penfion of 24000 Crowns, or 12000 Rixdollars, which was fecur'd to him by th prefent Elector. It adds to his Characler, that after he was retired, the Want of him was lamented. He is pretty tall, well fer, has a grand Air, and is one of the handfomeft Men that 1 have feen. His Behaviour is noble and eafy, he has a good Fundof Learning, an extraordinary Memory, and fuch a Happinefs of expreffing himfelf that when he talks he never fails to give PJeafure. He lives nobly, and when he was at Drefdenhis Houfe was open to ail Perfons of Diftinftion and Merit. He married a Baronefs ofPludouJka, who is, as well as himfelf, of the Lutheran Religion. ErdmattB,Coantde Promni/z, is more at his Eftate than at Court he is alib Knight of the Order of the WhiteEagle. He married aPrincefs oiSaxe-Weiffenfels. He always diftinguifh'd himfelf by his Zeal, and his Attachmcntto the RoyalFamily of which he gave Proofs by raifing an Independent Company at his own Expence, for the Serviceof the late King, which he fent to reinforce his Majelty's Troops in the Camp before Zeitbaim: And for the fame Ufe he has fince rais'd a Regiment of Horfe. Frncis Vicardel^ Marquifs de Fleuri and de Beauforty is a Savoyard. He was the King of Sa; dinia's Minifter, and his Envoy to the Court of Vienna, when the late King of Rolandinvited him into his Service, admitted him to hisCabinet CounK4 ci], HewajcreitedaConnt f the Empire bytheKingof o (not Poland, ut)by the mperor. As heisa Loverof the Belles. b f fcveralolid Lettres,in the late War he wroteand publitli'd wcrc Pices,whiU wellpena'd.

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cil, and made him a Knight of his Order. This Minifter is endow'd with ail the Talents that can b defir'd in a Man who has an Employment. He has an agreeable Afpet, engaging Manners, a juft Difcernmcnt, a quick Apprehenfion, and a very even Tempcr. But his frquent Ailments difabling him from the Exercife of his Talents, he defiv'd, and obtain'd leave to retire to his Eftate in Savoy and the late King, who had always a great and noble Soul, being defirous that he fhou'd be a Witnefs of his Goodnefs and Royal Magnificence, fecur'd the Enjoyment of his Penfions to him which the prefent King has alfo beeu pleafed to confirm. Another of the Cabinet Minifters, who was alfo formerly Prime Minifter to the late King of Poland, was the Count de Hoym, defcended from one of the principal Families in Saxony*and Brother to the Gentleman that married Madame deCofel. I knew him intimately before he wasadvaned to the Miniftry, at Paris, and at Vienna, as well as hre at Drefden. You muft hve feen him in SiUfiat where he has a very fine Eftate. There is not a Minifter at this Court more civil, more learned, or a better Friend to learned Men. During his longrefidence at Paris as Ambafldor from the King of Polatid, his Houfe was open to all Men of Leaming as ic Titlc is now at Drejdcn and he had the iptendia him of the Mec<enas fSaxony*. o given Thcy They tohis whichbe rerir'd in He wu difgrac'd 1731upon an is of EHate. The Caiaftrophe ihb Gendeman fotragical t Hiftorjr Incident,hatit willbepropero givea flwrtbutcrue t Circular Letter,wrote of it, as it il relatedin the following O abroad,for by the Kingof JPtnWt rder. to niMinifters Letter of he Information ail the Foreign Courts. The <t datedat ifrfinu, the izth of bUtj, O. S. 1736, u Jbllows. Si *>

Y. Saxon 137 They who are a&ually PRIVY COUNSELLORS, OF STATE here, are eight in numor Ministers ber. They are defcended from fome of the beft Families in Saxony, and profefs the Proteftant ReThe Detail of their Charadters, their Exligion. wou'd oblige me to and their Merit, perience, were I only to tranfgrefs the Limits of this Work, treat of thofe who are bound by their Employments to attend the King's Perfon, and who compofe his of But for the Reputation Majefty's Houfhold. the Privy Council, 'tis proper juft to obferve that all its Members are Subjeb who do Hnour to the that they are vigilant for promoKing's Choice ting the Court
Si r,

tragical Death of the Count Je Hoymhaving been va T"1 H E < rioufly reported both in printed Papers and writtcn Letten, and with Circumftancesnot ftriftly true the King has order'd me to give yoa an exa Information of this Affiur. < Yon will rememberwhat the late King, of glorious Memo. < ry, fignifiedto his Minifters abroad, concerning the Reafons and Circumfianceithat preceded, accompanied, and followed the Difgrace of the Connt dt Hoym. This Coant having been a fecondtime arrefted for other Crimes, after the Death of the late King, was committed ia 1733, to Sonnnfitin, from whence the prefent King was fo merciful ai to reJeafehim fome Weeks after contenang him felf to bind him again by Oaths ftronger than the former; whereby the Coont obliged himfelfto continuequiet at his E ftate, withoat concerninghimfclf with any bot his ownprivate Affairs. Yet towards the clofe of the Year 1 734, and at the time when the King was in PelanJ, the Count, notwithftanding his Engagements, took the Opportanity of his Majefty's Abfence, to fct on foot other Intrigua, in defiuce of bis Oath. and hi. Promifes whereof the King being timely inform'd, order'd him tobe arreftedand committedPnfonet to Kimigjttia which was the reafon of his auempting his Life by a Piftol, whereof 1 acqoainted you by my Circnlar Letter of the isth of < Jawuary, 173S. was afterwards An Information preparing for the Trial of him and his Accomplie bat not many days after the firft ^T*T"T'ffltTwi id Count bting ftnng by the Remorfe of th hit

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Prefent State of

ting the Good of the Public, and that in their Deliberations they manifeft their Zeal for the King, and their Affe&ion to their Country. The Prefident of this Counci!, is A!txallder dt Miltitzde Scbarffenbergi who is a Native of Saxony, the fame that was the King's Governour of whom fo much has been already faid, that 1 avoid to mention of him here. make any more parricular Two of the Privy Counfellors are Counfellors which are held in prefence of of the Conferences, his Majefty, v'Z. Gotlob-Frederic Baron de GerfThe former dorf, and Bernard Baron de Zecb. cornes from an ancient Family of Diftinion, which has his Confcience, and vexed to fee aU bis Pranks laid open, chofe to fhorten the Courfe of Juftice by putting an end to his own Life, notwithllanding the (indniableProofi he had beforeexperienc'd of his Majeity'sCkmency For this purpofe he firft pretended to be fick, and bavingorder'd bis D6mcibcs not to difturb him, he hang'd himfelf the zift of Api/ laft, at Night, with a Handkercbief ry'd to a Hook that fapported his Looking-glafs. The Letter he wrote to his Domeftics * witha Pencil, Md which was fbond upon the Floor, is an indifputable Mark of the deliberate Parpofeand cold Kood with which he executed tbis Defigu. Moreover, in fearchiog his PocketsaRaxor wasfoundonhim, withaPenknif, Sciflkrs, and the like Infimments. The Family of the Oeceas'd having petition'd theKing net to proceedagainft the Corpfe with the Severityof the Law, his Majeftyhas been fo good as to order the Body of the Self-mur< dererto be printely interr'd, jaft withont the Church-Yard of th Garrifonat th Fort of KoxigJtsixr.' 1 am, tic. The Night before the Coont difpatch'd himfelf, he left a Note upon his Table for his two Servants, as follows pradent, make no Noife or Alann, nntie me immediDE < D ately, put me to Bd, and then ihat the Door after you, by botting it when yoa are out, which you may do by thehelp of this Pack-thread and by this means no body will know you have been in my Chamber. The World will donbtlcfs believe 1 died of an Apoplexy if yon perform my Ordersdifcreedy and faithfully, my Family will pay you 1000 Ducats, on fightof this Note.

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has given feveral great Men to this State. The latter has acquitted himfelf with Succefs in the feveral Negociations wherein he has been employ'd. They are both laborious, vigilant, upright Men, and of great Experience in Bufinefs. The King's GREAT OFFICERSare, I. The GRAND MARSHAL which Office is now held by Waldemar, Baron de Lowendabl, who has under him The Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, The Pages, The Huntfmen, The Muficians of the Chapel andthe Chamber, The Dancers, The Comedians, The Trumpeters, The Footmen, The Turkst The Hcydukcs, The Meffengers, The Negroes

and in thort, a confiderable number of other Officers and Domeftics of the King's Houihold. His Jurifdiftion extends not only over thofe that I have mention'd, but alfo over all Foreigners of Quality who happen to be at Bref dm and there is a Tribunal or Court for this purpofe, of which the Great Chamberlain,the Great Mafter oftheKitchens, the Great Cup-Bearer and the Marflial of the Coure are Members. II. The GREAT CHAMBERLAIN who is at prefent Htnry-Frederic Count of.FrieJlaxd. 'Tis he that receivesthe Ambaffadors and other foreign Minifters, and introduces them to an Audience of the King. He has under him the feveral Chamberlains. in. The MASTER of the Horse, AlexanderJofepb Count de Sulkowjki, is in poffeffion of this Office, which is one of the beft and nobleft Employments

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Prefent State of

ployments at Court, the Perfon who is invefted with it being fervd by the King*s Equipages and Livery, and having the difpofal of all the inferor Offices appertaining to the Stables, He bas under him the Equerries, the Prickers, and ail the Workmen cmploy'd for the Service of the Stables, and the making of the Equipages. He that is the only chief Equerry is Adolpbnsde Brubl, one of the King's Chamberlains. He officites in the abfence of the Mafter of the Horfe, is Brother to Henry de Bruhl Minifter of the Cabinet, and refembleshim in Candour and Integrity. His Honefly, which is imprinted on his very Countenance, refleb a Luftre on all his Actions. He is ib fenfible of the Charms of Friendfhip that he fulfils all the Obligations of it and befidesthofe Qualifies of the Mind, he makes an agreeable Appearance, is dextrous in hisExercifes, has a folid Reliih of the Arts and Sciences, is perfe Mafter of Mufic, and plays on lverai Inftruments. He was heretofore in the Service of the Duke R ent of Wtiffenfth, and next in that of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who had fuch an Efteem for his Merit that to him he referred the Direction of his Court. Neverthelefi he ltft this Prince, and enter'd into the Service of the late King^, whoconferred thofe Employments on him which he now njoys. Since he came to Court, hc married a young Jidy of Quality of the Family of Opelen. whofe Fortune and Charms into the bargain made her fuch a confiderabfeMatch that fcc did not waoc Suitors. IV. The Great Hcntsm an. The Gentleman who at prefent pofleflesAis Office, one of the moft lucrative at Court, is Charlesde Leubnitz. Itgives him the Superintendance over ail die Officers of the Venery, in which Number are included the Ranflers, the Verdurers, the Gentlemen and Pages,

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and above a hundred Huntfmcn or other Perfons depending on them. The Great Huntfman is a Proteftant, as well as his Lady, who is of the Family of Scbaurot. V. The Grat MASTERof the Kitchens is Molpbus Baron de Seyffertitz, of a Family which bas been for a long time diftinguifh'd in this Electorate. His firft Step at Court was in the Employment of Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber. Juguftus Il. at the requeft of the late Czar Peter tbe Great, plac'd him Govemor to the Czarowitz when that Prince came into Germany. He continued young in this Poft till after the Marriage of the Czarowitz to the Princefs of Bmnfwic-WolfembuttU-Blanckenbourg. After his return to Saxonyhe accompanied rhe late King to Berlin, when his Majefty together with Frederic IV. King of Denmarkt went thither to make a vifit to Frdric I. King of Pruffia. ln 1711, M. de Seyffertitz was appomted Marflial of the Embafly which AuguftusII. fent to Francfort, for the Election of an Emperor. His Imprial Ma. jefty Charles VI. at the Ceremony of bis Coronation, made him a Knight of the Empire, and at length the late King made him one of his Chamberlains, and then Great Mafter of the Kitchens, which Office he manages with Dignity and Politene. He married a Lady of the Family of Haxtbaufent Widow of the Count de Beicblinr the Great Faulconer. They are both of the Lutberatt Communion. In the abfence of the Grand Marlhal, the Great Mafter of the Kitchens officites, and at the grand Ceremonieswears like him a Staff tipp'd with Silver gik. Under his Province are the omptrollers of the Kitchen and of the Houthold, the Clerks of the Kitchen, the Purveyors, the Cooks and Turnfpits, the Paftry-Cooks, thc Purfers, Fifhmcngors, ~c.

VI. 4

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Prefent State of

VI. The GREATCupbearer is John Adopbus de Haugwitz, a Gentleman of good Extraction. His Father was Grand Marchai to the late King. He is a handfome Man, bas a noble Mien, performs all forts of Exercifes with a Grace and with Dexterity, and does the Honours of the Court in a becoming manner. He is of the Proteftant Religion, and married to a Lady of the Family oBeift. His Employmentfets him above ail the Officers of the King*sButtery, Cellar, and Pantry. In the abfence of the Grand Marfiial and the Mafter of the Kitchens, he officiatesfor them, and at great Ceremonies he carries like them a Staff of Silver gilt. VII. The GREAT FAULCONER an Office is held by AnthonyCount de Mcfcbinjki^a Polijb Nobleman, and a RomanCatholic. He was formerly Page to the King, and attended his Majefty in his Tours to France and Itafy, where hc acquir'd great Politenefs, and a very engaging Deportment. At his retum to Drefdeny he wasmade one of the Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber to the King, who was then the Prince Royal. Afterwards the late King appointed him one of his Chamberlains and when the Count deFitztubm unhappily loft his life at Warfaw, his Majefty who had given his Office of Great Chamberlain to the Count de Friejland, beftow'd that of Great Faulconer which was held by that Nobleman, upon the Count de Mofcbinjht who was grac'd almoft at the fame time with the Order of the Wbite-EagU* and the Poft of Treafurer to the Court of Poland. His Majefty alfo granted him in Marriage one of his natural Children, the Daughter of the Counteftde Cofel. Never wasa Perfon more defervingof Honoursthan the Great Faulconer, who is truly magnificent, and makes fuch an Appearance, that he does an Honour to his Charaer. By his Behaviour he engages the Friendlhip and Regard of aU chat have to do with him. He has under

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under his comrnand the Officersof the Faulconry or Mews where the Hawks are kept, the Faulconers, and in general all thofe Perfonsthat have any relation to the Faulconry. VIII. The GREAT MASTERofthe Ward robe is Alexander-JofepbCount de Sulkowjki. He has under his Jurifdiftion the CatbolicCtrgy, the Pbyficians of the Body, the Footmen, the Secretaries, Wrters and Clerks of the Chamber, the Infpcftors of the Cbamber of Curiqfitiesy the UJbers of the Cbamberand of the Rings Clofet, his Peruke-makers, Surgeons and 'faylors, the Negroes, Dwarfs, and Pages of the BackStairs, the Arcbiteis, Engineers and Defigners. IX. The Postmaster-Geveral is MauriceCharles Count de Linar, who is alfo one of the Chamberlains, and a Knight of the Order of St. *fobn. He is defeended from a Family which has been of Eminenee for a long time in this Elettorate. His good Mien is anfwerable to his Birch, and by his Politenefs, his Manners, and his Expences, he does an honour to the Prince that employs him. The King, after his Coronation, fent him to Mufcovyto notify the Accomplifhment of that Ceremony to the Emprefs of the Ruffians, and he ftill continues -at that Princefs's Court, to take care of his Mafter's Interefts, which he does in a way that cannot but turn to his own Advantage, and the Honour of the King. This Gentleman was alfo employ'd by the late King at the Court of Pruffia, and at the Britijb Court when at Hanover, and always dilcharg'd his Commiffions with fuch Succcfs as was crown'd with his Majefly's Apprebation. X. TheMARSHALofthe COURT John-George is fEinftedd, who is alfo a Privy-Counfellor, and a > Gentlemanof a good Family, his Anceftors having poiIn O3btr 1736, he rciurn'd VoDre/den.

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poffbflcdthechicf Offices ofthc State He 1, fited the principal Courts of Exrope, where he con. trated that J?OliteTura which is feen in his Behaviour. He 15a handfome Man, has a noble Air, and his Demeanour is anfwerable. He knows a great deal, and performs all che academical Exercifes very well. He married the Daughter of the General Count de Flear"g Governor of Ler'pfic, who was a rich Heirefs, and To be valned for the of her Mind. The ~ties and his Lady are both of Marlhal of the Court the I,xtbe,.a~e Communion. I-iis Officejoins him in Commillion with the Grand Marfbal, the Great Mafter of the Kitcheos, and the Great Cup-Bearer and like thofe Otliccrs he carries the thort Sr.tff of S'~r gilt at the grand Ceremonies. 'Tis commonly h'tbat makes the Court-Entertainments. of CSS^tfi IUZX^ of the Court, d ne of the Chamberlains, is remarked for his Mien and Extranon. His genel good and De.. Qualicies He is of the eftablith'd Religion of Saxoxy, and lately married MadamoifcUe dtScb~rebrrgdeMaxar, whofe Perfonal Charau are an Ornament ta the IfSBB. Court. ~-Fcrdi~rd the King's Houlhold, d'Er~oxd~'dor~~ Mar1haJ of and one of the has procur'd himfelf Efteem Cham Jains, ber by his Merit as well as his good Birth and Breeding, Befidcsbis Kuowkdge .lie is Matterkinds which quali6es mm of various of feveral for Bufincfs. the ~rly ~'rc~rcb. He married a Lady of-the Family of .Flr/ler, and they are both of the Lrrtberax Relrgton. JU. The Chamberlains. Of thefe thS too numyto bc aU mention'd hre, fo SatTfl^ anly take notceof the twelve Pen60ners wbo are ~5~ sanling the Scniority of thtit Admi~
coav

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mmonly attend rhe King and Qu^en, each a whole Week in their turn, and have thi Rank of Major- Gnerais. The fineft Prerogative of their Employment; is the Honour of eating with tlieir Majeflies v/hen they are in Waiting, and of heing the Depofitaries of the Ptitions which are prfcnted to the King in his Paflage; Lord rif Lo^enitz^ 1. HenryRodolpbde Sckonfeld, is the King's firft Chamberlain. He has a fine Prefence and Behaviour, and a fweet arid amiable Tempef. He kceps a handfome Table and Equipage, fiiitble to his Fortune* He attended the King, byhi^Majefty'sOrder, to CracoWi ndlaftly a to Olivd 2. Helmutbd Plejk is of Family in the Dutchy bf Holftein, of fome Note for their great Eftate there, and for the Rank they bear at the Court of Dettmark, where fereral Lords of PUJk are in the Miniftry. The Gentleman here mention'd is atually the King's Envoy Extraoidinary to the Court of Denmark. 3. uguftur-Henry GottkbyCount de Calktberg, is of this Eleftorate, where his Family has for a long time enjdy*da confiderable Rank, and a fineEftate. He has been the King's Envoy Extraordinary t the Courts of France, Brujfels, Cologn^Trierst and the Eletor Palatine, to notify the Death of the late King; and the Acceflon of their prefent Majefties to the Eleftorate. He married the Countefs of Bofty lives nobly, and adorns the Court by his Politenefs. He is of the Proteftant Communion. 4. Jobn-Georgede Carlcwitz is of the fame Religion. He is a Saxvn, and married to Madamoifelle de Ntitftb. He has a peculiar Talent of gaining the Love of all Mankind which he owes to his Travels, and his namral Genius. 5. Frederic-upiftus dt Brandftein, aftei having Enifh'd his Studics at fTUtenterg, travell'd to good

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purpofe to the principal Countries of Earope. At his return the late King declar*dhim a Gentleman of his Bed-Chamber, and fome time after one of his Chamberlains. He is well defcended, and what is convenient for a Courtier, he adheres to the Religion which is upermoft in the State. 6. DetIer-Henryd>EinJedeltBrothcr the MaHhal to of the Court, honours his Name by his perfonal Qualifies. He is a handfome tall Gentleman, has a grand Prefence, and few Gentlemen furpafs him in Good-Manners, Addrefs, and polite Literature. He ftudy'd at Wittenbergy and afterwards made a Vifit to the principal Courts of Europe: Thelaft he made was to that of Sweden, whither he was fent by the King to notify the Death of his late Majefty,. and the Acceflon of his prefent Majefty to the Eleftorate. Tl SigifmondtPArnitn^ is not only one of the King's Chamberlains, but Colonel of a Rgiment of Horfe. He is of an ancient Family which has Lands in Lufatia. His Employments are owing both to his Birth and perfonal Merit. He is of the Religion of the Country. 8. MaximUian, Count d'Herzan, is of Bobemia. The late Countefs his Mother was the Queen's firft Lady of Honour, and attended her Majefty hither from Vienna. He is able to cut a Figure at Court, but is abfent above half of bis time; and is a Roman Catholic. de 9. Cbarles-CbriJHatt Minchmtz, is a Gentleman of a fine Mien. As he has been a great Traveller, he has acquir'd a great Jhare of Knowledge and Politenels. He was born a Saxon, but has embrac'd the Roman Catholic Faith; tho' he Jus defeated himfelf by it of the Reverfion of a confiderable Inheritance. 10. Henrj-AHguftus Breitenbaucb, is a Gentlede man of fine Scnie and Mannen fuitable to his Ex-

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trattion. Suchis his good Tafte and Skill in Muficj that he has been fingled out for the Direction of the King's Pleafures. He is of the Communion of the Country, and marry'd to a Lady of the Family of Scbonberg. 11 Nicbolas-Scbwizinskiis a Native of Poland 1 he has valnable Qualities, and a great Attachment to the RomanCatholic Religion. 12. N. N. de SebguttStaniJlawski is of a Family which was formerly poffcfs'dof a great Eftate in Silefia, with the ide of the Counts de Sebgutt, till the Conqueft of th Country by the Teutonic Knights, when his Anceftors remov'd to Pruffiaj and fpreading afterwards in Polandy they atfum'd the Name of S tanijlawski, aswhat was more agreeable to the Poles. This Chamberlain is a Perfon of ftrift Honour and Integrity, without any manner of Guile. He fpent his Youth at the Academy of Berlin which was ereted by King Frederic 1: and afterwards enter'd as Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to AuguftusII. who not many Years after mad him a Chamberlain of Poland, and put him upon the Eftabliflimcnt of Saxony and when the prefene King came to the Government, he continuedhim in hts Employment. His Majefty alfo made choice of him to attend him to Cracow, and Jaftly to 0liva. XII. Of the STEWARD of the Queen's HousHold. Since the Queen's Arrivai at Drefden, there "hve been four Stewardsof herMajefty*sHoufhold. The Coimt de Diedficbftein was the firft that had this Place, which he refign'd for the Grand Priory of Bobemia. His Succeflbr was the Count de Kmigftgg who aftually commands the Empefor*s Army in Lombardy. This General being recall'd to Vienna, was replac'd by the Count de Wratiflauy and he by the Count de JVaidJtein who lately quitted that Poit to go and take poffeffionof

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Prefent State of

the Office of Landfbauptmann, or Intendant of Silefia, which was conferr'd on him by the Emperor. The Count de JVratflaw^ who has the care of his Imperial Majefty's Affairs at this Court, officiates there again as Steward. This is the Officer who Jeads the Qjeen, and gives Orders to all her Officers and Domeftics, and who muft be apply'd to by thofe that folicire for an Audience of her Majefty. XIII. The Queen'sfirft Lady of Honour, is Therefa Baronefs of Stein, and Countefs Dowager of Collawrat who honours her Station by her Virtues, and by the Dignity with which fhe fills it. The late Count de Collewrat her Hufband was Great Chamberlain of Bohemia, and one of the chief Noblemen of that Kingdom. This Lady, his Relit is a Roman Catholic, and is fuch in an exemplary manner. Thofe Ladies who want to kifs the Queen's Hand, or to pay their Duty to her, muft apply to this Lady, who introduces and prefents them. She has the Precedence before ail other l,adies, and only yields it to the Princetfes of the Blood. XIV. Of the Governefsof the Ladies of Honour, and of tbe Ladies of Honour themfehes. In the ab. fence of the firft Lady of Honour, the Governefs of the Ladies officiates. The BaronefsDowager of Robr worthily fills this Station, and has under her fix Ladies, two of whom, viz. the Countefes of Wadfteinand Kokerftnoitz, are Ladies of the Bedwhich procures-themAdmittance Chamber a a Title to the Queen's ClofeL AU the Ladies of Honour muft always appear in the Court-Drefs. Their manner of Living is fuch that it obliges Calumny itfelf ro refpeft them. X V. Of the Lords and Ladies that are attacVd to or tbe Court by thtir Offices, bytbeFaveurs oftbeKinr.

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Tho' the Poijb Lords cannot be put upon the Eftablifhment of the Court of Saxony, that there may be nothing in common between'the two States, yet it may be thought inexcufable not to mention in this place John-AlexandtrLipjki, Bithop ofCracow, Duke of Servia, and Great Chancellor of Poland not only becaufe this Prelate, who is defcended from one of the beft Families in the Kingdom, was appointed Bifhop of Cracow by the Lte King, but becaufe he has given fignal Proofs of his Gratitude and Attachment to the auguft Family of his Benefaftor. The Virtues of this Gentleman intitle him to Relpeft He is pious without Hypocrify, generous without Oftentation, magnificent without Pageantry, officiousmeerly for the Pleafure of obliging, a Courtier without Servility, a Man ftrily attach'd to his King and his Country,learned without being pofitive, a great Orator, a good Bifhop, and a wife Minifter, always ready to embrace a good Propofal, and firm to fupport it, laborious, vigilant, adtingonly out of Principle, and by confequence fufceptible of Friendihip, and fcorning Revenge. The late King, out of his Efteem for the Qualities of this Prelate, made him Bifhop of Cracow, Great Chancellor of Poland, and honour'd him with his Order of the White Eagle. By this means he fo rivetted him to his Intereft, and to that of the Prince his Son, that after his Majefty's Deceafe, his moft Rvrend Highnefs direfted Affairs in fuch a manner that the Republic chofe his Son for their King. Auguftus Il. being proclaim'd accordingly, the Prince and Bifhop was appointed Head of the Embaffy which the States of the Kingdom fent to the new Monarch at Tar* nawitZy to carry him the Diploma of his Election. He fpoke upon this occafion with a noble Eloquence, rendering to their Majeftiesall dueRefpes, and yet maintaining the Dignity of the moft Scrcnc

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Republic. Having difcharg'd this Commiffion, he went betbre the King to Cracow, made his Entry there, and took pofltflion of the Bifhoprick. Some days after this, he confecrated and crown'd their Majefties in his Mctropolis. When the King return'd to Saxcny, the Prelate fellowed him, and attended him te Oliva and *twashe that receiv'd the AU Jegiance and Homage of the Datitzickers to his Majefty. He is fince come hither to rejoin the Court, is belov'd, revercnc'd, and every one does juftice to his Virtues. Charles- Lewis, Prince oHelftein -Bect, Colonel in the Service of the King, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is the fecond Son of the late Lewis-Frdric Veldt-Marlhal of Pruffia, Governour of Koningsberg, and Knight of the Order of the Elephant. This Prince married Anne Countefs of Orfeljka, the legitimated Daughter of the Ute King. George-Ignatius^ Prince de Lubomirjki^ SwordBearer of the Crown, Lieutenant-General of the King*s Forces, Colonel of tbe Life-Guards, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, is defcended from a Family of very great Diftinion in Poland. After he return'd from his Travels, being attach'd to the Court of AugufiusIl. he married the Daughter of the Count de Fitztubm, who was Great Chamberlain a Lady of fuch Beauty, fuch perfonal Charms, and fuch fine Senfe, that 1he engages the Vnration of all that know her. Prince Lubomirjki is a jolly handfome Man, very polite, thinks and as agreeable to his Birth, bas a good lhare of Literature, and is perfecT: Mafter of Mufic. lie lives in a handfome manner very fuitable to his Rank. The Prince/s of fefcben is a Polijb Lady, and ally'd to the greateft Families in the Kingdom. .Her Uncle was the famous ardinal Radjowjkiy

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Archbilhop oGnefna, and Primate of the Kmgciom She was formerly marry'd to Prince Lubomirsk Great Chamberlain of the Crown but the Marriage was difToved, fo that ihe quitted the Name of Lubomirski for that of Tefcben, which Hie ftill bears, tho' ihe afterwards marry'd Prince Lewis of Wirtemberg. This Princefs fupports her Rank with Dignity, has a grand Air, is refpe&ed for a noble diftinguifh'd and engaging Behaviour, and lives in fo handfome a manner, that fhe is one of the moft ihining Ornaments of this Court. Jofepba Countefs de Lagnafco is the Daughter of the Count de Walenfieiny who was Great Chamberlain to the Emperor Jofepbyand oneof the mon: worthy Noblemen of the Imperial Court, by EleonoraCountefs of Lofenftein a Lady whofc Memory is with Juftice rever'd by ail Vienna. The Countefs de Lagnafco was the Widow of Count Thaun, when fhe marry'd the Irte Count de Lagnafcoy Minifter of the Cabinet to Auguftus II. General of the SaxonCavalry, Captain of theHorfeGuards, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. Since that Nobleman's Deceafe, which was in April 1732, his Widow has alwaysliv'd at Drefden; where fhe enjoys the Efteem of their Majefties, and the Vnration of the Courtiers. This Countefs is Miftrefs of feveral Languages to Perfection, thoroughly underftands Mufic, and fings with Grace and Method. Her noble generous way of living, and her graceful and diftinguilh'd Behaviour cannot be exprefs'd, nor indeed equall'd to any thing but the Goodnefs of her Temper. The late Count de Lagnafcois of a good Stature, and his Behaviour polite and civil. 1 think you o know that he was of a Family vfcPiedmont f fome DiftindVion. How, or when he firft enter'd into the Service of the King of Poland, I cannot tell you; but 1 know that he prefently infinuated him-

L4

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1 2 5

Prefent State of w V

felf into his Mafter's Favour, by his very grcat Afliduky, agreeab!e Temper, and by a vatt Complaifance to enter into hisPJeafures. He eftabliih'd himfLlf fo firmly in rhe King's Favour that the Count de Flemminglook'd upon him as the only Rival he had to fear, and therefore he never much lik'd him. The Count de Lagnafcowas employ'd in feveral Embafles and when he had finifh'd that at Rome, which was his Jait, there was a Talk that he was to go Ambafiiidor to Vienna, and that the young Count de Wackerbart was to go to Rome. I muft further acquaint you that M. de Lagnafco was happy in ail refpefts, even in Marriage, not only with hisirft, but his fcond Wife, who, when ht marri^d her, was a young, rich, brifk Widow. His firft Wife was the Daughter of the Count de J\TsyelstLieutenant-General in Hdland, a Lady of grcat Virtue, eftecmed by ail the People at th Hague, and poffefs'd of a confiderable Eftate, of which, dying young, and wilhout Iflue, fhe madc lier Hufband foie Ieir. Francis, Count de Montmorency,is a Name too v/ell known to fpeak of his Extradion. He was a Colonel in France when he went into the Service of AugufiusIl who receiv'd him with that Demonjlration of Efteem which that King was fo ready to grant to Perfons of Merit. His Majefty firft appointed him Major-General of his Forces, and fome time after he dclar him a Lieutenant-Gerierul, and Captain of his Borfe-Guards. At that time the Count married Madame Pet/ci>inyWidow ef the Great General of ~,itbxaxia; a Lady whofe |B;rth, Qualifies, and Fortune, reeommended her for a very confidemble Mntch. The Gountefs de Montmsrency, in the time of her former Hufband, went to Paris for the Recovery of her Health, and receiv'd extraordinary Honours at the French Court, yhwe $ was admir'd, for her Politenefs,

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the Delicacy of her Sentiments, and the Eafe with which fhe exprefs'd them in the Language of France; from whenoe they conceiv'd an advantagious Idea of the Court of AuguftusII. not imagining how 'twas poffible for the Manners of a Foreign Lady fo much to refemble their own. She is alfo as much rever'd ztDrefdenas at Paris and all that know her, agree fhe is highly to be valued for her Sentiments. Antoimtia of Licbtenjlein, Countefs of Wallen-. Count de fValletiftein, ereh fteiny is Wife to Leopeld tofore Great Mafter of the Queen's Houfhold a Lady both belovd and honour'd at this place, for her Virtues and civil Deportment and as fhe is preparing to follow her Hufband into Silefia, fhe will carry with her the Efleem of their Majefties, and leave the Court forry for her Abfence. XVI. Of the Foreign Minijlen who rejde at this Court, Francis-Cbarks Count de Wratjlaw, one of the Emperor's Privy Council, and Knight of the Orders of RuJJia and Poland, refides at this Court in quality of Ambaffador from his Imperial and Catholic Majefty. He is defcended from one of the greateft Families in the Kingdom of Bobentia, and a Family which has given wife Minifters to the augufl Houfe of Aujtria. This Gentleman has beenfora long time in the Management of the moft important Affairs He was Ambaffador for the Kingdom of Bobemiato the Dyet of the Empire at Ratifie From thence he went in the fame Charaer to Poland, where he v. asprefent at the Dyet of Grodno. The Emperor afterwards nam'd him Great Mafter of the Houfhold to the Princefs Royal and Electoral, now Queen of Poland. The Count having worthily acquitted t^imlelf ojf that Office, was for fevera.1Years Am. baffador

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Prefent State of

baflador at Ruffia, where he concluded that happy Alliance fubfifting between the two Empires, and acquired the Efteem of the Emprefs, who honoi -'d him with her Order of Sr. Andrew-, Augttfiuj Il. having beforegiven him that of the White Eagle. This Minitter, fince his Return from Mufcovy, has moreover been cbarg'd by the Emperor wich important Commiflions to the Courts of Pruffia, Brunjwic, and Holfkein.At length he is corne back again to this Court, as Ambaffador from his Imperial and Catholic Majefty and officiates alfo as Great Mafter of the Queen's Houfhold. This Nobleman is of a middlingStature, ofa happy Phyfiognomy, is civil, beneficent, and loves Grandeur and Pleafures, but does not abandon himfelf to them fo far as to neglct th Interefts of his Mafter, whofe Affairs he negociates with a noble Candour which has render*d him as much efteem'd at the Courts where he has refided, as he is beloved for his Affability and Politenefs. His Wife is the Countefs ofGnski, whofe Father was Great Chanand cellorof Bobemia,under the Emperor Leopoldy whofe Brother is now in that Office under the moft Auguft Charles VI. Hermam-Cbarles Kejferling, Plenipotentiary Minifter from the Emprefs ot the Ruffians, is of a Family of Note in Courtaud. He ftudy'd at Koningsberg in Pruffia. After he had vifited the principal Coures of Germatij^ and return'd ta his own Country, he was made Gentleman of the BedChamber to the Dutchefs of Courland^ Aime of Mufcovyythe prefent Emprefs, who employd him in feveral Commiflons to the Courts of Pruffia and Paland. Neverthelefs he quitted her Service for one of the judicial Officesin that Country. When Anne came to the Throne, the States of Courland deputed M. Keyferling to that Princefs, who

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whooffer'd him an Employment at her Court, and appointed him Vice-Prefident of the Chamber of Juftice of the Ruffian Empire. Some time after, Jhe made him Prefident of the Academy of Sciences at Peterskourg, and fent him to this Court, whcre he difeharges his Minifteria] Officewith unive,rfalApprobation. The Wife of this Minifter is the Daughter of the Staroft Ftrcbs,who, for oppofing the Pretenfions of a certain Power which challeng'd more Refpeft, was aflalnated at Mittaw. Both he and his Lady are of the Lutberan Communion. GenJobn-Hartmg-Ernefty Baron of Bernfdorff% tleman of the Bed-Chamber to the King of Dmmark, and his Majeftys Envoy at this Court, is of a Family which is poffefs'd of a fine Eftate in Mecklenbourg, and has given an able Minifter to the Houfe of Hanever. The Envoy, of whom mention is hre made, does honour to his Chara&er, and behaves with a Prudence not inferior to Miniftcrs of the greateft Experience. By the Detail I have now given you, Sir, you muft have obferv'd that the chief Employments of the Court are in the hands of Foreigners, and that Saxons have little to do in Affairs of State, for which they are oblig'd indeed to the Count de This vain, haughty, and imperious flemmng. Minifter expefted every one fliou'd truckie to him. He found that Foreigners were much more fubmiffive than the Saxons, who are by nature ftately, and Enemies to Slavery in any lhape. Count Femmng being dead, it*sprobable that the Saxonswill be more employ'd than they have been and indeed they have Capacities equal to any Nation in the World. They are well made, robuit, agile, laborious, good Soldiers, cunning Courtiers. They have naturally more Spirit than theFrwf ballow to the Germonsj they improve in th Sciences, and
in

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D R E S D E N.

in bodily Exercifes, and they have good Writers among them upon ail forts of Subjefts witncfs the Works of M. Ltifoti/z, the famons Philofopher, and of ttomajiks, one of the moft able Civilians of his time. The Saxons are addifted indeed to all Pleafures in gnerai, but to none fo much as the Bottle and Gaming. They love Pomp and Expence, and are naturally not very engaging, being exceeding ceremonious, and aficting more than ail the Germonsto ape the Frencb, with whom they fympathile very much, particularly in their Fondnefs for new Falhions, their Forwardnefs to make new Acquaintance and Friendihips, and perhaps too in their Readinefs to fall out with them upon very trivial OccaAon. Since I have fpoke fo much of the Men, I muft alfo give you fome account of the Saxon Women. They are ail of a fair Complexion, and there are among them the fineft Faces in the World. They are gencrally well fhap'd too, which is what they are chiefly taken notice of for They are tall and flender they dance well, and have a furprifing genteel Air, which they take great care to improve by rich Drefs. One Fault 1 find with them is, that they are very affcfted, and that they have too much Aftion when they talk. As to their Tempers, they are reckon'd to begood-natur'd but then they are fubtile and crafty. They love Drefs and Ornament more than ail Women that I everfaw. They are lively and gay, and paffionately fond of Dancing and Merriment. When they are told that they are handfome, they are fo far from being furpriz'd that they look upon it as a Compliment due to them. When once they love, they love with Tendernefs and there are among them fuch Examples of Conftancy as would eclipfe even a CUoThefe heroic Sentiments of patra, or a dlia. Love they Icarn from Romances, which they are

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raftly fond of: But this muft be faid to their Honour, that Gallantry does not take up fo much of their Time and Thoughts as to make them neglect their Bufincfs for they are laborious, dextrous, and amufe themfelves with all forts of Work. They do every thing too with a good Grace and in a word it may be added to their Praife, that a Saxon Womanwants nothing more to make her amiable, but an Inclination to acquire that Character. Pleafures and Rcrations commonly attend the Ladies fo clofely, that in treating of the one 1 can't but remember the other; and the Inhabitants of Drefden are fo much devoted to Pleafures, that 1 think 1 ought to put them into a feparate Article. When the King is at Drefdenthere are Pleafures in abundance, fuch as Plays, Mafquerades, Balls, Feafts, Running at the Ring, and Races on Sleds, but when the Turnaments, Hunting-Matches King is va Poland there' a very great Vacuum. The Electoral Prince and Princefs are often t Werm$etfft alias Hubertsbour and even when their Royal Highncfls are m Town, they are They fce Company while they are pretty retu'd at Dinner, but for the reft of the day none corne near them befides the few that have the honour of their Confidence. The reft are fcatter'd up and down the Town to tht great Difappointment of Foreigners that happen then to be here for there's no body keeps open Houfe, they being ail felect Societies to which *tis very difficult to gain admittance. If one is invited to dine with fome Lord of the Court, one bas a good Dinner 'tis true, but after Dinner is over a Man knows not how to beftow himfelf. One is fure of finding Company no where except at the Houfes of Madame de Brebentau theWidpw- of the great Treafurer of Poland, and of the Countcfs de Lagnafco nor are their Houfa always opcn, for Madame it Brebentau is often 4

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often fick, and Madame de Lagnafco often abroacL or engagM in Parties with the Electoral Princefi, and then oneknows not where to go for there's no Play te be feen, and as for the young People, they amufe themfelves with the common Pleafures of that Stage of Life; they drink; they game, and do foniethifig more. When the King is at Drefden, the People partake in moft of the Pleafuresof the Court, the of the Entertainments which the generality King gives being public. Plays and are Mafquerades free for any People of Fafliion; there s nothing to pay, andalldivert themfelves as they like beft. The Citizens Wives are more tractable here than in any Town in Germarty: They love to imitate the Ladies of Quality, and'ris fometimes as good as a Comedy to fee what Airs they give themfelves. Theyarc extremely fond ofDreffing, whichLuxurious Tafte extends even to Wives of the Mechanics, and ofthe Livery fo that were a Stranger to come hither on a Sunday or a Holiday, when every bodyisdrels'd, he wou'dbe tempted to think axPlutus had fcatter*dail his Wealth among thefe People and a very great Nobleman, who'tis like was not acquainted with the God Pttttst returning home once from Drefden, told his Wife that he was corne from a City to which the Devil had carryid ail the Money. The Parfons here do indeed cry aloud againft thefe Aboies, but the worft on't is, that like the Clergy in many other Places, they preach what they dotft praife and while they are deckiming againft Luxury and new Fchions, they fuffer theirWives and Daughters to be the firft to fet offtheir Charms with the gayeft and the neweft Patterns. While I am fpeaking of the Paftors, I muft be a little more parocular. Thefe Gentlemen ftand very high in th Opinion of the Laity, and are

ready

Dresde

n.

icq

ready to think themfelves Bithops. Having fuch Notions as thefe in their Heads, they anathematife all that are not Lutberans The Catbolics and the Reform'dy or, to fpeak as they do, the Papijls and CahnmftSf all Chriftians in mort who are of a contrary Opinion to thofe charitable Ecclefiaftics are datnn'd without Mercy. Yet by the Appearance of thefe fevere Judgcs, one would think they preach'd only Peace and Paradife; and they have fuch a meek, humble, modeft, and timorous Air, that you wou'd be apt to take them for Saints. A few days ago I had an Adventure with one of thofe Clergymen, which I will acquaint you of, becaufe I think it may give you an Idea of their Charaer for he that feesone of them, feesall. 1 happen'd to be making a Vifit to a Lutberan Lady, who paffes for a very devout one There was already a pretty deal of Company, and who ihould corne in to add to it but a Minifter that was a Do&or, and by confequence a Man of Importance; as fuch too he wasreceivdby the Miftrefs of the Houfe, who fd to me as foon as fhe faw his Face, TonwiUnowfee a bolyMan. The good Man, or Saint, ashe wou'd be reckon'd, enter'd the Room with his Eyes caft downward, making profound Reverences, and proftrating himfelfin fucha manner as if he had faid Domine nonfum dignus. At laft, after a great many Compliments, he fat down, was filent for a few Moments, and then he fpoke. His Words were all facred, and his Sentencesfuch as if the wife Man himfelf had fpoke with his Lips Godbe prais'd was in every Phrafe, and he was hearken'd to with as much Attention asan Oracle. 1 liften'd to him firft like the reft, but at length 1 thought 1 might as well talk to a pretty young --Lady that fat juft by me. The Doftor oflfended to fee the little Regard 1 paid to what he faid, cnquir*d of the Miltrefs of the Houfe who 1 was.
Shc

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She told hiin myName, and withal that 1 was once Calvinifti but that 1 was turn'd Papift. What a Thunder-flroke wasthis to the Doftor He threw himilf to the back of his Chair, lifted up his Eyes to Heaven* figh'd, and cry'd out, Das Gott nbarme, i. e. Gdbelpusi Then tranfported by a Fit of Zeal, he turn'd about to me and aflt'd me what had induc'd me to embrlce a Religion which he treated as Idolatry ? I told him that 1 did not think he need to give himfelf any Trouble about my Converfion4 fince according to his Syftem I was damn'd when a Cahhtift as well as when a Gatkolic; Tbe Cafe is not quite the fame, faid the Minifter j butto turn Papift! cry'd he, to adore Baal! totcomea Difciple of Anticbrift! al as! it were better to be a damti'd Calvinift! 1 own that 1 had much ado to help laughing outright at the Minifter's impertinent Zeal yet I had theDifcretion to contain myfelf, for I had a mind to fee to what length he wou'd carry his fanify'd Rant. He faid indeed a great deal, and becaufe 1 made no Anfwer, he thought he had convinc'd me, if not tuch'd me to the quick. H was aftually applaudinghimfelf for the good Work he had wrought upon my Sol, when 1 told him that he ought not to conclude from my Silence that he had convinc'd me that it neither confifted with my Charater nor my Temper to difpute about Religion, that 1 left everyMan to his own Opinion, and that knew which to adhere to. Wbat Blindftefsis hre cry'd the Doftor again, Wbat a mad Papift are y ou? Ifyouwillnotbe of our Communion, return to the Religion wbicb ,youbave abandon'd, in wbicb tbere are fam Hopesat leaft tbat God will pardon you. The fanatical Doftor concluded hisEtclamations by a Prayer, in which he begg'd God to preferve every good Lutterait Sol from the Errors of

Poperyj

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161

Popery and then he went away, leaving the Company more fcandaliz'd than edify'd by his Zeal. Formerly the Preachers had the pleafure of venting their Choler in the Pulpit, but the King by a wife Decree,, which indeed ought to be followed in all Countries, has confin'd them to the Preaching of the Gofpel, and to treat of ControverfialMatters no farther than is merely neceffaryfor the People's Inftruction. For the reft, the Parfons need not fear being foon fupplanted, for the Saxons are hearty Lutterons j and if they tolerate the Catholics, 'tis becaufe they cant help it. They have excluded them from Offices in the Courts of Judicature, and from the Privilege of enjoying Lands but they have not been able to keep them out of Places in the Miniftry, or at Court, nor from Employmentsin the Army, which are three very engaging Articles to make Profelytes among the Gentry. Thus, Sir, you have ail that I can fay^to you relating to Drefden and Saxony. 'Tis now high time to put an end to my Legend. I kifs your hand, and am, fc?f.

Vol. L

LET

1 62 CoUltF L E MMI NG.

LETTER

V.

S I R, Weimar, S. ^V). Sept. 1 write you an account of what BEFORE of me when 1 left Dre/den, I ifaatl bscnme to give you the Intelligence you endeavour defire concerningthe late Countde Flemmittg,Prime Minier and Velt-Marfhal oSaxony. That Nobleman was of a good Extrait ion, being defcended of a Family which pretends to derive its Origin from that of Flemming, which has been of confiderable Sweden, Germany* Rankforalongtimein5//)i< and Poand. My Lord l1d'igtouns the Chief of that i Fmify in Stctland, James-Henry Count i Femming, whofe Pourtraiture and Gharacr you defire of me, was born the 8th of Marcb 1667. His Father was Prefident of the Regency of Stargardt the Capital of Prujfian Potnerania, whohad threcSons, of whom this Count wasthe fecond. He had an Education fuitable to his Birth. He ftudy'd firft at Francfort upon the Oder*,and afterwards at Utrecbt under th celebrated Gr*vws> wfeere he learntLatin to fuch a degreethat healwaysfpoke it with very great Eloquence. After he had finifh'd his Studies he enter'd into the Service of Brandenbourg, where the Baron de Span, his Uncle by the Mother's fide, was Velt-Mar1hal. His firft Preferment was to a Pair of Colours; but in a litde, time he had a Company given him, which he commandedat the Battle of Ortajfan'va. Piedmont. In 1694, he enter'd as a Lieu-

Count

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e Lieutenant-Colonel into the Service of jobn-Georg IV. Eleftrof Saxony-, pori wliofe Death, and the Succeflionof Frdric-Juguftus, Flemming obtain'd a Regiment, and accompariy'd the new Eedtor into Hungary^ where he commanded the Emperor's Army agairift the Infidels during th Campaigns of 1695, and 1696. There it was that Flemmingkill'd in a Duel the Baron de Lovel, whd was Lieutenant-Colonel iri the Service of Saxony. In 1697, he was fent into Poland, where, bythe Intereft of his Coun-german, th Daughte of Velt-tirfhal Spto of Btrlin, Wife of M. Brebentau Palatine of Mrienbottrg, who died Great Treafurer of Peland, and by the Credit of BenediB Sapieha he had the Happinefs of getting his Maftcr dif King of Poland, This Negotn ation obtain'd him the Poft of Major-General, and laid the Foundation of -his Fortune. In 1 700, he was made a Lieutenant-General, and in that Quality laid fiege to Riga, which the King of SweaeH oblig'd him to nrife. In 1702 He marry*dSapieba, a Daughter of ohe of the chief Noblcmen of Litbttama. He was wounded the fame Year at dis at Battle oClifchboffy which time the King of Sweden being every where viftorious, demanded that the King of Peland fhou*ddeliver up Flemmingto him. But upon this hc rerir*dto Brandenbourgytill King Staniflaus had made Charles XII. eafy. Flemming being return'd to Saxony, fought a Duel with M. de Scbulembourg,who giving him a Fall, infifted that he lhould beg his Life but Flemming got out of this ugly Scrape by a fcurvy Joke, and Scbulembourg ave him his Life. The latter was a g younger Lieutenant-General than Flemming,but in every refpe: his Rival, and wou'd have been a Marfhal if his Fortune had been as good as his Valour. At the Battle of Frauenftad in 1 705, where he was defeated by the Swedes, Scbuleinbourg uitq

M z

ted

1 64

Count

Flemming.

ted the Serviceof Saxonyand went into that oVeniee. By this means Flemming^who had now no Rival left, was made a Marinai, and happcn'd to be at Drefden when the King ofSweden made that ftrangc Vifit to the King of Polaxd; at which time, if Augufius had been as ungenerous as Flemming.,Charles wou'd have been detain'd. Many People accufe Flemmingof having perfuaded the King his Mafter to deliver up Patkul This 1 can't prtend to affirm, but that there was a mortal Antipathy betwixt him and the Minifter of Ruffia is certain for the latter having prefnted a Memorial to the King of Poland, fetting forth the wretched condition of the MufcoviteTroops in the Pay of Saxony, concluded it with thefe Latin Words,
DJXI, ET Salvavi Anmam.

Which Memorial, when Flemminghad read, and found himfelfnot very well ufed in it, he took a Pen and underwrote thefe Words,
MALEDIXISTI, ET Damnaberis.

After the Difafter which Charles XII. met with near Pultowa, Flemmingcontributed very much to the Re-eftablifliment of King Auguftusin Peland. He confirm'd the Alliance betwixt his Mailer and the Czar, made Peace with the Confederates, and concluded another Alliance with Denmark. The Czar and the King of Denmarkhonour'd him with their Orders of Knighthood, and he had that of Polan before. He went Ambaffador to the unfuccefsfulCongrefs at Brunfwicyand was afterwards at Hanover to attend George I. King of Great Britain. When the King of Sweenreturn'd to Pomerania, Flemmingleft no Stone unturn'd to draw the King of Pruffia into his Mafter's Alliance. He had fome Years before procur'd him the Sequeftration of the Town of Stetin, and 'twas lucky enough

for

Count

F L E M M I N G.

165

for him that the Pride and Obftinacy of the King of Swedenobliged the King of Pruffia to declarehimfelf h's Enemy. At that time Flemmingwas rather a Courier between Drefden, Berlin, and Warfawy than an Ambaffador and Prime Minifter, which Dignity he enjoy'd after the Death of the Prince de Furfiemberghis Predeceflbr. When the Peace of the North was fettled, Flemming went Ambaffador to Vienne, where he concluded the Marriage of the Electoral Prince of Saxottywith the Archduchefs, eldeft Daughter to the Emperor Jofepb, tho* the Contraft had been fettled before by the Count de Wackeriartb, who it may. be faid had the Pains to negotiate it, and Flemmingthe Glory of finifhing it. At this time Count Flemminghad refign'd all the Salaries of his Employments in Saxony, and only refervM to himfelf the private Perquifites and the Franchife of the Poft-Offices and his Journeys, which were very frquent, were all at the Expence of the King. It was about this time that he caus'd his Marriage with Sapieba to be difTolv'd, and marry'd one Radzevil, by whom he had a Son, who was but a Year and a half old when the Count died at Vienna, to whichplace he was return'd with the Character of Ambaflador. He left all his Eftate to this Child, without making any Intail on his Family i fo that when this Son died, who did not long furvive him, his Eftate went to Madame de Flemming, who by marrying again carry'd the Bulk of it into another Family. They fay that his Inheritance was worth fixteen Millions of Crowns, exclufive of what he had expended dur ing the Splendor ofhis Fortune, which lafted thirty Years, or thereabouts. Whether Richelieuand Mazarine got greater Eftates, 1 cannot fay but in Germmy there is not an Inftance of one fooner acquir'd, more refplendent, and better fupported than his was He was Prime Minifter, Velt-Marflial of Saxonjt M3

j66

Count F u m m i n c.

Saxo/ty,and Maftjr of the Horfe of Lithuania by which Offices he gain'd immenfe Sums. He madc cpnfidcrablc Purhafes in Silefia and Poland, but verylittle in Saxeny. Whether he left any thing to th King is not faid tho' he ought really to have made him fome Reftitution, and he might naturally have given up wirh a good Grace what he cou'd not but forefce wou'd be taken by force from his Heir. As jt was juft that his Succeflion fhou'd pafs thro' the Purgatory ofa ChambreArdente, the j^ing eftabljlh'd one, which *cisfaid has adjudg'd eight Mijlions to his Majefty, and the fatne to his Widpw j which is a very fair Dividend. Count Flmmiug was taller than ordinary, but a handfome Man h^ehad very regtilar Features, a ively pye, a dil^ainful Sneer, a haughty Air, and hp was reaJlv proud, and beyond meafure ambitioa. Y\t yas generous to a.degree of Oftentation, and alway airn'^ to dq fpmething to be talk'd of, (je was vigilant, laborious, indefatjgaUe, ajlow'd himfejf litrfe Sleep j and whenever he took 4 Debauh, a Nap of two Hours fet him to rights again. It vas no more for him to go from a Dcbayh to Bufinefs,.than from Bufinefi to a Debut bajih. and he never fatigu'd himfeJf", difpatch'd th greateft Affairs with fo much qfe as if they w^re only a piverfpn. Helov*<itp banter, but did not always make ufe of th Terms fuitable to his C^aradcr and Perions who did not dare to anfwer jbim again, werc ommonly the Butts of hjs Raillery, J^iewas police when hc had a mind to it, Lut in th gnerai Courte ofhis Behaviour he earry'd an Air fitter for a Captain of Dragoons than for a Marlhal aad a Prime .' ap?io. f~g(J. never.~nfora thing fo^ !ittr Prime R^inifter. Ife djd a M'iH'lhal o any body wijthoutfome Viewj be frupl'd neither Ciinning nor ven ^erjury, and pjovided he could gain hjs Ends, ail ways were a.}ikefajr to him. Alj lfee h tpk care t &,hi p,w$ ufinj?^
nrlt,

167 firft, and then his Mafter'sthe King's and I queftion whether I do him any Injuftice il 1 fay that he was the King of Pruffiah Minifter, much more than ihs King of Poland' This, Sir, is all that I have to fay to you concerning Count Flemming. 1 have told you very nakedly what 1 always thought of him, and I don't believe that I hvemiftaken his Chara&er. Be this as it will, my Decifion is of too little weight to do either Good or Harm; the Publick will always judge of him according to their bcft Information. 1 proceed now with the Narrative of my Travels. After I had fet out from Brefden I went to AlUnbourg in hopes of finding the Court of Gotba there, which 1 had been told, intended to (pend the Remainder of the fine Seafon there but it was fet out the Night before for Gotba, where I hope to fee it to-morrow. 'The City of ALT BOURG the Capitalof a Counet* is ty of that Name, of which*heDuke of Saxe-Gotha is the Sovereign. This Prince has a Palace there which makes a handibme appearance, but I fhall fay nothing more of it becaufe 1 negkled to go and fee it. The Peafants of the County of Iltenbourg are the richeft in Germany, and may almoft vye with thofe of Holland. I have been affur'd that fomeof them have given 20 or 30000 Crowns in Marriage-with their Daughters; and like the Dutcb Peafants, they take care to match them td none but the Sonsof fubftantial Farmers. As I left AltenbourgI came upon a fine Caufey with a Row of Trees on each fide, which broughc me to the Frontiers of the County. 1 afterwards fell into very bad Roads all the way to Leipfic, whcre 1 ftay'd but a very few Hours, and proceeded th This City was much fam day to Mersebovrg. more confiderable formerly than naw. It was the M 4 Sec 2

Altenbourg.

t68

MERS ebourg.

See of a Bilhop, but was fcculariz'd by the Treaty of PaJJaw in favour of the Houfe of Saxony. Its Situation is charming, with Gardens and Meadows ail round it, and its Walls are wafli'd by the River Sala. Th grt Church which was formerly a Cathedral is a Gotbic Building, where there is aftatcly Tomb of the Emperor Redclpb of Scbwartzbowrg* who died after he had loft one Hand in a Battle he fought with the Emperor Henry IV. with whom he was Competitor. This Prince a few Moments betore he expir*d, took up his Hand that was cut off, and holding it up to thofe who were about him, Jid to them, Beholdtbis Hand; 'tis tbe fame tbat d I Hfted up wben I promis* Faltb and Allegiance to my Emperor and Lord but by y sur Avice and Inftigation I bave not kept my Promfe to bim, for tvbicby ouwill oneiay give an aecountto God. Some time after this unfortunate Prince's Death, the Emperor Henry IV. coming to Merfebourg and taking a view of RodoIpbuSs Tomb, of which he admirM the Magnificence, certain Flatterers told him that the Tomb ought to be deftroy*d as too pompous for a Rebel; but the Emperor fcoming fuch a pitifill Revenge, made anfwer, ff^eu'dto Gad tbat all interr*d. my Encmieswere /bus pompoujly The City of Merfebourg the Refidence of a is Duke of the Houle of Saxc/ty, who is Sovereign of ail the Country that formerly conftituted the BiHioprick, which enables him to keep a fplendid Court*. The next day after my Arrivai Ihad the Honour to pay him my Compliments, and had a very ltisfaory Rception. The Prince condufted me into a Hall which was hung with Bais-Viols from the Bottom to the Top, in the fam manner as anArfenal is with Helmets and Breaft-Plares. In the middle of the Hall there wasa Viol which was diTheDukeoSMtrfiieurgded1731,tad wasfucceeded in de by hisUnde, theDuke Sfrinierg.

M E

RS

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169

diftinguifh'd from the reft. It reach'd up to the very Cidtng, and there wasa Ladder fet, whichfuch ashad theCuriofity to take a particular Viewof it wereoblig'd to afcend, for furely it wasthe moft ftately Inftrument ofthe kind that ever was made. The Duke made me take particular notice of it, and was pleas'd with the Admiration which I exprefs'd of it. He regal'd me alfo with fome Airs upon another BalsViol which he call'd his Favorite, and which was but one fourth part as big as the other. After this Concert 1 din'd with the Duke and Duchefs. This Princefs is the Daughter of the late Prince of Najpm-Idfteint than whom there cannot be a more amiable Lady. She has an Air of Mildnefs, Goodnefs and Prudence dififed over all her Features; and her Wit is of the fame Stamp as her Beauty, amiable without Parade and Oftentation. Some of her Courtiers aflur'd me,-that her Mind is as charming as her Perfon. If that be true, which I am loth to doubt of, this Princefs defervesa more fplendid Fortune than what fhe enjoys. After Dinner, 1 wasone at a Match of Quadrille with the Duchefs, and at night there was dancing, and 1 never faw any body dance with a better Grace than this Princefs. The Bail held till the Night was far advanced, when there wasa grand Supper, which was no fooner over than 1 took leave of the Duke and Duchefsand retir*dto my Quarters, with a defign to fet out in a few Hours and proceed in my Journey. At my Lodging 1 found a Gentleman from the Duke, who faid to me, That as he was pafling by he faw my Men packing up my things, and that therefore he came in purely to wifl me a good Journey. He a me that he had a fecret Kindnefs for me that I might ffely take his Word that he was Sincerity it felf and that he wifh'd 500000 Devils might l twift his Neck if he was not heartily my Friend
And

ijo

Mersibourg.

And to give you proofs of it, faid be, I wilt treat you with fome Triflc, fuch as a Dram of An nifeed, Orange-Water, or Ratafia. Upon my word my Apothecary has what is choice good hc lives but at the end of the Street; Corne, I will ihew you the way to his Houfe.' While he harangu'd me in this manner he reeld, being fo drunk that he cou'd not ftand. 1 thank'd him therefore for his Love, and told him that 1 did not drink Drams, but that if hc had a mind to any Liquor of that fort, I would fend for fome for him , and I bid my Landlord tetch it. The Apothecary, as ill luck would have it, was not yet got up. Soho, hre, faid tirjntw Friend., there is nothing to drink but Aquavite; here, Landlord, aGlafs of Brandy, Pipes and Tobacco. You muft have fomething, faid bey to be doing.' Every thing he call'd for being brought, my Gentleman drank two or three Glafls of Brandy, and fmoak'd as many Pipes of Tobacco. I hoped to fe him tumble down, and by confequence to get rid of him, when he took it into his head to call for fome Difhes of Tea that 1 had order'd to be made for my felf, and which made him fo fober that he recover*d his Reafon. 1 laid hold of this happy Interval (for I heard him calling out for Brardy, which 1 apprehended would occafiona Relapfe) and talk'd to him about his Mafter*s Bafs Viols; upon which, without much Intreaty, he faid to me, You know. Sir, that every Man almoft bas his particular Whim, Princes as well as private Perfons. One is an Admirer of Magnificence, another ofTroops, and a third of Miftrcfls. As for my auguft Mafter, his Fancy ruifi only on Ba-Viols, and whoever follicits him for an Employment or anyotherFavoar, can'tdobetrer than to accpmmodate his Arfenalwithoneofthefe Inftruments. That verylarge one^faid be, which you faw in the Room whcre all his Viols are, was

pre-

Na"

BWU.n

*71

prefcnted to him by one who wanted to be a Privy-Counfellor his Ptition was granted, and had he aflt'd for any thing elfe he might have had it.' This officious Gentleman me a great told many other Particulars which let me into the very Chronkle of the Court of Mcrftbourg but I don't trouble you with it, becaufe the Truth is not to be told at all rimes, My Equipage being rady, I fet out for NaumBOuro, where 1 arrived at Noon. This City was formerly the Seeof a Bifhop. Its ancient Cathedral $ ftill ftanding, and tho' Luther* has a Chapter and Canons who muft prove their Nobility both by the Father's fide and Mother's fide, by flrteen Defcents. When this Biftoprick was feculariz'd it was faid that no Catholic Prince could ever be poffefs'd of this State. Therefore when the laft Duke of Saxe-Zeits, Adminiftrator of Naumbmrgy turn'd Catholic, the King of Poland as eldeft of the Saxon Family and Excuter of the Paffa or Conventions ma4e between the Princes of that Family, took poffeffipnof Ndvmbttnr. The Duke's being reconcilt-d to the Lutheran Communion was to no purpofe, the King did not reftore his Dominions to hun, but ftill pofieflb them, tho' he is more a Catholic than the Duke of Ztits perhaps ever was. You know that this Prince bas left a Nephew who would have been his Heir, if hehad not been a Catholic and a frieft. This is the Prince who, 1 acquainted you from Drefden, was Bifhop pf Konigjgratzin Bohemia.He wasborn a Luttera as are ail thofe of his Family. His Uncle the Cardinal of Saxe, Brother to the Duke of Zeits, made him mbrce the Roman Catholic Religion when he was very young, and afterwards perluaded him to enter into Eccleaitical Orders, by which ftc-p his Iephcw of the glorious Prerogahe deprived pvot being a Sovcreign Prince, and transferredhis
Rights

m.

K.

Rights to the K ing of Polartdhs diilant Coufin. Naumbourg is famous for its Pairs, which nexc are to thofe of LeipftCy the moft confiderable in &<7Hjr.The Suburbs of this City are almoft ail Vineyards but why, I know not, for the Wine is fo deteftably bad, that they give it away in a manner for nothing. Finding nothing at Naumhmrg which was worth my while to ftay there for, 1 onJy chang'd Horfes and came hither. As one approaches this Place, we meet with Corn-Fields and Hop-Grounds in. ftead of Vines, and the Country rifes into Hills, fo that one does not feethe Town of Wbimar till we arejuft upon it. This City, which is not more confiderable than Naumbourgyis the Refidence of tae Dukeof Saxe-fVeimary who has a Palace here which does not want for Magnificence, and tho' unfinifli'd, bas an air of Grandeur. The Connoiilurs in Architecture highly extol the grand Stair-Cafe there, which two Perfons may afcend and descend at the fam time without meeting one another, and yet always keeping cach other in view. It confiftsof two Flights of Stairs upon one Spindle, laid one over the other in the fame Well of a fquareForm. The Curious who have obfrvM it, admire it, becaufe there are few fuch to be ien. The great Hall which is an oval, is beautiful, but not lighrfome enough. There are the Piclures of all the Dukes oSaxe-Wmar at full length, from the firft Duke rhat ever was down to the Father of rhe prefcnt. They are all drawn or Horfeback, and done by no mean Hand. In the fame Palace is the Dukes Library, which tho' not very large, confifts of fundry fcarceBooks. 'Tis open twice a week, when the Curious are not only pcrmitted to perufe them, but even to borrow them, upon leaving a Note with the Librarian., Th

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The Duke of Weimarfpends very little Time in his Capital, but commonly refides at a Seat which he has caus'd to be built about a League out of Town. He has given it the Name of Belle-,Vue, becaufe of the fine Prolpeft which it commands from the Apartments of the firft Story. The Houfe is fmall and not very commodious, fc that the chief Beauty of it is its Situation, which is very charming. The Gardens which are begun uttan very good Plans wi!l be beautiful when finim'd, as well as the Pheafant-Walk and Mnagerie where there are Turkeys and all forts of Fowl. The Duke offfreimar*sName is Emeft-Augufitts He is the eldeft of the Erneftine Branch which loft the Eleftorate when Charles V. was Emperor. He marry'd a Princefs of nbalt-Cotben, who 1 have been told, wasa Lady of diftinguilh'd Merit. She died and left him a Son and three Daughters. The young Prince is about ten Years of age He can neither hear nor pronounce well, and is withal of a very tender Conftitution. The Phyficians fay it fignifiesnothing, und that as he grows up he will acquire a Freedom of Speech. But 1 queftion it, and am apt to think rather that thofe Difciples of JEfculafius will fend him into the other World. The only Hopes of any Male Iffue of Weimar are founded upon this Child. The Duke of Saxe.Eyfenachwho is the next a-kin has no Children fo that the Dominions of Weimar and Eyfenacb too are ready to devolveto the Family of SaxeGotha, The Duke of Weimar** Subjets teaze him very much to marry, but the Prince does not feem to be in a Humour to fatisfy them for I have often heard him fay that he can't bear the mention of Marriage. No ThisPrince diedin 1732-

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No body prefutnes to go to Belle-Vue without being fnt for, exceptonly on Mtnd&jswhenpoor to People arc pef mieted go thither with their Ptitions which they deliver to the Secretary, and he gives them to the Duke. Perfonsof Quality, whether Foreigncrsorothers, that have a m mdtofpeak with the Duke, apply for it to the Marinai of the Court, but are feldom admitted to an Audience. The Duke basrarelyany other Companyat etteVutbut two young Ladieswhomhe callshis Maid of Honour, and three young Women, Cirizens Daughters, who go by the Name of his ChambcrMaids a Major of his Troops, and the Officerof his Guard, who a Lieutenant or an Enfigh. I had forgot to mention the Baron de BrtiBl, who is the Duke's Favoarite and his Mafter of the Horfe. 'Tis with thdc Perfonsthat the Prince paflshis Time. He waket early in the Morning, but makes it Iate beforehe rifesfor he takes his Tca in Bed, and fometimesplayson die Vioiin. At other tncs he fendsforlwArchitcsandGardeners, withwhom he amufeshimfclfin drawingof lans. His Miniftcrs P whilehe UmBcdto talk upon Bufialfocome to him nefs. About Nbon he gm up, and as foonas he is confifts of 33 drefs'd, fecshis Guard mount, which Men, commanded a Lieutenant or an Enfign. He by exercifeshis Soldiers himfelf,and cortts them to when dtey commit ny Fatilt. This done he takes a the Air, and at two or three o'clock fits down to Table, wheredie twoMaidirofHonour,ie Maferr of the Hbrfe, theMajor, the Officerofthe Guard, and even Forcignersif any happen to be there, are of the Company. The Dinner holds a- longwhile, before andrisfometimeshree, four, and fiVeHours t ftill they rife from Table. The Glafeneverftands hardly, and the Duke talks a grcat deal, but the Converfationis commonly on Subjes that are not very agreeable. When Dinner is over they drink
Coffec,

W E I

M A K.

I75

Coffee, aftcr which the Duke retires for a few Minutes, and then plays at Quadrille with his two young Ladies and the Major; but fometimes he does nothing but fmoak Tobacco, and he often retires to hk Chamber where he amufes himfelf with Drawing or elfe playing on the Violin tili he goes to Bed. There fcarce a Week pafls but the Duke gives an Invitation at leatl once or twice to all the Perlons of Quality of the Court, and all the Officers of his Troops, at which time there are two great Tables fpread, where theydine, play, fup, andafterwards dance till next Day. The Duke*sTroops confiftof a Battalion of 700 Men, aSquadronof 180 Troopers, and a Company of Cadets,on horfeback. His Infantry confifts of pick'd Men. Since the famous Bernard de Wtimar whowas Penfioner to Lewis XIII. King of France, no Duke of Weimar had fo many Troops, and rcally they- muft be chargeable to the Duke whofe Revenues 'tis faid dont exceed 400000 Crowns. This. Prince has made a Treaty whhthe King of Poland, whereby he engages to aflift th Kingwithhis Battalion wheneverlus Majeftvthinks it neceflkry for his Servicej in which Cafethe King promifes to give that Battalion the famc Pay as he does his own Troops. Mean timc the Duke is obliged to clothc them all according to the Pattern which is fait to him from Drefden-, and indeed their Clothes are very rich, efpeciallythofe of the Officers and Cadets, which are fo bedaub'd wirh Gold and Silver Lace, that a-Foreigner whocornes1 to^wwflr cannot but admire it. The Duke*s afflil y is very numerous, for befides F the Prince his Son and the three Princcfls his Daughters, he has a Sifter, and a Mther-in-law, who is a Prmce&of H~M~o~: Mean time he

has

176

Weimar.

has a numerousCourt, and may boaftthat {orneof them are Perfonsof very great Merit. The Gentlemanwho ts at the Head of Affaireis the Baron de Reinbabe, who has the Title of Prefi* dent of the Councilof State. He is a Perfon of a goodFamily, inSilefia,bas verygreatAbilities,and and withal fo much Good-nature Modefty as are feldom to bc met with. When he was young he travell'd very much abroad, wherehe learnt what was valuable in every Country that he came to. He fpeaksfeveral Languages we'l, is a great Hiftorian, alearnedCivilian, and a good Poet. Notthat withftandingthe Bufmefs gocs thro' his Hands, andhis Care of a numerousFamily, he is alwaysalmoftat hisStudies,andneverbetter pleas'dthanwhcn he is in his Library; yet he is no Enemy to Pleahimfelf fures, but enjoysthem without abandoning to them, and takes them as they fall in his way 1 without purfuing 'cm. To finilh hi&Charadber will add what was faid of him by a Prince who knew him intimately: If Probitywasintirehf Ufi intbereftofMankitii, faid heto me, Itbinkljbati iefure tofind it again in tbeBaronde Reinbabe. i The BarondeScbmitdels Marfhal of the Court and Dire&or of the military Cheft. He is a Perfon of great Piety, whofe Afpeft is not indeedthe moft engaging, yet a very good Man to haveto do with. Heis a unccre Friend, loves to do a kind Thing, is exact in the Dutiesof his Offices, an Enemy to Vice, and very much attach'd to the Interefisof his Mafter, tho' hedoes not al ways leafe p him becaufehe has not the Talent of DMfimulaat tion fo neceflry Courts. The Baron de Studenitza Silefianis a PrivyCounfellor, and Prefident of the Chamber. Hewasformerly in the Serviceof the Duke ofSaxeBarbi, and afterwardshe enter'd into that of the Duke of Saxe-Hilbtrlbaufat, whofe Finances he direcced

Weimai.

jyi

directed for feveral Years, in which he acquired a Reputation, and came to IVeimarwhere he was continued in the fam Employment. He is a Gentleman of very great Learning and Integrity, and having travell'd a long time in his Youth, very well knows how to carry himfelf. M. de Hering is of a noble Family in th Couivtry of Anbat-Cotben, He is the Duke's Aulic Counfellor, a Gentleman of Worth, and both Leamed and Poiite. He is on the point of Ieaving this Court, which will be a Lofe to the Duke that he will not eafily repair. M. de Brubltht Duke's Mafter of the Horfe and Favourite, isa Saxon. His Birth, good Qualities, and efpecially his fweet Temper render him very worthy of a Sovereign's Favour.. Yet 1 doubt whether, notwithftanding fo much-Merit, he has a firm Footing in the Duke's Friendihip he has too much Candor, too much Sincerity, and is too zealous to do Services and perhaps alfo too much attach'd to the Interefts and Honour of his Mafter for tho* thefe Qualities have the Appearance of Virtues, yet they are fometimes Errors in the Eyv of Princes. Thus, Sir, have I given you the Names of the moft diftinguilh'd Perfons at the Court of Weimar. 1 fet out to-morrow for Gotba. I hope for a Line from you at Wiirtzbourg, and don't propofe to write again to you till I know whether you are living or dead. Iam, &c.

Vol. I.

L E T-

178

ERFURT.

GOTHA.

LETTER

VII.

SIR, Gotba, ept, , 1732. S 9 ISet out from Weimar at 5 o'clock in the Morsing, and by eight was at Erfurt, where 1 walk'd about an Hour, and came at Noon to Gotha. 'Tis ail a flat Country abounding with Corn. In time of Rain the Roads are fo bad that fometimes it takes up a whole Day to come from Erfurt #0 Gotba. Erfurt isa City belonging to the Elcor of Mentz, is the Capital of Thuringia, and may be rank'd among thofe of the fecond Clafs in Germany. Its Inhabitants are almoft all Lutherans, yet the principal Churches belong to the Catholics. Erfurt is fortifiedwith good Ramparts, and by a Caftle on a Hill which abfolutely commands the Town. There is alwaysa good Garifon in the Place, which confifts of the Emperor*s Soldiers and thofe of ~Tentx and the Etector has a Governor here with the Title of Stadtbolder, who prefides in the Regency. Gotha, which is not near fo big as Erfurt, is a City fituate in the middle of a fine fruitful Plain, fo that which way foever one approaches it, one always tferceives the Caftle or Palace of the Duke, which ftands on an Eminence by itfelf, and has a Profpeft of a vaft Extent of Country. This Caftle, which is one of the biggeft in Germany, was built by Ernefi Duke of Gotha, furnamed the Pions who

caufed

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caufed both that and the Town to be encompafled with Ditchesand Ramparts. To th Glory of this and finilhed thefe Great Prince, he undertook Works, at a time when Germany was {o impoverilhed by inteftine Wars that tew of its Princes were able to ereft Palaces*. As of ali the Saxon Princes of th Ernejine Branch, the Duke of Gotba is the moft powerful, fo his Court is of ail the Saxon Courts next to that of Drejden, the moft Numerous and the moft Magnificent. The chief Trade of this Town is in Woad, of which ther have three forts. The firft they fow about Chriftmas, the next in the Spring, Summer, and Harwtfl, of which they have three Crops. and the third grows wild. This Herb is fuch a fovereign BalCunic, that it cures Wounds almoft vitha touch, iftaken in tims. It refeinbles Plantain, but has a longer Leaf. The Rootsftten and improve barren Ground exceedingly, and being brought over to England, with C/over, Cinque-Foil,&c. and grows with good Succefsin NartbamptonJ/nre, other Places. In the Duke's Palace there is a Chamber of valuable Rarities, and a noble Library, of which the late Duke caus'd a Catalogue to be publifh'd of the MSS. that the Leamed might knowwhere to have recourfe to them. The Perfon he imployed to form it, was Dr. Cyprianut Ecc1cfiafticalCounfellor and Affefibr in the Conftltory of Gotba. They are for the moft part the MSS. of F.cciefiafticalAuthors, Ancient and Modem, efpecially the latter. There is a great Nunjber of papers and Letters in the Latin and Germon Languages, coacerning Luther'* Reformafbn, and feveralMSS. of the vugar Tranflation of the Bible. There is a correfter Copy than that at Leipj, of the Works of LaSantiuii anotherof St. Auftini Treatiic of the City ef God, rhich helongedto WilligifeArchbi(hop of Mentz,about the year 1000; another of the ancient Capitularies of the Kings of France, with the Salie Laws, and the Laws of the Lombards. Almaim, &c. There are thirty one MS. Volumes containing the Abridgments of the Livesof the Emperors of theWeft, and of the Eajl, their Piaures and Medals, and thofe of their Families, the whole collefted in 1550, by James de Strada of Mantna. The Medals are very well defign'd, and Occothe famous AntiquaryaffirmsinaLetterquotedbyM. Patin, that every Figure on them eott a Crown the engravieg. There is a particular MS. which contains a Colleion of Trafts .by certain Gretk Chyroifts concemingthe defirable Art ofmaking GsJd. For:he reft the Curiousare refrred to the Catalogue it telf.

N 2"

Never

180

G O T H A.

Neverthdefs the Subjecte of the Duke oFGotiaf are the leaft burthen'd with Taxes of any in Germany. To this Princt's wife Management of his Finances is owing not only his own Happinefs, but that of his People too, by whom he is ador'd and really he treats them more like a Father, than a Sovereign and never makea them fenfble of his Power, but when he is to do them Juftice. He is a kind good Mafter, eafy of Accefs, temperate in his way of Living, gives very great Application to the Affairs of his Government, loves Reading, underftands Books, and knows every thing which a Prince ought to be acquainted with. As to his Perfon, he is handfome and comely is civil in his Deportment, but refervd and therefore feldom fpeaks to Strangers, if he can help it but endeavours firft of all to know thofe he has Bufinefswith, and when he bas found out their Character, talks with them upon fuch Subjeb as he thinks they are beft acquainted with. He keeps regular Hours, rils at feven oclock, firft fpends an Hour in Prayer, and the reading of fome pious Treatife and then gets himfelf drefs'd, and gives Audience to his Minifters, or to other Perfons that defire it. At Noon he dines with the Duchefs his Wife, the Princes his Children, and other Perfons of Diftinction ftays about an Hour and a half at Table, and then takes a Walk in the Gardens of the Palace, or if the Weather does not permit, he empjoys himfelf in his Clofet, or fpends the Time m reading tiU five o'clock. Then he goes to the Houfe of fome Perfon of DilHntion at his Court where all the Nobility have an Affembly, and plays at Ombre, after which he returns to his Palace, fups in the manner that he ditfd, and at nine o'clock retires. There is a Drawing-Room at Court three times a Week when the Company meets in a grt Hall, where v F f l^ii Prince, /howas rtrk IX.4M in 17% Manb 12.

Gotha.

181

where they make Parties at Ombre and Piquet, At feven o'clock a large Table is fpread, which is free for all the Company. Then aCarvercutsup the Vi&uak, which are handed to that, and to ail the Gaming-Tables that are coverM with Napkins. Thofe who don't play may fit down at what Table they like beft. The Duke, the Duchefs, or the Princes, generally do Foreigners the Honourto admit them to their Table. During the Supper there is a Concert of Mufic, and at nine o'Clock ail the Company retires. The Duke by his Marriage with Magdalen-Augufta of Anbalt-Zerbft, has feven Sons and two Daughters*: The eldeft is the Hereditary Prince, who has been twice in Paris, and once in Italy, England, Halland, Denmark, Sweden, and at all the Courts of Germany, which Travels he has acquir'd in a great deal of Politenefi and valuable Knowledge. I had the Honour of making my Compliments to him both at Paris, and the Hague, and found him of fuch a Temper as induces me to think that the Subjefts of Gotba will be as happy hereafter under his Government, as they are under that of the Duke his Father. He was lately married to his Coufin-German Louifa-Dorotbea of Saxe-Mciriungen,a very lovely young Princefs, who, with all her Graces and Charms, has abun-. dance of Good-natureand Modefty t. The Duke has all the Great Officers common to cther Sovereigns. The Count de Ronaw is Great Marlhal, and the chief Man at Court. They give him here the Charaer of Favourite whether he is fuch 1 know not, but this I know, that he is not and He hadten Sons fixDaqghtcn he^. TheHerwHby I who h tary Prince fucceeds im isFredericII. born Afril 4, bornMarcbiz> 1699. He ha*a BrothernamedWilliam in Service. time j 70 andfome an Officcr theDxlcb 1 # f ShewasborqJuguJ!10, 1710.
N 3 un-

782

Gotha.

unworthy of i-. 1 was very well acquainted with him at Ratisbtm in 1720; he was not then in any Place, and expreieda Friendfhip for me; and now that I fee him here in a Poft, 1 find him the fame Man as at Ratbony alwaysa Friend to his Friends which for a Favourite is a very great Characler. The Duke's Revenues are computed ar a Million of Crowns a year, with which he maintains near 3000 Men of regular Troops. His Family is large and his Livery fine; his Guards are very well cloath'd; his Table is ferv'd with more Delii cacy than ProfuGon his Palace is well furnifh'dj every body pun&ually paid and no body diffatisfied. 1 don't mention the Library to you, nor the Chamber of Rarities, beeaufe I am not yct well enough inform'd of fuch Things there as are worth obferving. I propoH;to take another Round before I go hence, and lhall not fail to tranfmit to you v/hat Obfervations I ftull make there. Mean time, 1 am, tc L E T.T. SincebefeLcttenwerewrittenthe Faceofthe Courtof t mentiened is Gotais verymuchaltered. The Duketherein FrtJerkhasfnccecded and dead. TbeHereditary rince P him, rerired Jfoentevrg, to with kisMotherth Duchefs owager D her who bornJuly6, thePrinceffes Daughters, are Fredenca b 1715,O.S. and Augufta orn Nev. 18, 1719-and married Frttric tohisRoyal ighnefs Prince oftFales. jbril 27, 1736. H The Duke'sBrothers, areWilliem,7eh*-jfup,flKs, who CbrifMaurictand Jobn-jjohbus, re a tian-William, Ltnxii-Erntfi, o asd goneintothe Service fthe Emperor,theKir.gofPolamd, of As th the Prince ,~affr-Caffel. to the Government, Duke ofbis!ateFather. M. Batbvfrishis treads thevery in Steps andthe FirftManinhisCouncil. M.deHering, Chancellor, o is Vitefomerlyin the Service f theDukeof Saxc-Wcimar, is at ferv1. 4t thjyEiialoFiv Cocnt4k-P-axmu Envo~r- the D~et -=, ,or-. the..Cim-.nt Xtmav; now TJw is nowEnvoyut Dyet i o mfRmtisbm, de Dtumitx,heretoforenthe Service f the M. a PrincedeRsdtljiad,is Grand-Marihal ndferaitto havea Confidence. This Gentleman alfo is (barc in thenewDuke's a Majpr-General, andthe Campfeems for tebea ftter Elment him

Eysnach.

183.

LETTER SIR, WHEN

VIII.

Sept. WurtxJmrg, 22, 1729. I came hither I had the v;.ry great Pleafure to find your Letters, and V V to hear that you enjoy perfeft Health. Continue, I befeech you, to write to me; that being the only Means by which yeu can perfuade me what 1 wifh to be convinced of more than any thing in the World, that my Letters are acceptable to you. I have been in one of the moft difagreeable Roads in ail Cer~any and tho' th Country abounds with Provions of all forts, 1 had like to have been famifhed in the Public Houfes. From Coihay1 went to Eysenach, thinking to pafs a few Days at that Court, but 1found the* Duka fick, and the Hereditary Prince and Princefs t abfent, fo that 1 had only my Labour for my Pains. t o o Km)hantheCourt.- TheOffice f Mafter f the HorfeM a notyet fill'd up. M. de~Mr~,a Perfon QualityndMerit, of of i wasin poffeffion that Oificen thelateDakes time,buthe it is a lateiyrefigncd of ht ownccord. M.de Stctterteim, to GreatCup-Bearer, isasyet, I think,in the who happointed o Prince. Service ffome Foreign William Years at fixty-one John died after marriedo hi* t foarthWife ofAge,foon havinj; Mary Cbrifthe tira Felicite oontefs Linangt, Widow'of C of Chrifl'uiu Mar^ graveof Badcn-Dottrlacb.. Charlotte Prujp* of of t Jun Sophia Daughter thelateMara to the Uenty prefentDukeof graveAlbert, ndWife William ~axe-Eyyc:acb. As N4

FULD E. 184 As the Town of Eyfenacb offers nothing at all to View which is worth a Traveller's Attention, 1 fet out the fame Day for FULDE, where 1 arrived the next. You know, that this City is the Capital of the PrincipaIity of Fulde, the Sovereign of which is an Abbot, a Prince -of the Empire, and Chancellor to the Emprefe. The prefent Sovereign is AioU fbus Baron of Bahlberg, who was chofe by the Chapter of th Abbey Church in 1 726, in the room of Confiant ne Baron of Butbler, who died i iuddenly, and not without fufpicion of Poifon. Fulde is a dirty 1ittle Town open on all fides, and has nothing remarkable but the Abbey Church, and the Prince's Palace, which are two Freeftone Buildings that make a very grand Appearance. The Apartments of the Palace are yery richly furnifhd. Thelaft Abbot being a Man of good Underftanding and great Views, caufed this Palace to be fo adorn'd as to demonftrate the Wealth of the Abbey.. The Prince Abbot has a Grand Marihal, a Ma ter of the Horfe, a Marihal of the Court, feveral Privy and Aulic Counfellors, a Number ofGendemen; a Company of Horfe-Guards well cloathed sr\ well mounted, a Rgiment of Foot Guards, tight Pages, a Number of Footmen, and feveral Sits of Horfes. He gives a rich Livery, and in a word, hisHouflioldispruceandmagnificent. There arc very few Sovereigns in Girmapy whofe Table is better ferved for there is plenty of every thing, pirGularly delkious Wines, of whichthey tipple to iuch Excefi that in a very little rime they are not capable of diffinguifliingtheir Liquor. There are, 1 believe, the hardeft Drinkers hre in Europe and I baing on the othcr hand but a Milkfbp, thought that Fulde was.net a ountry for me to pitch my ?Tent in." I diiied with the Prince, went home ,^rynk to my Quarters, flept found, and next day fet

WURTZBOURG.

185

fetout for Wurtzbourg, where I am happily arriv'd ,afterhaving gone through fuch horrible bad Ways, and met with fuch difmal Lodging, that I wifh my Enemies were but condemned to travel this Road four times a Year. Here 1 make myfelf amends for the Mortification which 1 met with coming hither. Wurtzbourc is a confiderable City though not very large. The Main divides it into two Parts. It is the Refidence of the Prince Bifhop of Wurtebourg Duke of Francenia. The Perfon who now enjoys that great Dignity is CbriftopberFrancis de Houttem*. He was eleed by the Chapter to fucceed John Pbilip Franci,sCount de Scbonbom,who wasone of the greateft pnd moft magnificent Prelatesthat perhaps ever fill'd the Epifcopa! See oiJVurtzbourg. This Prince, in the five Years time that he has been Bifhop, has done more things for the Embelli1hment of Wurtzbourg than ten of his Predeceflbrs put together. He has turntfhed one Part of the Town with new Forrificarions, and has laid the Bafis of a ftately Palace, which will be one of the greateft, the comand moft regular Fabrics that we have in pleateft Gtrmax~ he having for that end confulted the moft flcilful Architecte, and fent for the moft clebratd Sculptors from Itafy. As he was a paffionate Admirer of the Arts and Sciences, and perfely underftood them, efpecially Architefture; he chofe the beft Parts of all the Defigns that were prefented to him, and from them he compos'd the plan of the Work, which was executed with fuch diligence that in four Years time two thirds of the Building were rooft. His unexpected Death a ftop for a while to this Great Work. The put prefent was CountJe Scbcnhcm His SucceffoF FrtdtricCharles of the and of Biihop Bamhtrg Vice-Chancellor Empire,who the his wasbefore Competitor.In 1734,he refigned Poof to and yice-Chancclior, lecired hisBilhoprick.

1 86

WuRTZBOURG.

Bilhoptook it in hand again, but after had prefent mg made confiderable Altrations in thofe great and magnificcnt Projccts, thc Work advances fo flowly that when it will be finifhedno body knows. The sceafed Bithop Schonbcrnhas alfo caufed a Chapel to be built near the Metropolitan Church, which he bas lined with very uncommon Marble brought for the purpofe from Italy at a very great Expence. Brais, Gilding, and every thing that can render a Chape] fuperb, bas been employed in it in a very curious manner. This ftatcJy Edifice is as yetimperfect, and will require great Sums to finilh ic. As it was defigned for th Burial-PJace of the Bifliop and his Fami]yr it is to be prefum'd that th Houfe of Scbonbornt now fo rien and fo power.ful, will not fuffer a Monument to lie unfinilh'd which is to perpetuate the remembrance of its Grairdeur. The Great Hofpital founded by a Bilhop whofe Name was Julius, is worth feeing. *Tis a ftately Building, which locks more like the Palace of a Prince. than a Hofpital. Four hundred Perfons of both Sexesare maintained in it. There are two fine Halls which are particularly made ufe of upon fioiy burfday. In the one, the BUhopperforms *he Ceremony of wafhing the Feet of the Poor, who are feaftedin it and in the other, aftenvards lumptuoufiy he regales Jbis Ghapter, and all his Family. The Caftle andsupon an Eminence on the other fide of the River which wepais over a Stone Bridge, adorn'd like that of St. Angeloat Rome, with twelve fine Statues reprefenting fo many Saints. This Caftle is a ftrong Place, and entirely commands the Town. The Form of it is quite irregular, it conof feveral Bjifdings erefted by fcveml Bi. fifting Thefe Prelates always liv*d in it, till the hps. Jaft, who, while he was building a rew Palace in the Town, lodged in a neighbouring Gentleman** Houle,

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Houfe, from whence he could fee how the Work went on. The Apartments of the old Caftle are fpacious and noble. 1 found in them all that Furniture with which they were adorn'd for the Reception of the Archduchefs Mary~Elizabetbt when that Princefs came to Wurtobourg in her way to the Govemment of the Netberkmds. I havenot feen richer Furniture at the Palace of any Prince of the Empire. In this Caille there are two things that are well worth feeing the Arfenal and the Vault; the one full of all the Stores invented by Mars and Beilona, for the DeftrucHon of Mankind, and the other furnilh'd with every thing to fatiate the Thirft of an Army of Drunkards. If everyou come hither and lhould have the Curiofity to vifit thefe Magazines of Mars and Baccbus, I advife you to begm with the Arfenal, efpeciallyif you can get fomeCourtier to go with you for thefe Gentlemen, tho' very civil, think, that the leaft thing which a Foreigner ought to do for them is to forfeit his Reafon to them in this Vault. I am fure, I fpeak by dear Exprience. Three days ago 1 told the Bifhop that I had a mind to fee the Caftle. This Prince was fo complaifant as to order one of his Gentlemen to go with me. My honeft Companion fearing, 'tislike, that a Converfation tete-a-tete would be too melancholy, chofe two Topersto bearus Company, whom Silenus would not have difown'd for his Children. Being a ftranger to the Virtues for which thofe Gentlemen were eminent, I put myfelf entirelyunder their Direction without the leaft Apprehenfionof my Misfortune. When they had fliewed me the Apartments, the Arfenal, Fortifications, andeverything, they carried me at laft into the Vault, which I found illuminated like a Chape) wherein I was to lie in State; and indeed, my Funeral Obfequies were perform'd in Pomp, for the Glaffesfcrved inftead

lS8

WURTZBOURG.

inftcad of Bells, and Torrents of Winegufh'dout inftead of Tars Ac length, after the Service was over, two of the Prince's Heydukes arry'd me to a Coach, c and from thence toBed that was my Tomb. Yefterday I rofe again, but fcarce know at this Moment whether I am quite corne to myfelf. 'Tis true chat this doesnot give me much Concern, for ever fince 1 hve been here, I hve followed the laudable Cuftom of gctting drunk twice a-day. You perceive that 1 am improv'd by my Travels, and that 1 am apt enough to Icarn the pretty Manners of the Countries where 1 make any Stay. 1 fancy that you will find me very much alter'd for the better. There is nothing that accomplifhes a Man fo much as travelling judge you of this by the Life which I lead here. I rife at ten o'clock, my Lungs very much inflam'd with the Wine I drank the Night before: 1 take a large Dofe of Tea, drefs myfelf, and then go to make my Compliments to the Bifhop. The Baron de Pecbttljheim the Marflial of the Court invites me to dine with the Prince He promues, nay, and fometimes fwears too that I fliall not drink. At Noon we fit down to Table. The Bifhop does me the honour to drink two or three Healths to me. The Baron de ZobeU Mafier of the Horfe, and the Baron de Pabteljheim, toaft the fame number to me, and I am under a neceffity of drinking to no lefs than fourteen Perfons at th Table i fo that I am drown'd in Liquor before 1 bave din'd. When -the Company rifes, I wait on the Prince to bis Chamber-Door, where he retires, and I think td do the fam, but I find an Embargo put upon me in the Antichamber by the Mafter of the Horfe, and the Marihal of the Court, who with greatBumpers in their Hands drink the Prince's Health to me, and Prefperity fer ever to tbe mofilaudable Cbapter ef Wurtzboure. 1 proteft to them that l am the

Bifliop's

WlJRTZBOURt.

l8

Biftiop's moft humble Servant, and that I have a very great Vnration for thc moft laudable Chap- ter, but that to drink their Healths woutd deftroy mine, and therefore 1 beg they wou'd excufe my pledging them but I may as well talk to the Wind; thefe two Healths muft be drank, or 1 fhall be reckon'd no Friend to the Prince and his Chapter. If this were all my Talk I fhou'd be well off; but then cornes M. de Zobel, one of the mofltintrepid Caroufersof the Age, who fqueezes me by the Hand, and with an Air and Tone of perfet Cordiality, fays to me, Toulove our Prince fo well that you cartt refufedrinking to the Projperity of the illuftrious Family of Houtten. And when he ha made this moving Speech, he takes off a great Glafs to witnefs his Zeal for the Life of his Mafter after which an officious Heydukebrings me a Glafs, and being infeed with the Gouft that prevails at this Court, affuresme that this Wine cannot poffibly dp 'tis me Harm, becaufe the very fame that the Prince drinks. By a Perfuafion, founded on fo juft an Inference, I have the Courage to venture on t'other Glafs, which is no fooner drank but 1 reel, and can drink no more when in order to finifh o me M. de Pecbtelfheim^ne of the honefteft Gentlemen living, but the ftauncheft Wine-bibber tha 1 know, accofts me with a Smile and fays, Conte, dear Baron, one Glafs moreto better Acquaintance. 1 conjure him to give me Quarter, but he embraces me, kifls me, and calls me Herr Bruder, (his dear Brother.) How can a Manwithftand fuch tender Compliments! At laft 1 put myfelf in a fit Pofture to run away; I fneak off, fteal down the Steps as well as 1 can, and fqueeze myfelf into a Sedan which carries me home where my People drag me out like a dead Corpfe, and fiing me on a Bed, as if the next thing was to lay me out. I fleep three or four hours, awake in a peffcft Maze, put myfelf
to

ICO

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TZBOURG.

to rights again, and prepare to make Vides, or to receive them but whichfoever I do, I prefntjy find my felf in fuch a pickle again, that 1 cannot .walk alone. There's no fuch thing as Converfation hre betwixt one Friend and another without the Bottle; fo that I am tempted to think the Inhabitants of this City are defcended from Silenui, and that the old Sot left them the Faculty of hard drinking for a Legacy, as St. Hubert bequeath'd to his Family the power of curing a Frenzy. 1 din'd yefterday with the Reverend the Scets BenediSineFryars, who gave mea hearty Welcome, and an excellent fort of Liquor calld Stein Wein% or Stone-Wine, probably becaufe it grows -on a Rock; whichis the only time that 1 have departed from the Regimen 1 keep to here, 1 mean that 1 was not drunk. The Houfe of thefe BenediBinesis one of the five Houfes which form a fort of a Republic in their Order, and which, without dependmg on their General, chufe a Prefident out ot their number who has the direction of ail their Affairs. Thefe five Houfes are in five different Towns, viz. at Vitnna in Juftriat at Ratijbon%Wttrtzbeurg^ at Doway in Flandersy and at Dieulegarde, near Pontin a- Mouflon Lorrain. Thefe BenediBinesput me in mind of the Reverend Fathers the Jefuits, who have a very fine Houfe in this City: Thefe are they whp are Directors of the Univerfiry, and inftrut the Youth with a Zeal which cannot but confound their Enemies. The Prince and Bifhop lives in very great Splendor, and is one of the moft owerful of our Spiritual Sovereigns. His Dominion includes feventy Bailywics, and his Country is the fineft and fruitfulleft in Germany. The only thing that is fcarce here is Money, and this is owing to their want of l'rade, and to the great number of Monks and

Pnefts

WURTZBOURG.

ICI

Priefts who ingrofs all to themfelves. The Bifhop has 50000 Crowns a-year for his Privy-Purfe. The Chamber is oblig'd to maintain him in every thing. It furnifhes his Wardrpbe, his Table, and pays his Houfhold and his Troops, which adually confift of 3500 Men, who are commanded by General Eby the Governour of Wurtzbourg. In time of War the Bifhop has no lefs than 10000. The Court ts numerous, and 1 can aflore yoa that upon Feftival-Days 'tis vefy magnificent. On St. <$uiliatfsDay, who is the Patron kfFurtzbourg and Franconia, the Bifhop repaire with a great Train to the Metropolitan Church. Six of the Bifhops Coaches, drawn each by fix Horfes, begin the March, attended by twenty four Footmen and fixteen Pages and above fourfcore Gentlemen richly drefs'd walk before the Bifhop's Coach, guarded by two Files of Halbardiers. The Mafter of tht Horfe and the Marfhal of the Court walk by the fides of the Coach, the latter bearing the Sword of the Duke of Franconia with the Point uppermoft and the Coach is furrounded by Heydukesyand followed by a company of LifeGuards. The Bifhop of Wurtxbourg has,one Prrogative which the other Bifhops have not for while he officiates, his Great Marfhal bears the Sword of the Duke of Franconia naked and upright till the Confecration of the Elements, and then he puts it up in the Scabbard, and carries it before the Prince with the Point downwards which is a Distinction 1 take to be altogether as extraordinary as that of the Abbot and Count de Gembkurs, the firft Nobleman of the States of Brabant, who has the Privilege of celebrating Mafs with his Bcots and Spurs on. The Bifhop's ordinary Expence is perfely fuitable to the Dignity of a great Prince and his
Table,

IO2

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BOURG.

Table, which is commonly fp read for eighteenf Guefts, is ferv'd with a. Magnificenceto the degree of Profufion }notthat this Prince afis Pomp, but becaufehe is oblig'd to confonn to the antient eftablilh'd Cuftoms of his Court. This Frelate ta gives very great Application to the. Afiairs of his Ap'pJicacion the Affirs~f biS Govemment, for whichpurpofehc rifesearly in th Moming: When he is drefs'dhe fpendsfome rime in Prayer, and then confen with his Minifters, or with the Chiefsof the fevcral Tribunals. At ten o'clock he hears Mais, and afterwards goes ta Council At Noon he dines, and after having fate an Hour and an half at Table, he retires, and fpends the Evening with his Family, which is numerous, and compos'd of Perfons of Worth. In Carnival-timehe makesgreat Entertainmentstwice or thricea-weekfor all the Nobility offPtirtzbourg, a and there is fometimes Bailand evenMafqueradcs at Court. IntbeWinter-tnePerfons-ofRankhave Aflcmbliesfor Gaming and during the Caraival there's a Bail three times a-week in a Houfe kept: by the Undertaker, at which they befpeakPlaces beforehand, and where Fore%nen are admitted gratis. Ail this wou'd be pretty enough if the Companywas not fometimesdiihirb'd by Peoplcin Liquor, tho' 'tis truc that fuchare not venr chagrining to the Natives, who are us*dto fuch Sidts and the very Ladies, who clfewherefly iuch Company, do not feemto hve a ftaunch AverfiontoiJiem. Foreignershve rcafonto applaud the Civilities both of the Prince and his Courtiers. A for my own part I am infixtely obligd for thc Rcto it^l they have been pleas*d Ihew to me. The Prince heapshis Favours on me, and die Nobility their Courtefies. If it werenot that one is forc*dto drink hard, I fhou'd like the Town very wall. Two Days hnc 1 mail fet out for Jnffacb<, and
from

A N S P A C H.

I93

froni thence I lhall go by thc way of Nuremberg and Bareitb to Prague. I flull write to you by thc very firft Opportunity Mean time I am, &?<

L E T T E R IX.
SI Rt Jnftacb,$ept. 1729. 29, in one day from Wurtzbourg to An1CAME SPACH, which is twelve Miles, and pafs'd thro' two or three little Towns not worth naming. Atifpacbis the Capital of the Margraviate fo call'd, and the Refidenceof the Margrave of Brandenbourg, Chief of the fecond Branch of that Family fettled in Francopia. 'Tis a fmall but pretty Town, and very well built. It has no Fortifications, and is only fhut in by Walls furrounded with Walks which form a Bulwark. The Prince has a large Caftle or Palace building here, which when fimfh'd will be magnificent. The late Margrave, Father of the prefent, had begun to build it accrding to the Models of an Italian ArchkecV-, but as he did nothing to anfwer the Opinion conceiv'd by the Germansthat the Italians are the beft Archite&s in the World, perhaps becaufehe was oblig*d to patch up old Walls for the fake of fome Rooms Madame the Margravine Rgent, Mother ofthe young Margrave, continue! what her Hufbind bgari, but chang*ddie Architeci, and makes ufe of th Baron de Zocbau to .carry on thofe Works whoi tho' obligM to conform to what was done by tht Italien, hasfucceeded muchbetter than that ;Foreigner.Madame th MargravineRgent has likeVOL.-I. 9 wifc

A N 8 P A C H. 194 wife caus'd fome noble Gardcns to be laid out and this Princefs fpares no Colt for embellifliing the Town of Anfpacb. The Margravine Rgent is of the Family of Wttrtenberg.,and may be compar'd for Beauty with the fineft Princetfes in the World. Being Icft a Widow at twenty nine Years of Age, fhe renounc'd li Pleafurcs, and thought of nothing but the Education of her Son, and the Affairs of her Regency both of which Duties this Princefs difcharges in fuch a manner that her Subjes biefs her Government, and the young Margrave cannot but have very great Obligations to her. Madame the Margravine, befides a charming Perfon, has a fparkling Wit and a flid Judgment, which fhe has taken care to cultivate by great reading, and maintains by a Piety and Charity truly Chriftian. There is in aU her Atons fuch Politenefs, and fo much Good-nature, as gain her the hearts of all Perfons. In fine, without flattering this Princefs, 1 can affure you that her Life is a Pattern of Virtue. She is wean'd from ail the Vanities of the Age fhe wears neither Gold nor Lace, and has given her Diamonds, which were of gery great value, to her Son. She keeps fo retir'd to her Apartment, that fhe is never feen but at Church, at Table, or when fhe gives Audience i which fhe never refufes to any body unlefswhen fhe is tir'd. She is incsffantly employ'd, and takes delight in it. She is her own Minifter, and her Counfellors are only the Exccutioners of her Orders. 'Tis pity that Germany is fo fbon like to lofe a Princefs who does her Country fo much Honour The Margravine is in fo dedining a Condition that r Dowsger C~MM CA<rAM ~r/<n<~y, Mtrgntvioe of BramitMbmrg-Jafiacb. watRmntfor her Son,diedat who the Regeeey tothis afterfhe A~rf~'n- 1730,foon fcccnd him 'd youn*Mwgrare.andmatchdhad imirtJtritM-LmiJ*, of Daughter the Kingof frujfa.

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that there's no hopesof her Recovery. The Phyiicians have attually told her fo; but die Princefs, far from being terrifyM at the fad Tidings, receiv'd it like a Chrjftian Hrone: Godgav<.me my Life, faid (he to her Phyricians, be voil takeitfrom tue xuhenbeftafes, bit Will bedone. She continues to live inrthe way fhe always did; and the Ap. proach of Death; which flie fes advancing to her with flow Pace, gives her n Troubl nor Tremor but fubmitang to the Decrees of Providence, lhe waits with Refignation for that awful Moment which often makes the ftouteft Hearts tremble. The young Margrave is aftually at Paris, fo that 1 cou'd hve given you no manner of Account of this Prince, ifl had not had, the Honour to fee him two Years ago. He was born the i2th of He is a handfome; comely; lively Afiijr, iji. Man, has an pktraordinary Memory, and if Age matures his Underftanding, bids fair to be one day a Prince of a fublime Genius. His Govemour was M. de Brdueti Gentleman cJvmia\ Md his fcelebrated for feveral Praeceptor.M; Nekinb Eflys in Poetry. Notwithftanding the Reform which Madame the Margravine made in her Court when fhe came to the Regency 'tis ftill verynumerous. The Count de Cajlel is the firft Man at this Court, and has the Title of Lord Steward. His Lady commonly attends Madame the Margravine, and does the Offices of Lady of Honour without affe&ing the Title. the M. de Bremer% Baron de Seckendorf,and the Baron de Zocbau, are Privy Counfellors and the B^ron de Kinfierg is Marfhal of the Court. As to .the Troops the Margravine Regent dnly keeps up fuch O 4 into This vas Benjamin Keukircb.He put Telemachu otherWorks,which o thAuthor fa greatmany a Vetfe, ndwas fire of is lhewthatthe Germon Language capable conveyngae arc asthofewhich moreu'dby Authorc. He die4 Sentiments latelyat Anftach.

A N S P A C H.

fuch a number as is ieccflryto furnilh her Quota to the Empire, and to guard her Perfon. The Margraviate ofJnJptubis very much interfoerfed with Woods, which makes it a fine Country for Hunting. 'Tis (aid that it brings in 500000 Crowns evcry Year to its Sovereign. The Principal Towns are Anfpacb and Scbwabacb, in which Manufactures are ereted that do great Prjudice to the City of Nuremberg. I think 1 ought not to omit acquainting you with two things which are fondly believ'd by the common People, and which the Landlord of the Houfe where I quarter'd affirm'd to me tobe Fac"b. The one is, that there are no Rats in aU the Country o(Anfpacb%fince one of the Family of the Ratkilling St. Hubert pafs'd that way. The other is of the fame Tenor, and admitted for a certain Truth by every Subjeft in the Dominions of the Houfe of Brandenbourg, viz. When any one of this Family dies, whether Prince or Princds, a Woman in White alwaysappearsjuft before in the Palace. I know not whether you ever heard any thing concerning this Prophetefs of III Luck. Be that as it wiU, the Story which is told of her is this: Joacbim II. Eletor of Brandenourg, having a mind to enlarge his Palace at Berlin, wanted to buy in feveral Houfes; but an old Woman, the Owner of one of thofe Houfes, refolv*d not to fell it to him upon any Terms. The Eleftor finding her fo obftinate fent her the Purchafe-Money and tum'd her out of it j upon which the old Woman lwore in a Ra^e that fhe wowd be an eternal Plague to Joacbim and his Pofterity. They pretend that the good Lady keeps her Word, and that the haunts all the Palaces of the BrandenbourgFamily. Yet I never heard any body ar Berlin fay thcy had 'ever feen her thtre, tho* that isdic Place whtrethe ought naturally to have takcii up her head Quarr-s.

My

Nuremberg. 197 My Landlord added to thefe fine Stories that the Margravine would not die yet a while, becaufc the Woman in White had not yct ?.ppear*d any to body at Court. Iarn, &c.

L E T T E R X.
OSoler10, 1729Carljbad, E N I took leave of the Court of AnH jpacb, 1 was honour'd with a precious mark of the Margravine's Goodnefs, twz. a weighty Gold Medal and now I am again upon my Journcy. 1 was not many hours in travelling from Anfpacb to Nuremberg* thro' a Country extremely fandy, but very well cultivated, and interfpers'd with confiderable Villages which in our Country wou'd be reckon'd Towns. So much has already been faid by others of the that 1have very little to add City of Nuremberg, to it. 1aflre you this Town is the moft difagreeable Place in Europe to live in. The Patricians are the People of the firft Rank there, and lord it like the petty Nobles of Venue. The Government here too has very great Refemblance with the Venetian^ and they have a fort of Doge. In fliort they are very much like the Frog in th Fable that ftrove to fwel it felf to the Size of the Or. Of. thefe Patricians fome are very rich, but they are fo rude that no body vifits them, and they fcarce vift one another. Perhaps you will aflcme what I mean by the Term Patriciam ? 'Tis this; they are Gentlemen: O 3 SIR,

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Nuremberg.

men: There arc Patrician Families old enough ta difpute Antiquity with any of thc Nobility whatfoever, and who were formerly admitted into ail the Chapters. But nowthe cafe is otherwife; for the Nobility not cn!y exlude them out of the Chapters, butdifpute thcir beingGentlemen; pretending that they derogate from the Title by their Magiftratical Offices. Suchis, you know, our ermanic Vanity; the things which are honourable in other Countries, are with us diminutive: The Court, the Sword, and the Church, are the only, Profeflons that a Gentleman can follow: If he bas not the Talents proper for one or other of thefe, or if Fortune frown upon him, he had better be out of the World than take any Officesof the Magilftracy upon him, or enter into Trade: He had better beg Alms nobly than marry beneath himftlf." But I fhall not bere fet up for a Cenforof the Germanie Cuftoms. Let us talk of Nuremberg. This City has 6 Gates, 12 Conduits, and 118 Wells. Of' the ChurchesSr. Laurence** thebiggeft: There'& is a great manyReliques in it, particularly a part of the Manger in whichour Saviour waslaid, apkceof his Garment, and three Links of the Chains which bound St. Peter, St. Paul, and $t. Jobn. As the Lutterait* make no great accountof thoi Reliques, they wou*<ldo well to give them to forne poor Carholic Convent, which would thereby foon be ^nrich'd. You know that the Government hre b altogether Evangelical, i. e. Lutheran. The Catholics hve a fmall Church in the Hoafe of the Teutonic Prder The Cahinijis go to the Church in the Territory of Anfpacb; but the Jews are not tolerated becaufe* laid they formerly poHbned the Wells. tis They live in a Place not far from Nuremberg, but corne to Town every Morning, paying ibmething lor their Entrance, hve an old Woman fet over them,

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them, who is commonly both their Guard and their Guide, and are prmitted to trade and trick wherever they can ail Night, when they are obliged ta retire. In the Church of the Hqfpital is kept Cbarlemain's Crown, faid to weigh fourteen Pounds, the Sceptre and the Globe, in fhort ail the Ornaments of Empire except Cbarlemam's Sword faid to have been brought from Heaven by an Angel, the fam very likely that carry'd th holy Vial and the Oriflamb to France. That Sword is kept at Jix la Chapelle. The Trade of Nuremberg is very much fallen off forbefides that the Toys and Knick-knackgr which where formerly made in this City are much out of fafhion, efpecially inG*rWHy,theManufac*bjres which, the Margraves ofBareitb and Ahfpacbhave fettled in their Dominions do confiderablePrejudice to Nuremberg. The Inhabitants of this City may be, (at leaft I think *emfo) the honefteft People in the World, but they are the moft horrible Complimenters that know. I cou*dnot fet my Foot in a Shop, but the Mafter, the Miftrefs, the Children and the Apprentices waited on me into the very Screet, than king me for the Honour 1 had done them. My Landlord too, who iw me go in and out twenty times a day, receiv'd me always with great Ceremony, and a(k*d me how 1 did. And when 1 went out he pray'd me not to leave his Houfe long in Contempt, without honouring it with my Prefence. Nurembergis the richeft and moft potent Imperial next to Hambourg. The Demain of NuremCity birg is even much larger than that of Hambourg^ Tisfliid but the latter bears the Bell for Wealth. that Nuremberg has feven other Towns in its Territory, with 480 Villages and Parifhes. Yet for

O4

ail

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ERLANGEN.

all this ris not a rich City for the Patricians pocket all the Money, and the Citizens are poor. Next Day after my Arrivai at NurembergI fet out for Cbriftian-EvLLANGtH, Town in the Mara which owesits Hougravhxcof Brandenbourg-Bareitb, riftiing State to a Colony oiFrencb People who fled out of France on account of their Religion. Forty Years ago Erlangen was but a little Village in the middle of a Foreft of Fr-Tren.. The Margrave Cbriftian giving ieltcr to the Frencb who left their Country after the Rvocation of the EdicV, of Nantz, aflgn'd them Erlangen to fettle in, When they eut down the Woods they built the Town, to which they gave the Name of CbrifiianErlangen, in Memory of Cbriftian their Benefaor. AU th Streets are in a lirait Line. The Frencb have fet up all forts of Manufactures hre, and have made it one of the prettieft Towns of Germany. Madame* lizabetb-Sopbiaof Brandenbourg,icond E Daughter of the Eleor Freeric-lVilliaMy and third Wife of the Margrave Chriftian Founder of Erlangen caus'd a very handfomc Palace to be built in the great Square of this City, to which there are noble Gardens. *Tisat prefenroccupy*d by Sopbia of Saxe-Weijjenfels,Widow of the laft Margrave of Bareiib. This Princds was to have dwelt at Ncujiadt, which was fettled on her for her Dowry but as 'tis a lonefome,melancholy, fcoundrel Place, th Margrave Regent was willing flie fould live at Erlangen. The Margravine Dowager was one of the moft beautiful Princeflcs in the World, of which fhe ftill prservesthe fairRemains, and none can have an Air more grand. She lives at of ThisPrincefs asthe Dowager the Dukeof Ctmrlat, w whenhe whowasveryold. marry'dthe Margrave Chrifiiam Afterhis Death mariy'dtheDuke Saxe-Mcimngn flie whom p never thchesfnrviv'd.Shercfides Cobnrg at inFraxania. She JiadbutoneSon,andthatwasbe who arry'd prefent Czathe m rim, batdiedfoonafterJiisMarriage.

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at- Erlangen with all the Dignity becoming her Rank. Foreigners are very well received at her Court, and particularly by the Princefs herfelf, who for Poh'teneshas few Equals. From Cbriftian-Erlangen went in lefs than a Day to Bamberg, tho' 1 ftay'd two or three Hours at FoicHEiM a Place in the Bi&oprick of Bamberg, whofe Buildings appear'd to me to be old and out of repair. TheBifhoprickofBAMBEftcbthefirftBiihoprick of the Empire. The Biihop is Suffragan to no Archbifhop. He depends only as to Spirituals upon the Holy See, and receives the Pall as an Archbiihop. He bas moreover this Diftinion, that the Eleftors are his great Officersas they are thofe of the Empire, and he bas the Privilege of fummoning them to come and do the Duties of their Officeson the Day of his Inftallation. I have not heard that any BiIfaop ever made ufe of this mighty Prrogative, for the Retinue which thofe great Officers would bring along with them might be a Charge to him. The great Privilges which this Prelate enjoys are counter-balanc'd by one Mortification; for if the Electors happen to chufe an Emperor who bas no Dominions, the Biihop of Bambergwonld be oblig'd to yield him his Epifcopal City and Palace. 'Tis faid that the Emperor has the fame Right to Rome, and that if he fhould chufe that ancient City of the World for his Refidence, the Pope wou'd be oblig'd to yield him the Palace or the Vatican and to retire to that of St. Jobn de Lateran. But 1 really think that the Holy Father and the Biihop oi Bamberg will not be fo foon turn'd out. The late Eleor of Mentz, Lotbarius Francis de Scbopbonii who was alfo BiOiop of Bamberg, embelliih'd the City with a new Epifcopal Palace, a -great and ftately Building that itands on an Eminencc,

202 B A M B E R G. nence, from whence there is an extenfive Profpeft of various Beauties. The City of Bambergis very well buiit, and ha beautiful Churches. Herein is to be feen the Tomb of the Emperor Henry II. and his Wife th Em Cunegmia. This Prince6 lies ac the right hand of her Hufband, becaufe flic kepe her Virginky to ber Death. Was not this abufing the Sacrament of Marriage ? The Bimop who fills the Epifcopal See ofBamberg is Fredtric-CbarUs, Count de Scbcmhtnt ViceChanccllor of the Empire. Thk PreJate being Minifter of State to the Emperor conmonly tttides at Vieitna, and is nowthere,, fo thatl hve nothig to fay to you of his Court i but 1 reckon 1 (hall be able to give you fome Account of him after 1 have paid my Refpes to him at Vienna. The Neighbeurhood of Bambergis very agreeable, but as one cornes ta it from Nuremberg thro' a certain-Foreft of Fir-Tees, it ftrikes a Man with Horror to find an Avenue to it a quarter of a League in length form*d by Wheeb andGibbets. This at fira fight gives a Stranger no very grcat Idca of the is f another K Honefty or the Peoplej buthe pinion when he cornes to know that thefe expos'd Malefaors are for the moft part Foreigners. The i Biflioprkkof Bambergscontiguow tofeven r eight different- States, and the Town it feM Kes in the greateft Road of ail Germany, which is th Reafon that 'tis fo infefted by Rogues from all Quarters. In the time of the Eleftor of Metitz, Bamergvras their Ne plus ultra, for that Prince gave them no Quarter Being wi Enemy to Wkkeanels, and one or the greateft Jufticiaries that we hve had in Gcrmanyi be int aU to the Gallows that defrv'd Haning. About a League out of the Town the Bifhop has i charming Pleafure-Hpufe but therc is noching in ail

Pommer

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t&Gemuutymore magnificentthan theCaftleof Pommersfeldek belongmg to the Count de Schanbern, which is three Leagues from Bamberg. Francis LaEleftor of Meut*, caus'd this tbarius de Scbonborn ftately Fabric to be built, the whole of which forms a great Bodyof Buildingflank'd by two Pavllions with two advancM Wings. The whole is regulrly built, and decorated withwell-fancy'd Architeur. 'The Entry is fupported by feveral Colonnades, where the firft thing that prefents it felf is th grand StairTCafe, which is extraordinary magnificent, and perhaps one of the beft contrived m Europe. This, Entry leads into a Salon which ferves in as a Paffage to. the Garden *tis form of a Grotto adorn'd with feveral Foiptains, Columns, and Statues of Marble; The Cieling is painted as well as the Sky-Mght of the Stair-Cafe, and thj Arches of the principal Apartments. They are all painted by Hands that the ^lelor fent for on purpofe from Italy. I don't give you the Particulars or the qreat Salon, nor of the Apartments, becaufeit wou! :ak.e up a Volume. The whole are laid out with Art, and furnUhMwith great Choice, Judgmcnt and Splendor. The Stables anfwer exaly to the Cafte which they front. They are built in form of a HalfMoon with a Pavilion in the middle, which is an oval Salon, from both Sidesofwhich you fee all the Horfes. The Mangers are of Marble in form of Shells, and the Racks of Iron neatly wrought in form of a Bifket or Scuttle. The Salon in the middle of the two Stables is painted in Frefco, and looks oneway to the Court, and the other to the Riding-Houfe, where the Eletor us'd to fee tlie Horfes manag'd belonging to the Studs of his Bifnoprick near Bambtrgy one of the beft in Germait?. The Gardens of Pommer sfeden are very anfwerable to the Magnificence of the Buildings In a

word,

Bambekg. 204 word, every Thing belonging to this fine Houfe is worthy of it. The Builder of it had fublime Ideas: He fpared no Coft to leave Monumentsof his Grandeur and Wealth to Pofterity, and has made a Houfe of Pommer sfelden which really furpafsfome Royal Palaces, But 'tis time to take you out of this fine Place and to carry you back to Bamberg. There is a good Number of the Nobility fettled in this Town. The Chapter confxftsof Perfons of Quality Ithas the Rightof chufing the Bifhop; and 'tis he who governs in the bfence of the Prince. Such a Refort as here is of the Nobility makes the Time pafs away agreeably but they drink as hardi hre as at Fulde m\Wurtzbourtt fb that it looks as if Drinking was an infeparableFunclion of the JEcclefiafticalCourts. Having fome Relations in this Town 1 ftay'd there three Days, during which I had the Pleafure of Drinking every Day with one, ofmy Coufins out of a great Goblet of folid Gold whicK weigh'd to the Value of a thoufnd Ducats. You can't imagine how well the Wine went down outofa Cup bf that Value, Iheartily wiA'd that myCouIn wou'd havedealtby me as Jofipb did by Benjamin* and that he had put- up his Cup in my Porcinanteau, provided he wou'd not hve fent to fetch me backagain, as theGovernur ofEgyptdid hfe Brtheri but this was what my dear Coufin did not think fit to do. He made me drink my Skinfull of Wine, and only wifli'd me my Pockts full of Gold. From Bamberg went toBAREiTfr the Refidnce of the Margrave of randenbcurg. The elder of the two Branches of that Family fettled in Franconia. John George Eletor of Brandenborgdivided his Dominions between his three Sons: He left the Eleorate with its Appendages to his eldeft Son, and gave the Margraviate of Culmbacbto Cbrifiianns fecond Son, and that of Anfpach to his third Son. Cbrijttan

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Cbriftian form'd two Branches, that of Bareilb and that of Culmbacb. The Branch of Bareith became extinft in 1726, by the Death of George-William, whofe Widow lives at Erlangen. George -Frederic-Charles Margrave of Culmbacbhis Coufin, fucceededhim. This Prince hasfiveChildren, viz. two Princes and three t Princefls. He marry'd a Dorotby of HoIJlein-Beckt Berlin in 1^09. I had then the Honour to fee him: He was a Prince of a noble Afpeft, very civil, good-naturd, and temperate, and a Lover of Books and Men of Learning. He did an Aft of Generofity that perhaps is not to be parallel'd, and which 1 relate to you as the moft authentic Teftimony that can be of his Goodnature and Integrity. His Predeceffor had left an empty Exchequer and a great many Debts; and the Margrave at his Acceffion to the Regency was oblig'd to pay the King of Pruffia 460000 Florins, upon condition that his Majefty wou'd renounce any Pretenfions he might have to the Margraviate, by virtue of the Refignation of ail Rights to the Succeffionwhich had been made by the Margrave of Culmbacb his Father, in favour of Frederie I. King of Pruffia. Toraife this Sum on People already overburden'd by the common Taxes, was to feek their Ruin. .The Margrave in pity of their miferable Condition, chofe rather to borrow this Money the States of of the Circle of Franconiaat great Intereft. When he found himfelf in peaceable poflHionof his Dominions by the Payment made to the King of Prujjia, lie undertook to pay off not only his own, but the Debts of his Predeceffor. To enable himfelf to do this, The Hereditary rincewhois the cldell,marry'd the P PrinctfsRoyal Piujpain 173 of 1
\ The eldeft of the Princefls, Sophia-Cbriftiana-louif". wa marry'd in 1731 to the Prince Alexander de la Tour and Taxis. She lately embrac'd the JLomiJbReligion.

2o6

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this, he began by turning off his Court, kept but fmall Number f CounfcJlors and Gentlemen, and difbanded 3000 Men of the Troops which the late Margrave kept in pay tp no purpofe. He reduc'd his Table totnegreateftJFrugalityi hisClotheswere plain, andheavoided Magnificence and Gaming. Some time after this, he made another Refont in his Houfe, and kept up but a very fmall Number ofDomeftics. HeefabhVd aCouncilofRegency, and to feve the Expence which his Rank as a Sovereign would have engag'd him in whether he wou'd or not, he left his Dominions, and went tolive incognito with the Hereditary Prince his Son at Geneva. 1 believe that both of them are aually at Montpellier . He is refolv^d not to retum to his Dominions till ail his Debts are paid off Mean time his Subjcdh wiih for his Return with Impa.; tience, for he bas fuch a Kindnds for them, and governs them with fuch miWnefi that they look on him as their Father and Benefator. This Retirement of the Margrave from the Spkndon ofSovereignty is the more to be commended becaufe 'ris abfolutely voluntary Hewasnott ail oblig*dto pay the Debtsof his Predecetfor for they were of fuch a Nature as not to be rank'd among the Debts of the Government. Neverthelefs it was his Pkafure to doit, and he chofe rather to abridge himfelf of the Charms of Sovereigntythan that People, whofe Faith in the Govemment had made them part with their Money, fhou'd lofetheir Debts. Such a glorious Aion as this, is in my Judgment equal to the Laurels of twenty Viftories: Th was owing to his Virtue, whcreas ViftoryisgenerallydieConfequent bf Chance and Fortune. You will eafy imagine that while the Sovereign is abfent this City is not very gay. It appear'd rrturn' toBarntht are TheMargrave the Prince now and of where livewithall theSpiendo.- Scvcrsigcty. they

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toearVito me the more melancholy becaufe I had feen it in the time of the late Margrave, at whofe Court there was continuai Feafting and Jollitry. The City of Bareitb is inferior to Erlangen. The Margrave's Palace is a great old Pile, but not very commodious, and meanly furnifli'd. This Prince has a very pretty Houfe, a League from Bareitb, call'd the Hemitage, which was built by Order of the late Margrave. It ftands in the middle of a thick Wood, in which there are a great many Pavilions built, without any Symmetry indeed, but very ingenioufly contriv'd within for the Ufe to which they ferve. When the late Margrave came to the Hermitage, he and his whole Court were in the Drefs of Hermits. There were certain Hours in which the Hermit Brothers went to pay a Vifit to the Hermit Sifters, who liv*d in the Pavilions. The Brothers and Sifters who gave each other Collations, were fobje to certain Ruks from which they could not be difpcnfed but by the Remiffion of the Superior of either Sot, who were then the Margrave, and his Lady the Margravine. In the Evening they met again in the Hall of the Caftle, where they fupp*d and that every thing might be done according to the Rules, at the begmning of the Supper certain Vedes were read, or fome little Story compos'd by one or other of the Hermit Brothers then Silence was broke, and every one gave his Opinion upon what had beenread, upon whieh there enfued a general Converfation. The Supper held till pretty Lte, and was commonly followed with a Bail. No body could be admitted into the Order without the general Content of the Chapter. And th Superior himfelf had no Right but to propofe fuch a were Candidates for Admiflon. To give you aU the Statutes of mis Society, would be too tedious befides I fhould be afraid of adding or di3 miniihmg

208

Carlsbad.

minifhing to tbcm, becaufe I only have them from Tradition. The Margrave bas a Mother ftill alive, tnz. who lives Sopbia-Cbriftina Countefs of fPofffe*fteiny at Copenbagen with her Daughter the Princcfs Royal ofDenmark, The King ofDenmark grants her the Title of Royal Highnds, and caufes the fame Honours to be paid to her as to the Princefles of his Family. The Margrave bas alfo three Brothers and two Sifters. The eldcft of the Brothers is a MajorGeneral and Colonel of Foot in the Service of the Emperor, and the two others are in the Service of Denmark. The two Princeflsare marry'd, oneto the Prince Royal ofDenmark^ the other to George- lA bert Prince of Eaft-Friejhnd. So that the intire confiftsof PrinFamily of Brandenbourg-Culmbacb ces and Princefls to the number of twelve. The Revenues of this Margrave are pretty near the fame as thofeof the Margrave ofAnfp*cb. His Fortrefs is the Caftle of Plaffenberg. From Bareitb I came in two Days to Carlsb a d, a Place of-Fame for its hot Waters, of which there are two Sorts differing from one another both in Strength and Heat. They derive their Source from the middle of a River form'd by Torrents from the neighbouring Mountains, whofe Waters are extremely cold yet they make not the leaft Alteration in the heat of theMinerai Waters. They are faid to be very wholelome for all forts of Maladies, particularly for the Gravel, and for the Barrennefs of Women. M. Hofman, a celebrated Profeflbr of Phyfic at Hall, bas publifhed a Treatile, wherein he examines the nature of thofe Waters, and prcfcribes how they ought to be ufed. The Manner is very difagreeable yeu are obliged to be lhut up in a Room, and be the Weather ever fo hot, Q Sbeistheprefcnt oeen.

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hot, the Stove muft ba heated, you muft bs tormented by taking off two or three Pots of Water, which are almoft equal to thirty Chocolate Cups i be(ides walking about very much, and fweating great Drops. To make amends for the Fatigue of the Morn-r ing, there is good Company to be feen here ll Day long; for Abundance of Strangers come to Carlsbad, particularly the Nobility of Bobemiaand A/iftria. There are publick Walks and a great Room adjacent, where they play, dance and walk till the Evening. They who love to live by Rule retire without Supper.. Whoever would be well accommodated at Carlsbai muft carry three things thither with him,. his own Bed, Winc, andCooki.tho* a Foot-boy may ferve for th Cook, becaufe one is generally invittd by ihe Bohemianor Aujlrian Noblemen, who alwayskeep a great Table, and love Company to dine with *em. The Inhabitants of Carlsbad ar generally Armourers, who work vry neat and vaftly cheap. AttheSeafon foruGngtheWaters, Merhantsflock hither from all Parts, and Cartsba is fuperior tp many great Towns. 1 had a great deal of Amufeinent during the two different Seafonsthat 1 pafe'df there, and contraed a World of good Acquaintance, who, 1 hope, will be of Service to me at which Place I propofe to ft eut >Prague, for inorrow. 1 am, &c.

Vol. I.

tET-

2zo

Prague.

L E T T E R XI.
Prapt, NVtmltr, 17j. i SIR, 1H AVE now been a Month in this City, yet t itieemsbutasaDay; for Ifind infinit Amufe* ments hre, and a thoulnd things tfaacI likc, only I wantyour Company. The Gty of Praoui is ancient, and has been time out of mind, the Seat of the Kins of Bobema. *Tis without difpute one of the Biggeft Towns in Europe. 'Tis encompafs'd with Ramparts, andaswellfortifiedasaPlace of that Extent can b, and commanded by lveial Hills, which'ris impoffiblcto leveL This City is divided by the River Moldeor Muldaw, into two Parts, viz. Old Prague and Little Prague and during the Courfe of the laft Century, it fuffr*dthe greateft Crueldes that a City can pofllbly undergo in a time of War. The Archduke Leopoli Bifhop of Paflau furpriz'd Tid plunder*d the leflcr Part, and would have done the fame by the old Town, if the Emperor Matthias King of Htmgary bad not corne in time to relieve it. Nine Years after this, Praglle wasagain phinder'd by thofe who were moft concerned to preferve it; 1 mean the Impenear rialifb, who, after the Battle at IVieiffenberg, Prague, wherein they defeated Frederic Eleftor Palatine whom a. Party had chofe King of Bobmia% enter'd the City, and carried ofFineftimabk Booty. Prague wasufed no better in 1631, by the Eleaor ofSaxony, after that Prince made himfelf Mafter of obcmia. The Great Walftein offo much Nte for
his

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his Glorious Actions, and his Tragical Exit, recover*d Bobemiafrom the Saxon in 1632, and took Prtpu by Storm. Some time after this the Swedts ttack'd it, and took the leffer Prague but could not force the old Town, it was fo courageouHydefended by the Students and Burghers. The Swedes thereupon retired, and carry'd offimmenfe Wealth. At kngth the Peace of Weftfbalia reftored Tranqoillity to Bobemiaand the City of Prague, which has been fubjeft ever fince to the Houfe of Au/tria and the Kingdom which before was Elective, had the Mortification to become Hereditary. The Situation of Prague is pleafant in the midft of Gardcns and fine Fields, and 'tis adorn'd with noble Buildings, of which the Houfes of the Counts Xfcbernin and Stemberg are as fine as any. The Furniture of the former is extremely rich there is a Gallery adomed with excellent Pictures, a Cabinet of choice Porcellanc with entire Servicesof the fineft Indian Lacca and another Room full of fine Arms and other Curiofities. Count Sternbtrg's Houfe is not fo large, yet better contriv'd and in Rome it felf wouldpals for a fine Palace. But there is one built by the late Count de Gallafcb, who died Viceroy at Naples, that bears the Bell above all. You know that Nobleman was prodigioufly rich and magnificent. He fpared no Coft in his Buildings. 'Tis pity the Houfe is not well fituate, but it certainly would be fo, if the young Count de Gallafcb was of the fame Way of Thinking with his Father, who intended to have had five or fix old Hovels belonging to it pull'd down to the ground, by which meanshe would have had a fine Square. The Convents of both Sexes are another Ornament of this Great City. The Houfe of the Reverend Fathers the Jefuits is one of the moft magnificent They have lately caufeda Church to be built, whicb U one of the beft adorned that I have

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feen

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feen out of Italy. If you were but hre, we woujd go together and fee all thofe Buildings. 1 would carry you firft of all to the Cathedral, which is in leffer Prague, on the Top of the Hill call'd Ratfchin, and from thence we would go and take a View of the Caftlc which is upon the fame Hill. The Metropolitan Church is a very antient Struc ture, which was burnt downby the Sicedes, and is only rebuilt in parc Its Magnificence and Beauty confift in the thicknefs of its Walls and Arches; and die Architecture of this Church is fuch, that 1 fancy it would appear Gotbic to the very Getbs themfelves. 'Tis in this Cathedral that the Kings and a Queens of Bobemiare conicraud. The AnchbUhop of Prague's Office is to perform the Un&ion upon both but the Abbefs of St. George, whofe Abbey is alfo upon the Hill of Ratfcbiny is to place the Crown upon the Head of the Queen, and in this Funion fhe is aflfted by the Wives of the Great Officers of the Crown. In this Metropolitan Church are preferved with great Veneration the Bodies of a couple of Saints extremely dear to the Bobemiant. The one is St. IVenceflaus ing oBobemia, the other St. John NeK pomucene. The Jatter wasvery lately canonized by Pope Benedia XIII. at the Requeft of the States of this Kingdom, who were at the whole Expence of the Ceremony, which was performedin the Church of St. Jobnde Lateran at Rome with extraordinary Pomp. The Story of this Saint is very fingular He was Confeflbr to the Wife of that cruel Emperor WenceJlausy who was depofed by the Eleftors. That Prince being jeaJousof his Queen enjoined St. Jobn Nepmucene to reveal that Princefs's Coiifeflionsto him. He employed Prefents, Prayers and Threats, to perfuade the Saint to make this Difcovery, bue ail 10no purpofe upon which he caufed him to be
caft

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caft headlong from the Bridge into the River of Mode. The Body was feen floating at fome diftance from the Place, attended with five Stars fwimming on the Water then he wasadded to the Number of the Saints and Martyrs, and his Corpfe was taken out of the River, and carried with Pomp to Prague, where it was interr'd in the Church of Dain in the old Town, of which he was a Canon. His Corpfe being found fomeYears ago, his Tongue appearing to be as freih as ever, was taken out of his Mouth and put into a Silver Gilt Box the Body was enclofed m a ftatelyCoffin, and the whole carried with great Ceremony to the Cathedral. An Altar be-. ing ereed in the middle of the right Wing of the Choir, there the Saint was interr'd in a Tomb of Silver Gilt and the Tongue put into a fort of Tabernacle whert it has wrought and does ftill work great Miracles. There is a great Concourfeof Peole hither from all Parts to invoke this Saint, whofe Tomb is loaded with precious Gifts, and adorned by the Emprefs with a rich Canopy. But no body has given more illuftrious Proofs of Devotion to St. Nepcmucenethan the Prince de Scbwartzenberg * Mafter of the Horfe to the Emperor, and the Count, de Murtinitz Marfhal of the Imperial Court; who both afcribe the Conception of their Wives, and the. Birth of their Sons, to the Protection of that Saincv tho' I lhould have thought ail this feafible enough. without a Miracle. The Princefs de Scbwartzenberg bad not been married many Years before fhe had a DaughteE f her Hufband had not feen her for fourt,cen Years after this, during which fhe had no Children. This is no more than common after they came together again Madam is brought to Bed of a, Son, in which tho' there is nothing but what is very ashewas HehadtheMisforunebekilled to huating tBoin h i btmia,by the Emperor imfelfn 1732. of fi Shsis nowMargravine Bmitn-Badcn.

P3

natural,

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Prague.

natural, yet 'tis cry*d up for a Miracle the Birth is afcribed to the Dvotion which the Princefs paid to for the Tomb of St. Nepomucene nine Days together, and to make the Saint fome amends, his Tomb and his Altar are adorn'd by a great many Veffels of Silvcr and Silver gilt. As to Count Martinitz there feems indeed to be better colour for a Miracle in his favour. He had been married fourteenor fifteen Years, and his Lady never given the leaft Sign of Tccmingnefs. She was in good dight of body, her Hutband liv'd with her, and they wenttogether fevcral times to th Baths of Carhbadi but ail had fignifiednothing. The Coune longing paffionatdy for a Son had perform'd more than nine days Dvotion fucceffively, for he went the laft Holy Year to Loretto and to Rame. But Heaven deaf to his Cries granted him no Hein at hft knowing not what Saint to pray to, his Lady propos'd, that they lhould go and worfhip nine days together at the Tomb of St. Nepmucene. They fet out, they arrive at Prague^ they proftrate themfelves before the facred Tomb. Soon after, Madame de Martinitz proves with Child, and at nine Months end is delivcred of a Son. You may fay whatever you pleaf, but fuch a Favour fure was worth fome Lamps of folid Silver before the Saint's Tomb; and the Count de Martinitz full of Zeal and Gratitude bas given fome that are very magnificent. The Bobemianshave fo great confidence in St. ydm de Nepomucate,that they have almoft forgot their old Patron. There is no Church St. Wenceflaus where St. John bas not a Chapel, no Bridge without his Eflgyi every body Gentle and Simple, Men and Women, wear his Piure asif it were the Badge of an Order, hanging to a ftraw..colour'd Ribbon, za you would fwear that ail the Bobemians were Knights of St. Louis, In (hort, St. Nepomucene is
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the only Saint in vogue and Prefents are heap'd upon him to fuch a degree that if it continues much longer, he will be as rich as our Lady of Loretto. The Palace or Caftle whichjoins to the Cathedralis a great Building compofed of feveral Main Bodies MrithoutSymmetry orArchiteclure. The Apartments are but low and plain, but here is one of che moft beautiful Profpeas in the World. The great Hall in which the Royal Feaft is la-pt on the Day of the Coronation of the Kings is the largeft of the kind, next to the fpacious Hall of Wcftmiufter. The Palace.Gardens are large, but have nothing to recommend them befidestheir Situation. The Tribunals of the Regency meet in the Palace The firft of thefe confifts of Stadtholders who afe of the Emperor's Privy Council. They are to the Number of twelve, and reprefent the Sovereign. Moft of them are the great Officers of the Crown. There muft be always two of them private Gentlemen to take care of the Interefts of the Gentry againit the Nobility for you muft know that the Princes, Counts, and Barons, who compofe the Nobility, form a feparate Body here, and would think it a IV. Duparagement to becall'd Gentlemen tho' Henry King of France counted it an honour to be the firft Gentleman in his Kingdom, and King Francis I. whenever he affirmed a thing, faid, Upontbe Word of a Gentleman. The Chief of the Council of the Stadtholders is call'd the Great Burgrave, whofe Dignity is the higheft in the Kingdom. He reprefents the Perfon of the Emperor, and is inferior to none but the Chancery of Bobemiawhich always attends the Emperor. The Bridge over the Muldaw which joins little Prague to the old Town, is one of the longeft and moft fubftanal Bridges in Europt. It has on b>"h fides P 4

$IF

PRAGUE.

fldes the Statues of feveral Saints, which if they had betn doneby a better hand, would have provY! an Otnament. There is a Crucifiif alfo which is pretended to be of Gold, and to' havebeen ere&ed formerly at the Expence of t;he Jews, purfuant to an Order of the Government, as a Puniihment for their havingcrucified a Chriftian Infant upon EafterDay, to infult the Memory of our Saviour*s t>eath. The Jews are the only Se&ariesthat are tolerated in Bibemt. There are fomeHuffitesftill fubfifting, bt they keep fo cloie, that the Government does not fecm to know that there are any at ail. I was aflur'd that in Prague afone there were no lefs than 80,000 Jews whethet there are quite fo many, I khow not; but 'ris certain they are very numerous. Their Quarter in th old Qty forais little feparate Town, They have ail the Trade in their own hands, follow all forts of Callihgs, and by their receivng ail old-fafhion'd things in Payment, they quite ruin the Chriftian Handicraftfmeri. As theJ People multiply like Rabbets, 'tis faid the Emperor is going to iflue an Ordinance prohibitingany but their eldeft Sonsto marry the Report of which is fo alarming to the Jews, that they woald advande great Sums i prevcnt its taking effea. If weexcept Rome,Paris, and Lmdm, there is no City where there are more Gentry, or a Gentry that is more wealthy Every body hre lives grand; and in no Part of th World do th Nobilrty keep greater State, or take rtiorePride in their Subftance. They are polite and civil to Strangers, whom they khow to be Perfons of Quality. For m own part, 1 like them prodigioufly, and 1 caii fefely fay it, I hve hardly met with a Foreigner who has not the lmerNotion of Prague that I hve. There

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217

There is not a Gentleman in this Country but hasfeenat leaftHollandeFrance, and Italj\ and ndeect they are under fome neceffity of travelling for th Education they have at home is none ofthe beft. But they don't travel as People of their Birth and Fortunes ought to do. They are commonly attended by a fort of Governors, who make it their Profcffion to rambk abroad with young Gentlemen, and are for the moft part Wallons y Luxtmburgbers, Lorrainers, or Ligeois*Soldiers of Fortune, without Eduction, and without Manners; who think 'fis enough for their Pupils" to fee Houfes and Churches, and having not the Courage or the Capacity to put themfelves forward, or everi to ihew their Heads, don't care that their Gentlemen lhould M keep Company. They tell young aftert that my Lord his Father, who put him under their Care, that recommended conomy to them they might game at Affemblies, but tht 'ris not well to play while they are travelling Therefore the Spark is oblig'd to keep in his Quarters, or if he is perhaps permitted to go to the public Shews, even this Pleaiure, becaufe it is not to be had without Money, muft be taken in Modration the Governor*sAim is ohly to crib all he can, and fink his Pupil's Money into his own Purfe. This isfo rrue that I haveknown fbme who neVer eat Suppers, yet always brought them toAccompt} mahy of* cmget a Profit by every thing they buy, and they make fuch hard Bargains that 'fis ten to one if they don't choufe the Merchant as well astheir Pupil. If the Governr does not like the Place they corne to, he muft be gone, tho' it were the moft proper Town in the World toform the young, Gentleman for the Govenor only writes to the Father or Mother that the Air did not agree with their Son, and that therefore he had remov'd him. The Generality of thefe wretched Guides maintain that fix Weeks or

three

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Prague.

three Mbnths Stay at moft is fufficientto know Paris a Fortnight to be thoroughly acquainted with the Geniusof the EngUfi>\ Mondi to know a Itaw t a Week to feeNaples and fo of the reft And when they have fhewn their Gentleman at PartSy the AnatomicalWar-work and the Obfervatory; at Lonent the Lions in die Tower; at Rme, the Catacombs; and at Naples the Liquefaion of St. Januariufs Blood, and Mount ^f/sw/; they think they have donc great matters, and away they go without having made an Acquaintancewith one Sol at any of the Courts. They have feen the King of Fraxct touch for the Evil The King ofEngland go to the ParliamentHoufe and the Pope fitting m his Elbow-Chair, diftributing his Benediions. With a Mind thus adorn'd, the youngMan, aftcreightecnMonths or twoYean Abfenccabroad, returns home. The Govemor has two or threethoufandFlorins, and fometimes moreas a Gratuity, befideshis Stipend Again, the worthy Mentormakes a Bubbleof theFather who truftshis Son with him, andbehold now, he is ready for another Tour. One would think that, inftead of travelling in this manner, it were betterto fendabroadfor the Plans ofall the Towns, I am fure 'twould be cheaper; the Parents would havethecomfortto feetheir Sonsat home, and they wouldalfo havewherewithalto fiirnilha little Box in the Country. There are no People of Quality in the World more addied to an expenfiveway of Living than thofe of Prague, which is the Reafon that for ail their immenfe Revenues they are fometimes over Head and Ears in Debt but by good Luck they hve a Settlementwhichprevents them from total for Ruin For moft of their Lands are intailM ever on the eldeftSonof the Family, fo that he can neither alienatenor incumber them without the Conknt 3

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fent of the whole Family, and of the King himfelf, which is a Thing very hard to be obtain'd. When an eldeft Son of a Family has fquander'd his Freehold, and rons himfelf more and more in deht, the Crcditors, and fometimes the Parents themfelves, prefent a Petition to the King and defire a Sequeftration. The King after being inform'd of the lift of the Debts, and of the Majorat (which is the Name they give here to the Lands that are intail'd) names Truftees for the Administration of the Eftates of the Spendthrift, who is allow'd a Penfion till all the Debts are paid. There's another very good Eftablifhment here for fecuring the Sale of Landed Eftates and Mortgages. Every Nobleman gives in a Particular of his Eftate to a Tribunal which is call'd the Landtaffely where the fame is regifter'd. When a Perfon wants to borrow Money or to make a Sale, the Lcnder or the Purchafer has recourfe to the Landtajfers Office, where he fes whether the Lands are mcumber'd and if the Borrower's Debts don't exceed two Thirds of the Price at which they are rated by the Landtaffel, he may lend his Money very fafely. Tho' the Bobemiansare brave and good Soldiers, yet they don't love the Service, 1 mean the Gentry Moft of them prefer the Civil to Military Employments, and a private Life to Pofts in the Army or at Court. They are fo us'd to be abfolute Maftersat their Eftates where the Peafantsare their Slaves, and to be homag'd like Petty Sovereigns by the Burghers at Prague, that they don't care to refide at Vicnna, and to be oblig'd like other Subjefts to pay their Court to the Sovereign and the Minifters. As foon as a Gentleman of Bohemiacornes of Age, he is oblig'd to take an Oath of Fidelity to the Emperor as his King; which is a Law as much binding on the Nobility as the Gentry and none of 'em dare to go out of the Kingdom without expre fs

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prcfs Leave from the Emperor, on th Penalty of rprfeiting his Eftate. When the Noblemen are return'd from their Travels to France and ltafjt they put in to be Chamberlains, not fo much for the fake of engaging themfelves to Attendance at Court as to procure a Precedency for theirWives, it being a Cuftom with moft of *emto marry as foon as thejr come of Age. Afterwards they aim to be Counfcllors of State, and Stadtholders, and this is the Ne plus ultra of their Perferments. The Counfellors of State challenge the Title of Excellency:But this is what thofe who are not of that Denomination, and of as good Families as themflves, icruple to. allow them, fo that generally foeaking they have it only given them by their Domefticsand Dpendants* So that one may fay of their Excellentes wha.t th. Duchefs of Elbaufo the Lorrain Eamily laid in Franct conceming the Princes of Bouillon,that they. were Dmeftic Higbnejst becaufe none'but their own Servants give them the Tide of Higbntfs. Qf ail the great and wealthy Families, thole of and Lobkozvitz, Kin/iit Schlick,Collobradt> Martinitz are the only ones that make a Figure at the Imprial Court. 'Tis true there are feveral other Koblemen at Viennawho have Lands nBobmiay but then their Families are not originally delceadedj from that Kingdom. The Kinjki'sFamily is actually the moft fplendid, at Court. The are five Brothers of it in Ernployments. The eldeft is the Great Chancellor of Bobetnia*. The fecond who is call'd Count Stephen, is Great Marfhal of Bchemia, a Minifter of State, and the Emperor's Ambaflador at the Court of France f. The third, CQuntPhilip, is the Empecor's His fickle tateofHealth S cblig'dbimto thisEmployquit ment,in whichhewasfucceeded the'ouot eColloSradt^ d by x was whoin 1 734 madeVJce-Chaocellor. toViennaince1732. f f. Heis return'd

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ror's Minifter Plenipotentiary to Great Britain% and th two youngeft are in the Army, where o of them is a Lieutenant-Colonel. Count Pbilip was fent Ambaflador when but twenty nine Years old. He has demonftrated by his Conduft that Wifdom does not alwaysftay for Age, and that he is the worthy Son of one of the greateft Minifters that the Emperors Leopoldand Jofepb ever had. The City of Prague, is a very great Lofer by his Abfence, for he liv*d there with Splendor, and his Houfe was always open, particularly to Foreigners. For my own part I receivM fuch Civilities there as I fliall never forget. As I have told you that the Nobility of Bobemia are the richeft in the Empire, 1 muft alfo acquaint you that the Peafants there are miferable to the laft degree their Perfons, and all they have, are at the Command of their Lord. The poor Wretches have often not a Bit of Bread to eat, in a Country which is oneof the moft plentiful in Europe for ail forts of Provifions. They dare not go from one Village to another to work, nor learn a Handicraft without their Lord's Confent. So much Subjedion keeps the poor Creatures always trembling and humble, fo that if you do but fpeak to 'cm they are ready to lick the Duft off your Feet. The Severity with which thefe People are us'd is really terrible, but 'ris as true on the other hand, that gentle Ufage has no Effd upon 'em for they are excelfivelylazy and ftubborn, and being moreover us'd to harlh Treatment from Generation to Generation, Blows fcarce terrify them, tho' tis the only way to make 'cm good for any thing. The and This Minifter asGreat Chancellor Bohemia a w of AmoftheGeUnFleect Count was Knight Jofepb nominated baiBdoro GrtatBritminn 1736.in the roomof hisBrother t i Philip.

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The Bobemans have a great many Talents for Mufic, fo that theres no Village, be it ever fo fmall, but the Mafs is fung in Concert, and they are very happy at winding the Hunten Hom. *Tis certain that this Kingdom is one of the beff Countries in the Emperor's poflffion, and next to Hungary, brings him in moft Money. Bobmia is a Country of States, whom the Emperor as King of it, fummons every Year to the City of Prague. They confift of the Clergy, Nobility, Gentry, and Towns. The Affrmbly is open'd by a Commiflioner of the Emperor's Nomination, who lays before them his Imperial Majefty's Demands. The States, fuch is thcirSubmiflion and Zeal, grant the full Demand which is commonly a very great Sum yet for all this, the Bobemanswou*d not complain of Taxes if the Emperor refided among them, but they are forry to Metheir Country exhaufted to enrich the Aufirians to whom they havea naturai Averfion, and the Au/trions as heartily hate the Bobemians. I own to you 1 Jhall be forry to leave Prague. 1 take the Bobemians to be the beft People upon Earth, and Prague to be one of thofe Towns of the Empire where a Gentleman may have moft choice of Company. The Ladies here are very amiable. Gaming, which may be call'd the univerfal Pleafure, is carry'd as high here as they pleafe in Houfes of the Quality, where Affemblies of both Sexesare held every Night, with good Cheer, particularly Pheafants and Ortolans in plenty and upon Fifh-Days, there are Trouts, Salmon, and Cray-Filh and that there may be nothing wanting, Bobmia likewife furniihes good Wine. At the Eftate of the young Count Tfcbernin at Melneg% there is a red fort not inferior to Burgundy. Of ail thefe good Things many partake together, and for my part 1 own I am taken more with this Pleafure

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Pleafure than any other, becaufe we make it laft as long as we will, and then 'ris fuited to aU Ages. There is a tolerable Italian Opera hcre. In Winter they have Races in ftately Sledges: There is great Mafquerading, and they dance they aretill ready to drop to the ground: For this end there are public Balls which are extraordinary fplendid, and might be comparM, if anycanbc comparM, with the Balls at the Hay-Market in Lardon. In the Summer-Time when there is not fo much Company in Town, thefe Afiemblies are thinner. The Gentry meet at Night in a Garden belonging to the Prince if Scbwartzenberg, where they game, chat, and walk up and down, after which they always go to fome Houfe or other to fup. When one has a mind to go to the Country, we are fure of a good Rception, and the longer one ftays the greater Pleauire one gives to the Mafter of the Houfe. Hre they pafs the Time in Hunting of ail forts Many of the Nobility keep Packs of Hounds, and others Hawks. The Generality keep Muficians in their Service, fo that let the Weather be what it will, one may be always amufed in this Country. Befides, one enjoys all the Freedom here that can be. After this, Sir, can you blame me for being forry to leave Bobemia? But 'tis what l'm now preparing to do, and I purpofe to go to Vienna. You will be fo good as to let me have a Line from you there; for to be plain with you, to write three Letrtrs for one is too hard. Tis true that your*sare of ineftimable Value, and that therefore you are in the right not to be lavifh of them; but the fame Reafon juftifies me in defiring them. Adieu, Sir: Love me alwaysa little, and be aflur'd that no Man is more than 1, &c

LET-

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L E T T E R XII.
Nv. Vwmmt 30.17*91 SIR* Court of ViENKAconfftsof fomanjr Princesand Noblemen, that it cannot be TH deny'd to be the greateft and moft.magnificentCourtin Europe. NcvcrtheJdsCrmonies, and the Etiquette, a Name by whichthey calI ancient Ufages, give it an.Airof Conftraintthat is tQ be feenno whereelle. There's a univerfaJOut-cry againft the latter, and eventhe Emperor fometimes feemstobedifturb*datt, yet'ris obferv'dasftriljr as if it was an Article of Religion, and nothing cou'dfet itafidebut an OecumenjcalCounciJ. Notwidifianding this, a Foreigner of Quality (for fuch he muft be hre) finds Adrantagesatthui Court which he does not meet with ddier at Paris or TJmioHy mean Opportunities of making AcI quaintance. After a Peribn has been to wait on their Imprial Majeftieshe need only be introduc'd into one fingle Family to be foon made known to ail the reft, with this Advantagetoo, that go where you will, riey fpeak te &hm*, Fremcb,Italia*% and Spanijb Languages; whereas.a Foreigner at Paris is undera Neceffityof fpeaking Fretub, and at LemmErglifbj but a Man may fliift very well at Vient*withoutthe Xigb-Ditcbor ~xrswx Language. Minifters and great Lords of the Court are The Civil, Courteous, and of eafyAccess, dpedallyto fuchaswancnoFavourf 'on, and corne to Vienn

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6nly for Curiofity or Bufinefs. The Way 6f thefe Gentlemen is to return no Vifits but they invite People to thcir Tables, which being always well filfd, a Man foon gets a great dal of Acquaintancc. 'Tis a very cafy matter to be admitted to kifs the Hands of thcir Imperial Majefties, and even to obtain a priva* Audience of'em for there needs nothing more than to give in your Name to the Emperor's Great Chamberlain and the Emprefs's Great Mafter of the Houfhold. When you kifs their Hands you bend one Knee to the Ground, and the Time for it is generally when their Majefties pafs by to Dinner. But private Audiences are attended with more Ceremonies. The Great Chamberlain having appointed the Hour of meeting in his Antichamber, which is commonly five o'clock in the Evening, he repain thither at that Time, and introduces to the Audience and if he be absent* *tisdonc by the Chamberlain in Waiting. The Ceremony obfcrv'd is this The Empreor ftands up tmder a Canopy, leaning with his Back againft a Tabk; and an Arm-Chair by his Side, A Screen of red Vlvet with Gold Fringe is plac'd at the Entrance of the Room, fo that the Emperor.is not perceiv'd at the opening of the Door. Behind this Screen near the Door, .ftands the Great Chamberlain. As foon as the Perfon cornes in fight of the Emperor lie bends.the Knee, which he repeats as he advances a little farther, and again when he cornes near to his Imprial Majefty. To thefe Genuflexions the Emperor gives a Nod of the Head, hearkens very attentively to the Perfon who addrefls him, and returns a fuccincl; and gracioufi Anfwer. Then the Perfon kneeling with one Knee en the Ground kifles his Majefty's Hand, after which he retires; going backwards and making three did at Entrante. The fame Gnuflexions as Crmonies are obferv'd at an Audience of the

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Emprds, who gives it ftanding juft as the Emperor does, with this Difference only that the Emperor is aU alonc, and the Emprefc is attended with one of her Ladies of Honour, who nevcrthcle ftands off at (uch a Diftance that (he can't hear what is faid. ThcEmpcrorcommonlyeats withiheEmpreand the Arch-Duchefles. But there are particular Days, fuch as the Inftallation of the Knights of the Geem Ffoee, when the Emprels herfelfis not allow'd to fit down at Table with his Imperial Majefly. The Dinner is commonly in the Emperor's Apartment, and the Supper at the Emprefs's. At Dinner two Chamberlams hold the Ewer for their Majefties to waflj, and the Steward, or in his absence the Great Chamberlain prefents them the Napkin, which is donc after the manner of Spaitt, with one Knee on the Ground. The Number of Difhes at the Emperor's Table is forty eight, and die fiunc at the mprefs's but tho' dieu* Majefties eat together they are eachferv*dby theirown Officersand Cooks. They commonly drink both together at the firft Time and till they have drank, the Ambafladors Coprtiers, and Ladies ail wait at Dinner. After the Emperor bas drank, the Steward, the Mafter of the Horfe, the Great Chamberlain, and the Captain of the Guards receive his Orders The Lady of Honour in Waiting and the Emprefs's Steward receive her Orders in like manner. None remain in the Room but the Officers neceflry for the Service, and fome curious People who are not us'd to fee Sovereignseat. On Sundays, Saints Days, and Days of Gala, which is the Name they give hre to Days of Feftival and Ceremony, the Dinner is attended with Mufic. 1 forgot to acquaint you that the Emperor is always cover'd at Table, and that when he puts his Hat on the Ambafladors put on theirs.

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At Supper the Lady of Honour who is in waitngprefents the Napkin, and the Ladijs of the Bed-Chamber not only carve and hand the Viluals, but tafte both the Meat and the Wine. The Pages carry the Dilhes and Plates, and fetch the Wine from the Beaufetwhich they give to the Lidies, and they to their Majefties. During the Supper as well as at Dinner ail the Gentlemen and Ladies ftand up, fo that here neither Princes nor Princeffes have any Diftinion {hew*d them, but ail Ranks are levell'd and confounded, and no body fits down in prefence of the Sovereign. On the Days of Galathe Court is extremsly gay, and nothing is to be feen but Gold and Diamonds. The Days of this kind that are celebrated with mott Splendor are thofe ofSt. Cbarles and St. Elizaetb, the Name Days of the Emperor and Emprcfs. The Emperor, who commonly dreffesvery plain, iscover'd all over widiDiamondsupon St. Elizabetb*% Day. And as for the Emprefs, her ApparJ is commonly rich, and fo loaded with Jewels upon St. Cbarles's Day that ihe can fcarce ftand under it. Except on thefe Days of Gala the Court dreflcs very plain. 'Tis true that thefe Days are very frequent, and that confequently plain Clothes arj not very much wore, for if it be a Holiday, or the Birth. Day of fomeMinifter, cr itfome Lady of Diftinction fendsbut for a Surgeon to bkcd her, 'tis enough to put the whole City in pala. Thefe Gala* may bedivided into three Claffcs; the Court Gala which is univerfal both for the Nobles and Plebdans; the Grand Gala which is kept in the City is for the Feftival of fome Minifter and the third and laft is the Little Gala, which is when the Ladies are la blood. A Hufband makes a Gala hre for his Wife, the Wife for her Hufband, the Cnildrcn for their Parents, and Brothrs and SLftersfor one another fo that to be furc two Thirds ot'Yienna are
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always in Gala which made a Frncb Jefter fay, 'twould take up a great deal of Brimftonc to cure However, thcy take the Aufirians of the Gale tare not to appear in this domeftic Gala before the Emperor and Emprefs, becaufeit would be feckon'd a Difrdpe to them. On the great Feftival-Days th Emperor gdes Cathedrl: with a grand Retinue to St. Stepbeh*& He takes up one whole Side of the Coach, and the Emprefs fits fronting him. Their Majefties are preceded by the Chamberlains and Knights of the GoldenFleeceon horfe-back The Pages and Footmen walk bare-headed immediately after the Coach of the Mafter ofthe Horfe, and their Imperial Majefties Coach is guarded on each fide by a File of Archers, and attended by the Coaches of the ArdiDucheffesandtheLadies. Then the Horfc-Guards appear wichtheir Kettle-Drums and TrutnpetSj and the March is clos'd by the Pope's Ntmcio and the Ambafldors with their Train, which conlifts of three magnificent Coaches and fix HorfeSeach. On CorpusCbrifii Day the Emperor accompaues the Holy Sacrament, when the Strects thro' which the Proceflionpaflsare cover'd with Planks. Their Imperial Majeftiesrepair in the Morning with great Attendance to St. Stepben'sCathedral, and after affifting at Divine Servicejoin in the Proceflion. The Emperor is immediately follow'd b the Emprefs, who is accompany'd by a11 the Ladies in rich Drefles, which renders this one of the moft magni6cent Procdions in the World. The fame Honours and Refpe&s are paid to the Emprefs Dowager as to the Emprds Regent. She has her feparate Houthold, an her own Guards. She has an Apartment in the Palace, but commonly lives in a Convent of her own founding in one of the Suburbs, and does not corne to Town except on the great Festivals or for fome extfaordinary Function. This Wordin Fretub a fignifes Seai.

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tion. You know, without doubt, that the Emprefs Dowagers can never quit Mouming their Apartments muft be always hung with Black, and their Coachesand Liveries are of the fame Colour Nor can they be prefent at any Play, Ball, or Concert., In fhort by lofing their Hufbands they muft renounce the Pleafures of this Life. Thefe fevere Obligations on a Widow are fully difcharg'd by the Emprefs Dowager. Being retir'd to a Convent where ihe is almoft continually proftrate before the Altars in Prayer and Supplication, fhe makes her Manfion a Place ofPietyand Peace, and never appears in public but when Conveniency requires. This Princefs was always an Example of the moft uncommon Virtue. In the Life-time of her Hufband the Emperor Jofepbt ihe lov'd Pleafures and Grandeur but when fhe became a Widow fhe renounc'dall, and only employ'd berfelf in Works of Piety, and in the Education of the two Arch-Ducheflsher Daughters, w homfhe has now the Comfort of feeing marry'd to two powerful Princes of the Empire.. There's not a Perfon that draws near her Imperial Majefty but admires her ;minen^ Qoalities. I have not yet had the Honour this Journey of cafting my felt at her Feet, but the firfl: Time I was here 1 had the Advantage of paying my Duty to her at Scbonborn,where me then pafs'd the Summer. 1 was receiv'd by her with fuch Proofs of her Kindnefs as charm'd me, and which 1 fhall always remember with Pleafure and Refpecl:. This Princefs is the Daughter of Jobn-Frederic Duke of Brunfwic-Hanoverand of Henrietta-BenediftinePrincefsPalatine. After th Pcath of the Duke her Father, who left no Son, fh.2went with \\i Duchcfi cf Brurfjiic to France, where this Princefs was very glad to retire to her Siftr the Princefs of Conde. The Emprefs whowas t~cn f ne TheEWWrefla ofBavera Saxvy. ofQ,3 aad Saxo~.

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then the Princefi Amelia, fpent fome Yearg in France., where fhe learned the Language and Politcnefs of that Nation to perfection, and in lhort acquir'd that Merit and Virtue for which fhe is now fo much admir'd, and which perhaps have contributed equally wich her illuftnous Extraction to gain hcr poffcffionofthefirftTftroncinChriftendom. Thc Marriage of her eider Sifter to Renaud tfEfte Dake of Modenaobliging the Dutchefc oBrmfioic to leave France, and go and fettle at Modma, the Princefs Ameliafollow'd her alfo into Itafy. Shchad no reafon to be forry for her leaving France, and rcjedingthc Addreffes ofaFrrr^ Nobleman mho had prefum'd to court her, for not long after her Arriva] at Modena the was marry'd to the King bf the Romans, afterwards the Emperor Jofepb. This Emprefs is not only endow'd with the Chriftian but ail the Moral Virtues, and there are few Princeflcs of a more generous Sol, ofgreatcr Courage, or of a Genius morefublime, morcrefin'd, or more .idorn'd. There was a Time when fhe might be rank'd among the moft beautiful Princefles of Europe: fhe ftilj retains ail the Marks of it; and therewith preferves fuch a majeflic Air that whenever I behold her it revives the profond Vneration I have for her facred P^rfon. The Emperor Charles VI. is of a middling Stature, and in good Plight ofBody: Heis of a fwarthy haie CempLction, hasa brifk Eye, an-rhick Lips, for which laft his Famiiy in general have been re.markabc. This Monarch is diefccondSon of the Emperor Leopoldby Eleonoraof Nez-bourg,and the fifteenth Emperor *of his Family. Bjng defign'd when a Minor for Succeflbr to Cbarles Il. King of Spain, he had a grave Education fuitable to the People whom lie was one day to govern. This made 1 conform Opinion almofl tothe of ailtheHiftorians, who do notplace FrtitrictheFairinthelift of the Emperors.

231 made him contre an Air of Serioufoefs, which, to chofewho have not the Honour of Accefs to him, fvours of Severity yet he is affable and very hutnane.. He hears thofe with Attention that fpeak to him, and his Anfwers are full of Good-nature. When he attain'd to an Age hardly ripe enough for the Crown ofSpai*, he met with various Fortune in that Kingdom but he fupported himfelf in every Event with an hercic Magnanimity, being always fbmiffive to the Wiff of that Providence which ne knew was the Mafter of the Fortune of Kings. The Adverfitys with which it pleas'd God to try his Patience by the Sige oBarcelona which he carry'd on in Perfon, and by the Lofs of th Battle of Villa ViciofOy nly ferv*d to con6rm his o Conftancy, and his natural Integrity, a Principle which renders him even more vnrable than the Splendor of his Crowns and the vaft Extent of his Power. Heaven, which always rewards Virtue has granted this Monarch one of the beft and moft fortunate Reigns that any Emperor has had fince Germanj has been the Seat of Empire. He wants nothing to crown his Happinets but a Maie Heir, which is fo much the Defrc of the People, as well as of the Emperor and the mott virtuous Emprefs the World ever faw, that God grant he may have one. This Princefs is defcendedfrom the ayguft Houfe of Brunfwicy to which Europe is at this Time oblig'd for two Emprefles*, one King-f, and a Queen ft. She is the Daughter of Lewis Roolfb Duke of Brunfwk-Blankenbonrg by CbrifiianaLouifa Princefs of Oetingen, of whom I gave you an ~4 andthe Emprefs owager. The Emprefs egent D R t The KingcGreat Britaiu. The Qoeen PruJJia. of |* The prefentDnteRgentof Brnnfiuie-Luutnbwrg-Wol' fmbtttlt.

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an Account in my Letter from Blankenbourg. The haraef of this auguft Princefs for her AffabUity and Goodnefs is fo well known in the World thac 'ris needlefs to fpeakof it here. You know likewife how beautiful and handfome me was when flic was marry'dto the Emperor. And notwithftanding the Pimples in her Face nd her prefent GorpJencyfh fnayftill be reckon'd in the nurnbet f th beautiful Princefles. Such an Air of Modefty, Mildnfe, and Majcfty, accompahies every thing Ihe docs, as infpires thfe that approach her with equal Courage and Refpe. H Duty is her Law, and her principal Care isto pleafe the Emperor, whoie Wifdom fhe knows to be fufficientto govern his Dominions, and to him fhe therefore leaves all Affairs. Indeed fhe is very earncft with him to get Faveurs for thofe who ptition her, which fhe thinks uHappinefs to obtain, and fhe beftows thm in iuch manner as is ycry afiing to the Receivers. This Princefs is charitable, generos, nd magnificent. She maintains her Dignity without Conceit, and fupports her folidPiety without Ostentation. She was educatd in the Lutberan Religion, but abjur'd it at Bamberg when fhe came thidier in her Way to be marryM to the Emperor, theh King of Spaint and is now good Catholic, yet without any Hatred to the Proteftants being convinc'd that the Love of one's Neighbour 'is one of the Duties which God moft ftriftly enjoins upon Mankind, and that Charitablenefs and good Exmpks are the beft Meansto reconcile thofe to the Church who are fcparaJtedfroin ln the fam fublime Sentiments of. Virtue does th Emprefs educate the Archducheflcsher Daugh%rst and thofe young Princcflcs are like to make #orthy'Rofiden6," TKe eldeft Archduchefs Mary tjkerefais brought up in the agreeable Profpe of being-one day Miftrds of the vaft Dominions pof-

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This young Princefs has feffd by the Emperor very much of the Air of th Emprefs her Mother and if Heaven defigns her for the Soveteignty of the Empire, God grant the may alfo refemble her in her Virtues!f The Emperor bas three Sifters. The eldeft is the Archduchefs Mar.y Elixabetb Govemefs of the the fecond is Mary ~nM {AufirUm)~tbcrlaxdi Queen of Portugal and the third is the Archduchefs Mary Mardalen, who 'ris faid is intended to be Governefs oxtiroL The intire Auguft Houfe itfAuftria confifb at prefent of the facred Perfon of the Emperor and of eight Princeflcst, of whom three are married and God grant it may be augmented by the Birth of a Prince 1forwithout fetting up here for a zealous Subjeft, 1 don*tthink that th Houfes of Aujtr'm andBourbonought ever to be xtinft, both of them havihg tnade the Fortunes of an infinite Number bf Gentlemen.. The Emperor's ordinary Piffime (when he bas a Defire to unbend his Mind from Affairs of State, to which lie applics with all the Earneftnefs of a Monarch that loves his Peopie) is Hunting, or Shooting at a Mark; and the Emprefsis generally a Sharer in his Diverfions. His Imperial Majefty goes fometimes alfoto the RidingHoufe, where he exercifeshimfelf in Riding At other times Mufic is his Amufement, which the Monarch not only performs by Book, but is alfo a Compofer and fome Years ago an Opra was acted here of his compofing. Alt the Aftors as well as the Dancers and the Muficians of the Orcheftre were Perfons of Qiiality. The Emperor himfelf made one, and the two eldeft Archduchefls his Daughters danced. The Speftators wese the Emprefs Regent and the Emprefs Dowager, and every Alor had the Liberty Teb.f. 1736.(he was arrv'dto the Dukeof Urria. m fiacc i f Therearebot ferai Archdacheflb 1730 the Empcror'sUiird b ,Of Daughter eingdead.. t

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berty of carrying two of his Kindred or intima Friends. Tho* their Imperial Majeftiesare very fond of Mufic they havefeldommore than two Oprasin a Year, viz. onthe Days of Se CharlesandSe. Etixa* Utby and fometimes the fme Opras are pfay'd again during the Carnival. At dus rime, which is devoted to Mirth, there is a BaUat Court, and o* the Fldh-dajrs thefe is commonl?a great Mafmrerade reprdenting a Country-Wedding. In the Palace there is a very magnificentThtre, which indeed is almoft 'the only thing there. that is worth feeing, for die Imprial Palace is fo wretched a Manfonthat few Monarchs are lodged worfethan the Emperor. The Furninire too is old-fafhion'd and not very rich, whichis fomewhatunaccounta* the ble, becaufe Wardrobesare fullofcoffly Pieces of Tape.firy,ftately Piures, and other fine Goods ufc whichprobablythy are reftrainedfrotn making of by the Etiquette. The Emperor's PkafureHoufesare no better than his Palace in the City. .The Caftleof the Favorita which is in one of the Suburbs, is a great Building full of Turnings and Windings like the Street which it looks into, and has more of the Appearanceof a great Convent of CapucbinFryars than ofthe Dwellingof a Prince whois the Head of fo manySovereigns. The Gar^ens are as mean as the Houfe, and only confiderais blefor theirExtent. Luxembourg ftill very much inferiorto the Favorita but the Court is there no more than a Month or fix Wecks, during the Hunting of the Heron. The Minifters that are obliged to attendthe Emperor thither have Houfes there, which though not very grand, are commodious. When a Perfon goes to Laxmbourgtopay a Vifit to the Court he is under a Neceffityof returning to Viennafor a Bed, which is a very great Inconveniency.
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235 The Emperor Jofepb lud begun a very fine about a League from Viennat Houfe at Scbonborn but did not live to finilh it and the Emprefs to Ameiia whom the Emperor gave it, inftead of carryingon the Works which her Hufband had begun, letsitruntoruin-, which isgreatpi ty, for if that Building had been finifh'd the Emperor wou'd not hve had a Vr/ailles, but he wou'd at leatt have had a Manfion-Houfe fuitableto his Dignity. 'Tis faid that a new Palace is going to be built for the Emperor which, if true, *twereto be wilh'd that better Archites may be employ'd in it than thofe who have had the Direction of the new Stables and of St. Charles* Church, which are Buildings lately ereed with very great Expence, but without any Tafte. The Stables are a Range of Buildings of a vaft Length, divided into feven Pavillons which appear at firft fight to be fo many different Houfes Th middlemoft Pavilion which is defign'd to lodge the Mafter of the Horfe is much higher than the other fix, which fink gradually on the two fides. Nor are the inner Rooms better contriv'd; for the Horks ftand all in one Row, and the Stable is fo narrow withal, that one is every Minute in danger from the Horfes Heels which is purdy owing to the Indifcretion ofthe Architea, who having ground enough and to fpare might for the fame Expence have made fomething grand and noble. Whether the fame Architea that built the Stables had the Direction likewife of St. Cbarles's Church, is what 1 know not; but if they are two different Men their Head-pieces are very much alike. This Church would perhaps have been admir'd in the Days of the Gotbs, but in fo refined an Age as the prefent, one cannot look on it without bemg forry for the Sumsof Money laid out in it. This bad Tafte as to Buildingsprevails too much at Vienna, not but that there are Hotels and even Pa-

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Palaces in whichthe Rules of Architecture are obfcrv*d, but then die Builders are got into fuchaway of ornameating and charging their Houfes with Sculpture as is altogetbcr contrary tothe noble Simplicity of die ancient Arciteure. The Palace of Prince Eugneof Savoyis ftatdy, but ficuate in a narrow Street with a very litde Court befbre it. The Stair-cafeis very well contriv*d were it nottoo much confin'd. The Apartments of diefirft Story are as well laid out as the Ground wou'd admit or. We enter rft into a fpacious Salon adorn'd with great Piures reprefenting the chief Viories of Prince Eugneover the Frencb and the Turks. In die two Rooms next to this are very rich Hangings wherein the Maktr Devos at Brujfels has very correAly delineated the whole Military Science. The Bed-ehamber beyond that has a Set of Furniture of green Velvet richly embroider'd with Gold and Silk. In the fam Room dierea Luftre of Rock Cryftal which is faid to have coft 40,000 Florins. Ali the other Fumiture is extraordinary magnificent, and wou'd be cry'd up at Paris it felft where it muft be allow'a a.Tafte for fine Furniture prevails more than any where. The Palace of Licbtenfieinis bigger than that of Savoy and notlefs magnificent. 'Tis worth feeing were it only forits Paintings. 1 pafs over the HoHarT tels of Scbwartzenberg, Daun, T>iedricbfteiny racb, and fveralother noble Edifices, left my Letter fhou'd fwellinto a Volume. The Palaces of the Suburbs are infinitely more grand than thofe of the City, and they have both Court-yards and Gardeos. The mott noble are the Palaces of Trautjbem, Rofrano, Stbwarvzenbtrg* AUbtim, and Eugne of Savoy. This laft efpecially is a fuperb Structure with magnificent Gardens, a fine Orangery, and a Menagery ftor'd with the moft uncommon Cratures that the four Parts of

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237 the Wrld can frnifh. 'Tis in this fine great Houfe that Prince Eugnepaffes the beautiful Seafon of the Year. Thereis notfo fine Slght asan Afiembly at this Princes Houfe, for notonlythe outerCourt, in whichthere's a fine Pice of Water, but the Gardens are illuminatedby an infinite Number of Lanthorns made in form of a Bowlof extraordinary white Glafi, which caft a very great Light and make a glorious The Afi'embliesat this Prince's Houfe appearance. for his Birth, Employare numerous aient and Intereft, draw a great Court to him. Prince Eugneis of a middling Stature, and well made. His Air is extremely ferious, and his Deportment grave and referv*di but notwithftanding that Refervednefs he is a hearty Friend to his Adherents. He is a thorough Judge of Merit, and loves to diftinguifh it. He is perfe&ly genteel and civil, very lite to the Ladies, refpecwil and fubmiflive to his Lord and Mafter, but without and FTatteryor Servility. He is generous noble in every thingexcepting his Apparel. He is an Enemy to Oftentation, Ceremonies, and Conftraint. Inhu youthful Days he lov'd Pleafures, but he abandon'd them as foon as he was animated with a Thirft for Glory. He was born in France, but left that Kingdom in 1683, out of difguft that ha was no more taken notice of, and came to Fiennajuft before the Turks laid fiege to it. He made the Campaign as a Volunteer, and diftinguifh'd himfelfin fucha manner that the Emperor Leopold gave him in Decetnberfollowingthat Regiment of Dragoons which ftill goes by his Name. When the Siege of Vienna wasrais'd, he ferv'd in Hungaryunder Duke Cbarles of Lorrain, and Maximilian EmanuelEJectorof Bavaria. The firft time that he obtain'd the Command of theImperialArmy was in 1697, when he began with the Vi&ory at Zenta whereby 22,000 Turks loft their Lives; a Lofs which they could not recover,

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cover, and which put them upon fuing for the Peace that was granted to them at Cdrlowilz in The Prince afterwards commanded in Itafy, i6gg. and laftly in Hungary-, and Germa/y, Flatiders, wherever he went Conqueft attended him. To give would be to anyou a Dtail of his Atchievemcnts them; ticipate the Hitlcry which is to immortalize and to which you will not take it ill if I refer you. As to the Digniries and great Employments of this Prince, he is Chief Counfellor of the Council of PreGdcnt of the Aulic Council of Confrences; Commander in Chief or Lieutenant-General War of the Armies of the Emperor and Empire; his in Itaiy\ Colonel Imprial Majeity's Vicar-General and Knight of the of a Regiment of Dragoons; Golden Fleece. Ail his Employments may be Befides worthabout300,ocoFlorinsaycartohim. this, he has a confiderable Eftate in Hunary and in the Neighbourhood of Vtenna, which bnngs him in He holds about 100,000 Florins fer Ann. more. thofe Lands by the Emperor's Bounty who gave Serthem to him as a Reward for his important vices.*

The
Thi great General who was born the 8th afO3octr 1663, O.S. died on the ioth of 4>r;7 1736, O.S. fo fuddcnly, that whm bis Gentleman went that Moming, as nfual, into his Hehad Chambertoawakehim, hewatfbnnddeadinhisBed. been the day before very gay with Company whom h. entertain'd at Dinner, and made not the teaft Compkint of any Ailment, tho' he had for fome time before been fo tndifpos'd that he did nor venture abroad. *Tii fuppofed that he was with which he choak'd by an mmoderate Defluxk of Rhenm wasnow and then trouble His fndden Death cafl the City and Court of Finma into fuch a Confiernationas did prodigiouHonour to his immortal Memory. On the t jth, after havins lain thm days in State, he was ioterr'd in the Tomb cf his Nephew EmammtiPrince of S&vy (which the Princefs cf Savy Countefs of Seijbnscaus'd to be ereed in theMetropol:fcn Church of St. Stefbn) with all the Military Honours, ard ail the Magnificencedue to bis illuftrious Biith, and wthcfc important

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The Marlhal Count Guido Startmberg is one of thofe Gentlemen alfo who deferve particular refpefl: He is defcended of a Family for their Virtue. which has given great Gnerais and wife Minifters to the Emperors of the Auftrian and Family, bas fupported the Glory of his Anceftors in a fignai manner Hungary, Itoly, and Spain, have been and confummatt Witnefls of Bravery Wifdom in the Art of commanding Armies, and have admir'd him the more becaufe they faw him always gaining Viories withArmies ill paid, deftitute of ail Nereflaries, and very much inferior to his Enemies. This General enter'd very young into the Service in quality of an Enfign, and advanc'd himfelf by deHe was made Lieutenant- Colonel a little grees. before the Turks Undertaking againft ViennOy and while it was bcfieg*d, ferv'd as Adjutant to his Coufin Erneft-Rudigcr Count de Staremberg, the Defender of Vienna* This Count Guido, aftcr having been a few years in the Service, was preferr'd to the Regiment of Foot of which he is ftill Colonel. When portant Services which he perform'd to the Auguft Houfc of Jufiria during the Reigns of three fuccelfive Fmperors A Will was found among his Papers, whereby he declar'd th late Prince Eugneof Savoyhis Nephew who died the yen before at Manbeim his nniverfal Heir. Bat after that time a Codicil was made, tho' never fign'd by Prince Eugne,dedaring for his Heir his Niece Leui/a dtStiffint of Carignan (who was born December 16, 1686.) then it a Nunnerj in France. The Prisse left behind him a nmneroas and curions Library of Bocks, many of which he bought when at LcnJm of Cbriflopbtr Bateman ia Pater-nofter Rtvt, befides a fine Cabinet of Medals and other Curiofities. The Emperor bas bought his Library of his Nice for 20000 Florins. Sincethe Prince'sDeath the CountdeKenigfeg Vice-Prefidentof the Council of War, bas the chief Direion of Miiiury Affairs at this Court, and fignsall Difpatches and Commiffionswhich that Prince fign'd as nrft Prefidentof thefaid Council, for thirtythree years. His Regiment of Dragoons is given to Prince Charlesof Lorrain, but the Honours he held as General in Chief of the Emperor's Forces, and his Imperial Majefty's Vicar-General in. halj, are liketo continuevacant byreafcaoftaePea.ce.

V i e n n ." 44 When he was very young he was made Great Commander of the TeutonicOrder. 1 do not mcnriorf his Exploits to you, becaufe they are fo much celebrated by Fam that you cannot but know them: This General, tho* very much advanc*d in years, retains all his juvnile Ardor, and wou*d ftill be very capable ofcommandin. Havmg mention'd two of die Emperor's greateft Gnerais you will not be forry, 1 fancy, if 1 fhou'd ghre you fome Account alfo of his chif Miniftersi They are five in Number, and are call*dCounfellors of the Confrences. Prince Eugne of Savoy is th firft Counfellor, but withut the Title of Prime Minifter, that being a Dignity not known at the Imperial Court. TteQyontLewis de Zinzendorf, Chancellorof the Court, and Knigtit of theGoldenFleece, is the fecond Counfellor of the Confrence: He is a Nobleman dcfcended of a Family which has been for long time eminent in Jiuftria. His Mother was Princefs of Holfiein,who married to her fcond Hirfbattd the Marlhal Count de Rahuin Governor of TranfyU vaniay but died a few years ago in a very advanc'd Age. 1 had the honour to know her the laft dme I was hre her Houfe being the Rendezvous of ail People of Rank. Count Zinzaidorfwas in the Miniftry m the Reign of Leopcld. He was that EmperOr's Minifter Plenipotendaryin France, wbile thfe w Marinai de VtUars asat Vieitnawidi the fmeCharacter from Lewis XIV. At the Death of the Emperor AmJofepbtthc CountdeZinzenderfyns that Prince*s baador to the States-General, in which Charaer he was confirmed by the Emprefs Eleonora who was Regent during the Abfence of King Charles. He repaired from the Hague to Frankfort to aflift at the Coronation of Charles VI. and officiated at the Cremony as Vicar to the Great Treafurer of the Empiret a Dignity which is Hereditary in his Family.
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At the Congrefs of XJtrechtwhich was open'd not long after, the Count de Zinzendorf aftilted as th Emperor's firft AmbafTidor. He afterwards went to the unfucefsfulCongrefs of Sorjfous,and from thence to Yerfailles,where he fucceededfo well with the Cardinal de Flewy, that he kept him tight in thofe pacifie Sentiments which the Enemies of his Tranquillity, if not of his Glory, aim'd to make him give up. The Count is now return'd hither, and almoft the only Man that adts in the Province of foreign Affairs. His Intereft is very greir, for bddes the Etteem which the Emperor has for his Perfon and Services, he is relatad to all the moft diftinguilhed Perfonsat Court, and ftriJy attached to th Intereft of Prince Eugneof Savoy, of whofe Integrity and difinterefted Zeal for the Emperor he is very fenble. The Count de Zinzendorf is pretty tall and has z happy engaging Afpe6t. His Deportment is noble. Heis pretty referv'd, but civil. He is very polite to Strangers, and hisHoufs is open to them. He kecps the nobleit and moft elegant Table at Vienne. He is magnificent in every thing he does, and all his Avions lavour of the. Man of He is Father of a numerous Family. Quality. The fecond of his Sons is a Cardinal and Bifhop in Another is Knight oMalta^ andJLkuHungary tenant-Colonel. As thefe are the two with whom 1 am beft acquainted, fo they are tlie only ones 1 *tis fliall menrion. 1 know not whether pollible for a Man to be more fprightly than they both are. The Chevalier has more Meule and Life than a Cafcon He is very blunt in his witty Sallies, but th, variety of them pleafes, and their novelty and juftneis are furprizing. The Couat Gundackerde Staremberg, Prsident of the Caarnbtr of Finances, and Knight of the which of Heis nowBifhop Brtjltm; a Dignity giveshim in a diihnguifti'aRank thisDuchy.

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Golden Fleece, is the third Counfellor of die Conferences. His Integrity is very much cry'd up, and he has manag'd the Finances in fuch a manner as to guard againft the Public Hatred. The Count deScbonborn,Bithop of Batnhergand Wurtzbourgi Vice-Chancellor of the Empire, is the fourth Counfellor of theConfrences You know, Sir, that the Scbmbom Family has given us feveral worthy Gentlemen; but Imay venture to fay, with ail due Regard to the Memory of thofe great Men, and without fiattering the Vice-Chancellor, that of all the Family he has the greateft Capacity for Bufinefs, the moft generous Temper, and the moft engaging and moft civil Behaviour. As this Prelate has not his Equal at Viennafor Grandeur and Riches, fo he has not his Fellow for Magnificence. The Emperor has a fingular Efteem for him. The ViceChancellor has the Chancery of the Empire under him, and no body above him but the Emperor, and the Eleor of Mentz^ who is the Great Chancellor of the Empire. The Count de Konigfeck,Vice-Prefident of the Aulic Council of War, is the fifth Counfel or of the Conferences. This Nobleman, whofe Extraction is from a Family of Diftin6fion in the Empire, is one of the talleft and handfomeft Men at Court He is the Emperor's Ambaffador Extraordinary at the Court of Spain. His Family has for a long time paft been attach'd to the Houfe of Auftria. He ftudied at Befanan, and was defignd for the Church i but he quitted the Band, took to Arms, and The Count eMetfeb, d of Vice-PrefidenttheAolic-Coancil himintheOffice Vioe-Chucel ofthe ofthe Empire,focceeded ~<M~ 1er Md thCoeat~&~M-?XM*<M of ~Mv~A c Rtbrtm, beretofore Ahqfius-'Tbtwuu lor ud the Viceroy Nefia, Raiamd ofherrmcb Coont of heitditaryMafler f the o Hori of UpperandLower Jmjtria,Maiflial f thStuesof th Conntry, night f theGolden o CounFleece,is appointed K feUcr f th Confrences the roomof th: Count t Scbono in d hr*.

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and enter'd into the Service of the Emperor Lopold in which he had not been many Ycars before he had a Reg;ment of Foot, and the Emperor Jofepbmade him his Chamberlain. He a;fo gavehim the Government of Mantua, from whence he was recall'd by Cbarles VI. and fent to take poflflion of the Netberlands in the Name of the Emperor, to whom they were evacuated for that purpofe by the Maritime Powers. The Count de Konigfeck, during his Adminiftration of the Netberlands, concluded the Barrier Treaty with the States General. At Bruffels he married Madamoifelle de Lanoi la Aiotterie, a young Lady of a good Family, and diftinguirti'd Merit. When he left the Nelberlands he went Ambaflador from the Emperor to the Court of France wherehegain'dgreatEfteem, efpecially from the Duke of Orltans, the Regent a Prince who was an excellent Judge of Merit, and very foaringof his Applaufe. After three Years ftay at Paris, the Count return'd to Vienna. He attended the Archduchefs, Wife to the Electoral Prince of Saxony, in quality ofSteward, to Drefden-,and at his return wentto the Government of TranJUvania. But the Emperor recall'd him from this Poft and fent him his Ambaflador Extraordinary to Spain where the Count is as much efteem'd as he was at Paris. 'Tis faid that he is in entire Favour with their Catholic M:f:jefties; neverrhelefshe makes fuch earneft Application to be recall'd, that *tis faid he will obtain hisRequeft, and that his Nephew*, whois the Emperor's Minifter Plenipotentiry to the StatesGeneral, is already nominated to relieve him t. In R 2 t TheCbontUKmgfick fi. He auallywentto Spain, E his to witha defign relieve Unclc bueasthe Faceof Aair d it aker'dai dsCourt,theyarebothreturnd. The Count e ofState Braban:. of Counielior is KamgfickErpiat Braffth is return'dhomefromhis Emd t rhe Count o Kmigfick of as baff/to Spain. He attuailyofficites Vice-Prefidenttne Au lie

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In the Council of Conferencesthe moft important Affairs of the Empire are taken into Confideration, and the Emperor is alwaysprefent. Befidesthe five Minifters whom I have now mention'd to you, there are feveral others whofe Intereft is more circumfcrib'd. Every Kingdom fubjeft to the Emperor has its Minifter and particular Chancery. Count Badiani directs the Affairs of Hungary, in quality of its Vice-Chancdlor. The Affairs of Bobemia are in the Province of Count Kinjkiy the Chancellor of that Kingdom, who has a Vice-Chancellor under him, with a great many Affeffors and Counfellors. The Council of 5/6/* confiftsof aPrefident, VicePrefident, and Counfellors. Its Authority extends over all the Kingdoms that were formerly fubje to but SpatMy yidded to the Emperor by the Peace. The Caanx.deMonte-Santo> a Grandeeoffy*, Brother to the Count de Cinfuentest Conftable of CaftiU, is Prefidcnt of this Council || in which Office he fucceedcd the Archbifliop of Faientia, who quitted his See to follow the Emperor whom he had acknowledg'd for his Sovereign in Spain. Of all the Tribunals at Viennathe Julie Council is the moft venerable; becaufe'tis the Parliament of the Empire. It is compos'd of a Prefident, viz. the Cooneil Wtr, andasPrivjr-CoaBfellor Confrai. of Anlic of the ces. HeisLieatenau-General Emperor's ofthe C Armies, olonel of a Rgiment Foot andi*htdy created Knightofhe of a t GoidesFleece. TheCoont t Mtrcjbeing d kiird at the Battle of Parwta, the ipth of Jmmt,1734. the Emperor fentthe to Cornu KMrfkh Itafy,andgavehimthe Command his i* of (hatter'd ondition, whichthe and C Annjr,whichwu in a very Coont AKmgfitk righwagain,in focha manner s to fetto a even command Refped fromhisEnemies. andTitle isJiftfb et SiJvmj | HisName Mene/et, Marqucft dt ntUfirtQaaanUMmi-SmMtt.

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theCountif Wurmbrandt; a Vice-Prefident, who is the Count de Metfcb and of eighteen Counfellors, among whom there muft be fix Proteftants, and of thefe one muft be a Calvinift. This Tribunal judges of ail Civil Caufesbetween the Princes and private Men of the Empire. Its Authority terminates with the Emperor's Life and ftis on this account only that the fupreme Tribunal of Wetzlar, which fubfiftseven during the Vacancy of the Imperial Throne, challenges Precedence of the Aulic Council. 'Tis a Miftake to think, as many Foreigners do, that the Aulic Council takes Cognizance of Affairs of State for its foie Bufinefsis to do Juftice It regifters no Edift unlefs it be its and is much more limited than own Sentences the Parliaments of Franct, which hve at leaft the Privilege of lofing Time in Remonftrances. I perceive too that I am in a fair way to makeyou lofe a great deal, if I don't put an end to my Legend j1 which therefore I now do, and refer the reft of the Remarks that 1 have to entertain you with to another Poft. I kifsyour Handy andom, &c. till ind Opinitm, donotpaisintoDecrees Thejrareharely by fhcyarcapprofed the Emperor.

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D to. S I R, Vienua, ecem. 1729are fome other Articles which 1 THE RE N cannot but add to thofe 1 have already given you from Vienna. The Police of this City s adminifter*d hy a Stadtholder. The Peribn that now fills that Poft is the Count de Kebvenbuller who is alfo a Minift r of State, ;nd Knight of the Golden Fleece. His Fun&ions are the fame with thofe f the Lieutenant of th Police at Paris, and nothing makes the Difference but the Tule only it muit be obferv'd that the Stadtholdcr is always a Perfon of noble Extraction, and a Gentleman of the Army, whereas the Lieutenant ofthe Police at Paris is often of mean Extraction, but always a Gentleman of the long Robe. The Governour of Vienna had feldom any other Title than Colonel tbe City. The prefent Goverof nour is the Marfhal Count Je Daun, the fame that defended Turin, who was fix Years Viceroy of Naples, fix Months Governour of the Netberlands% and afterwards four Years Governour of Milan His Lieutenant-Colonel, who is the Count MaxitBilian de Starembergy Lieutenant-General of the Emperor's Forces, and Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, commands in his abfence, and bas the Direction he after and When return'd Vienna, thefrtncb Satnyards to were hadtakenMilanin 1743.feveral nicles Complaint A of exhibitrd fo h aeainft ag^inft im buthe made fulla Dettnce the Impeachment, the Emperor the fameConfidence has that in himasbefore.

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reftion of the Fortifications, the Arfenal, and the Garifon. This Garifon conflits of a Regiment of Foot, compos'd of veteran Soldiers, or the Burghers and Artificers of Vienna, from whence this Regiment never ftirs. The Employments in this Corps are very lucrative but as they don't lie in the Road to the Temple of Honour, they are not much folicited by Perfons of anyconfiderableExtraction. Yet this Regiment, as little efteem'd as it is, perform'd very good Services during the Siege of Vienna by Kara Mujlapba, Grand Vizier to Mabomet IV. It afted then under Erneft-Rudiger Count de Stareniberg, who was Commandant in the City and both the General and his Garifon acquir'd very great Glory by the Refiftance which they made. But perhaps with all their Bravery they cou'd not have prevented the Place from being taken, liad it not been for the Avarice of the Grand Vizier, who hoped to be Mafter himfelf of the vaft Treafures that he knew were in the City, and was therefore againft ftorming the Town, for fear left if it were carry'd by that means, the Soldiers would have ihar'd the Plunder. The Siege of Viennabeing foreign to my purpofe, 1 lhall fay nothing of it. You know that Il was raifed by the Affiftance that was brought to it by the brave John SobiejkiKing of Poland who defeated the Turks on the I2th of September, 1683, and return'd home laden with Glory and Booty, s having madehimfelf Mafter of all the GrandVizier's Equipage. Upon this occafion he faid a pleafant thing in a Letter which he wrote to the Qaeen his Wife, whohadnota very implicit Faith in the MaxYou ims of Senecaon the Contempt of Riches c fhan't iay when I corne home, as the Tartary Women do to their Hufbands when they return from the Armywithout Booty, Touare not a Uan for me, becaufeyou comeempj-banded for tiic Uuard. R 4

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GrandVizier has made me foie Heir of ail he had.1 You need not be told that tliis was the Second time the Turks were forc'd to raife the Siege of Fienna for Solimanthe Sultan befieg'd je in the Reign of Charles V. but with no better Succefs than Kara Mufiapba. 'Tis true that the DIrappo:ntmenc he met with was not fo fatal in its Confequence to the Sultan as the other was to the Vizier when oMabcmet IV. who was ftrangled at Belgrade Mahomet was there: And the Head of this Minifter is ftili to be feenin the Arfenal at Vienna. The Tranflation of this Turkijh Relique hither from Belgrade was pretty extraordinary. Some Years after Kara Mufiafha had been ftrangled, when the Germans took Belgrade, the Soldiersbeing inform'd where the Grand Vizier was buried, open'd hjs Tomb in hopes of Treafure, but found nothing except the Body in its Shirt, on which there were feveral Arabie Charafters, and an Alcoran. The Govemour being told of it, remember'd that this very Grand Vizier, when he laid Siege to Raab, which he was oblig*d to raife, faid, That if he took the Town he wou'd have the Head of its Bifhop cut off, who was then the Count Lecpoldde Collctiitz, and fend it to the Sultan, to be reveng'd of that Prelate for taking Money of the Convents,and encouraging out the Garifon therewith to make a vigorous Refiftance. The Governour of Belgrade remembring, 1 fay, the Menaces of the Grand Vizier, thought it wou'd be a very agreeable Prefent to the Count de CdlcnitZ) now a Cardinal to fend him the Vizier*s Head and Body too, together with the Shirt and Alcoran and he put up the whole very neatly in a Cryftal Shrine, adorn'd with Silver Plates, and fent it accordingly to his Eminence who not thinking this odd Prefent a proper Relique to be depoficed m his Chapel, gave it to the Arfenal here at Vienna, Hewu Ucdeto the Cardinal CtlUttx. Bp. Vitnna. A cf

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Yienna, where I have both feen the Muflulman and felt him. 1 wou'd fain have pluck'd fome of the Hairs of his Muftachio, but the Guardianof the precious Treafure watch'd my Fingers too narrowly. They iay that a piece of the Halter by which a Man hangs himfelfis lucky, and why mayn't there be the fame Virtue in the Muftachio of the Grand Vizier ? Be it fo or not, 'twill alwaysdeferve an honourable Station in fome Cabinet of Rarities. Since th Siege of Vienna this City is much inlarg'd. Its Fortifications are fo augmented too that if the Turks fhould ever be prompted by their ill Fate to befiege it again, they wou'd find a ftouter Refiftance, and a greater number of their Muftachios findged than they imagine. The Emperor has lately given new Luftre to his Capital, by prevailing with Pope BenediS XIII. to ereft it into an Archbifhopric. Several Bilhops, particularly the Archbifhop ofPtfaw, havedifmember'd their Diocefes to aggrandife its Jurifdi&ion. The Cardinal de Collonitzis the Perfon who at prefent enjoys this Dignity, which gives him the Cha. raer and Rank of a Prince. The Roman Catholic is the only Religion exercis'd in Vienne and in ail Auftria but the Minifters of the Proteftant Crown'd Heads have the Liberty here, as well as elfewhere, of keeping a Chapel. When the holy Sacrament or the Viaticum iscarried to any fick Perfon, 'tis always attended by Guards who oblige aUPeople that meet it to kneel. 1 have feen the Emperor, when the Viaticum was pafling by, alight out of his Coach and accompany it to Church. This Prince, and indeed all thofe of his Family, always paid a very great Devotion to the holy Sacrament of the Altar. Of this Pbilip IV. King of Spaingave a very edifving Proof; for this Monarch going the very day that the King his Father died, from the Palace of Madridto the Monaftery of Se Jeronimo delPafo in a clofe Coach, that he might be

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be incog. alighted out of it to accompany the Viaticum which they were carrying to a fick Man whereupon the Conde Duke d'Olivarez told him, That the King his Father was fo lately dead that he ought not to have been feen in public. My Lord, faid the King, ibis Cuftomcannot excufe me to front paying that IVorJbip Godwhicb I votebim. It may be faid of the auguft Houfe of Avftria, That as few Princes equal them in Piety, fo there are few that equal them in Birth. There may be Families that have been longer grac'd with the Diadem but of thefe there are very few that have fuch great Alliances. There is no King, and not many Sovereign Princes but what are related to them and there are very few Kingdoms to which the Houfe of Aufiria has not given Queens. 'Tis now 300 Years that it has been Milrefs of the Empire and fince Albert II. it has given thirteen Emperors to Europefucceffively. One of the Princeffes of Auftria had fo many great Relations that 1 cannot help mentioning her. This was the Emprefs Mary, Wife to the Emperor Maximilian, Son to Fesdinand I. This Princefs was Sifter to Pbilip II. King of Spain, and the Daughter, the Wife, the Daughter-in-law, and the Mother of five Emperors the Grand-daughter, the Daughter, the Sifter, tand the Aunt of four Kings ofSpain and the Mother-in-law of two Kings, viz. Cbarles IX. King of France, and Philip II. King of Spain, A modern Auchrr fays, that the Origin and Kindred of this Princefs infinitely furpafled thofe of grippina, who, according to the Report of tacitm^ was the Daughter of Germanicus, theSierofCaliguIa, the Wife of ClaudiitSyand the Mother of Nero. But when I confider how perfe: a Mafter you are, both of Hiftory and Genealogy, 1 oight to beg your pardon for my Impertinence in troubling you with thefe Inftances.

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What remains for me now, is to communicate fome Remarks td you which I have made upon the Auftrians in general. I (hall begin with the Women, whom I fhall paint to you, as Burrbus fays, with the Freedom of a Soldier, who is not the beft Limner. The Women here, as in all other Countries, are either handfome or ugly. In gnerai they are rather handtome than pretty, for they are dull Beauties. They are all tall and well fhap'd they walk well, but when they curt'fy, do it in fuch an aukward manner, that one would think their Backs were in danger of breaking. In their Drefs they affet Finery rather than a good Fancy. Two or three exccpted. there's npne that lay on the Red, much lefs the White, and Patches are very little worn in a word, they have nothing about them that denotes Coquettry. As to their Humour, they are reckon'd frank, tho' not eafily made familiari they are naturally vain, and like all our GermonWomeD, pretty referVd, and not fo fond of Gallantry as they are of Gaming, Luxury, and Magnificence. Such is their Indolence that they concern them* felves no more about their Houfhold Affairs than if they were Strangers. They know no Books but their Prayer-Books, are eztremely credulous, and give into all the Externals of Religion This makes their Converfattion fometimes infipid and unlefs now and then a Love-Story falls in, Rain and FairWeather are their general Topics. They have at leaft as great a Conceit of Viennaas the Pari/tans have of Paris for out of Viennathey think there's no Salvation. Bat ail thefe little Defe&s are repair'd by an uncommon Greatnefsof Soul, and Generofity. They are hearty Friends, and warm Protectors of thofe whofe Intcrefts they efpoufe. When they are in love, their Paffionis fincere and inftead of ruining their Loyers, there are fome who have
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made the Fortunes of thofe to whom they have taken a Fancy. Upon this Head 1 have been told, that in the Reign of the Emperor Jofepb%when Gallantry was more in vogue than 'tis now, there was a Lady, who being in love with a Gentleman, and having a mind to make his Fortune without the Cenfurc of the Public, thought fit in an Aflembly wbere her Spark eut atBaffet, to punt againft him. She fet a Bett, without telling a Soul how much fhe ftak'd. Her Hulband coming into the Room where they were at play, fhe rofe up, took the Marks that were againft her, threw them on the Ground, and faid to the Banker, loud enough to owt you, Sir, 40000 be heard by her Hufband, Florins. The Hulband in a very great Surprize afk'd what was the matter ? I bave been fucb a Fodt faid fhe, pointing to the Banker, as to lofe Ton bave reafon 40000 Florins to Monfieur N. totbidemti but bowevermyDebt ufi bepmi. The m Hufband indeed grumbled very much, and faid he wou'd not pay. Wbatf reply'd the Wife, won*t you pay tbe Gentleman? It jhallfare tbe worfe witb you if you^don't,for I an refait?i to pay bit infme Coin or eber. The Huiband perceiving his Wife fo refblute, and that if he did not depofite the Money it wou'd fubje him to the Lofs of what was more precious, chofe rather to part with the indeed he had no reafon torepent of it, Cath d for theXady's Heart was fo won by it, thac fhe renounc'd the Sight of her Lover from that Moment, and made a very fober Wife. This, Sir, is ail I have to give you concerning the Temper of the Women. Let me tell you alfo how they fpend their Time. They rif late. As foon amoft as their Eyes are open, they call for Chocolate, asd fend to their Hufbands to know who they have inpited to Dinner, and whetber there is rootn for any more Guefts. If the Lady does

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A. 253 not like the Company, fhe fends notice to fome Lady of her Acquaintance that fhe intends to dine with her but if therebe room at home, as a polire Hufband always takes care to leave fome at the Difpofal of his Wife, the fends an Invitation to whom ihe pleafes. After this fhe dreffes and goes to Mafs for here the Ladies are ail fo devout that there's none but what hears at leaft one Mafs in a day. There they read in five or fix different Prayer-Books, kifs ail the Pihires that are at the head of the Prayers, and very dcvoutly tofs their Beads. After the Office is over, they commonly chat a quarter of an Hour in the Church. Then they go abroad and make fome friendly Vifits, or elfe go home to receivethem. At thefe Vilirs, they hear all the News in Vienna. During this they have ail a little Box of Indian Lack upon their Knees, in which they thread Gold till Dinner-time. When that's over, they drink Coffee or play at Quiniie tili Night, when they go to Court. From the Emprefs's Apartment they adjourn to the Afmbly, where they divert themfelves at Piquet, or at Quadrille and then retire, undrefs themlelves, go to Supper, and thence to Bed, well pleafed to think with what Indolence and Idlenefs they have tpent the Day. The Women of the fecortd Clafs, in which 1 include the Gentlewomen that have no Titles of Honour, viz. the Wives of the Aflcffors, Referendaries and Agents of the Court, difeover fuch an Air of Plenty and Profperity as is remarkably furprizing. Their Houfcsare richly.furnhed, and thetr Tables well ferved. If a Referendary has a mind to a nice bit, no body muft offer to take it andthe beft of every thing is v.hat they are fure te lay hands on. B^lly Cheer is one of thofe things which the Aufiriam generaly think of moft They requirca greatmanyDiflies, and thofe well-cramm'd. They

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They are fo very much accuftom'd to this Profufioit of EatabJcs that 1 have known fome young People in Aujtria affirm they don't know what good Eat. ing is in France, becaufe they don't ferve up a couple of Loins of Vcal in one Difh. Diffrent forts of Wines are what they are alfo vcry much us'd to, which certainly is very expenfive becaufe foreign Wines pay confiderable Duties; yet nothing lefswill ferve them than eight or ten fortsof Wine, and I have been at Houfes where there have been no lefs than eighteen. They place a Note upon every Plate exprefling the feveral forts of Wine at the Beaufet. The Burghers and common fort of People mimick the Nobility as far as their Purfes will affbrd and it may be faid that no Nation in the World is fo extravagant as this. The Aufirians are naturally proud and haughty, and expert ail Mankind fhould ftoop to them. As their Sovereign is in the firft Rank among the Chriftian Princes, fo they think theirs to be the chief Nation in the World. Nothing is more vain nor more infupportable than a young Aujtran, whofe Father is in any Rank atCourt. They are in roxicatedwith Pride and Prefumption and as they know themfelvesto be rich, and their Fathers to be great Lords, they think they may defpifc all the World, and Jay afide that courteous and polite Behaviour which would fo well become their Birth. Yet what 1 here obferve to you concerning the young People is not fo ui.iverfally true as not to admit of great Exceptions, which is the Cafe of every thing afferted in the gencral. The Court is not without Ladies who are much to be valued. The Emprefs Regent honours with her Confidence Madame the Countcfs de Fucbst whofe Hulband was Minifter of State to the Emperor, and his Plenipotentiary at//aar^^rg-, where he died. This Countefs is Sifter to the Count d*
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Molard, Steward of the Emperor's Kitchens. She is a very polite Lady, and is fo far from being envyd for being a Favourite that all Perfons of Di. ftinftion agree He deferves it, becaufe fhe fupports it with Modefty, and makes no other Uft of it but to do good. Madamoifelle de Klenckhas a very great fhare in the Favour of the Emprefs Dowager, which 1 take to be a Reward due to her long Services, and to her Merit. She is chief Maid of Honour to that Princefs, and has been engag'd to her ever fince flie has been at Vienna. If the Charatcr of a thorough Gentlewoman may be attributed to any of the Sex, Madamoifelle de Klenckdeferves it more than any other, it beingimpoffible for a Perfon to have more Integrity, and more Generofity. The Countefs Dowager of dltbeim, of the Pig~ natelli Family, in regard to whofe Rank 1 ought to have mention'd her firft, if 1 obferv'd a very ftrit Order in my Writings, is a Native of Spain. The Count iAhbeim married her at Barcelona. Her Beauty was the more admir'd in Spain becaufe Ihe was fair. This Lady has a noble Air, and has a Genius capable for Affairs of the greateft Confequence. Their Imperial Majetties pay her great Diftinftion, and all the Courtiers honour and reher, fo that now in her Widowhood Ihe confpeft tinues in good Credit, and almoft as much Authority as fhe had when that great Favourite her Huf. band was living. The Gentry of Aufiria* and of all the Emperor's Hereditary Dominions, are fo fond of the Title of Count, that the Gentlemen buy and follicit it as eagerly as if it was a great Eftate. 'Tis well for them that the Difpatch of their Patents does no coft much; forthegreateftPrivilegewhichthisbrings them is al1 a Chimaera. Thefe Counts may be faid to hold the fame Rank among the ancient Counts

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of the Empire as the King*sSecretariesin France do among the Gentlemen of goodFamilies. As for Gendemen, they are fo comrnonhere that there are fearce any others to be feen. Ail the Agents of the Court, andall theRefercndariespropire diemfelves a Title, tho' I knownot whyfor neither they nor their Wives dare to rank themthe felves among Prime Nbbility. This Madnefi of theirs to be enobkds to common, and fo eafy to be gratified, thatlhaveknownaMan,whowas fbrmcrly Meflenger to the Emperor Jofepbt purchafe the Tide of Baronand his Children begmto nix with !the GrandMmit. Thefe, Sir, wereail the Remarks that I rriade upon the Jhftrians. I muft give yon a fcwParticulars concerning th Emperor's Perfon. I hve already fiud fomething to you of hU Charaer i "What followsis to fliew you how graterjil he is, and howfricndly, Virtues whichare th more to be efteem'd in him becaufethey are not the moftfa. miliar to great Men. The Emperor fhowsail poffibleMarks of Grawho adher*dto him while titude to thofe Spauiards he vas at BarctUms. He Bas loaded them with forone's Wealth and Booours and if it*s poflible native Country to be forgot, he bas put themin a Situation to fbrget tbeirs. This par^cular Good. nefs of the Emperor extendsto ail that followedhis Fortunes in Spai i whom hcdiftinguifhesuponall Oocafions, and dota them good preferably to his odier Subjes. As to Friendfiup, no Monarch ever had morefor any Favouritc than Charles had his for the late Count a^AUbeim^ Maftcr of th Hori. This Noblemanwas the Emperor's Page, vrhen he was only Arh-Duke i and he attcnded that Princeto 5/>fli, wherehis Care, his Services, his Affiduity,and aboveail his Honefty and his In, of tegrity, wonhim die intireConfidence die young
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Monarch. When this Prince became Emperor he rewirded the Count with Honours, Wealth, and Dignities. Hc lpy*d him as long as he liv'd, and his MetnoryiiftiU dear to him. As foon as he died, the Emperor clar*dliimfdf Guardian to his Children, gave Orders in what manner they fhou'd be brought up, and now treats them much more like his owk Children than his Subjes.' But what wou*<fyou fay of the Emperor's tender Liove for the Emprefs ? Some time ago this Princefs being dangeroufly ill, th Emperor not only fent for his PhyQcans,andconjur'd them toemployail thir Art to fave hr Life, but promisr'd them Rewards fuitable to that Service, and aually watched with her-feveral Nights to fee her take the Remdies they jprcfnb'd. Does not a Conjugal-Love fo perfeci:, deferveto be rewarded by the Birth of an Archduke? Adieu, Sir. If I wereEmperor, you, ihou'd be my Count d'Altbeim-y but in the Condition I amin, you are thePerfon whom I honoiir moft of al Mankind i andam,&c.

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Munich, Jan. s. 1730. came hither from Pienna, I ftay'd two Days at Lintz, the Capital of UpperAu~ria. This City lies on the Daxxbe, over A which there is a wooden Bridge. 'Tis a little Town, but well built, and has fine Churches. Its Inhabitants are thriving, and they drive a great Trade in Linnen Cloth. 'Tis the Refidence of a great many Perfons of Quality, and of the Regency of the Province, of which the Count de Tbirbem is the Chief. This Nobleman lodges in the"linperial Palace, which ftands uponan Emincnce, and commands the City. Thptiuilding is commodious enough, but not Fo-magnificent. The Emperor Leopoldftay'd here during the Siege of Yierr>la tin not thinking himfelf fafe in it he retir'd to Paffaw. The Neighbourhcod of Lintz is very agreeable. All the way hither from Vienna the Danube is lin'd on both fides yryh Virieyards but from Lintz to this Place, inftead of Vines, there are Plantations of Hops. Munich, in the GermanTongue Muncbeny ftand9 in the middle of a large Plain, and in the Center of Bavaria, of which it is the Capital City. The Walls of it are wafhed by the River Ifer 'tis a fmall Town, but better built than fortified, for within thefe tew Years feveral fine Houles have been SIR, AS
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rais'd in it. The Elector's Palace is one of die biggeft Piles of Building in Europt, but it wants a grt deal of beingfo handfomea Structure as Mijfon and feveral other Authors have reprefented it for its Magnificen -econfifts principally in its Bulk. The <hief Front, which looks towards a very narrow Street, has the Refemblance of a fair Convent to which the Image of the Virgin Mary over the great Gatecontributesnotalittle. Thatforwhich'tisheld in moft Efteemis the great Apartment hich w iscall'd the Emperor*s Ayxrtment.TheConnoifiurs inPainting admire th Pictures in the great Hall, which reprefent both Sacred and Prophane Hiftory, andare performed by the Hand ofCandi. The Chimney-piece in the fame Room is very much efteem'd: Among other fine Figures with which it is adorn'd, there's a Statue of Porphyry that reprefents Virtue holding a Spear in the Right Hand, and in the Left a gilt PalmBranch. In 1 632 when GujlavusAdolpbus King of Swedenmade himflf Mafter of Munich, he thoughc this fo beautiful a Room that he was forry he could not get it tranfported to Stockholm. In the Reign of Ferdinand Mary, Grandfather to the prefent Elector, great part of the Palace of Munich was reduc'd to Ames, which Accident was, 'tis faid, th Occafion of that Prince's Death for being at Straubingen when he received the fad News ot the Fire, he took Horfe immediately and rode with fuch Fury to Munich that he receiv'd a Fall which in a little time prov'd his Death. The prefent Eleclor Cbarles-Albert-Cajetan has embellifh'd the Palace with a newApartment, which, tho' not fo big as the Emperor's, exceedsit in Magnificence. 'Tis adorn'd with noble Piftures, antique Bufts, and Vals plac'd upon Tables of very S 2 great was In tbe Beginning oftheYear 1750,this Apartmenr burntdown a Firewhich brokeoutin the Nighttime; to by bumtin that the Eleftor nd Elerefshad liketo havebeen a w theiiBes,andfgirce ef thefineFurniture asfav'd. any

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great Value and among other Things there's the Piture of the Virgin donc by St. Laie. There's a fecret Partage from the Palace thro' little Galleries to ail the Churchesand Conventsin the Town. The neareftChurch isthat of the Tbeatins, which together with their Monaftery was built by Maria- Adlade of SavoyWife to Ferdinand- Mary. The Fryars of this Convent muft be twenty feven in number, and all Men of Quality. They fubfift by charitableDonations but dare not afk Alms, and muft wait for fuch Provifions as Providence ihall pleafe to fend them. When they have fufferMextreme Want at any Time for three Days together, they are permitted to ring a Bell as a Token of their Diftrefs; but it has been obferv'd that this never happen'd above twicefince their firft Eftablifhment, becaufe the Eleftors are too charitable to let them want. The Tomb of the Princes of Bavaria is in the Church of thefe honeft Fryars. The Church of our Lady is the parochial Church of Municb. Initisthe ftately Tomb of the Emperor Leivii of Bavaria who died of Poifon. 'Tis adorn'd with a great many fine Figures of Brafs and Marble. In this Church the Ele&or on the 24th of April laft inftituted the Order of St. George, by Authority of Pope BenediclXIII. The Ceremony was perform'd with a vaft deal of Pomp, and the Eledor of Cologn officiated at the High Mafs. The Promotion confifted of three Grand Priors, fix Grand Croflfes, a Commander, and fix Knights. Some time after this firft Promotion the Eleor madea fecond, in which he appointed one Grand Crofs, and nine Knights. 'Tis faid there will fpeedily be a third Promotion ofeight more Knights, the whole Number being to confift of forty The the TheOrder onfiftsat c a prefentof GrandMafterwhois a P Eletor, ndtwoGrandPriors,whoare the Electoral rince and DukeFtrJinandt Grandioflcs, ine Commanders, x. n andfeveral Knights.

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The Eledtor intends to annex Commanderies to his Order. They who are admitted into it muft give Proofs of their Extraction from fixteen Defcents; and this is fo ftrittly obferv'd that his moft Serene Electoral Highnefs, as Grand Mafter of the Order, has renounc'd ail Power of granting any Difpenfation from it. According to the Statutes of this Order ail the Knights are oblig'd to be Catholics, to dfend the Faith and the Church, to protect Widows and Orphans, and to pra&ii ail the Chriftian Virtues. The Badge of the Order is a large Sky-blue Ribbon border'd about the breadth of an Inch with a black and white Stripe and at the end of the Ribbon hangs a Crofs enamell'd with blue, in the middle of whichthere is a St. George. The Church and Convent of the Reverend Fathers the Jefuits are two very magnificent Structures. The Roof of the Church which is one fingle Nave is a Work of Skill and Ingenuity, wherein the Apertures are contriv'd with very great Art; for which reafon, the Curious look upon this Fabric as a Mafter-piece of Architecture. The Church of the Reverend Fathers ofSt. /fujlitt, tho' but of a moderate Size, contains Beautiesthat are not always to be met with in greater Fabrics. The Pi&ures with which it is adorn'd are highly eiteem'd, and good Judges agre there are few that can parallel them. Tho' the Houfes of Munichare all very well built, there are few that can be call'd Hotels or Palaces. The Count Piofas a Pitdmontefehas caus'd one to be built of late Years which is a confiderableStructure with regard to the true Proportions of its Outfide, and to the ingenious Diftribution of the Apartments, which have fine Decorations and good Furniture. The Court of Bavaria obferves moft of the Cuftoms of the Court of Viennain matters of Cereb 3 mony,

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mony, but as for die reft, their Way of living is different here being more Freedom, and more Diverfion. The Eleftor Charles-Albert dclights in Pleafures and bodily Exercife, and acquits himfelf therein with a Grace. He is a comely Perfonage, and has a grave, noble, and majcfticAir, fo that heis taken for a proud Man yet few Princes are more gracious and more civil to Strangers, and to his Subjedb alfo he is eafy of Accefs. He was full of Life and Spirit when hewasa Prince, and now that he is a Sovereign is become fedate and moderate. He is genteel, talks French, Italian, and Latin well, is Mafter of Hiftory, and perfeffly acquainted with the Intereft of Princes in gnerai, and that of his own Family in particular. He fticks to Bufinefs, and above ail feems to be very earneft in redreffing his Finances which he found in great Diforder when he acceded to the Elcctorate. The Eleor was born the 6th of Augitji, 1697. He is Son of Maximilian-Emanuelfamous for his Viftories and for his Difgrace, and ofTberefa-Cunegunda-SobieJki, Daughter of John SobiejkiKing of Poland. When Cbarles came into the World he had a Brother livingwho wasborn of the Arch-Duchefs Mary-Maximiliany Emanuefs firft Wife. This young Prince who all Europe expefted wou'd be the Succefforof Cbarles II. King of Spain, dying &tBrujjlsthe 6th of February, 1 699, Cbarlesthereby became the Eleftoral Prince He was bred up at Munich with four of his Brothers, but both he and his Brothers furrender'd Prifoners to the Emperor Jofepb after the Battle of Hocbftet, which fubjeted all Bavaria t his Imperial Majefty. That Monarch had the young Princes remov'd to Gralz, where he caus'd them to be treated in a manner not fo fuitable to their high Birth as ^o their decay'd Fortune. When Jtfepb died, his SucccfforCbarlesVI. ufed the Princes

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ces with lefs Severity, caus'd them to be honourably attended, and fent them Maftcrs to inftruft them and upon the Peace of Rqftadt which reinftated th Eleftor Maximilian-Emanuelin his Dominions, the Princes his Children were reftor'd to him. They finifli'd their Studies at Munich, after which the Eleftor fent the four eldeft to Rome, where the fecond, whofe Name was Duke Pbilip, died not long after he had been chofe Bifhop of Munfter and Paderborn. Cbarlts returning from Italy went to Fienna, made the Campaign of Belgrade, and fome Years after that, he marry'd Mary-Amelia-Anneof Auftria, the late Emperor Jofepb's fecond Daughter. In 1725, Cbarles and his three Brothers were at at FontainbleaUy the Marriage of Lewis XV. and next Year he fucceededhis Father who died at Munich lamented as he was ador'd by his Courtiers. The Elcctorefs whois a little Woman, very much refembles the Emprefs her Mother, and has more Vivacity than is common to the Princes of the Houfe ofAuftria. She prefers Hunting to ail other Pleafures, and there are few Days but fhe partakes of that Diverfion with the Eletor, who, as well as the Princes his Brothers, is fond of it. The Eletor has by his Marriage two Princes and two Princeffes. The eldeft of the Sons who has the Title of the Electoral Prince is call'd Maximilian-Jofepb, and was born the 28th of Marcb, 1727. His moft fereneElectoral Highnefs's three Brothers are Duke Ferdinand, the EleCtcr of Cologn, and the Bifhop of Freifingenand Ralijbon. Of thefe Princes Duke Ferdinand is the only one who refides at Munich. His moft ferene Highnefs is a Lieutenant-General, and has a Regiment of Cuiraffiers in the Emperor*s Service. He is alfo a Knight of the GoldenFleece, and Grand Prior of the OrcLr of Sc. George. He marry'd Mary-Aan-Caroline of S4 iVfwThe fecond isdead.

Newbourg., by whom he has two Sons and on Daughter. 1 hve already told you that he was educated with the Eledtor his Brother, with whom he made the Campaign of Belgrade^travell'd feveral times to Itafy, and laft of all to France, where thofe Princes were admir'd for their Splendor, their Politenefs, their good Tafte, and their fine Underftanding. One fhan't find a Man more affable than Duke Ferdinand who is even ador'd at Munich^ and is dearly bdov'd by the Ele&or his Brother. The Duchefshis Wife who is the beft-natur'd Princefs in the World makes grand Entertainments, and is particularly civil to Strangers. The Btfhop of FreiJtngen and in his fpends more of his Time at Munich than in his Diocefe. He is a Prince of great Penetration, Spirit and Vivacity, is generous, liberal, and charitable, extremely civil, and 'fis impoffible to be acquainted with him without adding Love to that Refpelt and Vnration which are due to his Birth and Charafter. He enter'd very young into Orders, and was confecrated BUhop by his Brother the Eleor of Cologn. 'Twas thought at firft that h wou'd have made but an indifferent Ecclefiaflic, but he has demonftrated that he knows how to reconcile the Gravity of a Prelate with the Magnanimity of a Temporal Prince. The Court of Bavaria is without difpute the mott g;illant, and the politeft in Germany. We liave a French Comedy here together with Bals and Gaming every Day, and a Concert of Mufic three Times a Week, ac which ail the Company is ma/k'd and after the Concert there's Gaming and Dancing. Thefe public Afianblies, at which the Eleftor and the whole Court are prefent, bring in J a great Revenue to the EIe<aor*s aletsde Chambre j for befides the Money which every one pays at Entrante, they are alfo paid for the Cards, and are
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concern'd in almoft all the Banks fo that thofe Domelbcs have almoft all the Cafli of the Nobility, with whom they don't fcruple neither to rank themfelves. Befidesthefe noify Pleafures we have others that are more tranquil, 1 mean thofe of civil Society. Of this kind there's more here than in the other Towns of Germany but more (till among the Foreigners that are in the Eleor's Service than among the Bavarians for thefe are generally proud, tho* tiscertainly more owing to their Opinion that ic gives them a good Air to be fo than to their Temper and they aftually become more fociabe when they are made fenfible that their grand Airs are not aftonifhing. The Title of Count is as common here as at Vienna, and the Bavarian Counts have no greater Privilges than thofe of Auftriey for they are as much Subjefts as the meaneft Gentlemen. 1 find that thofe in Places, and who bear any Rank at Court are much more polite than others. The Counts de TbirbeitHy Torring, and Preifing who have the chief Employments are fo civil that 1 believe there's few Foreigners but will give them their Encomium. The Eleftor has a very large Houlhold, and a number of great OfEcers. Pli mention fomeof them to you. The Count Maximilian de TorringSeefeldt is Steward of the Eleftor's Houfhold, a Minifter of State, and Knight of the Golden Fleece. This Nobleman who is advanc'd in Years, is good-natur'd and civil, fpeaks little, is naturally grave, not fond of Pomp, and Jivesretir'd in the middle of a Court, but when he makes any Entertainment does it with Grandeur. He never once abandon*d the EIcctor Maximilian Emanuelhis former Mafter, but follow'd him in his Fortunes both good and bad.

Tha

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The Count Sigifmodde Tbirbeim is Great Chamberlain, a Minifter of State, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. Gtorgt. He is very tall, and tho* his Air is not the moft affable, he is courtcous and civil. He lives very nobly, and does the Honours of the Court very handfomclyj confcquently he ii generally beloved and efteem'd. He wis Governor of the Electar, who, contrary to mott Princes that are not apt to retain an Efteem for thofe who once had the Care of their Education, givcs great Proofs of his Regard for the Count de Tbirbeim. The Count Maximiian de Fugger is Grand Marfhal As he does not live at Munich, I have nothing particular to tell you of him. The Count Maximiian de PreyfingMafter of the Horfe, Prefident of the Chamber of Finances, a Minifter of State, and Grand Croix of th Order of St. George,is a very polite Nobleman, but ferious and grave to the laft degree. 'Tis difficultfor any Man to be more attach'd to his Religion, to have more Candor, and to be more upright than this Minifter. His Probity has brought Envy upon him, but it bas procur'd him the Eleor*s intire Confidence. of which howeverthe Count makes no farther Advantagc than is requifitc for his Mafter's Bulinefs. He is accus'd of bemgclofe-fifted, and of difluading the Eleor from giving Gratuities; but 'tis agreed that he is very charitable to the Poor. Tis a hard matter for a Minifter who has the Direion of the Finances to pleafe every body, and he is commonly the Butt ot pubJic Cenfure. The Count de Retbberg Great Huntfman -f-, Minifter of State, Prefident of the Council of War, Lieutenant General, and Grand Croix of the Order of St. George, is Commander in Chief of the Eleftor*s Theprefent rand G is G de Marftial theCount auJiatz. RedCroix theOrderofSt. Giargt. of ht g, a Grand it k G f TheBison Frtyjt:g a| prefent reatHuntfman.

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Je&or'sForces: He accompany'd the late Ele&or to France where he acquir'd the Reputation of an experienc'd fkilful General. Ignatius-Jofepb Count de Torring is a Minifter of State, Gi^nd Mafterofthe Artillery, and a Grand >oix of St. George. He followM the late Eletor into France, and after that Prince was reftor'd he went as Minifter Plenipotentiary to the Imperial Court, where he negodated the Marriage of the prefent Eleftor with the Archduchds, youngeft Daughter to the late Emperor Jofepb. I cou'd tell you of many other Perfons of Diftin&on at the Court of Bavaria, only I fear that being too particular wou'd tire your Patience. The Minifters who bear the greateft Sway are the Counts Maximilian de Prejfing and de Torring, and M. d'Unertel. The firft is Direor of the Fmances the fecond has the Province of Foreign ffairs and the third takes care of Affairs Domeftic and Military. Thefe three Minifters are the Arbiters of Bavaria, and to them the Tribunals of the feveral Provinces muft apply. Bavaria is divided into four Cantons or Provinces, viz. the Cantons of Munich, Burgbaufen,LandJirut and Straubingen. Each of thefe Provinces has a Regencyor Parliament j and an Appeal lies from Sentencestherein pafs'd to the Elelor's Council of State. 'Tis certain that Bavaria is one of the beft States in the Empire. 'Tis faid that it brings in feven Millions of Florins, and I have been affured by Perfons who have Opportunities of being inform'd of the State of the Finances, that there was a time when the late Eleftor received eleven Millions per An*. The Riches of Bavaria are owing to the Exportation of Salt and Corn, and to the Confumption of the Ber brew'd in the Country, which is as good as any in the World. iroly and the Country
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of Saltxbourg, have almoft all the Corn which they /pend from Bavaria, and the Eleftor bas a Florin for every Sack that is exported. Another thing which is a Treafure to Bavaria is the Fir-Trees, a Wood that fervesfor every Ufe that can be imagin'd, whether for Building, or for Houlhold-Stuff. There is not a Province in the Empire where Pro~ifions are cheaper, and in the mean time there's a vaft Home-Confumption for berides that the Bayarians love good Eating and Drinking, the Country is very populous; and 'ris computed that the Inhabitants of Munich alone are above 40,000. Of ail the Sbvereignsin Europe* next to the King of France, the Eletor of Bavaria has the fineft Pleafure-Houfes, for which he may thank the Elector his Father who had a wonderful good Fancy and Judgment. Nymphenbourg a mort League from Munich is a charming Place. The Caitle is to be feena great way off by reafon of its Situation in the middle of a great Plain, fo that from the Apartments of the fecond Story one difcovers a vaft Tra of Coun* try, and an in6nite number of Rural Beauties that are in the Neighbourhood of Munich. Mary-Aiefoide de Savoy (Mother to Maximian-Emanael) who was extremely fond of the Arts and Sciences, and knew them perfeftly well, was the Pcrfon who laid the Foundanons ofthat Caftle. The Man that fhe employd to build it was an Italian Architect whom ftie fent for out of Itely for the purpofe. But ail this Palace confifted only of one great Pavilion. Maximilian-Emennel thinking the Caille too fmall, caufed feveral Manfions to be added ta if, together with fine Stables and grand Gardens; in fhort, he put the whole into that magnificent Condition we fcc it in at this day. His moft ferene Eletoral Highnefs lets the Pavilion ftand in pure refped to the Memory of his Mother who built ir,

but

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but "ris pity he does; for 'tis much higher than the reft of the Edifice, and is no good Ornament to the main Building. In order to give you a more perfeft Ideaof this Houfe,I willtell you that it looks towards a great and magniBcentCanal terminated ac each end by a fpacious Bafin adorn'd with Waterworks and double Rows of Tres on each fide which form the Avenues. Weenter into the Caflle by^ari Afcent ofMarble Steps: The firft Room we-cbme to is a very great high Salon adom'd with Architecture ofPlaifterof Paris very well executed. From each fide of this Salon there is a Paflge into feveral Apartments of which I fhall not ftop to give you the Detail, becaufe 1 don't think it in my power to convey a fuitable Idea to you of the Richnefsof the Furniture, and ail the fine things that are in it. Imagine only that the late Eleftor who had an exquifite Tafte, and a noble Soul, fpar'd no Coft to adorn thefe Apartments. I pafs to the Gardens which one enters from the Great Hall by a Defcent of Marble Steps. The fini thing that ftrikes the Eye is a Parterre of a vaft Extent, at the Entrance of which there is a great Bafon ornamented with a Group of Figures of mill'd Lead gilt with Water-Gold reprefenting Flora receiving Flowers from Nympbsand Cupids. At the end of the Parterre there is one of the rnol a3rce,ib!e Woods in the World, which is eut by three Walks in form of a Goofe's Foot. The middlemoftfronts the great Pavilion of the Caftle, and has a large Canal in the middle of it of which one can't e the end: 'Tis terminated by a fine Cafcade form'.1 by lverai B!ocks of Marble, and adorn'd with fine Statues. The fecond Walk on the right hand leads oie to the Mail which forms a Semi-Circle, and is one of the fineft and longcft 1 ever faw. At the Entrance of chis Mail there is a Paviion call'd Pu;) godebourg (the Cajiie ofthe Pagode 'tis two Stories high,

27O

NyMPHENBOURG.

high, and built in form of the Pagodes Temples. 1 believe there never was any thing prettier. All the Furniture of this little Palace as Indiay of a channingContrivanceandElsgancy; andthewhole is fo weU laid out that notwithftanding the fmallnefs of the Houfe, the Eledor has every Convenience in it that can be defir*d. Over-againft Pagodebourg on the other fide of the Canal in the third Walk hBadabourx (the Caftk ofbaths) which isa more confiderableBuilding, and has all the Beauty of the Modern Bagnios. The Baths are fpacious and lin'd with Marble. There is anApartment confifting offeveral Piecesadorned with Stucco, and Piures rethe prefcnting Venus'm Bath,Dianainthc Water with her Nymphs, and the other Subjeb of the Fable. The whole Apartment glitters with Gold, and the Furniture of it is rich, and of a charming Fancy. This beaotifijlHoufe is furroundedwith fine Piecesof Water adorned with Cafcadesand Statues. Thefe Baths wou'd moft certainly deferve a particular Defcription, and I am angry with myfelffor not being able to give it. *Tis certain that next to the Gardens oVcrfnltSy there is none fo magnificent as thofe of Nyntpbenbourg; which is a Place that Art and Nature feem to nave joined their Forces in order to render noble and agreeable. is The Caille of Scblei/beim a more regular Building than that of Nympbenbourg,and makes fo grand anAppearance that 1 don'tknowany Houfe in Xierttumj that can compare with it. The great Stair-Cafe and the Salon m the large Apartment are the only Pieces in their kind. They are fac'd with Marble, and painted in a moft correcl and beautiful manner. Taco, Furftcnriet and Siarenberg are Houfes fit far the Solacement of a Great Prince, and will be-

Tcfti-

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Teftimonies to Pofterity of the Eleor MaximilianEmanueFs grand and happy Tafte. is Of all the Elctor's Houles Nympbeniourg that where the Court refides moft. It is as well a Hunting-Houfe as a Pleafure-Houfe, by reafon of a Park in the Neighbourhood which is eight Leagues in o compafs, and eut outinto a great number f fine long Roads. Hre the Ele&or cornes to rouze the Stag and there is a little Park adjoining to the Gardens, which, as well as the adjacent Fields, abounds with Pheafants, Partridges, and ail other Game of that fort. the When the Court-isat Nytnpbenbourg ElcStrefs has a Drawing-Room there tluee times a Week where there is Gaming, and when that is over the Ladies fup with their Eletcial Highnefles, who fometimesadmit Gentlemen of their Court to their Table, but commonly ail Foreigners. They who prefer taking the Air to Gaming, find open Calafhes every Evening drawn by two Horfes, at the bottom of the Steps on the fide of the Garden A Gentleman drives the Calafh, two Ladies ride in it, and a Gentleman ftands behind. And fuch as prefer the Water find very neat Gondolas finely gilt upon the Canal at their Service fo that there is no want of any thing to add to the Pleafures of all forts in this inchanting Place. Were I to enumerateto you ail the varions Pleafures of this Court J fhould never have done. For the prefent I mail confine myfelf to thefe already mentioned. I am refolved to fet out in three or four days for Stutgard. I fhall lie at Augfbourg,and at Ulm. A Froft which has held for a Month without ceafing has made the Roads fo hard that I hope I fhall roll along finely. 1 expeft to hear from you at Stutgard. Pray take care that 1 be not difappointed, and believe that 1 am very fneerdy, &c

L E T-

472

F UH STB

NFELDT.

LETTER

XV.

Ja. Stutgartl, 14, 1730. SIR, is nothing remarkable between THE RE Munichand Augsbourgxceptit be the fine e t which is in of Furstnfeldt, Abbey of th BernardinFryars. It wasfounded pofieflion w> /A*SevercDuke of Baoaria to attone for by his Wickednefs in putting Joa* of Brabant his Wife unjuftlf to death. The Hiftory of Bavaria relates the Fa& thus Jean was a very beautiful Princefs. Her Hufcand who was doatingly fond ofher bcingobliged to take a Journey put her under the Guard oneof his Aunts.. While he wasgone of wrote frequentlyto her Husband, and fomeJoat$ times to his Pnme Minifter and Favourite. One fhe put her Letters into the hands of a Doday meftic, charging him to deliver them as they were direted but th Man made a Miftake, and the Letter which wasfor the Duke tt>his Fagave and that which was for thc Mimfter to the vourite, Duke. Lewis thought that his Wife's Style was and waseven madwitn JeatooobligingtoaSubieft, He firft kifl'd his Favourite,and *n wloufy. horfe pofbd to Dmawert where his Wife kjng was. He came to the Caftk in the Nht-ume, Porter with his own hand, put his murdet'd the all with whom he had left his Wife m Aunt and to Deathi and then like another Hend, charge unfortuinateean to be beheaded. The J caufed the this barbarous Aftwn, the Heirs of Night after Lrwi~'$

Lewis Head turn'd gray, tho' he was but fwentyeight Yearsold which Accident made him fenfible f his Guilt and of the Innocence of his Wife. As his Barbarity was great, fowas his Repentance* He went on foot t Rometo beg tle Pope's Abfo- lution for his Sins, and obtain'd it oncondition that \\i wouM caufe a Church to be built; and found a Monaftery in his Dominions. Lewis returning from Rome founded the Abbey at Furjtettfeldtt The firft Eftablifhment was bnly for eight Fryars ) but the Piety of the Princes of Bavaria having wrougSt upon them to beftow their Favours upon this Houfe, it now maintains thirty Fryars and an Abbot, whom the Monks have the Prerogative to chufe out of their own Body. Thefe good Fathers areadhiallyereftingavery ftately Church, and they enjoyall the Convenienciesof Life. The Country between Munich and Augshourg leveland intermix'd with Woods and Plains. Aucs- bourg whichisaBifliop'sSee, and an Imprial City, t is the Capital of Swabia, and one of the biggeft and handfomeft Towns in Germany. A fmalBranch of theLeck paffes thro' it, and fupplieS it with pienty of Water. TheStreetsof^fj^r^arebroad, ftrait nd lightfomej the Houfes well built, and many of *emfull of Paintings. The Inhabitants look up- on Augujtusto be the Founder of their City* 'Ti true that Emperor Centa Colony thither, but the Town was founded before. It is not faid whac Name it went by before the Name of Augufta was Vindelicoram given it to diftinguifh it from the that bore the Name of Augufta. The other Towns clearing up of this difficult is whatI fhall leave to the Antiquarians, and confine myfelf to the Tran aftions at Augsbourgfor about two hundred Years What will render this City for ever famus JJaft. ts the Confeiion of Faith which the Proteftant Princes prefented here to the Emperor Charles V, 1' Li Vol.. I.

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in the year 153o. Tho' the Protetlants were at that time very powerful in Augsbourgthey cou'd not keep their ground, for they were drove out by the Bavarians but GuftavusAdolpbuseftorcd them r in 1632, fince which time they have kept their Footing there, and lhare the Government with the Roman Catholics. In 1687, the Emperor, Spain, the United Provinces, and the Ele&ors ot Saxony, Brandenbcurg, and the Palatinate concluded that | famous League at Augsbcurgagainft Lewis XIV. | who was beginning to inforce the Claim of th Duchefs of Orlans his Sifter-in-law to the SuccefP fion of the E!e<5tor alatine Cbarles-Lewis, who was f that Princeis's Brother. In 1 6qo, Jcfepb Archduke | of .Auftria King of Hungary, the eldeft Son of the I Emperor Leopold,wasconfecratedand crown'd King 1 of the Romans at Augsbourg, at which Ceremony 1 i the Emperor, the Emprefs, theEle<5borsofAf<r/2r, Cologn, Triers, Bavaria, and the Palatinate were 1 1 prefent. perfonally In 1703, the Ele&or Maximilian of Bavaria, I made himfelf Mafter of Augsbourgin one Week's I time. This City had demanded and obtained a { Neutraity, but having afterwards received an 1m- | perial Garrifon the Eleftor made ufe of that Pre- | tence to lay Siege to it. He caufed the Fortifica- I tions tobedemolifh'd, forefeeing, no doubt, that he | ihouid not be able to keep the Place, Augsbourgj was fet free again by the Battle of Hocbfiet^and ftifl cnjoys its Freedom under its own Magiftrates, the Bilhop having no Authority in the City as to Temporals. The prefent Bifiiop is of the Famiiy ofNeubourg, and Brother to the Ele<ftorPalatine. This Prince has the fam Goodnefs of Tem. per which is fo natural to all his Family. As his Bilhoprick is not one of the moft confiderable in Germny, fo his Court is none of the biggeft, but
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his Houfhold is well rcgulated, and every thing conduted in it with Ordcr and Splendor. TheChapteroftheGithednil confihof Perfons of Quality whoare oblig'd to make Proof of their Nobility. The Canons have the Prerogarive of chufing is theirBifhop, wholike all the Prelates of Germany a Sovereign Prine. He chrells at /lugjbourg, tho* he ought to relde at Dillingen. The Epifcopal Palace is old* and not very commodious: It joins to the Cathedral, whichisaGo^V gloomy unwieldyFabric, but its Ornaments are very rich. The moft contiderable Buildingisthe Town-houfe, a very fubftantial Pile builc ail of Freeilone except the Portico, which is of Marble. The Rooms are very fine, and the great Hlll efpecially isto the laft degree magnificent. The Walls are cover'd with Painting* being fuch Emblems and Devicesas have relation to the Government. Nothing can be more beautiful than the Cieling which confiftsall of Compartments whofe Frames are carv'd and gilt in an extraordinary manner, the whole enrich'd with Pictures and other Ornaments perfeftly well difpos'd. Before the Town-houfe there's a very ftately Fountain, where, among other fine Figures of Brafs, the Statue of Auguftus which is reprefented in a moft nobie Attitude is highly efteem d. The City of Augjbourgis in my Opinion fome. thing like Antwerp with regard to the Spacioufnefs of the Streetsand the Subftantialnefsof its Buildingsi and formerly when the genetians were Mafters of all the Commerce, it refembled it in Trade for Augfi bourg was then the Staple for Merchandize, which was from thence tranfported to a great part of Europe. But fince Londonand Amftermare become the Warehoufes of the whole World, and the Commerce oiVenice decays, the greateft Trade ofAugfr confiftsin Goldfmiths Wares, with which thi bourg City frnifhes Gemany, Poland, and in gnerai T 2 almoft

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ULM.

alimoil all the North. Thefe Wares are much cheapcr here than elfewhere, and when the Patterns are furnifh'd People are well frv'd. Notwithftanding the Decay of its Commerce there arefeveral very rich Families but wherher any can do what Fugger did to the Emperor Charles V. is Queftion. That Monarch paffing thro* Jugsbourg lodg'd at Fugger's Houfe, who entertain'd him like an Emperor. The Fewel he burnt in every Chimney was Cedar, and after the Repaft, which was extraordinary fumptuous, Fugger took a Bond for a very confiderableSum which the Emperor ow'd him, and threw it into the Fire. The Nobility aflmble commonly every Evening at the Tire KingsInn where 1 quarter. There's a very fine Hall well lighted, where they game, club for a Supper, and after Supper dance. Be not fcandaliz'd that the Nobility have their Affembly at an Inn, it being one of the befr Houfes in Germany and the moit fuperb Inn in Europe. There's very good Attendance. 1 have fupp'd at it twice. and one cannot be better accommodated in any ioufe whatfoever. From Aupbourg I came to Ulm another Imperial City. Tho' ail the Country is even, yet 'tis very tirefome to Travellers becaufe of the Pavement of the Caufeys but Thanks to the Snow which bas levell'd the Ways, I have not been much incommoded tho' on the other hand 1 had like to have been loft in th Snow,fuch a quantity of it having fallen for two Days that one could not diftinguiih the Roads. 1 found my felf at a PoftStage where my Guide, tho' he wasa Manthat had grown grey in the Bufinefs of Poftilion upon the fam Road, did not know the Way. I was in danger every Moment of tumbling into fome Ditch, when juft as we enter'd a certain Valley my Poftilion foundcd a Horn to give notice to any
Car-

U L M.

27 7

Carriages or Horfes that might happen to meet us to rruk way, whena Voicefrom the Hollow cill'd out to the Potfilion, Wbostbai ? Stepben? Oh cry'd the Potilion, Is ityou, CbriJIopber? Godbe tbank'd that I metwitb you Thcn turniiig towards me, he laid with an Air of Satisfadion, Nowyou are out of all Dangir, for bere's a blind Man that vnll cenduft us to the Place we are gong to. 1 thought the Droll jok'd with me, but we had not gone many Yards tarcher before 1 really faw a poor Wretch whocould not fee, yet offcr'dta be my Guide, and promis'dhe wou'd conduit mevery wcil. Iabandon'd my felf to him, and he walk'd fo faft before my Chaife that the Horfes follow'd him in a gentle 1 rot till we came fafe to the Stage. Th;re he told me that 'twas fifteen Years ago that he loft his Sight by the breaking of an Impofthume in his Eyes, after having fuffer'd fuch horrible Pains for two Months that he blefs'd himfelf for the Lofs of his Sight fo that when 1 afk'd him if he was not very much concerr.'d at it, he faid that at firft it made him melancholy for fometime, but that healways comforted himfelf by the Remembrance of the Torture he had undergone in the Lofs of his Sight, and that he thought it were much better to be blind and to have his Health than to fee, and fufferthe Pains that he had endur*d but that now he was fo us'd to his Condition it gave him no Concern. In deed, when 1 alk'd him, if he fhould not be very glad to recover his Sight ? he faid, Yes, if it were poffible but that if hemuft undergo the fame Pains to recover it as he had felt in the Lofs of it, he had rather by a thoufand times continue blind. When 1 told him of my Surprize that he fhould find out the Way better than thofe who fee, he told me that fince he had been blind he came regularly on Sundays and Saints Days to the Place where we were to hear Mafs, and that therefore the Road was T 3

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wasbecome very familiar to him. He added, thac he fpmetimes went alone to beg thrce or four Leagues from his Village, which was a quarter ofa League from the hollow Way where 1 met with him. 1 fent the Man away, after giving him fome Relief and ould not but admire the divine Providence, which tho' it had afflj&ed the poor Wretch with what to me feems more terrible than Death, gave him Strengdi to bear his Misfortune wich Pafiene. th City pf Ulm is not above half as big as Augfbourg, but is much better fprtify'd. The Danube which wafhes irs Walls, becomes navigable at this Place, and a Boat goes from hence every Week for Yienna, which is a great Eafe to People who arc not in a Condition to lay out much Money for it cofts but a Creutzery which is one Penny a Gertmn Mile. Tho* the City of Ulm maintains a very numrous Garifon, and is very well fortify'd, and furnifhed with a good Arfenal, the Eleor Maxmi\ian of Bavarifi took it by Surprize in 1702, it be, ing a Place neceffary for him to fecure his Dominions on that fide, and to facilitate the Paflage of the Frencb Troops that were to join his Army. General Tbungen robb'd him of this Conqueft the loth of Sept. 1704, after about a Week's Sige. Then it was that Ulm became again fubjecl;to its a Magiftrates who are ail Luther fis. The Catholics annot enjoy Offices, but have feveral Churches. This City c4ives a great Trade in Linnen, but few of the Gentry live here except the Patricians who are npt more fociable than thofe of Nuremberg and Avgsbourg. The Burghers and the Women in particular go drefs'd like thofe at Augsbourg. To fee fhem go to and corne from Church is next kin to feeing a Mafquerade, and'tis certainly one of the mpft diverting Sights in this City, where really 1 ^lid not give myfelf time to he tired, fof 1 fet out
agam

Stutgard.

279

again the very next D.sy after 1 came, and arrived in this Town, where 1 have now reiled my felf a couple of Days. Stutgard lies in themiddleof a Valley furrounded with Vineyards. 'Tis pretty large, has Streets broad and ftrait, but the Houfes are of Timber. 'Tis the Capital of the Duchy of Wirfemberg, and was formerly the Relidence of the Sovereigns of the Country but Eberbard-Lewis the prefent Duke of Wirtemberg eftablifhed his Seat fome Years ago at Ludwigsbourg,a newCity and a new Palace of his own building. The Duke's Caftle is an old Structure of Freeftone, compos'd of four Piles of Building, flank'd at each Angle by a Tower. The Walls of it are wafh'd by Ditches which give it the difagreeable Air of a Prifon. The Duchefs who is the Duke's Wife, and Sifter to the Margrave of Baden-Dourlacb, has an Apartment in this Palace. You know that this Princefs and her Huflnnd don't live well together. The Prince t about twenty Years ago preferr'd a Mittrefs to her II, who certainly has neither the Bauty, nor the Merit of the Duchefs. The Princefs is remarkably patient under the Indifference of a Hufband, and the Contempt of the moft haughty Rival that ever was. The frequent Vifits paid her by her only Son are ail the Comfort he has. The Court neglefts her, no body dares to T 4 b and no He diedAn.1733,andleaving Children, isSon Grandfonying beforehim, wasfacceeded Cbarlei-JUxby d theSonofDakeFrto andtr, theeldeft f bis Coufin-Germans, tillthe Year1693. who tUric-Cbarlet, had beenhisGuardian TheDukeEbtrbard- ewis 57Years Age. L was of b ( to t TheDukewasreconcil'd her twoYears eforehedied' o Years f Age,it wasreported andtho* wasnolefsthanfifty (h fora good whilethat fhewaswithChild. dt 1 Thb wu the Countek Gratemtz. Sincethe Duke' a bu Deaththe DukeRgent oonunenc'd Profecution againft f one f traveriesrom CourttoanotbcrorthatProtec* her, and(he tioawhieheveryonedcnie* her,

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to go near her, and whoever pays the Duchefs th Refpects that are naturally due to her, is fure to jncur the mercilefs Hatred of the MiflreJs. I may be able perhaps to give yeu a farther Account of this Princefs and her Rival when 1 have been at Ludwigsbcurd, whither 1 propofe to go to-rnofrow, and where 1 hope for a JLjnefrpm you. Jam, &c.

LETTER
$ J R,

XVI.

Feb. Ludiuigsbeurg, 2. 1730. Duke of~?f/f~~ is a Prince of a ~f~]HE Size, and before he grew of 4 middling of Wirtemberg he grew fo fat was very well fliap'd. He is gentecl, af. TJE Jj~ Duke fable, and well-belov'd, and few Princes treat their Courtiers wit!more Farniliarity. He has been one of the beft Pancers of his Time. He alfo fits perfeftly well on horfeback, and perforrns ail bodily Exercifs with infinitGracerulnefs, and incomparable Dexterity. He takes pleafure fometimes in driving his own Coaches, and I have feen him drive eight Horfes withoutaPoftilion, andmanage them with as much Eafe as if there was but one Horie in fhefatnefs. He is a Prince that loves Magnificence, isgenerous, gallant, andamorous. ThoMtisabovc twenty Years that he bas kept one and the fam Miftreft, he is aspafonately fond of her, andglves as fhining Proofs of je as ever. During the laft War his moft Serene Highnefs commanded the fumj of the Empire on the Vffer Rkint, H ha;
an

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an only Son marry'd to Henrietta of Pruffia, Paughter of the Margrave Pbilip, Brocher to Frderic I. King of Prujfia. This young Prince is called the hereditary Prince. He is lhort of Stature, but handfome. He lias ore of the bcft Tempers that can be dtfir'd in a Sovereign, bcing humane, gooJ-natur'd, affable, and civil. It rmy be faid that the Father and the Son are the two politeft Men at the Court of Wirtembcrg. The Father has fpent feveral Years in Rolland. Lorrain, Geneva, 'Turin, Ite.ly and France. When he return'd from his Travels he wert and marry'd ac Berlin. He has an only Daughter who is very amiable. The hereditary Prince is vaftl' fond of Grandeur, Dancing, Plays and Mufic Ke fatigues himfelf very much, and -commonly rides fcven or eight Horfes in a Morning. His tender Conftitution andthelittle Care he takesof it make me apprehenfive he will not live to be an old Man The hereditary Princefs has an Air of Grandeur and Majefty fuitable to her Rank. She is tall and handfome, has a noble Mien, and tho' (he is not a regular Beaqty, 'tis certainthat ihe has a very good Look. She is extremely grave, and does not feem to take a great fiiare in the Pleafures of the Court. She feems to be moft of all taken with Drefs, and her Apparel is not only fplendid but well-fancy'd. Her Royal Highnefs, which is a Title given her becaufe ihe is the Daughter of a King's Brother, i$ extremely gracious and civil to all Mankind, but particularly to thofe whom fhe knew at the Court of Prvffia. She does me the honour to difcourfe with me fometimes. 1 find ihe thinks very juftly, jind that her Sentiments are very agreeable to her 3irth. This Princefs is of the Calvinift Religion, and fhe keeps a Chaplain who preaches to her in herown Apartmenti fo that now whUc the Prince Alexanf Hediedst Lud-wigtbeurg23c! f Nn. 1731. the o

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Alexanier de W:rtemberg is here, there are three Chapels in the Cailles of as many different Religions. The Countefsde Wurben is the firft Lady at Court next to her Royal Highnefs. She has been the Duke's foie Favouritc for a long time. She is Gravenitz by Name, and is defcended of a noble Family in Meckembourg. Th Duke firft fell in love with her when the was but a Girl. She had the Aflurance after fhe had been fome Years in Favour to infift that the Duke fhould get a Divorce from the Duchefs his Wife, by whom he had a Son, and marry her. When the Duchefs was inform'd of her Rival's Demand fhe fued for the Emperor's Protettion, and obtain'd it. That Monarch figniiied to the Duke that he would do well to remove his Favourite, who was therefore oblig'd to retire to Swifferland. The Duke who could nor bear her out of his fight, followed her thither and ftay'd there with her for fome time, but at laft being oblig'd to return to his Dominions, and not being able to take Madamoillle de Gravenitz to him without reviving the juft Sufpicions of the Duchefs, he look'd out for a Hufband for his Miftrefs. The Count de IVurbena Gentleman of a good Family, and in mean Circumftances, but a very eager Stickler for the Favours of Fortune at anyrate whatfoever,made an offer to marry Madamoifelle de Gravenitz. She was beftowed upon him with a Penfion of 24000 Florins, and the Chara&er of the Duke's Envoy Extraordinary to the Imperial Court. He engag'd never to make ufe of the Hufband's Prrogative and never to require of his Wife toleave theCourt. Uponthis before hefetoutfor^7a Condition he obtain'd even the Office of Landthoffmeifteror Lord Lieutenant of Wtrtemberg* which is the higheft Dignity in the Country. When the Marriage was conduded, Madamde Wurbe* returned to Statgard, where fhe
had

LUDWIGSBOURG. 283 had Lodgings in the Palace. Ail herAim was to infult the Duchefs, in hopes of provoking her to commit fomething fo outragious as might embroil her with the Duke, and make him refolve,never to forgive her but this Princefs equally virtuous and prudent, and alwayspatient, boreail this Mortification without murmuring. The Miftrefs, who could not endure to fee her in th Palace, obtain'd an Order from the Duke for her Retirement to the Eftate which was fettled on her for her Jointure but the Duchefs would never comply to it, faying, that if fhe had not been unfortunate enough in the Lofs of her Hufband fhe would not retire to her Joinnire. This Refufal, how reafonablefo everit was, affronted the Duke, who acquainted the Duchefs that he did not look upon her any longer as his Wife, and gave orders that fhe fhould be treated no longer as a 3overeign. During this, Madam de Wurben became a Widow whereupon all the Hopes reviv'd that fhe had prefumed to entertain when a Maid. She perfuaded the Duke to leave Stutgard, and to found Ludwigsbourg. As foon as this Houfe was in a Condition to be occupy'd, the Duke and his Miftrefs came and liv*d in it. There's no fort of Intrigue which this Favourite has not try'd to put herfelf in the Duchefs's Rank, but hitherto fhe has not been able to fucceed. Mean while fhe enjoys all the Honours of a Sovereign. 'Tis at her Apartments that the Court is kept. Whenever the Duke plays 'ds there, and there it is he diets. In fhort me is treated in every thing upon a par with her Royal Highnefs. Her Excellency (which is Favourite fince the only Title given to this imperious the Death of her Hufband) is drawing on to fifty Years of Age, and yet carries a mighty Sway. She employs ail the Remedies imaginable to cancel the Injuries which Time has done to her Complexion, and alfo toconceal her naturaJTemperj for Artifice and

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and Diflimulation are the Compounds of lier Character. She is fo eager in amafling of Riches that fhe makes it her chief Bufinefs. While fhepretends a mighty Refpeft for the Duke, fhe expeds like another Aftarte that every Knee fhould bend and tremble before her. As fhe is the Refervoir of Favour, greater Court is made to her than to rhe Duke himfelf, and Woc be to thofe that dare to difoblige her 1 muft own however that ihe knows how to behave as tvell as any Woman in Germany, when /he has a mind to lhew her Politenefs. The worft on'eis, that fhe is not always fo inclin'd for ihe has been fo long us'd to give herfelf great Airs that they are become habituai to her. The principal Officesof the Court are diftributed among her Kindred or Creatures. Her Brother the Count de Gravenitz is Grand Mar&al and Prime Minifter. 1 hardly ever faw a handfomer Man 1 muft alfo do him the juftice to declare that he is as civil as his Sifter is haughty. Some Years ago the Duke obtain'd for him the Dignity of a Count of the Empire, in which Quality he was admitted alfo at the Dyet, and he has a Seat there on the Uenchof the Counts of Swabia. His Authority is never oppos'd but by his Sifter, to whom he will not always be obedient. 'Tis faid their Divifionshave fometimes gone 0 far that the Favourite has donc ail in her power to turn out her Brother, and he has try'd alt Ways in his turn to remove his Sifter, but the Duke has always been fo good as to reconcile them. The Prime Minifter and his eldeft Son are honour'd with the Order of Pruflia. There is no Court in Europe where there's fuch a Varicty of Orders and Ribbons. The Duke bears alternatively the Danijb Order of the Elephant, the Pruffian Order of the Black Eagle, and his own Order which is that of St. Hubert.

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The Hereditary Prince has the Order of PruJJia and that of the Duke his Father. The Prince Cbarles-Aexanderwears the FIeecet and the Order of Wirtemberg Prince Lewis his Brotherwearsthe Poli/h Order of the WhiteEagle. The Baron de Scbunckheretofore the Duke's Minifter of State, and at prefent GreatBailiffof a Bailywic, is Knight of the Order of Danncbrog. I fhould never have done were I to give you the Names of all the Knights of the Order of St. Hubert, and the many petty Sovereigns that have been the Grand Mafters. The Duke's particular or Cabinet-Councilis compos'd of the Hereditary Prince and the Counts de Gravenitz, Father and Son, the Baron de Scbutz, and M. de Pollnitz t. There are many other Counfellors of State, but not being admitted to the Cabinet-Council they are not in fo much Efteem as the others. His moft Serene Highnefs keeps the Eftimate of his Forces to himfelf. 1 think that he has now 4000 Men without reckoning his Life-Guards, which are two Companies, the fineft of ail the Guards in Germany. One of thefe Companies is commanded by the Lieutenant-General Baron de Pbul, and the other by a Count of Wttgenftein. They are drefs'd in yellow,and are only diftinguifh'd by the Facing of their Clothes and their Bandeliers, one ofthe HewasVelt-Marihal Emperor's Forces,andGoverGnerais of is nororServia ndBelgrade.He oneofthefamous a fet ourAge,onwhom Prince Eugne a greatValue. Whenhe o the came totheSucoeffionobtain'd f theDietof the Empire he Pot of Velt-Marfhal GeneraloindywiththeDukeof Brmfj mt-Bevem the PrinceofJmbalt. He married and Mary-Auhe fvflaof TourTaxis,by whom hasChildren. He hastwo a Brothersn the Emperor'a i Service, iz. Prince FreJtric, nd Prince themfelves inthelaftWarupon Levai,whodiftinguilh'd theRhin. retii'd left i t M. Je PoIhitK the Courtn 1732, and is fince to hisLandsn Saxony. i

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one of which is Black and the other Red. Their I Regimental Clothes are Yellow with Sil ver Lace. The Duke has alfo a Company of Cadets on Horfeback, all Gentlemen. They are drefs*d in Red, I with black Velvet Facings and Silver Lace. They I mountGuard at the Duke'sApartment only. Two I of them alwaysftand Centry before his Highneja's Chamber-Door. The Court of Wirtethberg is one of the moft numerous in Germany. There's a Grand Marfhal, who as 1 have told you is the Count de Gravenitz, Brother to the Fa. vourite. A Marlhal of the Court, who is fecond Son to the Grand Marinai. A Travelling Marlhal, who is Brother-in-Iaw to the Prime Minifter. A Great Cup-bearer, who is the Baron de Frankenberg. A Mafter of the Horfe. A Great Huntfman. Four Chamberlains. A Number of Gentlemen of the Bed-Chamber, and Gentlemen of the Court. Two Captains of the Guards. A confiderable number of Counfellors of State and Aulic Counfellors. Twenty Pages, ail Men of good Families. And finally a great many Footmen, and Officers of the Kitchen, Pantry, and Buttery. The Duke's Stables are the beft furnifti*dof any in Burope. One fball not fee finer Horfes, or any that are better manag'd. The Hunting Equipage is alfo very magnificent and 1 don't know one thing that is wanting. His Highnefs keeps a Company of Frencb Comedians to whofe Performance every body is admitted gratis. We have often Balls, Mafquerades, and ConcertsofMufic. There

is

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is anAffembly at the Favourite's Houfe every day, wherethe Company plays at Piquet, Quadrille, and fothat here are all the Pleafures of a great Pharo Court. The Duke's Table is ferv'd with very great Coft and Delicacy, and is commonly fpread for fixteen Guefts. The Duke fits at the upper end, b-tween her Royal Highnefs and her Excellency. The Gentlemen are plac'd according to the Rank which they derive from their Employments, and the Ladies according to the Officeswhich are borne by their Hufbands. There's a Ceremonial obferv'd licre which is not known in any other Court, viz. the Duke's Minifiers give place to no Foreigner, unlefs he be a Minifter like themfelves to fome Prince, or unlefs he be a Count of the Empire. Thefe have fo diftinguifh'd a Rank at this Court that all who are not Counts muft give place to them. A Count of the Empire, tho' he be a Cadet in the hundredth Generation, a Lieutenant or an Enfign, as it fometimes happens, in the Duke's Service, takes place of all Minifters and great Officers who are not Counts. This is aRegulation which her Excellency made after her Brother was created a Count, to the end that her Family might have the more Honour, and that the greater Reipeft might be paid to her own Dignity of Countefs without a County. I have told you that the Duke had transferr'd his Refidence from Stutgard to Ludwigsbourg, and the reafon which made him abandon the Capital of his Dominions but why he preferr'd theSituation of his new Town to a hundred others that he might have chofe more agreeable, is what 1cannot account for. Ludwigsbourg is remote from any River, great Roads and Forefts. The Duke at firft only built a fmall Manfion-Houfe with two advanced Wings, fo difpofed that the Court lay between the Houfe and the Garden but he bas fince made great Ad-

ditions

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ditions to it, and is acTrually building a large Man. lion between the Court and the Garden, to which the Wings of the former Building are to be joined. One Frifoni, an Italian, has th direction of thefe Works in which it appears that he is much better Mafon than an ArchitecT:. The new Building runs fo far out that it difcovers ail the ffls f it< The Front of the Manfion confifts of three Stories, including the Ground-Floor but on the Garden fide thereare only two of a moderateHeight, fothat one wou'd take this Building rather for an Orangerie than for the Palace of a Sovereign. The great Stair-Cafe is dark, the Apartments want Light, the Chambers are long and narrow, and have very few Out-lets, However, this fingle Building wasundertaken by Frifoni for700000 FJorins,exclufiveof feveral fortsof Materials with which he was furnifhed. The old Manfion, which fronts the new, is not near fo large, tho' it is three Stories high every way. The Apartments are fmall and too inconvnient to live in, yec no Coft has been fpar'd toadornthem; i Carving, Gilding, and Painting being employ'd in thrm with more Profufion than Judgment. The Furniture is rich, but of a veryodd Fancy. The beft thing in ail the Palace is the Chapel, which would every where be reckon'd a fine noble Structure. But notwithftanding ail the Faults which are obfervd in the Palace, it muft be allowd that whoever lives to fee it finifh'd will find it a magnificent Piece of Work. In theGardens there are feveral Terraifes, which rifing by degrees one above another, intirely bound the Profpe of the Palace. 'Tis certain that whenthe Duke'sArchitecte faw this Prince refolutely determin'd to build at Lutko:gsbourg> they oughe at leaft to have advis'd him tu place his Palace at the very fpot where his Gardens end In this caf it would have ftood in the middle of a Plain, the Apartments would not have been cramp'd by the

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Buttrefls, with which the Palace is encompafs'd, and the Gardens wou'd have had a gentle Defcent and for a very little Expence there might havebeen a fine Picce of Water at one end, betwixt them and a Coppice, which is a Walk for Pheafants. The City of Ludwigjbourg is as irregular as the Palace; and its Scituation, which is very difadvantageous, will always render it a very incommodiout Town, becaufe of the unevennefs of the Ground. Moft of the Houfes are of Timber, and flightly built for thofe who build them do it with an 111will, either out of Neceffity, or to plcafe the Duke who feems to be fond of building. This Prince bas fuin'd Stutgard, and will never make a good Town of Luwigjbcurg for if the Court was abfent from it but one Year, 'twou'd be one of the meaneft Villages in Wirtemberg. This Town is in no refpet very agreeable. The Nobility here dont feem very fond of Strangers, and there are no Entertainments but what are made by the Duke. No body here, not even the Prime Minifter keeps. a Table and ail the Expence of the Courtiers s in their Drefs, and their Horfes. Yet there is not a Prince of the Empire who gives handfomer Salaries, except the Elelors fo that the Cafeis the very reverfe here to what it is at almoft all other Courts, for here People grow rich, whereas elfewhere they are beggar'd. 1 have known Perfons that came to this Court in mean Circumftances, and in a few Years got Eftates. The Duke is by nature generous and beneficent, and wou'd be more fo if his Liberaliry was not curb'd. He has given feveral Gentlemen Materials for building gratis and the Houfes were no fooner up but he purchas'd them, and paid as dear for 'cm as if he had not contributed a Shilling towards raifing them. 1 have been aflur'd that his moft Serene Highnefs's Revenues amounted to four Millions of Florins. 'Tis certain that he is

VOL. I.

Mafter

LUDWIGSBORG. 206 Mafter of one of the fineft Countries in ail Germany a Country which has plenty of every thing, but Money is fcarce by reafon of the Fertility of the neighbouring Provinces, viz. the Palatinatef Bavaria, Franconia, and Alface. The People are defirousof a War upon the Upper Rbitte, in hopes of puttingofftheir Commodities. The Luther an is the only Religion tokrated in the Duchy of Wirtmbtrg, tho' the Duke bas pcrmitted Frifoni the Direclor of his Buildings to ere a Chapel for the Ufe of the Catholic Workmen whom he bas fent for from Italy to build the Palace which Chapel however is defign'd to be demolih'd as foonas the Works are finithd: But I am rather inclin'd to think that the Court idlf will one day have a Catholic Chapel for if the hereditary Prince fhou'd happen to die without Male-Iflue, Wirlembergwill fall to the Shareof Prince Alexander, (Coufin-german to the Duke) who has embraced our Religion and who having Children by the Princefs of Tour and 2'axis whom he marry'd at Brujjds, festhem brought up in theCatholic Faith. I kifsyour band, and am, &c. POSTSCRIPT. Since I wrote the above, the Countefs de Wurben is fallen under Difgrace, which I have been told happen'd by this means. The Duke's Carriage to his Miftrds had been cold for fome time, when the King of Prujjia came and to Ludvrigjfbourg exhorted him to be reconcil'd to his Wife, in order to get Hein. The Duke Cou'd not perfuade himfelf to take the Duchefs again but however the King's Reprefentations prevail'd fo far, as to put him quite out of conceit with his Miftrefs. He juft kept up a bare Acquaintance with hcr, and that was ail which the pcr-

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pereiv'd, and made no fcruple to try the tnoft extraordinary Methods to maintain herfelf in Favour. The Duke havin been blooded in her Prefcnce, flie fecreted a Napkin ftain'd with his Blood, What Ufe flic propos'd to make of it 1 know not, but {he carry'd it to her Apartment. The Duke's Vqlets de Chambre miffing the Napkin acquainted their Mafter of it. M. de Roder, a Gentleman of the Bcd-Chambcr, and a Favourite of his Highnefs, faid that no body cou'd poffibly take it but the Countefs, and that to be fure fhedid it for nogood. The Duke order'd M. de Roder to go to the Countefs's Apartment and enquire into the Fa&. Roderzfk'd for theNiipkin. The Countefs cieny'd her having it but Roder affirm'd he faw her take it, upon which ihe was in a Paffion with him, and told him fhe wou'd make him repent of his 1manners to her. Roder made anfwer, that al! the Airs fhe gave herfelf were out of fealbn, that her Reign was over, and that he wou'd oblige her to return the Napkin. The Countefs not us*dto be talk'd to at fucha rate, was frighten'd, and reftor*d the fatal Napkin, which completed her Ruin. The Duke, when inform'd by his Favourite of what had pa&'d, fent an Order to the Countds r,ot to ftir from her Apartment And this Prince fetting out foon after for Berlin, charg*dthe hereditary Prince bis Son to command Madamoifcik de Wurben to retire to her Eftate. The Countefs obey'd, and being indulg'd to carry what fhe had a mind to along with her, rctir'd to a Territory of hers depending immediatcly on the Empire, not many Leagues from Ludwigjbourg. There it was that fhe heard of the Duke's Reconciliation with the Duchefs, upon the Duke's return from Berlin. Thi3 News extremely Ihock'd her, becaufe /he always flatter'd herfe'f that the Prince wou'd return to her And perceiving now that ihe had no Hopcs of being reU 2 uqc'd

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ftor*dto Favour by the power of herown Charms, /he had a mind to try what fhe cou'd do by 1 know not what Charm in the Magic Art. To cany her Point ihe was under a neceffy of hgTing a little of the Duke's Blood and fhe wrote to his Valetde Chamire, promifing him great Rewards if he cou'd procure her fome. What does the Domeffic but carry the Letter to the Duke ? who immediately gave Orders to Colonel Streitberft to arreft the Countefs, and carry her to fome Place of Security. The Colonel taking a Detachment of Soldiers along with him, contriv'd it fo that he came to the Countefs's Seat at Night, and immediately furrounding the Houfe, knock'd at the Gate, but no body making anfwer he thunder'd fo hard at the Gate, that at length Madame de Sultmanthe Countefs's Sifter put her Head out at the Window, and aflc'd who it was that dar'd to make fuch a Noife. Streitborfi told her his Name, and faid he came thither by Order of the Duke. Madame de Sultman made anfwer that the Countefs was not well, and cou'd not be fpoke with. The Colonel, who knew the contrary, faid, that if they did not let him in he wou*dbreak open the Doors; upon which they thought fit to open them. During this the Countefswas got to Bed and Streitborfi entring her Chamber found her there with her Sifter and her two Brothers-in-few, the General N.. and Sultman, whowasformerly at Berlin Equerry to the Countefs of tPartenberg, and afterwards Privy-Connfellor to the Duke of Wirteniberg. The Colonel having fignify'd his Order to the Countefs, fhe affc&edto be in a dying Condition; but faid that if fhewasable enough to get up fhe did not intend it, fhe being at home, and in a free Houfe of the Circle of Swaiia, from whence ihe did not think the Duke had Authority to remove her. The Colonel threaten'd that his Grenadiersfliou'd pull her out of Bed and the Lady feeing that ihe muft obey,
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thought fit to rife. She fell on her Knees to StreitborJi but the hard-hearted Officer was deaf to her Cries, and condu&ed her to a place of Security where flieis clofelyconfin'd, and lke to be a Prifone. as long as the Duke lives.

LETTER S I Rt

XVII.

Ftb. Carlfrouht, 15, 1730. that any Man can be happier than 1 Deny am at this Juntture. You have wrote an excellent long Letter to me you aflurc me that you are well, and that you have tlill an Affetion for me what more is there wanting to compleat my Joy ? am preparing to make you the beft amends 1 can, and inftead of a Letter to write you a Volume. 1 came in one Day from Ludwigjbourgto CARLSouhe, which is the Refidence of the Margrave of Baden-Dourlacb. The Name Carlfroubcfignifies Charles**Reft. The prefent Margrave Cbarles of Baden-Dottrlach was the very Man that laid both the Plan and Foundation of this City, and its Caftle. Nothing is fo pretty as the Difpofition of the wholei 1 wifh I were able to give you an Idea of it. Imagine th Margrave's Houfe to be at the Entrance of a great Foreft, in the Center of aStar fonn'cLby thirty two Walks, the chief of which behind th Palace is three Germon Leagues in length. Two large Wings advance from the main

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Body of the Houfe, which deviating from each other in proportion as they lengthen, tbe whole together looks like a Theatre, Hchind the principal Building there's a very high G<ftogon Tower which commands ail the Walks. The Space between the two Wings forms the Court, and then come the Gardens and Parterres, at the end of which there's a Semi-Circle of Houfes of an equal Hwight, built Arch-wife, and three Stories high in? cluding the Ground-Floor. Between thefe Houfes there run five Streets, the middlemoft of which fronts the Palace. At the end of the three chief Streets oppofite to rhe Palace are three Churches;i one belonging to the Lutherans, another to the Cahinrjis, and a third to the Roman Catholics to which tliree prevailing Religions of the Empire the Margrave gave equal Liberty of Confcience when he founded the new Town. The chief parr of the Town lies behind the Houfes that front the Palace. This properly fpeaking confifts but of one Street, whieh is of a prodigious Length. AU thefe Houfes as weil as the Margrave's are of Timber, fo that you are not to -look fer fine or fubftantial Buildings at Carlfrmbe i but the Contrivance and Diftribution of the whole taken together is really wonderfuL I took the Freedom to tell the Margrave that 1 was furpriz*d that he hsd not at leaft employ'd Brick in the building of his Palace, and of th Houfes which form th Half-Moon about his Gardens. 1 was wil'ing, faid the Prince, to make myfdf a Place of Retirement, and to build without purting the Burthen on my Subjefls, . 1 chofe moreover to > have the Comfort of enjoying what 1 built. If 1 had us'd Bricks it wou'd havcoft me,a great deal more Money and 1 cou'd not have finifli'd my Buildings without laying an extraordinary Impoli upon my Country. It wou'd have taken me up
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abundanceof Time too, and perhaps I fhou'd ne ver have bad the Satisfaction of feeing an end to my Labours. Another Reafon vfss,, that my Country is fo fcituate as to be liable to be the Theatre of Wars, and 1 am not in a Condition to make this a ftreng, Place, nor cou'd I encompafs it with *Wa&. Do you think there fore that IfhouNJ hve beenjuftified in layingout a great deal of Money on a Place to fee it burnt down before my Face, as 1 did my Houfe at Drwlacb% and my od>er Houfes which the Frencb reduc'd to Afties. I am but a petty SoI have built a Houfe according to my vereign; Condition, and I had rather it fhouM be faid of me that I have but a mean Habitation, and owe no Meney, than that I have a ftately Palace and am over Head and Ears in Debt.* 1 have gtven you this account of what the Margrave faid to me, becaufe I thought it wou'd let you into an Idea of his Charafter. T-his Prince, to whom 1 was introduc'd on the very dpy of my Arrivai hre, took the trouble himfelf to Ihew me his Palace, and ail about it. I thought the Avery well laid out, but there is not room partments enough to lodge the hereditary Prince, who lives in one of the Houfes in the Semi-Cirde fronting the Palace. The Pheafant-Walk, whichjoins to the Caftle, is the prettieft thing in the World. 'Tis a very large Inclofure, difpos'd in various Walks planted witii Fir-Trees eut in the ihape of a Fan. There's a great Bafinin the Center always full of wiid Ducks. 'Tis encompafs'd with four Pavilions, made in rhe Form of Turiijb Tents. Two of the Pavilions are and the two others Summer-Houfes, with Volarys, Window-Curtains of Green Cloth. There are Sofas and Couches, after the manner of the Eaftern Countrics. In this Place ofRetirement and Reft

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the Margrave fpends fome Hours every Day, and he is generally accompany'd by fome young Ladies whom he teaches Mufic } fo that they perform agreeable Concerts. The Margrave was in the right to give his Houfe the Name oCbarles's Reji, for he leads the moft tranquil Life here fhat can*be. Far from being infatuated with vain Grandeur, he has the Charms of it, without the Check and Conftraint of it. This Prince s of a very robuft Connotation, and tho*he underwent a vaft deal of Fatigue in his Youth, he is as frelh-colour'd and as vigorous as if hewas but forty Years of Age. He travell'd when he was a young Man into the principal parts of Europe and during his Father's Life-time was feveral Years in the Service oiSweden. When he returnM to his Dominions he ferv'd in the Army of the Empire on the Upper Jtbine, under his Coufin Prince Lewis of Baden. Tho' the Margrave is very fat, yet he ufes a great deal of Exercife. He rifes in Summer at five o'Clock in the Morning, and walks in his Gardens till the Heat of the Weather obliges him to retire within doors then he does Bufinefswith his Counfellors, or elfe employs himfelf in Exper rin?ents of Chymiftry, and fometimes he draws. He commonly dines at tour o'clock, and is attended by Waiting-Women, of whom thereare no lefs than threefcore, tho' nomore than cight waitupon one Day. Thefe, when the Margrave goesabroad, attend him onhoF&backjdrefs'dlike Hujfurs. The Generality of thefe Damfels underftand Mu and Dancing fie they alfo perform Opras at the Theatre of the Palace, and are Muficians of the happel. They hve ail Lodgings in the Palace. After Dinner is over the Margrave grants Audience to his Subjec^s and upon partieuhr Days of the Week hears aU that corne. Few Princes tender juftice more ipeedily, and more pun&ually. Sometimes he gpes a HuntWfr

297 ing: He makes very light Suppers, and retires early to Bed. He delights in Agriculture, and is onc of the greateft Florifts living. This Prince is never unemploypd. Thefe are few things which he does not know, and very many which he underftands to Perfection. His Converfation is as agreable as any 1 know. He fpeaks feveral Languages well. His Bchaviour is obliging and courteous. He loves Foreigners, treats them with Diftindion, and loads them with Civilities. Upon Sundaysand Holidays he eats with the Prince his Son, and the Princefs his Daughter-in-law. His Table, which is then fpread for fixteen Guefts, is ferv'd with more Delicacy than Profufion. The hereditary Prince only Son to the Margrave, is pretty Ihoit, and bas not the Life and Spirit of his Father. He is very complaifant and civil, and feems to me of a good-naturM Difpofition. He has bcen at Paris, in England, and in Rolland, where he marry'd the Daughter of the unfortunate Prince of Najfau, who was drown'd in 1711, as he was pafling the Maerdyke to the Hante, to adjuft with Frdric I. King of Pruflia, fuch Differences as related to the Succeffion of the late King William of Great Britain, to which they both laidClaim. The hereditary Princefsfeemsto me to be well behav'd and ihe makes very handfome Entertairunents. The Court aflmblesat her Houfe every day, viz. at Noon, and at five o'clock in |he Evening and there they dine, game, and fup. Foreigners are very well receiv'd there, and both the Ladies and Gentlemen are very civil and complaifant. The Grand Marlal, and his Brother the Great Huntfman, are Perfons capable of making a Figure with DUtinion in th greateft Courts. The TUi PfipeeM the Beginniag th Year 1732,4 of fcfto$a.

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Carlsrouhe.

The firft mny*d a legitimated Daughter of th Margrave. The Baron tHxter, Prefident of the Regency. and Chief of the Council, is a Perfon of fignal Merit, and capable of any Bufinefs, be it ever fo great. Generally fpeaking the Margrave's Court is extremely well regulated. This Prince is fond of th Nobility, and Jeeks to do them a Pleafure. He has none but Perfons of Qualiry in his Service. 'Tis great pity that this Court does not corne together again. The Margravine, who is Sifter ta the Duke oiWirtmbtrg+ refides at Dourlacb, and never cornes to Carfroubebut when *risa Holiday, or when fome foreign Prince is there. This Princefs is aftuaUy very much indifpos'd, fbthat 1 don't think 1 fhall have the Honourof kiflng hcrHand, The Margrave alfoeducatesat hisCourt three young Princes his Nephews, the Sons of his Brother. They are under the Government of the Baron de Gmming, who takes very great Care of their Education. As to the Margraves Revenues, 1 cannot be pofitive what they are, bccaufe I found that People who ought to know beft, vary in their Calculacions not a little; fome aflr'd me they were 400,000 fome 500,000 Florins, and others much more. Be it as it will, 'tis certain that the Margrave lives nobly, that every body is well paid, and that the Subjeb are not over-biirthen'd. Farewell, Sir, 1 fet out to-morrow for Raftat, and fbatt write to you as foon as 1 can, ic.

LET-

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LETTE

R XVIII, a

Ftb.28.17jo.* Strfienrgr SIR, s IT took me up no more than four Hours to go from Carlfroube to RASTADT. As foon as I alighted there I notified my Arrivai to the Grand Marmai, with a Requeft that he wou'd procure me the Honour of paying my Compliments to their HighneiTesof Baden-Baden. I had for anfwer, that the Margrave was out a Hunting, and that therefre I cou'd not have an Audience beforenext day. 1 had patience to ftay and having by Good-luck fome Books at hand, 1 fpent all that day in Reading, and the next day too, but did not hear a Word from the Grand Marfhal. Mean time as 1 did not corne to Rafiait purely to read, and as 'tis a Town does not afford much Amufement, fince a quarter of an hour is enough to know a'1 the Streets, 1 was very chagrin. I fent a fecond Meffge to the Grand Marinai, but had the fame Anfwer as before. 1 thought it improper to infift any farther, and gave over all hopes of feeing the Court of Rqftadt. However 1 went to fee the Margrave's Palace, which his Father the late Prince Lewis of Baden built from the ground. It is very much like to the Palace of St. Cloudnear Paris, and feems to be a Building conduled with more Regularity than 1 obferv'd in feveral new Houfes in Germany left folely to the Direction of ignorant Mafons, who without a Tafte for Building have the Aflurance to. call themfclvcs Architecte.

The

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The principalStair-Cafeis large and lightfome. The Apartments have ail the Convenienciesthejr can admit of Thofe whichare contiguous to the are grand Stair-Cafe diftributed into feveralPartitions, for Shew and for Convenience. They are painted, gilt, and gaily furnim'd. The Margravine Dowager to Prince Lewisput them in this Conditionagainft the Marriage of her Daughter to She Duke of Orlans and the Furniture is indeed rich and well fancy*d. The Keeper ihewed me the Clofet in which Prince Eugneof Savoyand Marihal ViUarsfign'd the Peace in 1714. Tts pity that this truly magnificent Palace has no Gardensto tt. There'sGround mark'd out for that purpole,and if PrinceLewishad liv*dthey wou'd hve been finifh'd After having fcenthe Apartments and the Cha.. pcl, which islrnall, but exceedingiyadorn*d, not knowing what to do with myfelf 1 went to a Billiard-Table fronting the Palace, where 1 found fome Gentlemen of the Court as idle as myfelf. The treated me as a Foreigner, and were complaiJantto me. A young FeUowof a ood Appearance, and who feem'd to have an Air of Poiitenefs, havingrefus'dasweilas myfelfto play, enter'd into a Converfationwith me And by degrees that Sympathy of our Tempers, which was a Suanger to the Lawsof Reafon, made us talk to one another with as much Freedomas if we had been old Acquaintance. 1 complain'd to him that tho*1 had beenthree days at Raftadt I cou'd not get an Opportunity of paying my Duty to their Highneflsof Baen. He told me that 1 neednot be furpriz'd at ic; that fincethe Deathofthe latePrince Lewis, the Margravine his Dowager, who was hehad reditary Princds of Saxe-L*menbourgt introduc'd into her Courtthe Ceremonialof the Eaftern but Princes that th neverappear*d in a full Divan,
ami

R A S T A D T. 301 1 and that fhe did not permit any one whatfoever to come near to her Son except the Bafhawsand Dervizes who were of the Council, The young Gentleman's manner of accounting for this matter made me fmile, and put me upon afking him feveral Queftions. How! faid accordmg to 4 theCharaer 1 have had of the Margravine, me is very much of a Chriftian, and of that virtuous 4 Heroine which the wife Man, if hehad been ftill living, wou'd have propos'd to us for a Model. Indeed, faid tbe Gentleman^ the Charaer you 1 have had of her is right enough The Margravine has Picty and Virtues that render her vaTuable but flic has a Haughtinefs, and a certain Particularity in her Temper, whieh is hardly to be parallell'd. For inftance, if ihe had receiv'd you it 4 wou'd have been ftanding under a Canopy by an 4 Arm-Chatr, with as much State as the Etnprefs. She wou'd have aikd you two or three Queftions, after which fhe wou'd have aflr'd you of her Protection, and then hve difmifs'd you without 4 detaining you to dine with her, as is the manner 4 of ail the Princes of the Empire; but rris not the 4 fafliion here, cmtinuedtbe Gentleman. The Mar4 gravine commonly dines in private, and we who 4 are of her Court don't fee her but at Mafs. The 4 young Margrave our Mafter wou'd like well 4 enough to fee Company, but his Mother giving him to underftand that fhe does not care for it, 4 he conforms to her Pleafure. The youn Margravine, who is the Daughter of the Prmce de Sfbwartxeniourg, has no Authority, becaufe tho' naturally obliging and civil fhe durft notput her good Qualitics in pratke, becaufe the Margra vine Dowager reproaches her that fhe does not 4 know how to carry it like a Sovereign by which means this poor Princefs is oblig'd to be proud a4 gainft her Inclination. If you were to fee her you

J02

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you wou*dbe charm'd with her for fhe is tall and handfome, of a lively fair Compkxion, but not languid, and has a very noble Air. When the Margrave marry'd her fhe was an only Daughter, and the Princefs of Scbwartxenbaurg. her Mother, who had not lived with her Hulband for near fifteen Years, was ndt like to have any more Childreo. But the Event bas proved contrary; for the Prince and Princefs of Schveartzen bourg are reconcil'd, and the Princefs has had t Son, who has fruffrated the Hopes of our young 1 Margravine of being fome day or other one of the richeft Heirefles in the Empire. This has not advanc'd her in the Favour of her Mother. in-law, who often fiiaps at her j but there being no Remedy, the young Princefs bears her Ul-humours with Patience. As fhe is juft brought te bedtoo of a Son, we hope fhe willhave more Intereft; at Icaft *ciswhat we ail wifli, becaufe me is a very good Princefs. *Tis not a Year, con tinuei tbe Gentleman, that our young Margrave has been of Age, neverthelefs his Majority is fo controJi'd by the Afcendancy which the Dowager keeps over her Son, that it may be faid *tis fhe who governs 'l. This Prince accuftom'd to obey knows not what is the Pleafure of con> manding. There's the fame likelihood of his being a Dpendant as long as his Mother lives and indeed he ought to humour that Prince6, as well becaufe fhe was always a good Mother to him, as for the Advantages fhe is capable of doing him for fhe is very rich, and has a noble Eftate in Bobemia^which fhe wou*dperhaps give to her and youngeft Son, who is Canon o( Cologne Augf bourg,if the Margrave difoWiged her tho' 1 beJieve it muft be a great Offence indeed that wou*d provokehertodifinhernhimubecaufehewasalways her Darling, and perhaps too the moit dutiiul of

ail

303 ail her Children. Such is her Tendernefs for this Son that when there was a Talk of his going abroad fhe wou'd nceds go with him and ihe aually accompanyM him ail over Italy. Some 1 Pcople were indeed fo ill-natur'd as to fay that 'twas not out of Love to the Prince, but becaufe (he was afraid hc wou'd wean himfelf from her Company, and break quite away from her. 'Tis faid however fhe is goingto quit the Court,and that to retire to Etlingtn, which is the Place affign'd for her Jointure. We ail wifh it, not that we hve any rcafon to complain of this Princefs, but becaufe we hope theo to have a gayer Court. For the reft, tu do the Margravine Dowager Jufticc, fliehas managM Son's Finances with her a great deal of Qeconpmy. When th late Prince Lewis died he left a heavy Debt upon the Country, which wasalfo ruin'd by the late War. But th Margravine Regent has paid off ail, and fo happily retriev'd tbe Government and the Finances, that when her Son came of Ageihe gave him conderable Sums, and the Country was in a better Condition than ever.' There th Gentlemanconcluded. Afterputting feveral Queftions to him 1 learnt that the Duchefs of Orlans had been promis'd in Marriage to Prince Alexmitr tfTour and Taxis*, that the- Prefents were made for the Wedding, and that the fame was very foon to be celebrated But wlien the Duke of Orlans aually fent M. tTArgenfm his Chancellor to Raftadt to demand the Princefs in Marriage, the Margravine her Mother thinking this a better Match beyond comparilbn, call'd back the Promife ihe had made to the Prince de la Tour, and concluded th Treaty with the Duke of Orleans. The young Margrave marry'd his Sifter by Proxy, in preHehis fince o marry'da Princefs f Brandtnbourg-Bartitb, whohasembrac'dhe Cadtolic eligion. t R

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prefence of M. Argtnfin, and the Prince/s W condufted to Straflorg,wherefinding a Setof Domeftics fent from Paris to recetve her, *heturn'd offall her Getman Servantsand prpceeded on her whither the Duke of Orients Journey to Chatons* went to meet her. The famGentleman fromwhotnI learnt dl thefe Particulars told me likewifethat the young Margrave, beforehe marry'd the Princefsof Sdnoartaentoitrgywasto havehad the Daughter ofKinxStairiflaust but that the Margravine broke offthe Marriage-Trcatywhichwasvery&fadvane'd, becauf the King was not ablc to pay down a hundred thoufand Crowns ready Money for his Dafighter*s Dowry. It was tindoubtedlyowkig to that Princefs's happy Star that the Kmg couldnot raife the Sum, for in fuch cafe his Daoghter wonld not now have worn one of the firft Crown in the World. The Gentleman told me moreoverthat th Margravine was mortify*dto the laft degree when fhe heard that the Princefi whom (he hadrefus'd for her Daughter-in-bw was become the Queen of France. She wasapprehenfivetoo that this Princefs or th King her Father would take revenge for th Slight Ihe had put upon their AI. to liance, and fhewrote a Letter to King Staniflaus congratulate him on an Event fo glorious to him, and to recommend to him the Duchefs of OrUans her Daughter. I intreatyou, Sir, faid ihe, to prevail witb tbe Q$tenjour Daugbterte bonourwy Daugbter and ail myFamily witb ber Favour. I will prejkmeto Jay tbat botbI and Mine ieferveit at your Hands for tbe RejpeB we bave alwayt badforyou. This Letter, whichwasas fubmiffive as the Margravine's Conduithadbeenhaughty, was receiv'd with very great Civilityby Kin& Stanijlaus, who, after having read it to the Queen his Wife, could not help faying, am mucb obligd f tbe
~r.4br3

305 Margravine for this Letter, and he return'd her 2 very engaging Anfwer. 'Tis my Opinion that at that time, inftead of bearing the Princefs any Illwill he took it very kindly of her that ihe had refus'd his Daughter for a Daughter-in-law. The officious Gentleman would perhaps hve inform'd me of other Particulars concerning the Court of Raftadt, if the Margrave's Retiirn from Hunting had not oblig'd him to go to the Caftle. 1 thank'd him for the trouble he had given himfelf, and went and ihut my felf up at my Quarters. I fet out next day for Strasbourg, and in lefs than five Hoursarrived atKEHL. 'Tis ail an evenCountry, and admirable Roads. We travel thro' the Dominions of Spire, the Bifhoprick of Strasbourg, and the County of Hanau. At Kebl I paid a Vifit to the General Baron de Rotb, the Governour of the Place, who entertain'd mat Dinner, and made me exceeding welcome, but fo ph/d me with Liquor that I thought my felf at Fulde or Wurtzbourg. After Dinner M. de Rotbfhewed me the Fortifications, which 1 found in a very bad State. The Commandant told me that he had taken a world of pains to reprefent it to the Dyet of the Empire at Ratisbonne, but that he might as well have talk'd to fo many deaf Men. 'Tis certain that if Care be not taken, the Rbine will waih away th Fort one day or other, and carry it to Holland. The Marihal de Bourg faid to me a while ago when we were talking of Kebl, that M. de Rotbwould do well to faften his Fort with Chains to the Citadel of Strasbourg. There' only a Bridge over the Rbine to pafs from Kebl to St r asbou rg th Capital of Alface,and formerly an Imperial City. The Frencb made themfelves Mafters of it in September168 r, when they came to the very Gates of the Place before the Town had notice of their March, and when it was X Vol. 1. in

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in no Condition to make refiftance for whether they thought thcy had no need of being upon their guard, or whether the chief Burgomafters had been corrupted, the Town wanted but every thing. The Capitulation was figned on one fide by the Marquis de Louvois,and the Baron deMenclarCom.mandant in Alface and on the other by eight Deputics of the City, which was fecured in ail its Privileges, Prerogatives and Cuftoms, both ecclefiaftieal ar.d civil. The Bifhop was nevertheleft reftored to his See, and the Canonstothe Cathedral, which had helonged for 152 Years to xhsLutherans. Lewis XIV. made his entry into Strasbourg the 2 3dof Ofloberfollowing, and immediately order'd a Citadel and other Works beereed, which have to fince been fo augmented that Strasbourg may now be rank'd among the moft important Places of Eurote. The Marfhal Count de Bourg commands in it, and hasone ofthe King's Lieutenants under him, who is aiwaysa GeneralOfficer. M.Dangervilliers formerly Intendant of Daupbiny, is Intendant of the Province of Alface and the City of Strasbourg. Thefe Gentlemen, whom 1 have been tofee, receiv'd me with prodigious Civility, and very punctually return'd my Vifit. The Marfhal Count de Bourg preferves a ftately Mien in an advanced Age, and one may eafily perceive he has been a very fine Man in his time. He was Page to Philip ox FranceDuke of Orlans* Brother to Lewis the Great, and to that Duke's Favour his Advancement to Military Employments is very much owing, tho' 'tis true that he has diftinguiihed himfelf in the Service. On the 26th He waJvmc'dto the Office f Secretarr Warin tbe t o andwasfucoeededIntroduit f Jljktt as o roomof M- h Btmne, Intendant Mttxtand wbenthe of by M. JtHmrUj,formerly of madeIntendant Pontbc wasfiwGecded M. & latterwas by Brou.

S T R A S B O U R G.

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26th of Augufi170g, he defeated near Rumerfheim the Count de Mercy, who commanded a flying Camp of 9000 Men detach'd from the Army of the Empire, then under Command of the Ele&or of Hanover, afterwards George I. King of Great Britain. This Viftory gain'd M. de Bourg the blue Ribbon. King Lewis XV. gave him the Staff of a Marlhal of France, and confirmed him in the Government of Strasbourg. Th Frencb Officers accufe this Marthal of Pride, but for my part, 1 hve ail the Reafon that can be to love him for his Civility. M. Dangervilliers is really more engaging than the Marlhal, and is therefore more beloved by the Officers. He is affable and civil, complaifant to Foreigners, and lives with a va deal or Splendor. The Princes of the Empire that border upon Alface like him very well, and think he is more candid, and lefs haughty than his Predeceffors. There's not many of the Nobility fettled in this City, and of thefe few that are wealthy and therefore they live very much retir'd. The Canons of the Great Chapter who ought ail to be Princes or Counts, are not of very great Service, becaufe moft of'em holding other Bnfices,only come to Strafbourgto pafs away three Months there of their Refidence, and by confequencethey are here as Strangers. The beft Houfes therefore are the Intendant's and the King*s Lieutenants. There are always a great manyOfficers here who are indeed amiable ellows, and know how to ferve, and to be good Company too upon occafion. The Commandants of the Corps arc in Years, and Officers of Experience, and the reft are de ver fmart Youths who long fadly to be fighting, and would fain make you believe the four Corners of the World will quickljkbe on fire. I hve not feen finer Infantry the FrencbInfantry at thisprefent time. There
Xz ape

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Strasbourg.

are very fine Gentlemen too in the Cavalry, but then they are not near fo well mounted as ours. You know the Cry with us is that the French are ruin'd, and not able to do any thing more. How the Cafe ftands with them, 1 really know not, but if one may judge of it by Appearances, it cannot be fo. No Troops were ever better cloathed, better paid, more fpruce, nor finer. The Officers are they game, divert themfelves, and eat fplendid and drink well, which doesnot feem to me to be the Life of People in want. Upon thefe terms, 1 would be content to be in fuch want ail my Life long. The Garrifon maintains a Company of Comedians who are paid by the Captains, and commanding Officers, for the Subalterns are admitted gratis. The Theatre, which is one of the prettieft in the Country, is maintain'd by the City. A Man that has a Tafte for a plain home-bred Girl may here find Amufement and good Blood. 'Tis obferv'd that the Lutberan Women are the moft beautiful, and the Sex at this Place is faid to be very indulgent, and very tractable fo that I lhould be apt to think, a Man need not be very open-hearted to them. Tho' Strasbourg may be reckon'd among the T fineft owns in France, one can't fay there's a fingle Houfe in it that is magnificent, or makes a grand Appearance. The Cathedral is a very ftatey Building of Gotbic Architefture; its famous Spire is one of the moft lofty, and of the neateft Workmanfliip of any in Europe. Miffbnywho 'tis like always carried his Plummet and Foot-Rule in his Pocket, becaufe he never fails to give the Length and Breadth and Height of a Thmg, fays that 'tis 574 Foot in height and I believe he is not miftaken. who was the Archite, finifh'd Erkivin de Stembacb it in the Year 1449. 'Tis faid that Le^isXlV. had a mind to have a Spire ere&ed upon th fecond
lower

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Tower which feems to have been built with rhat View. He order'd M. de Vaubanto draw a Model of it, and to compute the Coft, which he found would amount to feveral Millions of Livres. The King thinking that he could employ that Sum to a bctter purpofe, contented himfelf with making a Prefent to the Cathedral of the Ornaments, and a!l the Priefts Veftments for celebraring Mafs upon the feveral annual Feftivals the wholeof which is extraordinary fumptuous, and becoming the Magnificence of one of the greateft Kings in the World. 'Twas in the Cathedral of Strasbourg that the Duke of Orleans the firft Prince of the Blood of France married as Proxy to hrjois XV. Mary Le/cwjii, the Daughter of King Stanijaus. This Ceremony, at which 1 was prefent, was more magnificent than what was obferv'd at Fontainbleau at the Queen's Arrivai and the Concourfe of German Noblemen and Princes hither upon the Occafion was prodigious. The Cardinal de Rohan, as Bifhop of Strafbourgy gave the Nuptial Bndiction. Nothing can be finer than the Speeches which his Eminency made upon that Solemnity As they fell into my hands, I think 1 ought to communicate them to you. You will find them Verbatimat the End of this Letter. Poland in this Inftance, made a worthy Reftitution to Franct, which many Years ago gave the Ples a King who was afterwards the unfortunate Henry III and they have now in their turn given a Queen to France. But Germany may boaft that the Quecnderives from the Empire that Fund of Virtue which is the Source of her Happinefs, and makes her admir'd by the Univtrfe. France had for a long time left off fending to our Climates for her Qucens. Mary-Anne Victoriaof Bavaria was in a fair way tQ be one, but fhe died a Dauphbefe*. Lorrain, Scotland, Italy and Spain, had X3 The Wife~lravi: the Diophinwho.ru Lrw;lXVth' TheWJcofLtwis th whowLtwis only Son.

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Strasbourg.

had as it were engrols*dthe Crown of France for their Princefles. But 1 hope the Virtues of the prefent Queen and the other Germait Princefles who are now at the Court of France will obligcthe Frencb to confefs that if our Princefles have not Crowns for their Dowries like the Infanta's of Spaix, they have an Eftate of more Value than ail the Wealth in the World, viz. Piety, Charity, and Love for the People. A great many young Gertnan Gentlemen corne hither for the fake of learning irrfi, and their Exercifes, but 1 don't think they are a jot the better for it, becaufethe Mafters of their Exercifes are not better Scholars here than they are in many Towns of Germany\ and as to the Frencb, they fpeak it very ill in this City; for the Inhabitants talk Higb Dutcb, and our young Sparks are fo pleas'd to hear their own Language fpoke that they negle: to learn any other. Befides they always herd together, and too eafily catch one another's Vices as well as Virtues. As they have not many Parts to lhew, they fpend thcir time at the Billiard-Table, the Coffee-Houfe, and often at other Places not fo honeft, of which there are but too many here, this being a City as noted for Libertines as any in Europe. Jam, &c. tbe Speecbof Cardinal de Rohan to tbe Qu ein, beforetbe Clbrationof tbe Marriage. MADAME* TTTHILEIfeeyouinthisfacredTcmpleapVVproachingtoourAltarstocontrathatilluftrious Alliance which istounite you to the greateft of Kings and the moft amiable of Princes, I adore ThcDacheof Orlaau whoof he BJtM t FamiJf,ad t~e Duchefaf Bwr6~. o

Strasbourg.

311 I

adore what God defigns you for, and admire with Tranfport the Courfe that Providence is fteering to condufcyou to the Throne which you are going to afcend. You are defcended, MADAME, from a Family illuftrious for itsAntiquity, for its and for theeminentEmployments which c Ailisnces,Men it has the great given to Poland have fill'd fucceflivelywith fo much Glory. You are th Daughter of a Father, who, thro' the various Events of a bufy Life, chequer'd by good and bad Fortune, has alwaysmewnhimfelf the Gentleman, the Hero, and the Chriftian. You have for your Mother, and your Grand-mother, Princeffes, who like to Judith, and to that virtuous Woman whofe CharacterisdrawnintheScriptures, haveattracled the Vnration and Refpe of the whole World, by the Fidelity with which they aiways walk'd in the Fear of the Lord. In your Perfon, MADAME,are center'd ail the Accomplifhments that can be form'd by a happy Birth, and an admirable Education, fupported by Exampks equally ftrong and affecting. In you, that Goodnefs, chat Mildnefs, and thofe Charms are predominant, which gain Love at the fam time as they inforce Re~pect that Integrity of Heart which nothing can refift that Superiority of Underftanding and Knowledge which are confpicuous, as it were in fpite of you, and in fpite of that Modeftyand noble Simplicity which are natural to you and finally that which is the Crown of fo much Merit, that Tafte for Piety, and that Attachmentto the true Principles of Religion, which animate your Actions, and regulate your Conduct. Adorn'd with ail thde Virtues, whatCrown is there to which you might not reafonably afpire, exclufive of the c Cuftomwhich in fome meafureobliges Kingsto look no farther than round the Throne for Princeffes that they have a mind fhould reign with them ?
X4 *He

3f2

TUA

BOURG.

He who difpofes of Empires puts the Sceptre of Peland into the hands of a Prince to whom you owe your Being, -and by giving the Father that Splendor conduits the Daughter infenfibly to the fubHme Station he is preparing for her. But, O God, how impntrable are thy Defigns, and how far abave human Prudence are the Means thou makeft ufe of to bring about thy wife Purpofes This Prince was fcarce featedon the Throne in which the Choice of the Grandees, and the Affection of the People had plac*dhim,' but he was oblig'd to quit it: He is abandon'd, betray'd, perfecuted one fatal Shot bereaves him of the Hero his Friend, and the chief Stay of his Hopes: He c fubmits to the necefity of the Times without abating in his Courage He feks refuge in a Coontry which is the common Sheker of unfortunate He cornes to France, and thither, MAKings DAME, you are followinghim. Ail that fee you there, touch'd with your Misfortunes, admire yor Virtue, the Odour of which fpreads to the Throne of a young Monarch, who, fuch is the Luftre of his Crown, the Extent of his Power, and above ail, the Charms of hs Perfon, might hve made his choice out of ail the Princetfes of th World But being guided by wife Counfels, he fixes it u pon You and hre the Finger of God is plainly vifible in improving that very Misfertune which feparates the King your Father from his Subjeds, and takes you out ofpoiattd to give Us in your Perfon, a Qucen whofhall be the Glory of a Father and of a Mother, of whom fhe is now the Comfort and Delight a Queen, who fliall render that Nation happy which moft richly d fcrves it, at leaft for its Refpe andits Fidelieytg, its Sovereigos a Queen, who being inviolably attach-d to her Duty, fuU of Tendernefs and Refpet for herHufband, and her King, and wifeiy
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employMin what is capable of procuring her folid Happincfs, will revive to us the Reign of the Emprefc Flaccilla, of whom Hiftory fays, that having always kept the Precepts of the Divine Law in her view, the conferr'd thereupon daily with the great Ibeodofius, that her Wordslike and a fruitful Rain, water'd with fuccefs thofe Seeds of Virtue which God had fown in the Heart of her Hufband. Corne then, Madame, Cometo the Altar. May the Engagements you are going to enter into, facred of themfclves, (fince according to the Apoftle, they are the Symbol of the Union of JefusChrift with his Church) may they bcalfofan&ify'dbyyourownDifpofition. May you be fo fenfible of what you are going to be, that you may acknowledge that in crowmngyour Merits, he crowns his Gifts: And may you Chriftians that hear me, when you tee the fliining Re wards that are beftowed in this World upon true Virtue, learn to refoeft and love it.' Tbe CarnaYi Sfeecbafter tbe Clbrationof the Montage. AME, W that auguft Ceremony is ended which J^[ crowns our Hopes and our Wiflies 1^1 O give me leavetodefireyourMajcfty's Royal Protection for the Church of Strasbourg. This Church has not forgot and never will forget the fignal Favours it hasreceivedfrom our former Kings. How great are its Obligations to our laftMonarch! Beingdeliver'd up by the Misfortunes of the Timesto the Furys of Schifm and Herefy, it would perhaps have perUh'd as many othcrs did, if that great Prince, by refuming the Rights of his Anceftors, had not undertaken its defence, and fupported it with ail his Power. To him it isoblig*d for th
Ad-

MAD

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St*asbourg.

` Advantageof being reflored to the Poffe1Iion0 a this facred Templefrom which it had been nifhed. baThere's in mind of his nothing here but what puts us, Pious and 1 Temples adorn'd, Paftors Royal Magnificence, liberally maintain'd, 1 Miffions founded, new Converts protefted and and Piety ofare fo manyMonuments the Zeal 1 fnpporced, a of King who Memorywilj never ` die. He had not the Comfort to 6mfh Work the which he had undertaken that is to the fa 1 in ` reuniting of all the Sheepof this illuftrious Flock one and the fameFold This was referv'd to ` the gua worthy Heir of his Zeal and Crown. It will 1 guft your part, MADAME,reprefent to your Auto Great Spoufe how much the Remembranceof his cefuties, Grand-father, his ownGlory, and our Newhich are even thofe of Religion. require ` of him. ` be had to Youwill not defire that Recourfeihou'd 8 thofe Methods which 1 outperfuadi~; fuch would not exafperate, withliking, and Godforbid that we betoyourMajefl:y's fhould fuggefl:them ` to you. Thofe Children whodifown us are your 1 Subjes, lIpDAME~andtheChurchofStra~boxrg itfelf as their Mother. God's Mercy,ftill looks on ` confiding intirely in We therefore 1 the by conjure you 6 Bowelsof Jefus fake of Chrift, to employ, for the B in aaive but them, every Thing with which uniting fympatbizing Charity may infpire and biefi your 1 and Godwill Majefty's Endeavours, B our and will employ the initances of g C your Piety and your Faith to the toral Confufion 6 C ofError, and the Triumph of the Truth. May your for Reign be long OVer us, C pinefs of the 1(ing, and theMADAME, the HapWelfare of this great ) I~mgdo Ma,ynow offer'd the Prayers wh~ch the Church has God hea,r up for your Majefty, and ` mayyou bezca10usand to place us in th Rankof your mo(~ fo good as faithful Subje&s.'
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LETTER
S I R,

XIX.

Heidelberg, March 12. 1730in the Neighbourhood BEING Of Saverne where the Cardinal de Roban lives, I had a mind to go thither. 1 have had the Honour to be known to that Prelate a long time, and was overjoy'd at the opportunity of paying my refpefts to him. Armand Gajlon Cardinal de Roban was eleled and Bifhop of Strasbourg the loth of Aprilijo^ received the Cardinal's Cap from the Hands of Lewis XIV. the i8thof The Year May, 1712. he fucceeded the Cardinal de Janfon as following The Emperor granted him the Great Almoner. Temporal Inveftiture of the See of Strasbourg t on the The ramons Cardinal William Egon de FurflenAtrgBifhop of Strasbtitrg died the ioth of Afril 1704, and was immediately fucceeded by the Abbot dt Rohan, who was chofe Coadjutor Jan. 31,1701. t Straibeyrgwu an Epifcopal See before tbe Year 376 for one Jrjuwa'T&iopofStraiioitrg wasthen prefent at the Council of Cologne. The Chapter i compofed of 24 Membcrs, <vi%. 12 Capitulars, and 12 Dot-cilairs, who muil bealt Princes or Counts. From 1592 the Canons were Lutberans, and CathoKcs till 16S1, when Lewis XIV. having taken Strasbourg,eftablifhed a Biftop there whofe See was at Motjheira, and caufed the Cathedral to be reftored to the Catholic Canons and notwithftanding the contrary Diff ofitionsotthe Treaty of IVeflpbalia, in 1687, he turn'd the Lutbtran Canonsout of Brtuiei and fdo>iff, the Prebendswhich they retain'd in the Chapter Neverthele th Luthtran Religion is tolerated ia this City.

SAVERNE. 3166 the ioth of June 1723, and in 1724, he obtain'd a Seat in the College of Princes at the Affembly of Ratisbon. This Prelate who is confiderable for his Birch and Dignities, is much more fo for his great I Sol, his polite and obliging Behaviour, and for anI Air of Grandeur which accompanies al his Aftions. I He is a comely Perron, as are indeed ail of his Fa- 1 mily Bdng noble and magnificent in every thing I that he does, he lives wherever he is like a great ] Nobleman, but partcularly at Saverne. I found at I his Palace the Duke and Duchefs of Tallard, the Duchefs de la Meieraie, Madamoifelle de Melun, he Prince and Princefs of Birkensfield, M. Dangervilliersy the Intendant of Strasbourg, the Count and Princefs of Hanau, and in fhort a great many Officers of Diftinction. They had ail convenient Lodgings and Accommodation in the Caftle and Gaming, taking the Air, Hunting, Mufic, and Good-Cheer were their confiant Diverfions. The Bifhops of Strasbourg have refided for a long time at the Palace of Saverne, which was always a convenient Houfe but the Cardinal de Roban has made it very confiderable. The outfide of this Palace is not fo magnificent as the infide. The Entry which leads to the chief Stair-Cafe is lighted to great advantage, and has feveral Outlets that have a convenient Communication with the lower Apartments, which are high, and very finely embcllifh'd. The principal Stair-Cafe is very grand, and leads to a ftately Salon with moft curious Decorations. It has a double Apartment which is render'd as commodious as poffible and the Furniture confifts of Embroidery of Gold and Silvcr, which may be thought perhaps too rich. The Queen, who lodg'd at the Cardinales Houfe when me came to Saverne, was charm'd with the Splendor of it, and the extraordinary Refpe: with which fhe was attendcd hre. The

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The Cardinal de Rohan defigns that this rich Furniture fhall remain annex'd to the See for which his Succeffor will certainly have very great Obligations to him But his Eminence was not fo much oblig'd to his Predeceffors; for when he was chofe Bifhop he found a Houfe very much out of order, and fcarce a Chair in it, whereas'tis now fit for a King. His Eminency is about making very large fine Gardens, which are in very great forwardnefs, and perfe&ly anfwerable to the Grandeur and Beauty of the Palace and at the end of them there is a ftately Canal which coft infinite Labour and Expence. The whole of it is the more magnificent becaufe Saverne ftands at the foot of very high Mountains; and in digging the Canal the Workmen often met with Rocks which they were forc*dto blow up. At the Cardinal's Table there's both Abundance and Elegance and his Eminency entertains in fuch a manner as really charms his Guefts. AH his Domeftics follow his example; and 'tis certain hat they are ail very diligent and that there is not a Houfe in France, or in Europe, where there's better Attendance. His Eminency's Houfhold, and ail his Temporal Affairs in general, are dire&ed by the Abboti; &raw*,Counfellor in the Parliament of Paris. The Cardinal is one of the richeft Noblemen in France, and without difpute the moit expenfive. He has built a Hotel at Paris, and furnifh'd it fumpruoufly. He has made confiderable Works at Saverne, and laid out a great deal of Money in Plate, Furniture, Pi&ures, antique Veffels, and Bufts, Medals, and Books. Some time ago he purchas'd of the Prefident Menard the famous Library of the illuftrious Mefleurs de Tbou, formerly one of the moft celebrated in France and he daily inriches

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Weissenbourg.

LANDAU.

riches it with ail the moft: curious and uncommon Books and Manufcripts. Befidesall thefe Expences, the Cardinal intends alfo to build a new epifcopal Palaceat Strasbourg where he is indeed but indifferently lodg'd at prefent. The Marquifs de N. talkingof the Cardinal de Roban's Expence, faid, Tbat^ tofofure, bis EtniStone. I think nencybad found est tbe Pbilofopberys fo too, and that he has done it by procuring himfelf five or fix hundred thoufand Livres a-year in good Benefices. From Saverne I went to HAGUENAu, and to Weissenbourg, formerlyImperial Cities, and now fubjeft to France, but Places of little confequence. King Stanijlaus after the Death of Cbarles XII. b King of Sweden, eing forc'd to quit Deux-Ponts to whichhe had retired with his Family, came and refided at Weijfenbourg and here it was that he receiv*d the firft Propofals that were made to him for the Marriage of his Daughter with King Lewis XV. I came and took up my Quarters at LANDAU, one of the moft fcoundrel Places in the World, but the beft fortify'd and famous for having ftood out feveral Sieges. The Emperor Jefepb took it when he was King of th Romans. The Frencb retook it a little before the figning of the Peaceat Ra/iadt, by which Treaty it was left in their hands. They maintain a good Garifon in it, and have added feveral Works to it. From Landau I pafs'd to Brhousel, with an Intention to pay my refpe&s to the Cardinal de Schonborn Bithop of Spire who refides there, but 1 did not fucceed better there than at Raftadt-, for his Eminency excus'd himfelf from fceing me becaufehe was going a hunting, and put me off till next day but I did not think it worth while to wait, what had happen'd to me at the Court of Bade being too frefh in my Memory. I was afraid of the Ti* already adrancM. fame far

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fam Fate at Brboufel, where I lay at fuch forry Quarters that I cou*dnot avoid catching Cold, my Lodging-Room being without Glafs,and be famifh'd into the bargain, there being nothing to eat Befides, my Landlord told me that the Cardinal made even thofe People who came to him upon Bufinefs dance attendance for three or four days. 1 faid to my felf therefore that he had much more reafon to make me wait, who came to his Court out of meer Curiofity. I refolv'd therefore, as any Gentleman ought to have done in the like cafe, and took the opportunity of the Cardinal's Abfence to go and view the outfide of his Palace. Tis a great Structure not yet entirely finifh'd, which the Cardinal has hitherto carry'd on from the very Foundation but if I muft be fincerewith you, ail thefe Works, confiderable as they are, have been form'd upon pitiful Plans. It has coft a very large Sum of Money and I fancy that in the time of the ancient Teutonics.,it wou'd have been reckon'd a very fine Structure. The chief Beauty of it lies in its Si. tuation for a great Variety of agreeable Objecls are difcovered from the Apartments. The Gardens are alfo fo new that one can fcarce know the Plan of 'em it feems to me that they are not of an extraordinary Tafte, and that they wou'd be much more fuitable for a private Man than for a Sovereign. The Cardinal de Schonbornis a keen Sportfman. He has Game enough in his own Sifhoprick, for the Country fo abounds with aIl forts that the Fields are ruin'd by the Deer. The Peafants are fo hard put to it to preferve their Corn that they are obligM to watch it day and night. The Car* dinal often makes Hunting-Matches for the Stag and wild Boar, in which they kill hundreds at fuch times the Peafants are obligM to takea certain quantity of Meat, for which they pay fo much 4

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Spire.

Pound, according to a Price that is regulated. The Bilhoprick of Spire is one of the iruitfulleftProvinces in Germanysbut the Inhabitants are ex-i tremely poor for their Provifions lie on their1 hands, and they have fcarce wherewithal to pay| thegreat Taillies due to their Sovereigns. | The Dignity of the Bilhop of Spire is lective,! 3 as are all the Bifhopricks of Germany which are i pot in the hereditary Dominions of the Houfe of | Aaftria. The Bithop is Sovereignof the Country, 1 but the City of Spire has particular Privilges, as I have all the Imperial Citiez. You know it was I at Spire that the Emperor CharlesV. eftablifh'd g the Imprial Chamber, which is as it were the Par- I liament of the Empire. The Frentb having de- 1 ftroyMSpire whcnthey ravag'dthe Palatinatey the I Chamber or fuprcme Tribunal was transferred to | Wttzlar in Wetteravio, whereindeedit feemd to be I and more in the Ceoterof Germany^ fecurM from all I manner of Infult. E Cardinal, is at I Damen-HugoCount de Scbmbor* this prefent Bifhopof Spire, and Coadjutor of Coa- I fiMte. He is alfogrand Commander of the Teutooic-Order. He washeretoforea Member of the Empcror's Privy-Council, and his Plenipotentiary to the Circleof Lower Saxony. ClmentXI. of the Albani Family honour'd him with the Purple. He is defcendcdof a Family in which Merit bas happen'd to be back'd by Fortune. TheCardinal's Father was the firft Count of it. He was alfo one of the Emperor's Privy-Council, and Eleor of Mentzand Brother to Lotbarius-Francis Biflwpof Bamberg. The Cardinal has aually a Brother who is -Deftor of Triers, another who is Biflxopof Wurtzbourgand Bamberg,whom 1 have mention'd to you upon other occafions and laftly, a third who is a Counfellorof State to the Emperor, Hevasaddstted theGoIJiM-Fittct M Kt.of atthe ProaBOtioo.

Heidelberg. 321 1 peror, and is now the Head of the Family. Meflieufsde Scbonborshad formerly an Ele&or of Meiitz in their Familyj who was at the fame time Bifhop of fPurtzbaurg, but that Prince left thenl no great Eftate; fo that they were not very rich when Lotbarins Francis, Uncle to them ail, was chofe Ele&or of Menti. But this Prince procur'd them both Wealth and Honours, and render'd the Count de Scbonbom, who is Counfellor of State to the Emperor, one of the richeft Noblemen in Germany. From Brboufel to Heidelbergthere's one of the fincft Countries in the World, planted with Fruit, and efpeciallyWalnut-Trees, which bring in a great Revenue. The City of Heidelberg, upon the Necker, is very much pent up by that River, and a Chain of Hills, fo that 'cis not near fo broad as'tis long. This City is the Capital of the Lower Palatinate, and was formerly the Refidence of the Eleftors. Here is a Univerfity whichwas founded in 1346, by Robert Prince Palatine, who was chofe King of thtf Romans. No Town has fmarted more by the Scourge of War. Since the Difgrace of Frederic Eleftor Palatine, whom the Bobemianschofe for their King, it has been taken, plunder'd, or burnt four times. In 1622, the Emperor's General Tilly put 500 Palatines in it to the Sword, and at the fam time the Emperor carry'd off the famous Library, which he gave in part to Urban VIII. who caufed it to be p'aced in the Vatican, where'tis ftill to be feen. In 1634, Heidelberg was befieg'd twice. Jobn deWertb took it for Lewis XIV. but not being able to carry the Caft'e he retir'd. Not many days afrer, the Marflials de Force and Brtz forc*dthe Quarters of the Germans, and took both the Town and Caftle. The Frencb took this City a third time in 1688, and again in 1693, which v J Y Vol. I. was

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was the laft time, Sword in hand at what time they committed Cruelties lhocking to remembsr, and of which there are woful Marks fti!l Jcft in Heidelberg, and ail the Towns in the Palatinate. This City was beginning to recover it fclf by the Ekclor's refiding there, when it brought fi a moreheavy Difgrace upon it felf thanall the Miffortunes it had fuffer'd by the War. The Cafe was l thus The great Church of Heidelbergfince the Peace cf Weftpbalia bdongs half to Roman Catholics, and half to the Cahittifts, of whom the former have I the Choir, and the others the Body, and nothing but a thin Partition feparates the two Communions. The Choir not being big enoughto contain theCathlics when the Court refided at Heidelberg, the Eledlor propos'd to the Cahinijls to yield him the Body of the Church, alledging that not only the Choir was too feanty, but that he fliou'd be very glad that the Church in which the Palatine Princes interr'd werealtogether Catholic. He promis'd Yxz at the fame time that another Church lhould be built for themlarger and finer than what they were to yield to him The Cahiaiftsd that the great Church had been granted to them by the Treaty of that all the Princes whowere Guarantees jM~fr of the Peaceof IFejlpbalia were engag'd to preferve them in thc enjoyment of it; that therefore they could not give it up without violating that Treaty, which was their Security, and without rendring themfe'ves unwerthy of the Protection of the Proteftant Powers. The Eleftor, in order to remove thofe Obftacles, confented that the Powers who were Guaranteesof the WtjJpbalia1l reaty of Pcace, T in which the Church hedefird was exprefsly mentioned, lhould be Guarantecs of the Church which he promis'd fhould be built for them But all thefe O.'crs how reafonable foever were not accepted by

th

Hedelrerg.

^23

th Caiviuijii. The I7 Icaorbeing thereby inccns'd, made ufe of his Sovereign A.uhor.ty, und took by force what they were not willing to yidd to him whereupon the Cslvinifis had recourfe to the Pro teiiant Princes of tlie Empire, the Lutherans as well as the Calvinifts^ who conltituting but one Body and one Communion when th Catholics are to be oppos'd, united togetner, and engag'J in their Qiiarrel the Kings of Great Brilain, Deimarkj a Szoeden, nd Pruffia, and the Siates-Gensral. Thefe Power, caufed thc Catholic Churches in their Dominions to be fiut up, fequefter'd the Eftates of th Convents, and madefuch Clamors and Menaces tnat the Eleclor was oblig'd to reinftate the Calvinifts in the Nave of the Church but he was f angry with the Inhabitants of Heidelberg for their DifrefpecT: to him that he remov'd his Refiderice to Manbeim. The Burghers were not very forry at firft for the Departure of the Court for being accuftom'd to its Abfence, they flattered themfelves that the Tribunals of the Regency, which, fince the Acceffionof the Nnobourg Family to the Electorate, had conftantly beenkeptat Heidelberg,wouJd reriiain there flill. But they were foon thrown intd the tmoft Confternation when they faw thofe Tribunals follow the Ele&or. They went and caft themfelves at the Feet of their angry Sovereign, and afking his Pardon for having affronted him, they ofFer'd him the Church which was the caufe of his Difpleafure, and conjur'd him to return to their City. But all their Supplications were fruitlefs the Ele&or was ftedfaft in his Refolution to punith Heidelberg,and abandon'd it for ever. Heidelberghxv'ingno Trade, and fubfiftingonly by th Court, or by the Tribunals of the Regency, of which it was totally depriv'd, faits now into decay; and will, no doubt, e*cr 'tis long dwindlc to little Or nothing.
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Heidelberg.

The Eeftor's Palace is higherthan the City, and fituate in fuch a manner that there's a Profpedt from the great Apartments quite through the Opening between the Mountains, by which the Necker runs into the Plain. The Palace is built of Free-Stone, and is a magnificent Structure. The greateft part of it was burnt by the Frencb when they deftroy'd the Palatinate: The LergingRooms that are fubfifting are very fubftantial, tho* not built in the modern Tafte. The Apartments are large, but want Ornament, efpecially fince they hve been ftript of their Furniturc. The Gardens were formerly reckon'd the fineft in Germany, but there's fcarce any thing left of them except the Place where they flourifhed. If one may judge of what they were by their Situation, they muft have been very plcafant, by reafon of the extenfive Profpec~t they afforded into the Country. I do not intend to detain you with an Account of the famous Tun, Miffon having given a more ocaft Defcription of that thanof many Townswhich he treats of. You will in his Travels 6nd a Cut of this Veflel, which will give you a more perfeft Idea of it than any Narrative whatfoever. The Eleftor Jobn-Wittiam, the Predeceflbr of the Eleftor, gave a Companion to this Tun, prefent which is not altogether fo large, but much more adorn'd. They are both ful of Wine. 1 remember that in 17 19, when 1 was at the Palatine Court, theEkftor alk'd me at Tablewhether 1 had feen the Great Tun and upon my faying that 1 had not, that Prince, than whom there was not a more gracious Sovereign in the whole World, told me he would carry me to it. He made a Propofal to the Princefs his Daughter, who was marry'd to the hereditary Prince of Suhzhacb, to go thither After Dinner wasover which ihe acspted. The led the way, and the Court followcd in Trumpets
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great Ceremony. When we had mounted the Platform which is over the Tun, the Elcftor did me the honour to drink to me out of the fVilkem, which was a Silver gilt Cup, of a large dimenfion. He took it off clean at one Draught, and having caufed it to be replenifhed, fcnt it to me by a Page. Good Manners, and the Refpett 1 ow'd to the Eleftor*s Commands, not permitting me to refufe the Chalice, 1 begg'd hcartily that he would fuffer me to drink it off at feveral Draughts which was me and the Elector talking in the mean indif1g*d time with the Ladies, I took the opportunity of his Abfence, and made no fcruple to deceive him, for I return'd great part of the Wine to the bottom of the Tun, threw a part of it on the ground, and the reft, which was the leaft part of it, I drank. 1 thought myfelf welloff that he did not perceive in what manner 1 bubbled him for 1 faw he was very well pleafed with me. Then lverai other great Glaffes went round, and the very Ladies wettheir Lips, which was the thing that effeftually contributed to demolilh us. 1 v/as one of the firft that was overpower'd. 1 perceived thofe convulfive Motions that threaten'd me if 1 drank any more, therefore 1 fneak'd off and made the beft bf my way down from the Platform. 1 was endeavouring to get out of the Vault, but was ftop'd at the Door by two Life-Guard Men, who with their Carabines croffing each other, cry'd, Stand, tbere's no coming tins way. 1 conjur'd them to Jet me pafs, and told them that 1 had very important Reaibns for my departure but 1 might as well have talk-'d to the Wind. 1 found my felf in a terrible Qrandary To get up again to the head of the Tun was Death What would become of me I could not tell. In fhort 1 crept under the Tun, and there hoped to hidc my felf but it was a fruitlets Precaution There's no avoiding a Man's Deftiny. It was my Y 3 Fitc

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Fate ta be carry'd out of the Vau!t, and to know jjorhiniTcf th matter. For the EIec"k>r psrceiv'd 1 was a Deferer, and 1 he.ird him fay, fVhae is be? Vbat's hecome him ? Let bim be look'dafter, and cf brought up to medead cr aiive. The Guards at the Door bcingexamifAi faid that 1 came that wayin prder to get out, but that they font ire back again. AU thefe Ir.quirics, which 1 heard from my Hole, made me burrow my fcf the more. 1 crept under the Covert of a couple of Boards 1 met with by chance, where nothing buta Car, Dtvi!, or Page ould poflibly find me out. But a little Page, whp was indeed both Devil and Page too, ferrered me, and baul'd out like one that was mad, Herel,e is litre be is! and then 1 was taken out of my Cojrt. You may imagine what a filly Figure I made. was carry'd before my Judge, who was the Eleor himfelf. But 1 took the liberty to challenge both him and al! ti? Gentlemen in his Retir.ue, as being Parties in theCaufe. uiles myUtile Gentlcman, faid the Prince to me, Tau refufeus for your J Hdges Iwill cf peint yenctbers tber, and wejball vibetber you zs-Jll corne any better. He noeffi Je minated th Princefs his Daughter, and her Ladies to try me, and the Elector was my Accufer. After pleading my own Caufe they put it to the Vote, and I was condemn'd unanimoufiy to drink as long as 1 could fwallow. The Eleclor faid, that as he wasthe Sovereign he wculd mitigate my Sentence that 1 fhould that day drink four Pint Glacis of Wine, 'and that ror a Fortnight running l fiould tip off the !ike Glafs to his Health immdiatelv after Dinner. Every body admir'd the Eletor's Clemency, and whether 1 did or not, | v.-as fain to do as rhey d d, and to return him ITianks. Then 1 underwent the heavieft part of my Sentence 1 did not lofe my Life indeed, but for fome I^ours I lolt both my Speech and my

Reafon.

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Rcafon. I was carry'd to a Bed, where when 1 came to my felf I was told that my Accuferswerein thefamc pickle as 1 was; and that none of them went out of rhe Vault in the fame manner as tijey enter'd it. Next day the Eleor was fo good as to mitigate the remaining part of my Sentence, and excus'd me from the Penance to which 1 was condemn'd, upon my promifing him that 1 wou'd make one at his Table for a Month to corne. I am, &c.

L ET TER
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XX.

Mareb17. 1730. Manbeim, N going from Heidelberg to M A NH Ei m we leave the Necker on the right hand, but keep almoft ail the way by the fide of that River. 'Tis three Leagues from one City to the other, over a fruitful Plain. Manbeim lies between the Rbine and the Necker, in a marmy Country, which has always been reckon'd very unwholefome. About fourfcore Years ago this City was but a Village. Frdric Eletor Palatim who was chofe King of Bobemia,caus'd it tobe fortify'd, andbuilt a Caftle or Citadel there,which he call'd Fredcricjbourg. At the fame time a Town was built, of which ail th Streets run parallel, the chief that pafTesthro' the middle of the Town was planted wirh Trees after the manner of Holland. But the Frencb havingtaken Manbeimin 1693, raz'd it tothe ground,
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M A N H E M. 328 and by thcTrcaty oiNimeguen it was ftipulated that Manbeim Jhould be demolifhed which was done accordingly. Jobn-fPUiam of Newbourgt the laft Elector, began again to fortify &/wot, according to the Plans laid down by the famous Coborn but j thofe Workswere fufpended, fo that no more than two Baftions and a Courtain were finifh'd. When the prefent Elelor Cbarles-Pbilip came to live at Manbeim he caus'd thofe Works to be refumed which his Brother had difcontinued, and to be carried on with fuch Diligence that in a few Years The Forhe put the Place in a ftate of Defence tifications are all fac'd with Brick and Manbeim is now one of the bcft Places in ail Gtrmany. This City hasthrec fineGates, of whichthat of the Necker is the moft magnificent, and the bcft adorned in whichone fesbeautifulBafib-relievos, after a Plan very happily executed. This Oare openstowards a long and lpacious Street, at the end of which ftands the Eletor's Palace, one of the largeft and moft fubftantial Buildings in Europe. It were to be wilh'd indeed that the Architecture had been more regular Never had any Architect more Advantage, for he built it new from the Foundation, was not ftinted for want of room, and as he fet no Limits to his Expence, I fhould have thought that a mafterly hand might have produc'd fomething curious. Neverthejefs there are Faults in the Building which are flwcking to fuch as have the leaft Skill in Architechtre infomuch that they who have a Tafte for that Science are forry that a Building which has been fo expenfive has been no botter condufted. The Situation of this Palace is indeed very fine, at the end of the City, and of a very noble large Street, which like ail the reft runs in a lirait Line. The Palace* which has a great Square before ThisFomeftnowfinilh'd, ndthe Ektor, whocontia un to l(eephitCourtbere, hasaftrong init. Garifon

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xfore it, confifts of a large number of LodgingRooms, with a great high Pavilion in the middle, and two advanc'd Wings, with ample Pavilions at the ends where two other very extenfive Wing$ rife on both fides that are likewife terminated by Pavilions, behind which there are other LodgingRooms. The infideof the Palace is form'd by two great Courts, which are to be feparated by an open Gailery or Terrafs, the Model of which is very much adorned with Architecture but I can't think it will look well when 'tis done. The Apartments are adorn'd with fine noble Floors and Cielings, and have the fineft Profpet in the World to Spire, Franckendabl, Worms, and all the Country in general, asfar as the Mountains oAlface, which confifts wholly of Towns and Villages. AU this fine fruitfulCountry iswater'd by the Rhine, which paffes behind the Palace of Manbeim, and walbes its Fortifications. Upon this beautiful Canal there are to be the Gardens of the Palace, for which there are intended two Courtains and a Baftion. 'Tis almoft inconceivable how the Elector was able to get all the Works about Manbeim finiihed in fo few Years for in (hort I remember to have feen Panridges where there are now Houis and Palaces. The whole Town is laid out in a moft regular and charming manner and'tis without difpute one of the prettieft Towns in Europe. 'Tis pity the Houfes are not higher The reafon they alledge for it is, that Manbeimis a fortify'd Town, and that byconfequence the Houfes ought to be low. 1 know not what Authority there is for this, fince Stra.sDourg,Metz, Luxembourg, and LJJle, are Places of much more Importance than Manbeix, and yet the Houfes are as high there as they are in other Towns. The Palace is commodious, and yet, for what reafon I know not, the Elector does not live
in

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in it*. Some fay that he has been told of fo many Faillts in it as have quite put him out of conceit fvith it, and others that *tisbecaufe a certain Aftro J loger prophefy'd he would die there but 1 am apt to believe that the latter Reafon is no more than | k Jpke, and 1 dare to fay that the Eleftor is too ivife a Man to ctedit it. Mean time this Prince dvells in a Houfe belonging to a Jewy to which fe- 1 Vefalothet private Houles are join*dj but for all I I that the Lodgings are very bad. There can'c bea better-natur*dMan than Cbarles- 1 Philip of Newfoarg, le&or Palatine. He is the I beft of Mafters, and the moft affable of Princes. I He is reckoned extremely handfomei and one of I the chief Dancers in his time and he has a nobk I Afpecl. His Behaviouf and Converfation engage One to love him, and t pay one's court to him I eut of parc Inclination. He formerly was fond of J*ompand Pleafure, but rince the lofs of his only Daughter and his Son-in-law, who died within a few Years one of another, he feems to be no longer takn with what was heretofore his Amufemenr. The leflor has been twice marry'd, viz. firft to Lotiifa-Cbarlotte Princefs of Radzeviit, and feboth tondly to Tbereja Lub<omirjki% Polijb Ladies. The former left him a Daughter that was marry'd tb J/epb-Cbarles Prince Palatine ofSuhzbacb, but died in 1728 as did her Hufband the Year followiiig. This Princefs had fuch Beauty and Merit, that fhe wasthe Comfort of her Father and the Admiration of her Acquaintance. She left threeyoung Princeffes, whom the leor caufes to be educated at hisCourt, where they are now all that he has to delight him but then they inceffantly renew to him the ibrrowful Remembrance of a Daughter who was extremely dear to him. The He therenow. a&aally lodges
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The Death of that Princefs has been a very great Affli&ion to the Eleftor, and chang'd rhe Face of the Palatine Court. Indrfd as 10 AfiVbility, and to the Goodnefs of his Temper, he is itill the fame Elcctor, but h- has no longer that Gaicty of Humour which his Daughter's Company rais'd in him; for flie had a thoufand difFcrer.tAmufemems for him, and Pleafures and Merriment t:very where accompany'd hcr. The Eleftor cars always in private, except on Holidays, and when there's any foreign Prince at his Court. After he bas been in public at Mafs, he commonly ftops in one of his Apartments to chat with the Courtiers, or to play at Billiards rill Dinner-time. After Djnr ner he goes to Bed, and lies there two Hours then he rifes, and after having caus'd himfelf to be drefs'd, he gives Audience to his Minifters, and to fuch private Perfons as want to talk with him. ft is very attentive to thofe who fpeak to him, and anfwers them with Good-nature and Kindnefs. He feldom refufes what is in his power to grant and when Reaibns force himto a denial, 'cis vifible that he is uneafy, and he refufes in fo civil a manner, that People go away at leaft comforted, if not contented. At fix o'clock in the Evening the who!e Court meets in his Eleftoral Highnefs's Awhere there is Play till nine o'clock, and prtment, then the Eleftor retires, makes a very flight Supper, and goes to Bed in good time. Tho' the Eleftor dines in private there's always a Table fumptuouQy ferv'd for the hereditary Prince of Sultzbacb^ Brother to him who was the Ekftor's Son-in-hw. This paires for the Eleclor's Table, is fpread for eighteen Gueffs, and is ferv'd by Pages. The Prince de Sutzbacb is look'd upon as the Eleftor's Heir, becaufe 'tis not fuppofed that the ElecWs Brother, the EJcor of Mentz, would
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be willing to quit the firft Ele&orateof the Empire, and the great Bnfices which he pofieffes, to become Ele&or Palatine, if he ilould happen to furvive his Brother*. The Bifhop of Augsbourg, the Eleftor's fcondBrother, being a Prieft, cannot fucceed. The Prince de Sultzbactfs Father is ftill living; but being as old as the Elector, he is not like to furvive him very longt. The Prince Jobn-Cbriftian of Sultzbacbwas born in 1700. He is the Widower of the Princefs de la Tour of Au~ vergne> who brought him for her Portion the Sovereignty of Bergopzom and left him a Son, who is educated at Srujfeh with his Great-Grandmother the Duchefs Dowager of Jremberg. The Prince Jobn-Cbriftian is tall and extremely corpulent, infomuch that'tis wellif he bas not the Dropfy. He fpent the firft Days of his Youth at the Court of Lorrain in France^ and in the Netherlands, by which TraveJs he acquired a great deal of Politenefs. He was lately betrothed to Eleonora-Pbilippina of HeJfc-RbinfeldS)Siftcr to the Princefs of Piedmmt\% and to the Duchefs of Bourbon. This Princefs is every day expeled from Turin, to which Place fhe accompanied her Sifter. Their Highnefls will then go and kcep their Court at BeideWergX. The 2. This Prince diedat'Brepm va.Afril1732. Hewasborn ~6~9,md died wu in 1659,anddiod His Name Tbtodmre. in 1732. ofS*rJi*i*. l ThelateQoeen The Prince Jtbm-Cbrifiiam becamePrince Regentof afterhisFather's b Sultzbacb h Death, utdidcet longfurviveitp, Charles is h forhediedfuddenly*fy 20. 1 733 fothat Prince J O now Palatine Sultzbacb, o Son.born tcembtr 724,1s Prince 10.1 Heir and Marqaiof BtrgfKm, prefnmptive to the Eleor. Youth. TheElcorha fentfor Heis a veryforward hopeful the to himfrom Bntffeh Manbtim, notwithfianding Intrearyof hisGreatGrandmother theMother's theDuchefs by d'Jrtmbtrg t iide.(whohadthecareof hisEducation,)hat he might be G to permitted daywithher. ThisyoangPrince's randmother
a

333 The Principal Noblemen of the Palatine Court are the following Count of Manderfcbelt-BlanckenFrancis-George beim*, the Steward of the Houfhold, Prime Minifter, and Knight of the Order of St. HuLert. He is of illuftrious Extraction is a Man of Integrity and very great Probity, incapable of doingan ill thing, but not at all engaging in his Deportment for he is ref,crved, with an Air f Haughtinefs, which is a Defect that he was born with, and endeavours to conquer, but cannot. When one knows him intimately he proves a good Friend, and capable of doing one Service. He has very great Penfions from the Eleftor, and is the oldeft of his Family, which being pretty numerous, he does uot live in a very grand manner. The Baron de Sickingen is Great Chamberlain, Minifter of State, and Knight of the Order of St. Hubert. He is a Gentleman of a fine Prefence, of an eafy and engaging Accefs, with profound Learning, and Sentimentsfuitable to hisBirth. He was Governor of the late Prince de Sultzbacb, Sonin-law to the Eledtor and he imprinted fuch Ideas of Men and Things in the Mind of that young Prince, as gave great hopes that his Government would be happy if ever he attain'd to it. M. de Sickingenwas afterward the Eleclor's Envoy Extraordinary to the Imprial Court and 1 knew him at Viennawhere he was exceedingly beloved. At his return he fucceeded his Brother in the Office of Great Chamberlain, which he exercifes with the Approbation of the whole Court. John. isthePrincefs Sifter &ArtmDowager Auvergne, toihe Duke o Beautk f herTime. She retir'd to btrg, oneof the toafted a Nunnery,is a Ladyof goodLearning,and now one of theHeads ofthe JmfeniftPartyof Htlland. a He diedfoon afterthiswaswritten, nd hisPlaceis not yetfill'dup.

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John- Frdric Count de Globe,is Grand Marinai, Minifter of State, and Knight of the Order of Sr. Hubert. He is very rich, and has a fine Eftate inI Bobemia. He was once the Eleftcr's Page, who finding him it the bottom a Man of Integrity andI Honour, took cate of his Fortune, gave him the bsil Empcyments at his Court, and raifed him to the Dignity of Count. M. d^Qlobelns been feldom su Mnbeimfor fome Yearypafl: which is a Lofs both to Court and City, becaufe he livd very hobiy, and more than ai!, wasvery civil to FcFeigners The Baron de Wchlin is Maffer of the Horfe f He is one of thofe Men in whom we meet with that Candor and Probity fo much boafted by our Fathers. The Count de la 'Tcur and Taxis is Captain of fhe Life-Guards, Lkacenant-General, and Knight f the Order of St. Hubert. His Carriage feems blunr and proud, ycthe is familiar with thofe thatare in his Confidence. He has confiderable Credit at Court, owing to his Sifter*sbeing fo long in favour with theEIedtor. Julius AugujttiiCountde la Marck, LieutenantGeneral, Captain of thehundred&t^frf, and Knight 6f Sr. Hubert is defcended of an illuftrious Family in the Empire. He fpent part of his Youth in the Service of France, where his eldeft Brother is now aftually Lieutenant-General, Colonel of a foreignr Regiment, and a Commander of the Order of the He HolyGboft. haslearntall theirwr^Politenefsi his BeGrand h n M.Jt Globe dead at leaft eisnoloneor I fuppofe Je arJhal, Poftbeing rhat b ocenpiedy the Baron Btvtrn,a Adminiftratkmr of andPrefident theEcckfiafiic Kivy-CouafeUor t d an atHfMbtrg. This Mnfter oes Honoure tbc Ekor'* Choice f hu Perfon. o o TheOffice f Mafterof the Horfeis vacant; but th + of o thDuties f it, in quality Vice-M* d 6>uit eNefelroJioes fki of A hoift.

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T Behaviourrefembles the Manof Quality , his enir per is gay, and he Joves good Cheer, Joy and Pleafures. The Count Egmontde Hatzfeldt Lieutenant-Ger neral, Minifter of State, and Secretary at War, cornes from one of the beft Families in the Empire, This Nobleman isextraordinary civil his Houleis pen to all Perfons of Diftinftion he lives very nobly, and both his Lady and himfelf are very fond of entertaining Foreigners. They were both intruifed to condut to Piedmont the Princefs of Sultzbacb firft Wife to CbarlesPrince of Piedmont*, and difcharged their Employments in fuch a man. ner that they had the gentral Approbation of th Sardinian Court. The Barons of Hildejbeim and Beveren are both ' Minifters of State. The former acquired a very great Rputation in the Negociations that were carry'd on at Heidelbergin 17 19, for the Church of the Calviniftswhich the Elcftor had a mind fliou'd be Catholic. The fecond has been Envoy to the King of Great Britain. They are both to be valued for their Merit, live very honourably, and xnake Foreigners welcome. 1 could tell you of many other Perfons of Birtb and Merit employd at this Court, but really my Letter would be too tedious. Neverthelefs 1 cannot omit the mention of the Baron iObJten, whom you faw at BreJIau,after he had quitted theService x>fthe Czar. He is fettled here, but bas no Character. He and ail his Family are become of our Communion. He bas a confiderable Pcnfion from the Eledlor, and is generally very well efteenyd. ^is Son, who is a Captain, is a young Gentleman of Merit, and his Daughters are young Ladies highly to be eflcem'd for their gpodBehaviQur and Politer nefs. The The prefent ing of Sardinia. K

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The Count deNoflau-lVeilbourg lives hre alfa His Birth would engageme to give you an Account of him tho' 1 werenot induc'd to it by the Confide* ration of his Merit. This Nobleman has an infinite fhare of it he is generous, magnificenr,genteel, and civil, knowmg what Family he is defcendedfrom but knowing it for no other reafon than to difchargeall the Obligations of it. He is the Ornamentof this Court, tho' he is not in the Serviceof the Eleor. His Father wasVelc-Marfha],andCommandcrin Chiefofthe PalatineTroopi during the Reign of the late Eleor JebnWittiam. The Count 1 am fpeaking of was Envoy Extraordinary fromthe Eleaor to the Court of Francedu* ring the Minority of Lewis XV. He then went often to the Royal Palaceto pay his court to the Regent's Mother, and there it was that I knew Courtof France him for that Lady and the whole had a very great Value for him. That Princefs fpeaking of himone day to me, faid fhe was very glad that he was a Count of Naffau for indced, faid uef he defervesto bear a great Name There are amiable People here of both Sexes who are very fociable, fo that'tis a Stranger*s own fault if he miflesof Amufementhere for fuchare generally treated very civilly. As for my own part, 1have receivedfo many Courtefiesfrom the Ekor, and fo many Faveurs from his Court that I ihall for ever acknowledgethem. The Nobility maintaina CompanyofFrexcbComedianiwhoamreetimesa Week upona verylittle Theatre, but both the Townfmen and Foreigners pay. Tho' this Company, of whichthe Count de la Garni UiOmck onau&r in Ctirf of e P*l*ii~ C aad t ofMtmttim, in -Ag/ 734h Troopt, Gevenwr dyiag /r^y: Ekar jmdttCaamaadafkTroojtotlKCount Baron of to fufWriibmri,aadtheGovenuMpt MaibtiM the et Z*i*l.
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la Marck has the Direction is not the beft, yet 'tis a pleafure to goto it for the fake of feeing Company. In the time of the late Princefs there were a thoufand Pleafures which there are not now, fo that her Death is ftill lamented. The Elector's Revenues are reckon'd at two Millions of Crowns. You may rate them more or lefs, 'tis no matter; for my own part, 1 affirm nothing, being not willing to imitate the Marquis de BretonVilliers, who in his Memoirs of the Regency valuesthe Revenues of all the Princes of the Univerfe with as much affurance as if he had been Superintendant of every one's Finances. The Elector has about 7 or 8000 Soldiers, exclufive of his Guards. His beft Places arc Manbeim, Juliers, and Dujfeldorp. The three Religions tolerated in the Empire have Churcheshere, and the Je*<vs% Synagogue. large They are very numerous at this Place, and two thirds of the Houfes belong to them, as being either built by them, or mortgag'd to'em. Some of them are very rich, and drive agreat Trade with the Jews at Metz, Frankfort and Ainfterdam. 'Tis certain that they do a great injury to the Chriftian Merchants, and that they are not honefter here than tlfewhere. Don't write to me, if you pleafe, before 1 have lent you my Direction, becaufe 1 know not whether 1 irull ftay longenough at Frankfort, to whichforru. Affairs call me, to receive your Letters. Juft now we hearof the Death of Pope BemdiEt XII[. As 1 never faw a Conclave, and am in the Humour of Travelling, 1 have an inclination to take a tour tQ Rame. I Ihall not refolve on it till I come to Frankfort. Which way foever I go you Ihall be inform'd, and 1 will not fail to defireyour Commands. Mean time 1 am always very fincerely, s?f. Vol. I, Z LET-

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Worms.

LETTER

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S I R, Frant/brt,Marth21. 1730. T my Departure from Manbeim I pafs'd the Rhine over a Bridge of Boats, and in three Hours time arrived at FRANCKENDAHL, which wasformerlyfortified,but after having fufFered by the gnerai Conflagration in the Palatinate, was difmantled by the Pcace of Nimeguen, and fo it has remained ever fince. It ftill bears the Marks of Frencb Fury; and a great many Houfes that were burn'd have not been rebuilt. There's the fineft Country in the World between Franckendabl and Worms. 1 came hither at ten o' clock in the Morning, and fpent the reft of the Forenoon in feeing what was moft remarkable. Worms is not the Place now that it was before the Frencb burn'd it. Its moft wealthy Inhabitants inftead of rebuilding their Houfe, retir'd to Frankfert and Holland, fo that the Chapter of Worms, which is wholly compos*dof Perfons of Quality, is now the chief Glory of the Town. TheBifliop of it is the Ele&or oMentzt who was chofe July 12, 1694. This Prince bas built a new Epifcopal Palace, the Contrivance of which this theEleorof Mtmtx. thePtdatittt of Sincc as written of dying,the Chapter Wtrmt Familycf Nrulvurg unanimooiljr f chofeoritsKfliop Count rranm-Gsvrgt dt Scb*ni*r*, Archbifhop andElecrof7rr/.

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which is beautiful. lt joins to the Cathedral which is ancient, and built very fubftantially. The Ltherans have juft built a fine Church, the Roof of which ispainted. In feveral Compartiments there's the Hiftory of Luther** pretended Reformation. That Doftor is there reprefented asappearing before the Dyet of the Empire which met at Worms An. 1511. You know that he was cited to it by the Emperor Cbarles V. His Friends, to difluade him from appearing, put him in mind ojobn Hufs, who notwithftanding the Safe-Conduft that had been granted him by the Emperor Sigifmondywas burnt by a Decree of the Council of Confiance. Luther without being intimidated, faid, that tbo' be was Jure to be engag'd witb as manyDevils as tbere were Tiles upon tbe Houfesof Worms, be was refolv'd ta go. He went thither accordingly, and appear'd the i7th of April before the Dyet, where he offer'd, with a Courage deferving a better Caufe, to maintain his Do&rine and his Writings againft ail that fhould go about to demolim them from the Holy Scriptures. f The City of Worms tands in the middle of a fine fpaciousPlain, abounding with Corn, Vineyards,and Fruit-Trees. AWine is produced hre whichis call'd The Ueben-Frauen-Milcb, i.e. OurLaifsMilk. Rbine is about three or four hundred Paces from the Town, but 'tis faid it formerly ran clofe by th Walls of it. Which way foever one cornes to Worms, one perceives at a great Diftance the four Towers of the Cathedral which are ail built of red Freeftone. Two drunken Fellows miftook thofe Towers oneday for Capuchin Fryars. Beingin the Countryat a pretty good Diftance from the Town, as the Sun was going down, one of them faid to his Comrade, We bave no Time to lofe, tbe Gales are faid the other, pointCoing to bejbut. No matter, mg to tbe Towers Don't you fee tbofe Capucbins

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tbere beforeus ? Tbeyare of tbe Town, and are going a ,t,bit,bers well as we. Tau are in the rigbt, reply'd the former, let us drink tbe good Fryar*s Health. They had a Gourd Bottle full of Wine, of which they drank every Drop, fo that they did not overtake the imaginary Capuchins till next Day. There is not a finer Country than that between Worms and Oppenheim, a littl Town upon an Eminence, on the left Side of the Rbine, to which we pafs over a flying Bridge. The Road from Oppenbein is unpaffable for near two Leagues, becaufe 'tis commoniy overflown by that River but afterwards the Way is perfe&lygood to Frankfort. 'Twas very late when 1 came to this City, but by good luck the People of Frankfort who formerly fhut their Gates at Sun-fet have lately chofe to keep them open till ten o* clock, fo that for paying a Trifle one may enter the Town. 1 know not whether1 need give any Account of the City of Fr ankfor T. It has been fo often defcrib'd, and is fo well known to the World, that 1 fancy every body knows what fort of Town it is, tho' they have not feen it. Frankfort is famous for its two yearly Fairs, viz. at Eafter and Mkbaelmes. It fuffer'd much by a great Fire in 1619, but the whole has been fince rebuilt, and the Houfes are finer than before. There are few Places upon the whole more di4reeable, and few Towns in Germany where the Common People are more unpolilh'd. The Burghers are not to be match'd for AfFedednefs, and their Converfation is infupportable. The Magiftrates are all Latberans neverthelefs the principal Churchesbelong to the Catholics. The CahtHfts may live in the Town, but cannoc bold any Employments, and are oblig'd to go for in Worihip to-Bocktarbtirn the Cbunty of~tMw, and to caufetheir Children to bebaptiz'd in the Lutberan Churches. The great hurch in which the Ceremony

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mony of the Emperor's Coronation is pcrform'd is dark, and by no means proper for fuch an auguft Solemnity. You know that.d'ix la Cbapelle is properly the Place fet apart for the Coronation of our Emperors, and Frankfort for their Ele&ion. But fince Maximilian I. no Emperor has been crown'd at Aix. Frankfort being fituate in the Centre of the Empire is much more commodious for ail the Princes, but particularly for th SpiritualElectorsand for the Eletor Palatine, who may fend for their Equipages by Water and return them back by the fame Convenience. When Cbarles VI. was crown'd at Frankfort in 1711, therewasanextraordinary Concourfe of Princes and Noblemen. Certain fpeculative Gentlemen made two Remarks on this Occafion, from which they prefag'd two Things. The one was, that the Emperor made his Entrance into this City in clofe Mourning for the Emperor Jcfepb his Brother whereupon they faid that Charles wore Mourning becaufe he forefawthat he fhould be the laft Emperor of his Family. The fecond was, that as Cbarles return'd from rhe Church invcfted with all the Marks of Sovereignty, Charlemain'sSword had like to havedropp'd out of the Scabbard which the Elettor of Triers of the Lorrain Family obferving, catch'd hold of the Sword, and put it in again before it was quite fallen out of the Scabbard. Upon this, the fame Calculators of Nativities faid it was an Omen that the Emperor would never have a quiet Reign, and that he would alwaysbe in a Situation that would oblige him to draw his Sword for his Defence*. Z 3 As w Gentlemen erenot fo happyas ta Thefe(hirp-fighted o fardethe Marriage whichhaslatelyunitedthe Farailiesf of and a the Aitfiri* Ltrraim, ndbrought latterwithinView ch o the the o Irapal Crown, fwhich Eleftor fTritn faving Sword a Omen. in the Scabbard tohavebeen remarkable feems

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As to Perfons of great Diftin&ion at Frankfort, they are very few. The Chief are the PrincefsDowager of Naffau-Ou/bigen,born Princefs of Loveftein the Countde Degenfeldt(Scbcmberg) Major-General of the King of Pruja's Forces, and a Commander of the Order of the Black Eagle and finally, Madame la Raugravef Daughter ofCbarlesLewis Elector Palatine She is the laft of the Blood of the Proteftant Palatine Princes. The Senate of Frankfort, in confideration of her great Age, and in refpedt to her Birth, has granted her the Liberty of keeping a Calvinift Chaplain to preach in her own Houfe. Sometimes the Prince de la 'Tourand Saxis n Hereditary Poft-Mafter of the Empire refides at Frankfort. His Houfe is a great Relief to His Princefsis a Lady of very greac Foreigners. Merit, and has the Soul and Sentiments of a Queen. In the Houfes of the Perfons that 1 have mention'd there's an Affembly of both Sexesevery Evening but take them one with another they are very thin except at the Fairs, when there's a vaft Refort of Nobility and Gentry. Moff of the Eleftors and Princes of the Empire hve their Agents at Frankfort, to whom they give the Title of Refidents but thofe Gentlemen are not a jot the more refpefted for it, moft of them being Merchants of the City of Frankfort it felf, who follicit the Title in order to be exempt from the Authority of the Senate, and from the Payment of the Cuftoms, and to qualify themfelves Hewasthe Kingof Prujfim's tothe Plenipotentiary King a he of Griot Briiaim, ndisreturn'd Frankfort, to where isMi. nifterfromthe Kingof Priffa to the Circleof theReine. t This LadydiedJm.1733. the w the Jltxtmitr de I Since Aatbor u at Framiftrt Prince a la Tour ndTaxiswhomarried Princets f Braatb<Mrg-'&aa o i a nith. refidesn thisCityandisbuilding Houfehere. t " SheZf<~e/~ Z<Afew/e, to ofImd~Eoavitx. of Daughter the lue Prince of chief LtofolA Ltiiewitx,whowasthe Emprefc's t Stewardill 1708.

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fclves to place over their Doors the Arms of the Princes to whom they fend the News-pap;:rs. The Count de Degenfeldt makes fuch a Figure here that he deferves a more particular mention. He is a Nobleman of good Extraction. He is a Native of the Palatinate, and fpent his Youth in the Service of the Eleclor-Palatine. He was at that Time a Calvinift, but turn'd Catholic. Some Years after, he was reconcil'd to his former Communion, and married in England a Coufinof his, the Daughter of the Duke de Scbomberg,with whom he had a very great Eitate. He has alfo a confiderable Expetancy from Madame la Raugrave a Palatine, his Aunt The Relation of M. de Degenfeldt to this Lady, brings to my Mind the Hiftory of the Mother of Madame la Raugrave, who as I have obferv'd was a Degenfeldt. I have chofe to give it you from what was told me by the late Madame of France, and from very good Memoirs that have been put into my hands. 1 have plac'd this Hiftory as a Tranfaclion in the Time of the ancient Germans and as 1 de!ign'd to infert it in a Work which I hve undertaken, for want of fomething elfe to employ my Time, 1 chufe to do it by way of a Difcourfe from Madame the late Electrefs of Hanover to her Daughter-in-law. 1 herewith fend you the entire Hiftory, and at the End of it you will find the Key. As I fancy you are quite difengag'd in the Country, I don't apprehend that the: reading of it will be Lofs of your Time. I rather fear you won't like it but in either cait: 'twill be your own Fault 1 don't force you to read you may if you pleafe let Gertrude alonc. in This Ladydiedat Frankfort Teb. 733. 1

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GertrudeV

Hijlory*

Hiftory THE

o/GERTRUDE a Marcoman Lady.

Hiftory of Gertrude, of which I propofe to give you, my Princefs, a Relation, is properly the Hiftory of the Extinction of my Family for the fatal Pafion of my Brother King Malcalm for that Lady, is in ail appearance the Reafon that there are no more left in my Family than three Prince/Tes*, and myfelf There was fuch a Harmony in Sentiments betwixt my Brother and me, that it united us in the ftricteft Friendfhip. We had been brought up together in Belgiam where the King my Father -f, had been obJig'd to take refuge, that he might be nearer at hand to receive Succoursfrom Alfred King of Albion, Father of the Queen my Mother, againft the Romans, who after a long and bloody War had turn'd him out of his Dominions. That King amus'd him a long while with fair Promifes but the Mifunderftanding which there wasat that rime between him and the States of his Kingdom, added to a certain Indolence in his natural Temper, hinder'd him from feeing the EffecT: them and the King of my Father did not live longenough to be Jtnefs of the Peace which the Romans were at lengthoblig'd by his Allies to conclude. This was not an advantageous Peace for Malcolm my Brother, becaufe in order to obtain it he was oblig'd to yield a part of hisDominions to the Princeof the IlBoyens,an Ally of the Romans, and upon thefe Terms he was left in quiet poffeffion of the reft. When When
Madame tbe Abbfs of Mauhriffon, Sifter to Madame the Eleftrefs of ffamrvcr, who is fappofed to be the Perfon that Madame the Duchefs of Haxaurr, Mother to th ~petkthtre Emprfs Jmclia, and Madame the Princefs of Coud. f At Rbtneir, afmall Town in the Province oiVtrecht. (| The Vfftr Palathate yielded to the EleRor of Bavaria by the Treaty of Wtjlfbalia.

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When my Brother faw himfelf eftablifh'd on the Throne, he thought of marrying. His Minifters propos'd the Princefs of the Catti as the fitteft Match for him, and aflur'd him that befides her illuftrious Extraction he could not marry a more beautiful Princefs, or one of a better Temper. My Brother who only alter'd his Condition for Reafons of State, was willing enough to follow their Advice, and accordingly efpous'd her. The Marriage at firft prov'd very happy the Queen his Wife had her thare of Beauty, and tho'herTemper was very different from what it had been reprefented to my Brother, yet flie fo cunningly difguis'd it for fome time that this Prince thought himfelf very happy in his Choice. But their Agreement was of a fhort Duration the Queen's true Humour foon difcover d it felf: It appear'd that fhe was ill-naturd, and intolerably high-fpirited of an odd fullen Temper, alwaysready to contradidt, and frequently fubjeft to Chagrin, of which fhe herfelf knew not the Caufe, and which fhe vented upon ail that approach'd her without diftin&ion. The King my Brother was of a Temperquite the reverfe He lov'd Diverfions, wascivil, affable, naturally gay, beneficent; and I don't fpeak it out of Partiality in favour of a Brother whofe Memory is ftill dear to me, but TU be bold to fay, that if he had not been quite fo choleric, he would hve been the moft accomplith'd Prince of his Time. Neverthelefs he bore with his Wife's i11Humours very patiently at firft, and endeavour'd to reclaim her by gentle Ufage but when he faw that all the Pains he took were to no purpofe, he refolv'd at length to feek out fome other Amufement. The Beauty of Gertrude, Maid of Honour to the Queen his Wife, had for a long time fmitten him, but hitherto he had only difcover'd his Paffion to her by his Glances, for fear of difgufting the Queen.

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GE RT RUDE *SHtftory.

Gertrude who perceiv'd that my Brother did not look upon her with Indifference, afFefted to fhun every Opportunity that Prince might take of revealinghis Love to her. But Fortune favour'd my Brother, who being one day with his Queen in her Apartment, when the Dilcourf fell upon Jewels, perceiv'd that the Princefs had left off wearing a certain Braceletof whichhe had made her a Prefent, and afking her what fhe had done with it, the Queen told him that fhe believd the had laid it up in a Caiket of which fhe had the Key in her Pocket. She made one of her Maids fetch it, and open'd it, but the Bracelet was not there, at which the feem'd uneafy. This my Brother obferv'd, and taking a Pleafure in making her more uneafy, he faid to her, tho' in a manner that fhew'd he did not think as he fpoke, that fhe had undoubtedly fome Gallant in a Corner, to whom lhe had either given that Bracelet, or who had fiole it from her. Thefe Words, tho' deliver*d in jeft, made a deep Impreffon upon the Queen, and as it was her Nature foon to take fire, ine was ftung to the quick at what he had faid, and forgetting the Refpet fhe ow'd to the King her Hufband, was in fuch a Paffion with him that fhe let fall fome Words that were very affronting. My Brother who was naturally mettlefome and fiery, and far from expeing any fuch Treatment, made her anfwer, that if the continued to forget herfelf after that manner, he would find ways and means to humble her. Upon this he went out of the Room abruptly, and paffing through the Antichamber, met the fair Gertrude. Such was his Difguft that inftead of being upon the referve as he had been, he had a long Converfation with her, and found her fo fprightly and good-natur'd that he was compleatly charm'd with her. He declar'd his Love to her, and fhe was fo artful that

tho*

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34.7

tho' fhe gave him no Hopes, yet fhe did not rebuff him. When my Brother was retir'd, Gertrude went into the Apartment of the Queen her Miftrefs, who her whole Confidence in her. That Princefs plac'd no fooner faw her but fhe made a thoufand Complaints of the King's Treatment of her. Gertrude feem'd to fympathize in her Refentment, and believing that the Queen could not fail to know that the King had talk'd with her in the Antichamber, fhe told her that the Prince having met her in her Paffage gave her an angry Account of what had paffed and that fhe had donc all fhe could to pacify him, butto no purpofe: At the fame time fhe blam'd the King's Proceeding and encourag'd by the Liberty which the Queen gave her, told her that if fhe who was but a private Gentlewoman was fo treated by any Hufband, fhe would never pardon him tho' he were a King. She added feveral other Sayings which inftead of pacifying this filly Queen, did but exafperate her the more. In the mean time, Malcolm, who was impatient to know the Succefsof his Amour, wrote a Letter to Gertrude which he fent her by one of his chief Domeftics, together with a rich Diamond Equipage. But the artful Gertrude whofe Aim was to draw on his Paffion, rather than to gratify it, vras far from yielding to hisfirft Attacks, and fent him back the Diamonds, tho' with a modeft and refpeclful Anfwer, wherein fhe defir'd him to talk no more to her of Love. My Brother was too deeply fmitten to be repuls'd he doubled his Prefents, was affiduous, andeager inhisCourtfhip-, and as'tisvery rare for a King of his amiable Perfonage to meet with long Refiftance, Gertrude abated of her Shynefs by degrees, and at length difcovered that fhe was not infenfibleof Love. Their Correfpondence which did not exceed the Bounds of Honour, was

kept

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kept fecret for a confiderable time, but made th greater Blaze when it was-known. Malcolm beingl one day with his Wife, happen'd, withoutperceiv-l ing it, to drop a Letter which the Queen took up, and found to be the Hand-writting of GertrudtX The Letter bdngwritten in Latin made the Queen I the more curious to know what was in it and lhe I gave it to her Coufin,Prince Falamir, defiring him to unfold the Contents of it to her. This Prince was fo unwife as to fatisfy her Curiofity, and acquainted her that Gertrude by this Letter aflur'd the King that he had gain'd her Heart. You will eafily imagine how much the Queen was ruffled when (he heard of this Intrigue She could not contain herfelf and'without giving ear to the Arguments made ufe of bj Falamir, lhe ran immediately to Gertrades Apartment in the Palace, who by good luck was gone abroad. The Queen thinking her Cafket was in Gertrde's Clofet caufed it to be broke open, and finding it there, open'd it, and took out ail the Letters, of which feveral that appear'd to be from the King her Hufband left her no room to doubt of that Prince'sextraordinary Paffion for Gertrude, and of the Intimacy there was between them. My Brother was quickly inform'd of what the Queen had been doing, butconceal'd his Uneafmefs, fhew'd his Wifeno mannerof Refentment, and only fent a Caution to Gertrude not to retum to the Palace. Malcolm'sSilence deceiv'd the Queen, who indeed was not a Lady of very great Pntration, fo that fte flatter*dherfelf the King mightpoffibly be ignorant of the Outrage lhe had committed and upon this Suppofitionlhe thought it her beft way to diffemble her Hatred and Wrath againft Gertrude. Shepretendedtherefore to be very uneafy for fear of what had happen'd to her, caus'd a Search to be made for her feveral days, and fecm'd very much deje&ed at her

Abfence.

bfence. She hoped by ail thefe Demonftrations fcf Fricndfliip to decoy her back to the Palace, in der then to be compleatly reveng'd of her. I Thus Matters ftood when the King of the Suevi, e Brother-in-law of the Queen my Sifter-in-law, me to Court with the Queen his Wife. This Prince having obferv'd the Queen'sMelancholy on feveral occafions, afk'd her the reafon of it one day as they fate at Table. You muft not be furpriz'd, faid Malcolm, to fee the Queen my Wife out of f* temper; 'tis her common Infirmity, and veryoften ihe her felf knowsnot the caufe ofit. My Ailment is but too real (reply'd the Queen in a great Pet ) and (then addreffing herfelf to herHufband) laid me, it does not at ail become you whofedifhonourable Amours hve been the only Caufe of my Diforder, to infinuate as if it were but imaginary.' This Anfwermadein fopublic a manner, i'c nettled my Brother that heturn'd pale for meer Vexation, and not being able to curb his Pafiion, forgot bis Dignity fo far as to ftrike her; upon which the unfortunate Princefs rofe from Table, and retir'd in Tears toher own Apartment. My Brother, whofe Paffion was always as foon over as it was eafily kindled,was forry in a very few moments after for what he had done, made his Excufes to the King and Queen of the Suevi, and rifing from Table, went with them to his Wife's Apartment, where he afk'd her pardon for what had pafs'd. This Atonement, which the Queen did not expet fo foon, touch'd her to the quick: The King and fhe embrac'd each other, and exchang'd their Promifes to forgt as well as to forgive every Offence. But would you believe it? that fickle, fantaftial Creature mySifter-in-law chang'd her mind ail on a fudden, and wher. her Hufband came in the Evening with an intention to fpend the Night with her, me abfolutely refus'd to Iethim be'dwith her unlefs he would S

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3o

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would refolve to deliver up Gertrude to her. Mal\ colm, who was ftill afham'd at what he had done in his laft Fury, receiv'd fo violent a Propofition withl more Patience than he would have done upon another OccaGon. He endeavour*d by fair Words to pacify his Wife, affuring her that nothing crimi-l naf had ever pa*d between him and Gertrudet and that tho' he had correfponded with the Girl by Letters, it was not out of any Love he had for her, foI much as to know whether it was true that ihe wrote1 as good Latin as he had been told ihe did. Tho' I this Speech of his was not very probable, yet as I People are eafily inclin'd to believewhat they wi/h I to be true, the Queen fuffer'd herfelf to be at laft I perfuaded, and was reconciled to her Hulband I without infifting any farther on the Sacrifice ihe at I I firft demanded. The Emperor being corne to fpend fome Time I at Pluibourg, fummon'd an Affembly thither of the Princes of the Empire. My Brother went thither with the Queen his Wife but the Confequence was that they were more embroil'd than ever and my Sifter-in-law was fo unadvifed as to let Ctefar and his Courtbe-Witneflsof certain Brawls, which for her own Intereft as well as her Huiband's, fhe ought tohave carefully confin'd within the Limitsof her own Houihold. 'Tis true that my Brother had no very great Refped for her, and he lov*dGertrude more than ever. Being hindred by a Oight Indifpofition from going to Montpayen where he kept her at one of hts Houfcs, not a Day pais'd but he fent an Exprefs to know how ihe did, and the Queen's illTemper, who no doubt had better have try*d good-natur'd Methods to reclaim him, only incens'd him againft her, and made him the fonder of Gertrude. The Affembly of the Princes of Germait}being over, and the Emperor retum*d to Rame, my Bro-

ther

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ther fet out for Montpayenthe Capital of his Kingdom, and gave orders for his Queen to follow him next Day. But for a Reafon which I never could dive into, the Princefs inftead ofobeying himftay'd a Month longer at Pluibourg, without vouchfafing to let the King her Hufband know the Reafon of her delay and not only fo, but when fhe came to Montpayen, fhe had the Affurance togo with a bold Face to her Hufband's Apartment, without knowing how he would take it But the Prince who had juft Reafon to be angry, forefeeing that fhe was like enough to take fuch a ftep, had given orders to refufe her Entrance wherefore flie was oblig'd to retire to her Apartment, whither a Captian of the Guards came in a Moment after, to tell her from the King that ihe was a Prifoner. This unhappy Princefs bore her Difgrace very weakly. She repented, but too late, of having been fo imprudent as to contra venethe Orders of the King her Hufband and hoping to work upon his Good-nature, fhe wrote him a moft fubmiffive Letter, begging his pardon for her Difobedience, and intreating him to reftore her to her Liberty. My Brother fent her an Anfwer, wherein he only gave her the Title of the Princefs of Cattia. He toid her, that having confider'd the Difagreement there was betwixt his Temper and her's, he refolved to be divorc'd from her, and that fhe would do well c herfclf to give her Confent to it which if fhe did with a good Grace, he would reftore her to her Liberty and fettle a Revenue on her fuitable to her Rank.' This Anfwer was a Thunder-ftroke to my Sifterin-law fhe rav'd and tore like a mad Woman. She was for a long while like one out of her Senfes, but recovering them at length by the help of her Women, and confulting with thofe that had the greateft ihtre of her Confidence, fhe fent the King word

352

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word that he wasMafter, and might make ufe of his Authority, but that fl\e would never confent to the I Divorce. My Brother who had fix*dbir. Refolution, and faw no other way to get poflffion of Gertrude than I by marrying that Girl who had prefum'd to fet fo high a Price upon her Favours, took off the Mafk, notify'd his Defign to the Court, and in a few days after, the Mamage was perform'd in the manner that you know is praclisM in German) by Princes who marry beneath themfelves, which excludes the Children by fuch Venter from fucceeding to the Father*s Eftate. As foon as he was marry'd, hereftor*d the Queen to her Liberty, and acquainted her, That by the Advice tnd Confent of the Priefts of his Kingdom whom he had caufed to be af fembled, he had marry'd Gertrude, That the Thingbeingdone and paft remedy, he hoped Ihe would refolve to make her felf eafy. That how ever, he would always treat her as a Princefs that lhe Aould be welcome to continue in her Apartaient at the Palace that flie fhould have her Guards to attend her, and that he had fet apart a fufficient Fund for her Maintenance but that he expected (he would be fo complaifant as to ac4 knowledge Gertrude hereafter for the lawful Queen.' whothen faw that her Difgrace My Sifter-in-law was infallible, gave her felf up to Complaints and Tears, wrote to the King her Huiband in the moft moving Language, and implor'd the afliftance of the King her Brother But all was to no purpofe; ffie wasoblig*d to fubmit to her Misfortune, and to be patient under an Affliction which fhe had partly brought upon her felf by her Folly. While ail this pafs'd, my Brother was at one of his Seat? not far* from his Capital, where hecaus'd Gertrude a Z At $<lmtttugfLeguromBditlbtrg, f

GehtrdeV

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353

Gertrude to be treated as a Queen, a^d not long after carried her to Mmtpayen whe:e the fi^ht of her Royalty was a frefh Mortncation to the Queen my Sifter-in-Iaw. However, the unfonunateJPrincefs not yet defpairing of the m^ans of reclaiming her Hufband, was refolv'd to make the laft Attemot to tum that Prince's Heart. She drefs'd herfelf in the moft gay and rich Apparel that fhe could get, and taking her Children along with herj went to meet the King her Hufband in the Room next to ths Hall where he was at Table with Gertrude, and thro' whichhe muft necefrily return. When he appear*d, flic threw herfelf with her Children at his Feet, clai'p'd his Knees, conjur'd him with Tears in her Eyes to look with Pity on an unhappy Princefs whom he had formerly thought fit to make his Wife, and to confider that the Affront he put upon her by divorcing her, would be a Reproach to thofe very Children of whom he had been fo fond. My Brother feem'd to be melred at fo moving a Spcftacle, look'd for fome Moments on his Wife and Children with Tears in his Eyes, and he was juit ready to raife her from the Ground, when Gertrude who wasat his Heels, fearing what might be the Confequenceof theConfufionthat fhe fawhim in, talk'd eam.eftly to him in the 'fufcan Language, faying, Remember^my Lord, wbat you promu d me. Thefe few Words wrought fo much on the unfteady Mind of my Brother that he only lifted up his Hands to Heaven and went on, Ihewing by the Trouble he was under, how little he was Mafter of his Reafon upon this Occafion. The Queen my Sifter-in-lawremain'd for a while fpeechlels, but Fury and Djfpair quickly feiz'd her Sont. She rate up and ran into her Clofet, where fnatching up a Dagger* ihe came back again with an IntenA a VoL. I. tion utch'd from Twasa PiolwhichtheCoantdt Hoktnk
ner,

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tion to ftick it into her Rival's Heart. But the Rage lhe was in having fo confounded her that lhe had not a Thought of concealing that Infiniment of her Revenge, it was perceiv'd by one of the chief Courtiers who pluck'd it from her juft as fhe was going into the Clofet whcre my Brother was with Gertrude. That Prince hearing a Noife fo near him ran out, and demanded what was the matter. 'Tis I, (faid the Queen very couragioufly) who was coming to revengemy felf and you too on the Monftcr which difunires us but that Traytor there (faid fhe, pointing to the Man that had wrefted the Dagger out of her Hands) has depriv'd me of the only Opportunity that 1 could call a Pleafure. Princeis, (faid the King to her very calmly) don't in( dulge your felf*any longer in fuch extravagant Paillons, if you are unwilling that 1 fhould ui you roughly.' Then he retir'd with Gertrude, and my Sitier-in-law return'd to her Apartment in a Temper which you may eafily imagine. Clodius, who now governs the Empire, being at that time proclaim'd Emperor, this Princefs made her Complaints to him, and deYd him to reconcile Malcolm to her. But C*fer having excus*dhimfelf, my Sifter-in-law who could no longer bear the Prefence of her Rival, retir'd to the King her Brother, there to wait the End of her Msfortunes. My Brother liv'd afterwards very lovingly with bis new Spoufe, and had by her four Sons and as many Daughters. But Death having at laft robb'd him of a Perfon fo dear to him, the Prince was fo afflied for the Lois of her, that he fpent two Years in continuai Sorrow, and at length himfelf paid the fame Tribute to Nature. He ber, andfliotintoth Airfrordthe Window. Buthereit wa to F abfootclyeceflary call it a Dagger, ire-Arms not n being this kaownsttbeTimeof which HUtory be/ri date.

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Hc left but one Son and a Daughter by his lawful Spoufe who furviv'd him fome Years. The King my Nephew was marry'd, but he was of fuch a melancholy Temper, his Humour was fo different from the Queen's, and therewas fo little Love betwixt them, that he died without Iflue. With ihim I hvefeen my Family utterly extind, its Dominions transferr'd to the Power of a Prince who is hardly related to us, and my Country abandon'd to the moft difmal Defolation. For my Niece having mafry'd Mercveus, Brother to Ariovifio Kingofthe Gauls, the latter who is an ambitious Prince and goes to War upon every the leaft Pretence, afferted the Rights of hisSifter-in-lawwithout Delay^ and pleading that fhe ought to fucceld to the nberitance of the King her Brother, notwithftanding the Salie Law eftablilh'd in Gernany, he fent a formidable rmy into the Dominions of my deceafed Nephew, whre the Gauls at firft meeting with no Refiftance, committed enormous Gruelties-, and ettended their Fury even to the Violation of the Tomb of the Kings my nceftorsj whofe dead Bodieswere ftrippM and expofed to the Caprice of the unruly Soluiers: Calamines, which ptrhapss would never have happen*d, had it not been for my Brother*sfatal Paflion for Gertrude; becaufe in ail Appearance if hehad liv'd in a good Underflanding with his lawful Spoufe, he would have had Imore Children by her, and I Ibouldnot have had the Vexation to fet the Throne of my Fathers pof fesM by a foreign Family. tET to tbe Hifiory o/GRfRUDE. lbioUyEngland. AlfredeX. James I. King ^"England; Ariovifto, Lewis XIV. Belgittm, Holland.
A a 2 Moyens,

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Hiftory*

(Prince of) tbe Ektior of Bavaria. BoyettSy Catti, (Princefs of) tbe Prince/s of Hdk-Czicl. C<efarytbe Emperor. Clodius, tbe EmperorLeopold. Germania, Germany. Gtrtrude, tbe Baronefsof Degenfldt.. Malcolm, Charles-Lewis Eleftor Palatine. Meroveus, Philip /France, Dukeof Orlans, Brotber to Lewis XIV. Montpaye, Heidelberg. Pluibourg, Ratifbon. Romans, tbe Imperialifts.. Rome, Vienna. Suevi, (Kixg of) tbe Margrave of Baden-Dourlach. End oftbe Hifiorj of Gertrude. I hvenot fcrupled to give you this Hiftory, becaufe ail the Perlons who are Subje&s of it are dead. le wrote it very much in hafte, for the Diverfion of fo that you muft not be furthe Princefs d' A priz'd if you don't meet with aft that Exanefs which there ought to be in this little Narrative;. tho' 1 muft tell you again thatevery Tittleof it is true, fo that you may read it as a Hiftory,, and not as a Romance. 1have fix'd my Refolotion, and new am fetting out for Rome therefore pleafe to dirc to me at Venue. E go to-morrow toa greatHunting-Match that is tobe ^t Darmfta4t%where I fhall ftay two Days: From thence 1 fhall go and fpend two more with the Count de Hanau and rhen will I begin my Pilgrimag.to th Holy Places. Lam moft entirely, &i'f.

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LETTER

XXI.

Munich, Aprtl z. 1730. I N C E you recived my laft I hve done and feen a great many Things. On the 23d of Marcb fet out from Frankfort for of DARMSTADT, the Capital of the upp^rCounty atzencllenbogen, and me Refdence of Erneft-Lewis of 'Heffe-Darmftodr* Landgrave This Town is extremely fmall, and only enclofed If the Prince's Palace had been with Pallifadoes. finilh'd according to its Model, it would have been one of the greateft and moft magnificent in Europe, and there might have been Lodgings for the EmIt peror, and aU the nine EleStors of the Empire. would have been bigger than the Town, and have A a 3 coft ?&>fhefagnaiiimous, Landgrave of Heffi-Cafr!, was in ni8 Severeign of ail the Country of HeJJi. He died in 1567, and left tour Sons who fhar'd his Dominionsand form'd .the fonr Branchesof Heffi-Caffel,HeJ}e-Marpurg, Htje- Rheinjeh and HtJfc-DarmftaJt The landgraves Lenaiide Alarpurg -nd Philip dt Rbeix/eli had no Iflue, but their Nephew Maurice of Cajfel havinz 18 Chilctrcn, Earnefl one of the Sons reviv'd a Branch of Rbtinftls which was divided into thofe of Rotcuburg and Vmmfriti,thatareilill fubfifting. The Poilerity cf George I, landgrawof 'HarmfiaJt was altogether as fruitful, and form'd the Branches of Darmfiait, Butxbacb, Hambourg,and Lauterbacb, fome of which are extinft. The Landgrave- Rgent is one of the fixteenChildren of the Landgraye Leivh VI.GrcetGrandfonofGecrve I. There reat prcieat thefe fix Branchesof the Familyff&ff, vix. x.HeffeCaffel, z. MeJJk.? hilitfalU 3. Htft-Rbtiufds-Rtenbaun, 4. Hejfi-tbaftli-VanfrUd, S Hejfe-Darmfiadt, %ejji-jibourg. >. S I R,

Darmstadt. 358 coft immenfeSums ThatPart whichis finifliMmakcs a very grand Appearance. But all thofe magnifi-. cent Works which the Landgrave Regent at firft carried on with very great Vigour are entirely difcontini^'d, and therc's no Appearance that they will ever be taken in hand egain. The old Palace is much more commodious than it feems to be; its Apartments being convenient, and richly furnifiVd. The Landgrave does not ]ive in the Palace, but Jeadsa very retir'd Life in a little Houfe upon the Square, where heis never feen but upon Sundays and Holidays. He amufeshimfelf in turning of Ivory, making Chymical Experiments, and in Drawing. He loves Huntin g above ail things whatfoever. He delights in Agriculture, and in Mufic, and it may ftri&ly be faid that he is never unemploy'd. He has very great Knowledge naturel and acquir'd. He has feen a great many Countries, and tho fixty Years of Agehe ftill looks well, and his greyHairs, not to call them white, give him a venerable Air. He fits a Horfe very weU, walks well, and feems to enjoy perfeft Health. His Wife was Dorotby of Brandenhurg-Onoltzbatbj whodiedin 1705. They fay that he lately married JV de Spegel the a Widow of Count Seibelfdorf Lieutenant-General in the Service of Bavaria. B2 that as it will, the Marriage is not public, and the Lady ftill goes by the Name of her former Hufband by whom Ihe has Chi!dren. *Tis tme that the Landgrave pays her very great Diftindion, and indeed ihe is very amiable. This Prince commonly dnes at a little Table fpread only for four People; but on Sundays and Holidays he goes to the Palace, and dines with his Son at a Table cover'd for fixteen Guefts, and fups with the Ladies who are never feen at Court but upon thofe Days. *Tisa very hard matter to corne at the Speech of the Landgrave, and much more to

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to that of his only Son the hereditary Prince. Th* Hunting-Officers are the only Perfons that have the Privilege of Accefsto them; for which reafon this is not one of the moft entertaining Courts and a Man is under a necdity of throwing himfdf into the Town, where indeed there are a great many People of Merit who are civil to Foreigners. The hereditary Prince Lewis, the only Son of th Landgrave, who was born the gth of April 1691, is a handfome Man, has a noble Air, dances we!l, mounts a Horfe well, has Vivaciry, Spirit, and Politenefs, but is often thoughtful, melancholy, and goes for Retirement to the Woods, where he is paffionately fond of Hunting; but is apt to create himfelf Uneafinefs, and does not know how to diffemble it. Tho' he has all the Qualities neceflry to ihine in Company, yet he fees but vcry little. He married Cbarlotta-Cbriftina of Hatiau, who dying in 1 726, left him three Sonsand two Daughters, the eldeft of which was then feven Years of Age. By virtue of this Marriage the Prince is Heir to the Count of Hanau'i Eitate in Al face and to all his Freeholds in general, which will be a very rich Succeflon. Neverthelefs the Court of Varmftadt is very numerous. The Landgrave has a great many Counfellors of State, Gentlemen of the &dchamber and Court, and a greater Number ftill of Officers of the Venery, and Huntfmen. There is not a Province in Germairjmore proper for Hunting, nor in Europe where there arc more Deer. 'Tis a 8at even Country, and a gravelly Soil interfperfed with Woods thro' which there are eut noble Roads. 1 have feen the Deer corne up clofe to the Pallifadoes of the Town, and at their Rutting-time I hve heard them cry as 1 lay in my Bed. This .great p'enty of Deer extremely troublefometo the Peafants who arc abroad day and night to watch their Fields. The A a 4 Land-

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HANAU.

Landgrave and the hereditary Prince are fo jealous of their Game that they reckon it as bad a Crime as Murder for any one to kill a Deer and tho' 'tis an eftablifli'd Cuftom among almoft all Sovereigns to punifli with Severity aU thofe that kill a Creature which God however certainly created for the Ufc of ail Mankind, yet there is no Prince who obferves this Law more firiUy than the Landgrave. 1 cannot give you a more certain Account of the Revenues of this Prince than of thofe of ail the other Sovereigns. *Tisfid that he has 5 or 600000 Florins per Ann. I am not very well inform*dof the number of his Troops, for 1 hve only feen his Regiment of Guards which is in very compkat Order. His Horfe-Guards are alfo very fine Troops, and eommanded by the General Miltitz, who is at the fame time Grand Marfta! of the Court, the Honours of which he performs in a very handfome manner. Tho' the Soil at Darmfiadt is very gravelly, it produces excellent Pulfe. 1 hve feen Afparagus at the Landgrave* Table, three of which weigh'd a Pound, tho' indeed they were not altogether fo nice. 1 remember that in a former Journey which 1 made hither in the Month of December, there were brought ta the Landgrave in feveral Po|s of Porcellain, a Dwarf Cherry-Tree laden with Cherries Strawberry-Plants, an Almond-Tree, and in ihorr, the Fruits f ail the Seafons. The intended Huntirig-Match, for what reafon I knownot was put off; and as 1 camehither only to fit, I ftaid but one Day an.d went to Hasau. The Count and the Princefs of Hanau were but Tatly return*d from Alface. The Town of Hanau 4s fituat on a larjge Pain to the rightof the Main. JTis divided into two Wards, the old and the new latter is much 'Tcwn The bigger than the former \t was built by the-Waeon Proteftants, who, during

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ring the Duke of Alya\ Perfecution under Philip II. King of Spaint quitted the Netberlands and came to fettle at Hanau, which they fortify'd, and built in fuch a manner that all the Streets run parallel. The Count keeps feveral Companies in pay, from which he makes Detachments for the Quota hc is oblig'd to furnifh, as a Member of thc Circle of of the Upper JRbine. The tValloons who are fettled at Hanau have eftablifliedfeveral Manufauresthere, efpecially Wooland len Stuffs. The Calvittijts, the LMtberans% the Jews are toierated hre, and as for us Catholics, we may go to Mafs where we pleafe. The Count's Palace is in the old Town 'Tis an ancient Building, and makes no great Appearance, but the Apartments are commodious, and very richly furnifh'd. The Count has a very pretty PleafureHoufe a quarter of a League from Hanau, call'd i. e. {Pbilifs Repofe) and built by Philipsruhe, the late Count de Hanau, Brother to the Count Re'Twas at this Seat that I found the Count gent*. of Hanau. There was a very numerous Attendance, and I heartily wifli'd I could hve ftaid there a few Few Princes in the Empire live more eledays. than the Count de Hanau. The Lady who gantly direds the whole Houfhold, and keeps all things in wonderful Order is the Princefs t who is of the of Brandenbourg-Jnjpacb, and Sifter to the Family of Evgland. At this Court you havejdl the Qaeen than can be defired. When you firft corne flberty a Chamber is providcd for your Lodging, and a Footman order'd to wait on you. Every Morning an Officer cornes to know what you will pleafe to hve for Breakfaft and therc's every Thing to be had that you call for. If afterwards you have a mind to go out a Hunting,man fend to the Great Huntfyou man This Count ied 1736. d ip. diedat Hanauaftera verylongIllnefs. + Shc

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man for a Guide and to the Count for Horfes out of his Stables. If youcorne back too late for Dinner at Court, you are ferv'd very elegantly in your own Apartment. In the Evening when you are retir'd from Company, a Butler takes care to provide you with Wine and Ber. The Servants of Foreigners diet with thofe of the Count. His own Table which is commonly for eighteen Guefts is ferved as well as moft, and a fecond Table is ferv'd with the fame Magnificence. The Count bas a very great Family, and lives every way like a Prince and indeed 'tis his own Fault that he is not one, for he has had the Imperial Diploma for it a long whilc, but he does not care to make ufe of it faying, he had rather be the firft Count than the loweft Prince. He is the laft Maie of his Family. After his Death the County rfHanau relapfes to the Landgrave of Heff-Caffely according to the Treaty of Confraternity made between the feveral Families of Saxetrf, Heffeyand Hanan, which imports that the faid FamUies/hall fucceedone another. The King of Paland as Ekclor ofSaxmy ought to have had his Share in the Succeflion to the County of Hanaa, but his Majefty by a Treaty yielded his Rights to the Landgrave of Caffcl As to the Lands in Alface, and the Freeholds, they revert, as 1 told you before, to the Children of the hereditary Prince of Darmfiadt. Te Count of Haneu feems to be much older than he is in reality. He is a very civil NobJeman, and Hunting is a Diverfion of whichhe is extremely fond, fo that to kill a Deer upon his Lands is an unpardonable Crime; and the leffer Game, fuch as Rabbis, Hares, and Partridges, are equally his Care. AH thefe Cratures fpoil the Fields but they ferve for the Count's Amufeinent, while the poor P<afant is oblig*d to pay his Tax, and dares not fpeak a Word. From 1

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From Hanau to Munich 1 never made a ftop > but after having travell'd thro' fFurtzbourg, Nurembourg,and Augfiourg arrived here laft night, and propofe to fet out again to-morrow, and after two or three days ftay at Saltzieurg 1hall procecd by the way of trof to Venue, where I beg you would not fait to let me hear from you. 1 am juft come from attending the Obfcquies of Iberej+Cmugunda Sokitjki Eleftorefi of Bowta, Mother to the FJetor. This Princefs died lately at Venue, to which City fhe rctir'd eighteen Months ago, and her Corpfe is forthwith expeed to be interr'd in the Tomb of the Eleorai Family. She bas left, as 'tis faid, near fix millions of Florins, which, fincefhehasmadenoWill, aretobeequally lhar'd between the four Princes her Sons. She has moreover left a Daughter who is a Nun in a Convent of this City. In 1719 when me took the Habit, I was prefent She chofe this retir'd Life againft the Will of her Father the Elcdor, who did ail hecouldtodifluade her from it; andfheliv'd in great Rputation for her Piety. But to return to the Obfequies of the Ele&orefi: The Elednr and leorefs affiftedat them, together with the Elector of Cologne^the Duke Ferdinand* the Bifhop of FreiJSngen, the Duchefs Ferdinand, and the two Princes her Sons. Thefe Princes had Cowls upon their Heads, and great Cloaks, which is not one of the moft becoming Drefles. The Family ofBavaria obferves a very fingular Cuftom, which is, netheir Coaches. ver to give a black Livery, nor to Une 1 think this reafonableenough, for it does not look very well in a pompous Funcral. la, &c.

LET.

364. Wasserbourg.

SaltzbourgJ

XIII.

tmbximrg, fril z, 1730. S I R, jk T my Departure from Munich I went and din*d at Everfberjr, a Village belonging to Z\ Rvrend Fathers th Jefts, who the hve a Houfe thcre which is a large one, and that's ail *risgood for. I wcnt andlayat Wasser bourg a Town of Baroaria built upon a Rock, fc encommfs'd with the Hiver Im that 'tis a pcfcft Peninfula. Mountains and Rocks hang over this Town as if they woud cruih it, and indeed the Place is nor worth much Defcription. It was fettlcd as a D iwry on the Eleorcfi; Tberefa-Ctuigunda Sobi^Jki who died laft Month, but this Princefs would n ;ver live in it, nor indced do 1 know any other P.incs that wouM. Aftcr having pafs'd the Jim over a very flender wooden Bridge 1climb'd a high Mountain, got down aiother, afcended a third, and fo 1 traveU'd all the way up Hill and down Hill till 1 camewithin two Jjc&gviesofSaltzbourg wherctheCountry becomes more paffible. The City of Saltzbourc as well as the whoie Archbiflioprick takes its Name from the River Saltz which paflsthro' the City andCountry. Itrifesinlofeskfelfinthe/a. The Mountains that are j-p/ and about ThisFi^erriUsin Tirtlalitde aborc hAnu, becomes n navigable SmIU,aadlofesitfdf in kDanube carPajfau. at

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t the Town make it not near fo broad as 'tis tho' take it aU togethcr'tis not a large Town. is very well fortify'd, and has a CafUe which ding on an Eminence formsas it were a Citadel. Tis furnilh'd with a good Arfenal, and all manner of Ammunirion, and I hve been affur'd that of Gunpowder alone there are no lefs than 20000 Qjintals. Some Years ago when 1 was here, Lightning fell fo near this Magazine that it wanted but faalfa Foot of penetrating to thc Powder, which if it had touch'd I fancy I lhou'd never have wrote m you more. There is always a Guard of fifty M^n at the Caftle, and the Gmfon of the Town confifts of 600Men who are lodg'd in the Gifrns. The City of SaltzbourgcontainsfinerEdificesthan many great Towns It bas a magnificent Cathedra! which was cor'ecrated the 24A oSeptember 1628, by an Arciibifli p who was of the Family of the Counts de LoJrsn. 'Tis a vaft Structure of Free ftone, andhas a ftatelyFront whichmay ht -eckon'd the compleateft in Germany. The '.> ui Architeft by whom it was directed has very much copy'd the Front of St. dgnefs Church in the Square of Navona at Rome. It has four Marble Statues bigger than the Life, which reprefent St. Peter, St. Paul* St. Rupert, and St. Firgilius, of whom the two latter were the firft Archbithops of this See. The whole Church is adorn'd in the infidewith Pilaftres of the Corinthien Order. *Tis built in the Form of a Crofs with a very high Dome which feparatea the Nave from the Choir. The high Altar which is at th bottom of the Choir is. of Marble, as are the two ChapeJs that form the Crofs: The Pavement of the Church is of great Squares of Marble of various Colours. 'Tis pity there was not more Inlet for Light, tht Domebeing the onlylightfome Part of it. But as the Church is magnificent the
Orna-

366

Saltzbourg.

Ornaments of the high Altar are more fo. Upon the Grand Feftivals it bears a Sun of Gold adorn'd with preciousStonesto the Value of 1 00000Crowns; a great Crofs of mafly Gold, and four golden Candlcfticks. The Front of the Abat-, and the Tabernacleare of maffy Silver of excellent Workmanfhip. St. Ruptrt fumam'd the Apoftle of Bavaria ms the firft Bilhop of Saltzbourg in 582. Lo IH. whom the Church honour'd as ASaint, ereted this Biflioprick into an Archbiftioprick in favour of St. Amouldy in the Year 798. He had for Suffragns theBifhopbofFr^wff, Ratijbm, Paffau, Briken> Gurck, CbiemfeetSeggau, and Lavant. The Archbifliop has a Right of Nomination to tlie four laft Bilhopricks only the Nomination to the Bifhoprick of Gurck is alternative between this Pre* late and the Emperor, as Archduke of Aufria. The four Bifliops bear the Title of Princes of the Empire, and enJoy all the Prrogatives annexed to that high Dignity. Notwithftanding this, the Archbifhop never gives them the Prfrence, and whenhe talks to them, only compliments themwith the Title of Euer Frcuntfcbaft, i. e. Tour Friend/bip. Service is perform'd in this Metropolis according to the Ufage obferv'd in St. Peter's Church at Rome. The Chapter is compos'd of the Archbifliop, aPrc voft, a Dean, and twenty four Canons, ail Men of Quality, who are only oblig*dto four Months Refidence, and the reft of die Time they may go where they pleafe. Both the Provoft and Deaii hve the Crofier and Mitre*. The Archbilhop, as well as the Eleftor of Colcgn, has the Privilge of dreffing in die Habit of a Cardinal. This Prelate has the Direorfhip of the Collge of Princes at the Dyet of the Empire alternatively with the Archduke of Juria. He is moreover Ltgatus natus & The Provoft nd Dean oSTaJfwt a enjoy the lamePrrogative.

367 &?perptuas of the Holy Sec, and Primate of Gertnany. His Titles are thefe, Leopcld, by the Grce of God, Archbilhop of Saltzbourg, and Princeofthe Empire, perptuai Legareof the Holy Apoftolic See of Romt, Primate of Germany>defcendedof the illuftrious Family of the Barons of Firmian* The Archbifhop at his coming to the See muft pay 1 00000Crowns to Romefor the Pall, but the Country generally raifes it for him, befides making a free Gift of the like Sum to its new Prince. The Revenues of this Prelate are about 1500000 Florins a Year. The very Salt which is carried into Bravaria and Swabia brings him in 30000 Crowns. He is abfolute Mafter of all his Kevenues, and accountable to no body for what he lays out. The prefent Archbifhop is of 7W, of a diftinguVd Family, but not favour'd much by Fortune. He was bom the 26th of May1679, and fucceeded FrancisAnthonythe Count de Harracb. His Advancement was owing to the Divifion of the Chapter, who all wanted to be either Bifhops themfelves, or elfeto advance fome one Friend or Coufin. After a great many Debates and Meflges fent forwards and backwards, their Choice fell upon the Baron deFtrmian who was at that time very infirm, which was the only Thing that procur'd him the Mitre for the Parties that divided the Chapter united in his favour, becaufe they thought him a Man not very long-liv'd but they believd however he might live long enough to give each Party time to form its Cabals for advancing that Perfon to the Bifhoprkk who they thought would hcft ferve their Purpofe. But all thofe Gentlemen .vere mightily miftaken as to the Archbifhop's Life. For this Prelate, like another Pope Sixtus V. loft all his Infirmities when he found the Mitre, and is very like to out-live many of his Elcctors. This

Saltzbourg.

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SALTZBOURG.

This Prince is tall, has an auftere haughty Air, feldom makcs any Compliments, and talks much lefs, except when he is hunting, which is ail the Pleafiire of his Life. He is almoft always alone, and fcncrally eats by himfelf. In the Summer-time he keeps altogether in the Country where he is of very difficult Accefs,and keeps no Retinue, nor Company. He is accus'd of beingtoo thrifty, and 1 don't know but there maybe fomething in it but perhaps he would not appear to be quite fo faving if he had fucceeded any body elfe in the Biifhoprick but th Count de Harracb) the moft gencrous, noble, and moft magnificent Prelate of his Time. The Archbifhop is naturally a Valetudinarian and under God, he is obligld for the Prefervation of his Life to his Phyfician Gerfner, a Native of Vienna, a and Man ofgreatSkill in his Profeffione offtrift Ho* nour and Integrity, who has got fo much the length of the Prelate's Foot that he isalmoft the only Perfon that dares to fpeak to him with Freedom. The Count i*r:o Son to the Archbilhop's Sifter is this Prelate's only Darling; for to the furprize of the whole Court, and Chapter, he prefers him before a Nephew of his own Name, a Canon oiSaltzbourg and of Trent, a young Clergyman of great Hopes. The Archbifhop of the LodronFamily whocaus'd the Metropolis to be built, likewife founded the Palace, the Fortifications, and the Archiepifcopal Stables, whtch were all finifli'd in the thirty two Years that he was Archbifhop. The Apartments of the Palace being not laid out altogether in the modern Tafte, the deceafed Archbifhop Anthony Count de Harrach, made. a thorough Change in them, and leff little more than the Outfide ftanding. The Palace at Saltzbotirgis now more magnificent than many royal Houfes. It contains 173 Rooms ail richly furnifh'd, without reckoning the Halls and Galleries. The Archbiihop's Apartment is

Itately

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d ftately It has a greatMarble Stair-cafe ivided into three Flights, which leads into a fpaciousGuardChamber, from whence one enters into the Archbifhop's Apartment confifting of feveral-Rooms, where able Italian Mafters hve adorn'd the Cielings with very good Draughts. One is really furprized to fee the Richnefsof the Furniture, and the infinite Variety cf other things that are diftributed up and down this vaft Apartment fuch asMarble Tables adorn'd with gilt Mouldings old Porcellain of the moft beautiful fort Luftres of maffy Silver, and Rock-Cryftal of uncommon Workmanfhip Chandeliers alfo of Silver or Cryftal upon large gilded Stands, and a multitude of other things very well worth obfervation. How magnificent foeverthis Apartment is, theres another made ufe of upon Days of Ceremony which mention the prininfinitely furpaifes it. 1 will only o cipal Rooms f it. We firft enter into a great Salon adorn'd with the Piclures of no lefs than fourfcore Archbifhops of Saltzbeurg. Next to it theres another Salon ingeniouQyand magnificenclydecorated, which difcovers Grandeur in every part of it. 'Tis furnifh'd with a Suit of Hangings of Crimi'on-Damafk with Gold Lace, forming a rich Architecture in Pilafters of the Compofite Order, the Frize of which is adorn'd with a pair of Brackets, which is a vaft Addition to the whole Decoration. The rich Gilding fhines every where with profufion. At one end of the Room there ftands in the Wall a fumptuous Beaufet of Silver gilt, and at the cthcr therc's a rich Canopy under which the Archbilhop fits when he dnes in Szate. There's a itately Luftre in the middle of the Room which confiftsof magnificent pieces of Rock Cryftal. At the end of this grand Apartment there are two Galleries that defetve the attention of the Curious in Painting, who will certainly pafs their time here very agree-

Vol. I.

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ably,

370

Saltzbourg.

ably, and find a great many choice Pifturesdone by the beft Maiters. The Chimney-piece of the firft of thefe Galleries is a great Ornament to it, being of the fineft Marble adorn'd with Brafs gilt with Water-Gold. Over it there's a Statue of Brafs as big as the Life reprefenting Antinous. The fecond Gallery is as magnificent as the firft. The Floor, Cieling, Door-Cafes, and all the Ornaments in general are of fineMarble. The Walls are painted in Frefco, and exhibit Geographical Charts of the principal Dominions in Europe in divers Pitures, which are executed with very great Art and Exatnefs both as to the Painting and Difpofition of the Things that are the Subjects of it. A third Apartment which is over the Archbifhop's is for lodging foreign Princes, and is not inferiour to the others in Grandeur and Magnificence. It confifts of feveral Rooms all in a row. In one Room there are all the Piftures of the Emperors from Cbarlemainto Cbarles VI. The Rooms that with very rich Tapeftry, particufollowit are hung larly one Set reprefenting the Warbetween Pompey and Cfar* which is fo wonderfully well drawn that the Marlha! deDaun Governour of Milan offer'd 40000 Florins for it to the late Archbilhop. 1 lhall fay nothing of the other Apartments, having treated fo muchof the Archiepifcopal Palace tho* if it had belong'd to a Temporal Prince 1 fhould have faid much lefs of it, but I thought fit to give you an Idea of the Wealth of a Prelate. Adjoining to the Palace there is a great Building which ferves for lodging the Archbifhops Domeftics. The Stables are fit for a King, and if a Frenchmanwas to fee them he would beforc'd to own that as to the Infide they are more magnificent than the fomuchboafted Stables of Verfailles. They hold 150 Horfes in two Rows, with a broad Walk in the middle and the Roof which is pretty high
is

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s fupported by two Ranges o.fStone-Pillars. Next to thefe Stables isa Riding-Houfe cover'd, the Ceiling of which being painted in Frefco, reprefents a Tournament and all round it there is a Gallery. 'Tis pity that this magnificentRiding-Houfe is not broader. There's another Riding-Houfe uncovered which has not its Fellow in the World. 'Tis a very great fquare Place, three Sides of which are lin'd by very high Rocks, in which three Rows of Seats are very artfully eut out for the Spedtators, when there is any Caroufal, or Combat of wild Beafts. The whole Work is really magnificent, and the old Romans would not have been afhamed to own it. Church is extremely well adorned. Trinity-College The Floor is of Marbfe, and the Roof painted with a great deal of Art, reprefenting the Affumption of the Virgin, and the Crown placingon her Head by God the Father and by Jefus Chrift. The HighAltar is of a very fingular Form, but very magnificent. Two Angels of Brafs, exceeding human Stature, in a Pofture of Humility and Adoration, fupport a Heart of Brafswhich ferves for a Tabernacle. Over it is a Globe, between God the Father and the Redeemer. God the Father feems to reft his right hand upon the Globe, and prefents the left to our Lord, who puts his left upon the Globe, and in the right holds a Crofs. They are fupported by very large Rays which fhinewith very rich Gilding. This itately Groupe is filrmounted with a Glory, in the midft of which the Holy Ghoft appears in form of a Dove, extending its Rays over God the Father and God the Son. The whole is of Brafs gilt with Gold, of a very curious Fancy. Near this magnificent Church is the Palace of Mirabel, where the late Archbifhop the Count de Harrach, ufed to fpend the Summer. This Prince who is truly magnificent in every thing, caus'd this Houfe to be built at a great Expence from the very
U b 2 toun-

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Foundation; but the Architect whom he employ'd has not anfwer'd his Intention, and it appears that he did not underftanJ the proper Diftribution of the Apartmcnts. Every Part of it indeed taken diftinclly, is beautiful, but there is not one in its proper Place. The grand Stair-Cafe is very fine, as well for its Contrivance as for its rich Ornaments, but Vis placed in a Corner, and without a Guide'tis no eafy matter to find it. The Salon, which is the Mafter-piece of the Archbifhop's Apartments, is worth the Obfervation of the Curious, with refpeft to the grand Manner in which'tis painted Marble, Brafs, and Gilding, feem tohave been beftowed on it with profufion. As to the Pilafters, the Ccrinthian Order is entirely obferved and there are Baffo-Relievos imitating Brafswhich are well defign'd, and rnake a very good appearance. 'Tis pity this fine Salon wants proportion, it beingmuchtoo lofty for its Size and'tis ftill more to be lamented that it has not a Profpet over the Gardens, the River of Saltz, and the adjacent Country, which are the Objets that are difcover'd from the Apartments next to the Salon. The Chapel of Mraielis alfo very magnificent and though but of a middling Size, is not inferior to the fineft Churches. This Palace is accompanied with Gardens finely adorned with Fountains and Statues; and there are feveral Orange-Treesplanted in the Ground, which are cover'd up in the Winter in a wooden Box. Thus, Sir, have 1 given you a very particular Account of the City of Saltzbourg: What remains for me is to fpeak of the Archbi1hop's Houihold, which will give you an Idea of his Wealth and Grandeur. This Prince has

A Steward, A GreatChamberlain.

A Grand Marihal, A Mafterof the Horfe,


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A Great Huntfman, ACaptainof the Guards, A Mafter-Cook, A Pay-Mafter, Twenty four Chamberlains, SixteenGerMemen -Servants called Trucbjfes, Sixteen Pages,

Fifteen Ufhers of the Cabinet, Eleven Ufhers of the Chamber, Forty two Valets de Chambre, Twenty-eight Footmen, Eighteen Cooks.

How many Coachmen and Grooms he has 1 know not, but there muft be a great number of 'em, the Archbifhop having 750 Horfes. Befides the Officers that I have now mentioned, there are alfo the Great Hereditary Officersof the Archbifhoprick, who are four. The eldeft of the Lodron Family is Hereditary Grand-Marfhal. The Count de Kuenbourg Great-Cup-Bearer. is The Office of Mafter of the Pantry is vacant by the death of the Count de Thanhaufen^the laft of his Family. The Count de Terring is Great Chamberlain. Ail thefe Offices are executed by the eldeft Sons of the Families above-mennoned. The Archbifhop confersthe Orderof St. Hubert, which was inftituted the 25th of November, 1702, by the Archbifhop Jobn-Erneft, who has thereto annexed fix Commanderies, or Prebends, of a confiderable Revenue. The Archbifnops are obliged for moft of their Wealth to the Princes of Bavaria*. Mean time the Members of the Chapter of Saltzbourgadmit of The Revenue f this Archbiftioprick to amounts 6co,ooo o has Florins. The Archbifhop 60,000Florins a-yearfor his Crowns officiating three for at and privateExpences, 24,000 the w is folemn ervices, withouteckoning Dsanery, hich worth S r Florinsto him. 24.1OOO

Bb 3

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no Princes, that they may have a Plea for refufing the Princes of Bavaria, of whofe Power they are jealous i in which 1 think they lhew more regard to the Rules of Policy than thofe of Gratitude. The City of Saltzbourgis worth feeing, but does not afford Amufement. Every one lives here for his own fake, and except fome Gentlemen of the Chapter, and the Mafter of the Horfe, who is the Count de TrucbjfesZeil, there's nobody to viit. The latter is a Nobleman whofe Manners and Sentiments are intirely conformable to his Birth. 1 know nobody that is more polite and 1 have a. bundant reafon to praife his Civility to me. He is of a Family, one Branch of which is fettled in pruffia, where it has for a long time held diftinguiihed Employments, and produced Subjeb of great Merit who have donc the State good Service. 1 forgot to mention two things te you that are worth feeing, viz. the Capuchins Convenr, from of whence there's a Profpefc a vaft Trad: of Country and St. Sebaftian'sChurch-yard, in which is interr*d the celebrated Panacelfus his Tomb lies in a Place very much negleded, behind a Door, where a Latin Epitaph fays, There refts PhilipTbeopbraftusParacelfus, the famous Phyfician, who with wonderful Art cured the Leprofy, Got, Dropfy, and other incurable Diftempers and who after having given ail his Eftate tothe Poor,1 died September24, 1541.* Paracelfus cured moft of his Patients by Sympathy, which made the Vulgar, who are always apt to run into extremes, believe that he was a Magician. He wrote feveral Books, whereof one of the moft curious is his Treatife of SecretPbilofopby, which really containsfuch Paffages as would make one believe that if Paracelfus was not a Conjurer himfelf, he was at leaft one of the SecT.
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Saltzbourg.

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St. Sebaftian'sChurch-yard is a fquare Place, encompaffed with aGallery fupported by Arches 'tis i ig Paces in length, and 96 in breadth. The Neighbourhood of Saltzbourg is not difiigreeable and though the Valley in which the City lies is pretty much inclofed with Mountains, yet it prefents feveral Objets that are pleafing to the Sight. The Archbifhop has two Pleafure-Houfes, viz. Cleifbeimand Heilbron, which are both of them beautiful and magnificent. Heilbronefpecially is worth feeing on account of its fine Waters and Cafcades. 1 hope to write to you fpeedily from Fenice, and perhaps you will hear from me when I come to In~t'Mf but this will depend on the Stay 1 fhall make there, and on the Departure of the Poft. L E T. POSTSCRIPT.
Since the year 1730, that this Letter was wrote, great Revolutions hve happened in the Archbilhoprick of Saltzbourg, for about 22,000 Perfons have abanwith regard to Religion doned this Country, together with their Eftates and their Fcrtunes, and dedared themfelves of the Lutberan Communion which is very frange, and almoit inconceivable! For in fhort, thofe People never knew any Clergy but their own Prieils, they lived in a Country where there was no Controverfy about Religion, becaufe ail the Inhabirants were reckon'd ltaunch Cathoand lics, by confequencc thofe People could not be inilnifled even the greateft part of them cculd not read, but were bred up in fuch grofs Ignorance that they fcarce knew the Principles of Chriftianit}-. Therefbf how could thefe poor People know that they were in an Error ? 1 am not ignorant that at the beginning of the pretended Reformation. there were Saltxiurgben that foilowed the Doctrines of Luther, fuch as Staufx'tx, Abbot of St. Peter1* at Saltx&mtrg Pal Sptratas, a Preacher in the Cathedral of this City and feveral others. But Lutberamfm was thought to be quite fuppref^ fed in this Province when it leem'd ail on a fudden to take deeper Root than ever tho', as 1 faid before, I can't conceive how it fhculd happen. Il it poffible that the Archbifhop, the Cnrates
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and Prieftsfliouldtake fo litde care of what ought to hve been moit dear to them, I mean the Salvationof Souls,as that fo many Thoufandsof People ihould pafs with them for good Romans, at the fame time that they abhorred Rmtzn its Precepts For in fhort, 1 fuppofe, and believe too, that there hve ever been Proteitann in this Country, fince the pretended Reformation; } it being rot in the powerofMantodeftroya Religion whenonce it has had Followers in a Country but the Difficulty is, how thofe Searies Ihouldfublift :here, without the Knowledge of an ecclefiaitical Sovereign and how r was poffibleforthem. not onty to fubfift, but even to multiply, and the Prieils and Arch. bifhop not perceive it. Ought not the Curtes to know the Sentimentsof their Parilhioners bv Confeffion? Ought they not to acquaint the Archbithcp their Head of it ? and oug/,t not this Prelkte and his Prielis m endeavour to reciaim thofe tnat go aAray, by the Example of a lively Faich, and by charitable Exhortations, and from a Compaflion for their Error, dilig ntly to oppofethe Propagationof it ? But ail this has been negleltcd The Priefts, and their Archbifliop, knew not there wasa Fire, 'cill *twastoo late to put it ont and infiead of the Good.naturc, Compaffion, and Charity, which like Water were neceffary to extinguith it, ,hey pour'd in the Oilof Hatred and Violence, and abandoned themfelvesto their furious Zral. The haughty, rigid, and fevere Archbifliop, forgetting that he was both a Father nnd an Archbilhop,and givingway to the Violence of his Temper, has for ever loft thofe Solswhich he might have hoped to reclaim, by Inftrations truly paftoral, and treating them as Childrenlcd atlray whereas this Prelate, by ufing the contrary Method, bas caufeda great many Perfonsto declare themfelves Protellants, who would bave died in the Bofom of the Charch, if the prcper Remdies had been employed, to bring them back te it. But 1 am oerfuadedthat among the Emigrants of Sahxbourg, there is a vail number who made Religion only a Cloak to leave their Country, in hopes of bettering their Fortunes elfewhere, and who were feduced by the enfnaring Temptation of throwing cfF the Yoak of Submiffion. Be rhis as it will, thofe anfbrtunate Subjeb, like the Jtws, are fpread into divers Conntries, as Gcrmany, Hei/anJ, and PruJJia, where the King, I muft confefs, (as mucha Catholic as 1 am)bas receivedthem with a Charity and Generofity perfeHychriftian and royal his Majefiy having grudg'd neitherCare nor Expence to convince the World that as Fronce tbe Afylum of unfortunateKings, fo the Domiis nions of Prufa are the Refuge of opprefldSubjecTs.

HALLE.

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Injpruc,Jprilq, 1730. hither ail the way from Saltzbourg, with the fame Horfes, which is what 1 will Travelled never do again for travelling by Poft is always beft and though 'tis more expenfive, yet on the other hand 'tis lefs fatiguing. Three Leagues from Saltzbourg ftands the little Town of HALLE, which belongs to the Elector of Bavaria, and is a Place confiderable for its SaltPits. It lies in a fmall "^rilleycrofld by three Rivers, form'd by Torrents from the Mountains, which bring downa vaft quant ityoffloating Wood, that is ftopp'd at Halle by the Piles which either crois or fhut up the Rivers. They lay the Wood up in ftore for the Salt-Works, which confume a great 9 quantity of it. After I had been all over the Salt-Works, I vwentand din'd at Scbneilzenrietb, a forry Village, where, however, I far*d better than 1 have done at many good Towns. When I had dined I purfued my Joumey, and having travelled four Leagues, entred the Country o Tirol, the Paffage to which is very much ftraitened, fo that there's fcarceroomfora Waggon, by two very high Rocks or Mountains, and two Forts between them,one belongingto the Archbilhoprick of Saltzbourg, and the other to the County of 'Tirol. Each Sovereign keeps a Garrifon in his Fort, and OfEcers to receive the Duties.

Wahtringen. ELVAN. 378 1 lay that Evening at Wahtrikgen, the firfl: Village in the Dominions of Tirol, as one comes out of Germany. I here found a Parcel of Boys running about with lighted Touchwood in their hands, to the Houfes, Woods, and Fields. Having afk'd an old Man the meaning of it, he told me that the Wood fo lighted was confecrated by the Parfon of the Parilh, and had the virtue of fecuring all Places to which it was carried, againft Lightning. This Confecration of the Wood is always perform'd the Saturdaybefore Eafiery when a great Pile is ereed before the Church, into which the Parfon throws Holy-water, and then fets fire to tt. When the whole is well kindled, every one ftrives to fnatch a Firebrand, with which they rua to their Houfes and Lands, but with fo little care that I wonder they don't fet every place they come to in a Flame. From Halle to Wabtringen the Country is every bit uncultivated. The Inhabitants live upon Milk, PickledCabbage, and Water-gruel. They have no Corn but what cornesfrom Bavaria. Ail their Subftance and Trade is in Cattle, and their Mountains afford excellent Pafture. Upon Eajter-day I heard Mafs at St. Joints, a great Village where there*sa very pretty Church. I was very much pleafed with th Sermon that was preached by the Parfon, and with the Regularity with which the whole Divine Service was performed. After Mafs I wentand dind at El van, to which place 1 came through a Valley, which in the Summer time muft be very agreeable, but at the prefent Se?fon is all covered with Snow. 1 was not more edified at Wbtringen^ than J wu fcandalized at Elvan, to xatch my Landlord, a de ver, merry Blade, engaged with one of his Maids in fomething elfe infteadoftelling their Beads. MyPrcfenccwas fo

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fo far from fpoiling Sport that my Landlord invited me very civilly to do as he did, afluring me that his Houfe was well furnifh'dwith Nymphs. In a very little time 1 was convincedthat what he faid wastrue, for being obliged by the Cold to ftay in the common Room while one was aired for me, 1 faw half a fcore Laffes corne in, who were all of them my Landlord's very humble Servants, and not in the leaft difpofed toimitate the eleven thoufand Virgins. After Dinner, purfuing my way through Snows and Rocks, I went and lay at Kundabl. Next day 1 got beyond the Snow, and crofled a very pleafant a Town Valley which brought me to Ratenberg, on the Banks of the Inn, defended by a Caftle built on a Rock, and ftronger by its Situation than by its Works. The Eleor Maximilian-Emanud of Bavaria comingbefore this Caftle on the 13m of 1une, 1703, obliged the Garrifon, which was compofedof the Militia, to furrender at Difcretion. From this Fort to Injpruc I always kept along the River In, which runsthrough afine Valley beween high Moui> tains that are much fteeper on the right fide of the River than the left neverthelefs there are Houfes on them that are inhabited by the Miners. 1 can't imagine how it was poffible for the good People to build in Places fo inconvenient for their Houfes look as if they were ftuck on to the Rocks, and as if nothing but a Goat or a Swallow could corne at them. The whole Valley is very populous, and abounds with pretty Villages, Caftles, and fine Country-Houfes. At the end of it ftands the Town of SCHWATZ, which is very well built. The Parifh Church h an ancient, fair, large Edifice and wholly coveredwith Copper, as moft of the Churches in Tirol are with Tin painted green, which has a very pretty look. The Houfes at Scbwatz are generally of Brick, fo that'tis very rare to fee one of Timber. I obferv'd

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at the Inn where I din'd, and throughout the whole Country of Tirol, that when People came into any Houfe, they faid to the Mafter of it, Hail, Je/us Cbrift to which he anfwered, May Chrifi bepraifed, and the boly Virgin bis Motber. Then the Mafter of the Houfe ftepp'd forward, and took the Vifitor by his hand. This method of faluting is praftifed among ail the People throughout Tirol and the Salutation is fix'd up in Print at all the Doors, with an Advertifementtack'd toit, importing, that Pope ClementXI. had granted an hundred Days of Indulgence, and plenary Abfolution, in favour of thofe who fhould pronounce the Salutation and the Anfwer. After having din'd at Scbwatz, I continued to ride along the Inn and three Leagues beyond that I pafs'd the River, over a Bridge near Fultijhau, a fine Convent of the Servite-Fryars, and went to HALLE, the fecond City of Tirol. The reverendFathers the Jefuits have a fine Houfe here, and a noble Church, with a great Garden to it. The Mint is alfo worth feeing, where they coin a great quantity of Species from the Silver and Copper taken out of the Mines of Tirol. The Water is brought to it by wooden Pipes. They drive a great Trade at Halle in Copper, Tin, and Salt, which is produced there in abundance, the Vent of it being promoted by means of the River Inn, which becomes navigable at Halle. From this Town tu Infpruc'tis two Leagues, and a ftrait even Road which deferves to be planted on each fide with Trees. Inspruc, the Capital City of Tirolt ftands in the middJe of a Valley, on the Banks of the Inn, over which there's a wooden Bridge that leads to the Suburbs. Infpruc was heretofore the Refidence of the Archdukes, the Sovereigns of Tirol; but fince the auguft Houfe of Auflria has been reduced in Germany to the Imprial
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Branchfingly, this City has been only fubjefttoGovernors, who however were always great Noblemen. Charles Duke of Lorrain, who married the Queen Dowager of Poland, Sifter to the Emperor Leopold,and who made himfelf famous by the Victories which he gain'd over the Turks, held this important Office. That Prince dying at Infpruc^ was fucceeded by Charles Prince Palatine of Newbourg, Brother to the Emprefs Eleonora, LeopolcPs third Wife, but he renounced the Government of Tirdt on his Acceffion to the Electorate. He livd at /fpruc, with great Pomp, and his Abfence is ftill very much lamented there. Since he went away, the Government of Tro/has remain'd vacant. They fay 'tis defigned for the Archduchefs Mary-Magdalen, th Emperor's youngeft Sifter. This I know is what the Burghers of Infpruc wifh for but I don't think the Nobility do becaufe the Prefence of the Archduchefs would oblige the People of Quality to be at very great Expence for they would be under a neceffity of going to Court, as well as of carrying it more civilly to their Vaflals. The Countde Konickelis the Chief of the Regency He has the Title of Landjhauptman, which is much the fame with Lieutenant-General of the Province, wherein he has the abfolute Command, and all the Sovereign Courts depend on him. This Nobleman is a Tirolefe, and lodges in a fine Houle whichhas been built by order of the Statesof Tircl, for the Refidence of their Landjhauptman. He conduits himfelf with Dignity, and is civil to Foreigners. 'Twas at Infpruc that the Emperor Charles V. received one of the greateft Shocks he had met with in all his Life. For he was furprized therewithhis Brother Ferdinand, King of the Romans, by Maurice Elector of Saxtmy, who, though his Crature, made War upon him nevertjielefs, on account of Religion.

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Religion. The Emperor and his Brother were fo near being taken that they had but juft time to a make their Efcape to Villaco% little Town upon the Drave in Carinthia. This was a terrible Reverfe of Fortune for a Prince, who, but a few years before, had a Pope and a King of France too, his Prifoners. Maximilian-Emanutl Ele&or of Bavaria was not more fortunate at Infpruc than Charles V. for though he made himfelf Mafter of it in June 1703, he was obliged to abandon it in July following, and to retire to Bavaria, after having tried in vain to force Pages which were in a manner inacceffible by Nature, and guarded not only by :he Peafants but by regular Troops. His Defign was to have in joined M. de Vendcfme the County of Trente and by that means to have opened a Communication with the Milanefe. The Eleftor, whilft he was retreating, ran the hazard feveral times of lofing his Life; and his Troops werefor the moftpart knock'd o' th' head by Stones which the Peafants hurl'd at them in the Dfiles which they were obliged tu pais. The City olnfpruc is abfolutely defencelefs, and were it not for its Suburbs, would be one of the leaft Cities in all Gtr~xany but thofe Suburbs are very large, and the Refidence of Perfons of the greateft Diftinion. The Houfesare very commodious, well built of Brick, and for the moft part with Piazzas, which is a great Conveniency to the Foot-paffengtrs. There washeretofore great Store of Sait here, but for fome years paft the Pits are dry, which is a Lofs to Infprue of no lefs than 200,000 Florins a-year. Though the City is fmall yet there are feveral very fine things to be feen in it. Such is the andent Palace of the Archdukcs, a vaft large Structure, but wichout Architecture, or any manner of Re-

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Regularity. There are Pictures in it done by ikilful Hands, particularly in that call'd the Giant'sHall, where the Story of Dejanira is reprefented with very great Art and Perfection. The Palace has very great Gardens belonging to it, but they are not well kept yet there are th Remains of noble Fountains and brazen Statues. Among the latter isan Equeftrian Statue of an Arch duke of Auftriay who is reprefented as large as the Life, in Armour, with Breeches after the Fafhion of the Ancients, a Ruff, and little Boots. The Horfe feems to reft upon his Haunches, in an Attitude as if he was juft ready to leap off the Pedeital. The Prince Charlesof Newbourg, the prefent Eletor Palatine, finding the old Caftle not commodious enough, caufed one to be built of Wood which was fome years ago burnt down to the ground by an accidental Fire. The Parifh Church is of modern Building, with a great Dome raifed in the middle of the Crofs. The whole Architecture of this Edifice is of the Corinthian Order. The Front is expos'd to an advantagious Point of View on a Square, and is adorned with three Orders, one above another, which makes the Fabric to rife in the whole to about 120 Foot height, exclufive of a great flight of Steps to it, after the manner of Italy. Ail the Parts of this Structure are charged with Ornaments of a clumfey Invention, and very ill executed fo that the Confufion refulting from it is infinitely fhocking to thofe that have a nice Tafte of Architolerable than the Outtecture. The Infide is more fide, and is even magnificent. The whole Length from the Entrance to the Foot of the High-Altar, is 4.32 Feet. The Foundation of it was laid while Charles de Newbourgwas Governor of re/, who placM th firft Stone of it. The whole Dcoration

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of this Church confifts in Pilafters of red Marble; with a Vein of white, and the Chapiters are of Plaiftcr. The Roof is painted in Frefco by GofmanDaniel Ojfem, a Native of Municb, who has fucceeded fo well as to give entire fatisfaclion to fuch as have a Tafte for, and Skill in things that are curious. The High-Altar ftands under the Arch at the end oppofite to the Nave of the Church. 'Tis perfetly magnificent, adorned with four great Pillars of the Compofite Order, of green Marble with white Veins, whofeChapitersand Bafonsareof Marble of variousColours and they fupport a Canopy, which is form'd by four Curves fill'd with a Glory. The Tabernacle and the Front of the Altar are of mafly Silver, charged with feveral Mouldings, and Foliages of Silver gilt and there are fewAltars more fplendidly decorated. There is a miraculous Image of the holy Virgin, which the Archduke Le epola, the Sovereign of Tirol^ brought hither from Drefden. That Prince made a Vifit to the Eletor of Saxony, who lhewing him his Treafure, defird him to chufe any Piece that he lik'd beft Leopold fingled out this Figure, becaufe he was told that in the early days of Lutheranifm, it hadbeen caft three times in the Fire, and always taken out again without any damage. The Archduke on his return to his Dominions, made a Prefent of this Image to the Parilh, and it has ever fince been held in great veneration, and never fail*d of working great Miracles. Three great Lamps of tiaffy Silver are continually burning before it and the other Chapels have each a Lamp of folid Silver whofe Light is always ihining. Ail this Plate was given to the Church by the Elector Palatine. The famous golden Roof is near the ParilhChurch, and ferves to cover a Balcony of the Chancery which fronts the Square. They fay that Frederic of Aufiriay the Sovereign of Tirai, caufed this
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fcof to be made, to let his Subjefls fee that he was not f bare of Money as they thought him, and that he did not deferve the Nick-name they had l given him ofth Pennye/s Prince. There are mahy however wh affirm that this Roof is not of Gold; while others fay the contrary. As far as 1 can judge of it, 1 believe 'ris ofCopper only co^ vered with very thin P'ates of Gold, and by confequence of rib great Value. And fuppofing th whole Roof was of folid Gold, I don't believe the Expence ws very exttaordinaryi though to be fure it was by rntick too great for fo rrican a purpofe. The.Houfe or College of the rvrend Fathers the Jefuits, is a very great Building in which no Coft has been fpared. les principal Front is 166 Paces in length. Thefc Fathers are the t)ireors of the Univerfity. Near t their Collge is th Church of the Prancifcans, whofe Convent was founded by the pious Legacies of the Emperor Maximiliany who on his Death-bed ordered his Succeflbr to caufethis Houfe and Church to be built at Infpruc. His Grandfon Ferdinand I. Son to Pbiiip the Fair, perform'd his Will, and in honour of his Grandtather's Memory, raifed him a Marble Tomb whieh may be rank'd among the moft ftatein ly MaUfoleums Europe. The Emperor Maximilian is there reprefented on his Knees upon a Cu(hion, with his Hands lifted up to Heaven, and as it were proftrate in Prayer He is adorned with the Crowrii nd the Imprial Daimsth. This Figure is of a gigantic Size, and admirably well done in Brafs. 'Tis plac'd on a great high Bafe of black Marblei forming an oblong Squarej on an Afcent of three Steps of tcd Marble. The whole Bafe is divi^fed into twenty-four Compartiments, or fquare Tabfes of white Marble, reprefenting the mmorable Ac* tions of Maximiliatt in excellent Bas-Rdiefs. The

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four cardinal Virtuss in a mournful Attitude, are reprefented in Brafs, as fitting on the Corners of and the Maufoleum, looking on Maximilia/fsStatue. The entire Maufoleum ftands by itfelf in the middle of the Church and the following Infcription is engraved in Letters of Gold all round the Bafe of this Monument IMPERATORI CSARI MAXIMILIA. NO, PIO, FELICI, AUGUSTO, PRINCIPI TUM PACIS TUM BELLI ARTIBUS OMNIUM ^TATIS SUM REGUM LONGE CLARISSIMO-, SUB CUJUS FELICI IMPE. RIO INCL YTA GERMAN1 A, DULCISSIMA IPSIUS PATRlA, TAM ARMIS QUAM LITERARUM STUDIIS PLUS QUAM UNQUAM ANTEHAC FLORERE CAPUTOTE SUPER ALIAS NAT IONES EXTOLL RE CPIT: CUJUS INSIGNIA FACTA TABELUS INFERIORIBUS, QUAMVIS SUB COMPENDIO, EXPRESSA CONSPICIUNTUR. IMPERATOR CiESAR FERDINANDUS, PIUS, FELIX, AUGUSTUS, AVO PATERNO PERQUAM COLENDO, AC BENE MERITO, PETATIS ATQUE GRATITUDINIS ERGO POSUIT. NATUS EST DIE XXVII MARTII ANNO DOMINI M. CCCC.LIX. WELS^ IN AUSTRIA DENATUS. AU this fine Meufoletmwas executedirith very great Care and S!:iJl, by AltxanderColin,z Native ot Mecblin the Piure of which ingeniousPainiex; and -that of his Wife, are kept in the Church, as an Acknowledginentdue ter that excellentArtift. This MaufoUitw mightily enrichedby the was Magnicenceof FredericArchduke of Auftrayfurnamedthe PejlefsPrirtteywhQ caufed tobcplacedin

the

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th Nave of the Church twenty eight Statues of Brafsfeven Foot in height, reprefenting fo manv Princes and princeflsthat were related to the Houfe of Aufiria. They are fet up in two Rows from the grt Gate to the Altar, and therefore feparate th Nave from the two Wings on the Sides. 'Tis pity that thofe Statues are in the hands of Monks wh'oneglecT: them very much, and fufferthe Duftto fcat into. them. They would do much better in a .Ifcoyl Palace: Some of them are in great perfection. fancy you will be glad ta know the Names bf the Perlons they reprefent. I. The firft. beginning on the right Side of the Altar, is the Figure of Joano Cafitle, Mother to Charles V. and Ferdinand I. the Ffeads of the two Branches of the Houfe of Aujiria the firft of Yfhichbecame extinft by the D^ath of Charles II. King o($pain, but the fecondftill flourifhes among us. with Glory in the Perfon of the Auguft Charles VI. Il. Ferdinand the Catholic, Father to Joan. III. Cunigonda Archduchefs, Daughter to ths Emperor Frederic IV. and Wife to Albert of Bavaria, who died a Nnn. IV. Margaret, Daughter to Henry Duke of Catintbia and Count of Tirai, furnamed the Piousy becaufe ihe founded and built feveral Convents. This Pnncefs was nick-named Margaret Wdeof Mottth: She was marry'd firft to John Margrave Moravia, Son to the Emperor Charles IV. whom ihe fufviv'd, and marry'd to her fecond Hufb.ind Leaiy Margrave of Brandenburg, Son to the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria, whom ihe alfo furviv'd, and findingherfelfa Widowa fcondtime, and wlthout Iffue to enjoy whatihe had, fhe rnadea Prefcnt tif the Coianty oftirol whereof fhe was Sovereign, to her Counns Rcdolfh, Albert^ and Leepoid of
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Aufiria, whichGrantwasconfirm'dby the Emperor CbarlesIV. in 1364. V. Mary of Burgundy,Wifc to the Emperor Maximilian1. the richeftHeirefsof her Time. VI. EizabetbytheDaughter oftheEmpcrwWgifmoni, and Wife to the Emperor Alhert II. who to carry'd the Duchy of Luxembourg the Houfe of Juftria. ShewasMother to the unfortunateKing Ladiflaus. D VII. Godfrcy Bouillon^ uke of Lorrain^King o ofjerufalemy plac'd here among the Princesof the from the fame Houfe ofAuftria, as being defcended Family as they. I VIII. vf/Arr/ . Emperor. IX. Frdric, Archdukeof Juftria, he who was nick-namedPrince Pennylefs. of X. Leopold Auftria, fumamed the Vtrtueus, Son of jfifcr* the W* XI. and XII. Opinionsare very much divided about the Perfonswho are reprefented thd two by Statues but'M generalrythoughtthey are the Emperors CbaresV. and FerdinandI. XIII. The Emperor FrdricIV. Father to MaximilianI. XIV. AlbertH. Emperor, King oHungeryand and Bobtmiy Father to the unfortunate King Ladiflaus. the XV. CtavtSy firft Chrittian King of France, who is plac'd amongthe Princes of the Houfe of drivethemfrom Aufiriy becau(theirGenealogifts the ancientFranks who fubduedFrance. XVI. Philip I. call'd the Fair, Kingof Spain. XVII. The Emperor RoolpbI. XVIII. The Archduke Albert, call'd the Wife. XIX. fbeoderieKing of the G#rfc. am not a Gtrealt^ift good enough to tell you in wha Rehtion he ixads to the Houfe of Aufiria.
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XX. Erneft, Archduke, Grandfather to Maximilian I. XXI. Tbeodebert ount of Provenct C fromwhotn defcended the Dukes of Burgundy and the Counts ciHapflmrg. XXII. Arthur Prince of Wales, who marry'd Catherine o( Arragon. XXIII. Sigifmond% Archduke and CountofTtrol, who adopted the Emperor Maximilian I. XXIV. BlancheMary, the fecondWife of Maximlian L which Princds was the Daughter of John Galeas Duke of Milan. XXV. Marraret, Daughter of Maximilian I. who was marry d firft to John a Prince of SpaUi, and foeondly to Philibert Duke of Savoy. XXVI. Cimburge,Wife of Erneft the Archduke, and Moiher to the Emperor Frdric IV. XXVII. Charles the Bold, Dake of Burgundy, Father to Mary of Burgundywho wasWife to Maximilian I. XXVIII. Philip, Duke of Burgundy, Father to Charles the Bold. Befidesthefe twenty eight Statues there are twenty three othen plac'd uponthe Cornilh of the Portico which fcparatesthe Nave from the Choir: They are of Brafs two Foot high, and reprefent thofe Kings and Princes whom the Charch honours asSaints 1 am farther to acquaint you of the Chapel of this Church, call'd the Silver Chapel, becaufc oftlic Image of the Virgin there of folid Silver as big ai th Life in the middle of the Altar, with a great many Images of Saints ail of thclme Meta'. The Afcent to this Chapel is by a winding Stairdfe. Hre is to be feen the ftatjy Tomb of Ferdinand Archduke of Auftria, Connt of Tirol, Son to the Emperor Ferdisand I. This Maufolcum is under an Arch which is pretty high. Ferdh"t"J, Ce 3 whofe

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whofe Figure is of white Marble, feems to be afleep, upon a Bed of black Marble rais*done Foot from the Ground. The wholeArch is Jin'd with Mrbte" of various Colours, forming divers Compartments of very curious Workmanfnip, where you ft th Arms of the Provinces reduc'd to the Obdience of the Houfe of Aufiria: The different Colours are fliewn by precious Stones enchas*<l Marble, zri in f Guriouflydonc that the Work feems to b eriameKd. Round the farineArch are plac'dfiye tfcs-' Reliefs, reprefenting in as many Pifturcs the mmorable Allions ofFerdinand. Five othef fias-Reliefs containthe Images of that Prince's Patron*, viz. Jxsys Chr ist, St. Anthony Padua, St. George, >of Sr. Thomas^and St. Leopold. Near the faid Tomb ftands that ofPbilippina of Welferin, whowasborn at Aujburg,and the Wife of the Archduke Ferdinand, by whom ihe had two Sons, Charles the Margrave of Burgau, and Andrew Cardinal of Aujiria. This Maufoleum of Free-fton h and has nothing remarkable more than the follpwing .1 Epitaph: FERDINANDUS G. Archiocx, Dux BuD. GVttDlMy C6m.ESTlROL, PHILIPPINi CONJUGI CHARISSIMjEFIERI CVRAVIT. Obiit 24. Aprilis, 1580. The Francifcan who fhewM me this Chapel aA fur'd methat itwas oneof the Fir-i-rate Chapelsin the World, on account of fhelfldlgeneeswhich had been annex io it by the Bene&fcnce the Popes of that it was upon a par with th Cnapel of tlu: Holy Sepukbre at Jerufalem^ widi the Churches of Sf. jebn de Laterati, Si.Maryjiiajor, and St. Gregory nxRome-yanddiat, in fine, a Maisfaid in this Chapel for the Repol of a Sul departed, was enough to deliver it ont of Puteatry.^
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Thefe, Sir, are the Remarks that 1 made in this City, from whence I am making ready to fet out to-morrow. 1 expert to be well jolted all the way to Vnice, where to make my felf amends 1 will take my Pleafure in a Gondola. I wifh with all my heart I had your Company there we fhould then have the Satisfaction of fecing a great many fine Sights together. But for want of this Satisfaction 14hall never ceafc to think of youj and pray don't forget me, but believe me to be for ever, (c.

XXV.

Vinici,Jfril 27. 1730. to you from Injpruc the very Day before I fet out from thence for this Place, to Wrote which I arriv*d without any Misfortune. About three quarters of a League from Jnfpruc we came among very tirefome and diiagrecable Mountains, the higheft of which is caU*dthe Breauer, a Name that th Country Pople gave it when they clear'd it of the Wood, and burnt it. This Mountain is much more rugged on the fide of Trent than 'tis towards Jnfpruc 'tis for nine Months together corer'd with Snow, and I found a great deal remaining on it ftill yet 'tis inhabited to the very Top. Therc is a Poft-Hofe, a Tavern, and a Chapel in wi)ich Mafs is only laid when th Snow* S J R,
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are melted It produces Corn and Hay in abun-< dance. Near the Poft-Houf there is a confiderable Spring which at firft forms a large Bafin, and then divides into two Torrents which quickly change into Rivers, one whereof falls into the Ihh above Infpruf, and the other, aftcr becoming navigable two Leagues from Bclfane, lofes itfelf in the Aigt above frtnt. The Paflge of ihe Brenntr is very painful, and fometimes impraticable when it fnows or rains fo that Travellers are often oblig*d to ftay feveral Days till the Retum of fair Weather, which is the more inconvenient becaufethe Inns on both Sides are of the worft fort. Stertzhtgen a little Town four Pofi-Stages from Injpmu, bas nothing remarkable however I was well accommodated there. Next Day 1 went an4 din'd at Brixen an Epifcopal City in an agreeable Valley, where 1 found the Seaion very forward. The Country between Brixen and Boljano is extremely poplous, and fo manur*d thac the fteepeft Mountains are cultivated. Bolsano is a pretty Town well inhabited, and drives a onfiderable Trade, having no lefs than four Fairs a Year. Irs Situation is very agreeable, in the middle of a fine large Valley full of Villages and Vineyards. The Air hre is much fofter than in the reft of Tirai, and I found Trecs hre in full Verdure while in the Country they were but juft budded. The Vines are very carefuly watched by. Men wha keep Guard in iots rais'<l upon three Poe plac*d cfoisrwife, and high enough to command the Vineyards. Miffonin his Voyage to ltafy fey*, that thefe Huts or Querites were for Jodging he Guards that are pofted to hinder.th Beirs rron ating the Grape&. 1 know not who could tell him and hat there were any Bears in this C0U1H17, if there are his hardly probable they would' venture {tytp, Valley fo populous as that of Bdfcmo. Thd a
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393 Wines of this Valley are the beft in all 2W; but they muft be drank, as muft all the Wines of this Country, the very Year of their Growth, or elfe they grow lufeioas, and then turn crabbed. The Valley of Bolfanwhich tends to Trait is throughout equally agreeable and is not incumber'd by thofe herrid Mountains that we were pefter'd with in the Road from Inffruc. Trbn t is celebrated theCouncil formerly held for there. 1went to fee the Church of St. Mary mtjor, where the Fathers of that Council held their Affembly. Jt has nothing remarkable befides its Organs which are of too enormous a Size for a Church, but are a very curious pice of Work for they not only exhibit variousSounds, but imirateVocalMufic, the Notes of divers Birds, and the Noife of Kettlc-Drums and Trumpets. The Bifhop offrent is a Prince of tbe Empire. The See is now vacant by the Death of the Count de JVolckeitftem laft Bithe feop. The Chapter bas fix'd the Election for next May. A great many Travellers highly extol the BUhop's Palace, but for my own part, 1 was not fo fortunate as to obferve any thing in it that was worthy of Attention. Throughout all Tirolxhc Common People are aredifguis'd very ill-fvourM] Moftof the"Women by Wens in their Throat*, and as if that was not enough they disfigure themfelvesby their Drefs. The Country Women wear Stockings whichhaveno Feet, and are gathcr'd into many iittle Folds from the Ancle to the Calf of the Leg Their Shoes are exaly like thofe the Men wair. Their Petti. oats are exceedingfhort, and ty*d up almoft as high as their Brealfswhich are very large. With ail this they have a Pair of Stays which reaches down to their to t The People about he Atfsare veryfubjeft thofe SwellWter. c by ^ngs dfiakugtaftmttc^ oi4onwholefome

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their Waift, and f enders them compfcatly cfefbrmVf Inftead of other Head-drefs they wear a green highcrown'd Hat, the Brims of which are Jet down, and is as unbecoming a part of their Dreft as any of the reft. At Brixen the Blood mends, the Women are handfomer, the Men more genteeJ, and the People m gnerai more civiliz'd tho' take 'em ail together the Tirolefeare very honeft People. They are ftauncb zealous Catholics, tho' they fay that fome of the Peafnts, are Lutterons. The Hofy Virgin and St. Cbriftopberare the principal Objecta of the People's Devotion: The latter is painted oit all their Houfes, and the Roads are full of little Chapels of the Pirgin who is reprefented in all manner of ways. 1 have feen her painted in a Chapel ftanding with a great Veil over her Head which lhe extended with her Arms to cover the Pope, the Emperor, feven Kings, and as many Eletors, who feem to be proftrate. at her Knees. As 1 left q'r~ut 1 began to afcend a Mountain which doea not become nooth ttll we reach to Berfibenwhich isa Poft-Stage and a half from Trent, This Mountain is exceeding fteep, troublefome, and tirefome, and after 'tis pafsd, one is in a manner buried among Rocks and horrid Mountains which feem as if they would fall on the Heads of the Travallers and I have been aflur*dthat this fometimes happens in rainy Weather, when fo many Pices crumbk off of the Rock that it requires 4 or 500 Carts to clear the Roads. In ihort, all the Way till one cbmes within a League ofBojfagnoa City in the State of Veniceis full of Rocks and Precipices but from that Town t Me/ire which is four PoftStaes from it, the Country isthe fineft in the World i and in fhort, every thing is good and pleafant except their Wine and their publick Houfes. The Wine has natumlly a mufty Tafte, and no Body, and the Colour is like that of the thick Wine of Bourbeux.
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This Country fo abounds in Quails that the PoftMaffer of Bcffagno aflur'd me he had taken 720 in a Moriing, that he drove a great Trade with'em, and fent fome of'em to the State of Venice,and to Lombard?. Whether he faid true, 1 know not, but he fnew*dme 1 100live Quails which he kept in Wicker-Cages in a great Barn where he hd hung all the Cages to Packthread to keep them from Rats and Cats. At Mstre oneembarks for Venicewhichisabout feven Leagues from it; I made th Voyage in a Gondola in lefsthan an Hour and half. As I traveH'd poft to Meftrt, my Gondoliers, when I came to Venue, carryM me to the Poft-Office, where t was oblig'd to tell my Name, and the Bufinefsfor which 1 came to Venice but this is a Ceremony to which they who don*t travel poft are not fubject. I went and took up my Lodging at the Wbite Lion, ftighly rejoic'd that I could reft my felf there after my Fatigue, and that 1 had loft fight of the Alps, ihofe horrid Mountains which no body would chufe to live amongft but a Swifs or a Tirolefe, who, as Cardinal Bentivoglio juftly obferves in his Voyage to Swijferland, are a People made for the Alps%and the Alpsfor them. As 1 have been twice before at Venice, I ferve as a Cicroneto two BobemianCounts whom 1 was acquainted with at Prague, and whom I happen'd to meet with at my Quarters. As *tiscuftomary to do to all Foreigners, 1 began with fhewing them the Square of St. Mark, the chief Square of Yenice, y if not of the whole World. 'Tis adorn'd by the Palace of the Doge, the Church of St. Mark, and the Procuraties, or Houfes of the Procurators, and has been pav*ydwithin thefe few Years with great This theName which who to theygivein Itafy thofe do theOjEcc ofGuidesto fliew the of Foreigners Cuxioficiesany tbwn.

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grcat Squaresof Free-ftone. We afcendedthe famous Tower of St. Mark which is four-fquare t Building, by a Stair without Stepe. It wu built by the Doge Domingo orofini,toferveasa WatchM Tower to Ships at Sea; and that it mightbe fixa a great way off hecaus'd the Angel on the topof it to be ilti but Time the Deftroyer of al] Things bas fbnpp'd off the Gold. From this Tower one fees the whole City of Vtnice^the neighbouring Itlands, and the Terra Ftrma, which ail together makes a noble Profpe. Weafterwardsentend StJWkrJPs Church, which is an Edificeof GrecianArchitcdure, pretty dark and not very high, but after all, full of Curiofides worthy the Attentionof a Traveller.As this Church has been defcrib'dwith more Exadneis than 1 can prtend to, I flull treat veiyfuccnly of thechief Things which it contans. The grand Portico is folov? thatonemufteven go down fome Steps to entexintothe Church,ThereisaPlatformoveriton whichare phc*dfour brazen Horfes brought from Cmftatitinlplc,to whichthey werefirft carry'd from the Rome Confiant whendut Princetransferr*d ine by Seat of the Empire from the oneCity to the other. Nothing is fo magnificent and beautiful as thofe Horfes.They wereheretoforeall overgilt, but People outof mreAvaricefcrap'd off greatpartof the precious Metal, and ail the reftis almoft worn off by Time. At the Entrance of the Church on the right. hand Side there is a CquareStone which feem'd to me to be of white Marble, and isfaid to be a pice of the Rock whichMo/esftruck in the Wildernefi, wiereupondiere iffuedout Water. If this be really tlut Stone, what that Legiator did is fo much the more to be admir'd, and may he reckon'd doubly miraculous}firft in fetching Water tp a Pace wherethere was none before, and then the
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bringing a quantity of it through four Holes no biggcr than Peafe fuCcient to quench the Thirit of fo numerous a Multitude. The Pavement of this Church is very grand, being of Mo/aie Work exceedingly diverfify'd with Stones of various Colours, Marble and Porphyry: But the ftateliefl: Thing in all the Church are the Ornaments of th Altar for the great Holidays, of which that of St. Mark the Patron of the Republic is the moft ftrily kept. St. Mark' Treafure is then ail laid open, whichcontifts in the rich Spoils taken from the Emperors of Conftantinople. Every part ihines with folid Gold, Pearls, and Diamonds; fo that the Temple ofjerufalem excepted, I believe there's not a Houfe devoted to God that could ever boaft of fo much Riches. AU this Treafure is kept in St. Mark*s Tower, and none of t can be taken out but in prefence of one of the Procurators, who muft alfo be at the Altar when the Treafure is plac'd on it, and dare not ftir from it till 'as put up fafe again. St. Marks Churchfervesas a public Chapel to the Doge, who always is or at leaft ought to be attended thither by the Pope's Nuncio and the Ambaflkdors but M. de Gerfithe French Ambafldor, from I know not what Punclilio of Honour, avoids being prefent at the fame Funions with.the Count de Bolagnos Emperor's Ambafldor*, whom he the can't endure co fe go before him. When the Doge goes to St. Mark*$ Church 'tis always with great Ceremony: He walks between the Pope's Nuncio and the Emperor's Ambafldor, and the other Ambafladorswalk in thefame Rowaccording tb the Rank of their Mafters. They are preceded by fix Trumpets, and fix Bannersare born before the Doge together with a Chair or Stool of State, there ThiMinifter iedat Fana in 1731,andwasfacceeded d by PrincePio.

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there being no Back to it, and a Cufhion of Gold Brocade. The Prince is drcfs*din a long Robe of alfo lin'd and fac*dwith Ermin. The Gold Brocade SenatorsfollowhiminRobesofred Damaflc, walking two and two. He is receiv'd at the Entrance of the Church by the Clrgy of St. Mark who bring him Holy Water and Incenfe, which the Ambafdors receive after him. His Serenity and the Ambafiadors fall on their Knees in the middle of the Nave, and then repeat the Prayers of Domin falvum fac Principem nqjtrum. Aiterwards the Doge goes and places himfelf at the End of th Choir on the right Hand as we go in, and fits in die firft upper Row of the Canons with, the Pope's Nuncio on his Right and the Emperor's mbafldor on the Right of the Nuncio, and fo on with the reft. The Doge does not fit down*t31the Senators are ail enter'd, who; as they pafs by his Serenity, make him a profound Obafance, to which the Doge makes no manner of rcturn When every body is featcd, the Doge accompany'd bylhe Ambafldors advances towards the Altar, the Nuncio ftrikesup High Mais and fays the Overture, tp which the Doge anfwers. After this, the Doge and the Ambaffadors return to their Places, and the Prelate of St. Mark who is in waiting, continues the Office. After the Mafs is over, the Doge returns to his Palace attended by the fam Train that accompanicd him to Church. When he bas afcended the grand Stair-cafe of his Palace he feats himfelf in an Arm-Chair which is placM over-againft the Staircafe. After he hasfate a few Moments, Jie difmifls the Ambafldors and the other Perfons of bis Retinue, and retires to h Apartment. Next to St. MarPs Church is the Doge's Palace, a vaft Building, of which you will find a large Acpunt in Mijfec'z Travels.
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The prefent Doge is Aloijh Mtcenigo* Prince as much to be refpfted for his Merit as for his Dignity. He is a Gentleman of great Sagaciry, talks well, is very polite, and bas infinitely more Genej-ofky than is afcribed to thofe of his Country. He is a handfome Man, and bas a noble Afpect that is improv*d by his whiteLocks of Hair which render him venerable. Before he was advanc'd to be a Doge, which was in 1722, he ferv'd the Republic with diftin&ion in quality of Generaliflmo. The vain Honours which this new Dignity has procur'd him have not puff d him up, and he feemsto think them rather a Burden than a Pleafure. Before he came to be Doge he was the meft fociable Nobleman at Venice^and he now fees more Company than ever his Predeccflbrs did. Hj mafles himilf at publick Rgoicings, goes out every Night in a common Gondola without Guard or Retinue, and diverts himfelf ac his Brother's. He bas fometimes too been upon Terra Firma, not valuing it tho' he loft for a while all the Honours annexed to his Dignity as Doge for you know that this Charaer does not go beyond the Lakes. He is oblig'd to be prefent at a the public Crmonies, tho' very much againft his Inclination and Temper, which is far more uniform than tbat of the other Italians. The Ceremony in which he fhines with the greateft Luftrc, is that of marrying the. $ea, which without difpute is one of the fineft Shews in all the World. 'Tis perform'd on Afcatfi$n-Doy% when the Doge, the Ambaffadors, and the Senate ride out into the Adriatic on board a Vefll call'd the Bucentaur, attended hy the State-Gondojas of the Ambaffadors gildtd, with a vafl:number of other Gondolas and Galleaffeswhich furround the Bucmtaur, the moft ftately Veflcl that was ever buik, and more magnificent than all that jHiftory (or evn He dead,andfucceeded DonQarh Ruxzin'. by

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even Romance) tells us of the fumptuous Vefl of Ckpatra. When the Doge goes on board the Buccntaur he is faluted by the great Guns from the Galleys, the Men of War, and the Merchant-Ships in the Harbour and while he perforais the Ceremony of marrying the Sea by throwing in a Ring to denote the Sovereignty of the Republic over the Gulph, there's nothing heard but ettle-Drums, Trumpets, and Concerts of Mufle* With the loud Acclamations of the People. His Setene Highnefi marnes two other Wives whom he maintains with as lkde Trouble as the Sea. They are the Abbeffis of the Convents of the Virgin and St. Daniel. This Ceremony is perform'd upon St. Pbilifs Day, when the Doge in a Gakafs accornpany'd by the Ambafidots and the Senate, repairs with a great Train to thofe Convents which are fituate on the Shore behind the ArfenaJ. The Prehte who officites for the Day rcceives him at the Entrance of the Church, brings him the Holy Water, and conduas him to a Place prepared for him in the Choir where he alMs at High Mafs. Then he tepairs to the Orate, in which there's a large Opening where the Lady Abbcfi appears with her Nuns. The Abbefs addreffing herfclf to the Doge intreats him to continue the Favour of his Protection to herfelf and the Nuns to which the Doge returns anfwer, that ihe and all die Convent may dpend upon his Good^Will. Then he turns about and walks on foot to the Convent ofBt. Daniel, where his Reception and Traniion are the fame as at the Convent of the Virgin. Thefe two Convents have very fingular Privilges. The Abbefis have the Crofier-Staff, and both they and their Nuns dpend folely upon the Doge, and not at ail upon the Pope or the Court of Roue either in Spirituals or Temporals. They hve good Revenues and live as much as can be at their Eafe. The

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Drefs or thefe Nuns is rather gay than modeft. Like the Nuns at Slrajbourg they wear their Hair in Trfles Their Petticoats are fo fhort that you may fee their Ancles and inftead of Stays they wear Jackets with lhort Skirts, which are very becoming thofe that are of a good Shape. Their Necks are quite bare, only when they go into the Choir they cover them with Veils of fine white Wool which trail on the ground. Thefe Nuns are the Daughters of the Nobles, and enjoy great Liberty, more than 1 believe they have under their Father*s Roof. The Feftival of St. Mark is always celebrated with very great Solemnity. On the Day prece^ ding, the Doge accompany'd by the Ambaffadors repaire with a great Train to St. Mark's Church, where he affifts at the Vefpers. Next Day the Confraternities, who are nine in number, meet at the Ducal Palace, accompany the Doge to Church in ProceCon, and are prefent at High Mafs. After this the Doge returns to his Palace, and the Brotherhocds go round the Square. Each Society has magiificent Images, and two Canopks richly embroidr*d with Gold and Silver whofe Poles or Suppoters are of folid Silver. TheProceffion is clos'd by a Man drefs'd in a Gown of red Damafk, carrying a Pole with a moying Wheel at the end of it which frves to fupport a gilt Lion furrounded with Laurel Branches, and little Standards of divers Colours. The Lion turns round inceffantly, and the Man who carries it makes him leap, and play a hi;ndredGambols He is furrounded with a Multitiue/of People, who cry out, God biefsSt. Mark. TiisSight, how ridiculous foever, is neverthelefs amufing, draws abundance of the Nobility to the Suare, and on that Day every fter the ProceTioni;over, the body is maik'd. Maikers sa to fee tht Doge's Table, whoentertair.s

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the Ambaffadors and the Senate at Dinner, on a Table in form of a Horfe-fhoe which is extravagantly adorn'd with Kickjhaws, and Machines made of Starch, which are here call'd Triumpbs. Nothing of the kind can be better exeuted, or more magnificent. As there is a great pprehenfion of a Croud, all the Mafkersare turn'd away at Dinner-time. They keep on their Maiks ail day long and after Dinner ail the Nobility, or to fpeak more properly, the whole City of Venue apof pears mafk'd upon the Sqtmre St. Mark and indeed, for one who never faw it before, 'tis a remarkable fine Shew. What furpriz'd me, and if I may fay it, made me laugh, was to fee ail the Mafkers fall on their Knees at the Sound of the ~ngelus you wou'd fwear every body was in Rapture, yet every thing that goes before and that follows the Stroke of the Bell is not the moft devout. The Day after St. Mark's wehad another publick Shew, and by confequence a frefh occafion for the Venetiansto mafquerade it. That was the Election which the Fifhermen, who are here call'd the Nicolotti, made of a Chief, who bears the Titie of the Doge of the Nicolotti. Their Choice fell this Bout upon a Gondolier belonging to the noble Giujiiniani. After the Election he was conducted to an Audience of the Doge of Veniceydrefs'd in a Robe of red Sattin, and otherwife accoutred like a jackpudding. He was preceded by a great Mob of PipiTS, Hautboys, and Fiihermen. Juft before him was carry'd a red Flag, with the Effigies of Sr. Mark. The Doge receivd him fitting on his Throne, and attended by the Council. The Complment of the Doge of the Filhermen was made with great Gravity, and anfwer'd by the Doge of the Republick in few Words j which d<sne, he return'd in the fame Ordec that lie
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came. This lham Doge bas authority over all the Fiftiermen, is their Judge, gives them Licence to filh, and takes care that the City be well fupplied with that fort of Provifion. 'Tis faidthat this Office, which is for Life, is worth above ioooCrowns fer Attnum. He had formerly the Privilege of commanding in a certain Quarter of the City, and affifted at ail the Crmonies where the Doge was prefent He even accompany'd that Prince on board the Bucentaury and had Precedency of all the Ambafldors but they have loft that Right fince, wpon what occafion I know not, they gave the Precedency to an Ambaflador from the Emperor. The Patriarch of Veniceis the fecond Perfon in the State. The prefent Patriarch is of the Family of Gradenigo. The Authority of this Prelate is fo ftinted, that he only nominates to two or three Bnfices. The Inhabitants of every Parilh chufe their Parfons, which is always attended with Intriguing for their Livings.being very lucrative, have great Intereft made for them. The Patrjlras a Privilege of having a Gondola painted Purple and Gold, with a Roof or Covering of Red Velvet but this Gondola muft not exceed a certain Degree of Magnificence. You know that the Gondolas of private Men muft be black, and that none but Ambaffadors have the Privilege of having theirs gilded. h Tho*the Churches of Venice ave been fufficiently defcrib'd, 1 cannot help faying fomething of thofe that 1 thoughithemoftremarkable. Withoutdoubc the Front of the Church of th bare-footed Carmlites, fituate upon the Great-Canal, is the moft magnificent, not only of Venice, but perhaps of Europe as well with regard to the Proportions'of Architecture that have been carefully obferv'd, as with regard to the Finenefs of the Marble, white as AlaDd2

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Alabafter, with whichthisbeautifulFront is wholly embellifiYd. The Infideof thisChurch is extremely magnificent. The Roof is richlygilded, andcuriouflypainted. The Walls are fac'd with Marble Pilafters the Floor is of Stonesinlaidwith various Colours, andthe Altars are exceedingftately But of all thefe different things thrre feems to be too great a number, fo that 1 could wifh many of the Ornaments had beenfpar'd for a nobleSimplicity wou'd have look*dmuchbetter. This fort of Simplicity is confpicuousin the Church of St. George,one of the biggeft in Veniee% the Architecture of which is furprizing. A Convent belongsto it, whichfor Magnificence Reand gularity furpaffesmany Sovereign Palaces. The great Stair-Cafeis a fine pieceof Architecture, and wou'd becomea King's Palacemuch better than a Convent. This Houfe has two noble Cloyftcrs planted with Orange-Trees, a couple of fpacious Courts, and two large Gardens well cultivated, which have Terrafiesfrom whencethere is a Profpcft of thefca, and the neighbouringIflands. The Capuchins, whofe Churchesare very plain every where elfe, have t very noble one hre, which is called Al Redmptore. It was built by order of the Republic to difcharge a Vow they had madein the umeof a Plagoe. The honeft Capuchin whoihew'd me the Church, made me take fpecial notice of a Crucifixof firafs over the high Altar, whereonour Saviouris rcprdnted expiring, with his Head leaningon his right ShouJder. Nly Guideaflur'd methatwhen the Crucifixwasplac*d in theChurchthe Head of our Lords Image wasere, but that it fellafterwardsinto its prefent Pofture. There are other Churchesworth feeing, were it only for the ftately Tomba of the moft diftinguilh'd Families of the Republic. Such h the Tomb of the noble Family of Genare, in th Churchof th
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Cajetarts, where are the Marble Effigies of eight Cardinals, and four Doges defcended from that Family. In the Churches of St. Paul and St. John are Piures very much efteem'd by the Cottnoijjeurs, and there's the fumptuous Tomb of the Valeriosy where the Father, the Mother, with the Son, are carv*din their natural Proportion in Marble, apparell'd in the Habit of the Doge and Dogefs. Before I have donc with die Churches, I think 1 ought to give you fome account of that of the th Front whereof is of noble Archi~ejuits tecture, well difpofed, and the Ornaments not too much crouded but the Decoration of the Infide is really grand. Nothing can be richer than the Choir, and the high Altar. The Choir confifts of a fpacious Dome fupported by four large Pillars of white Marble, lin'd with great Flower-pieces of old green Marble. The Roof is painted and gilt. The high Altar, which is all of Marble, isaPavilion or Dome fupported by ten Columns wreath'd of the ancient GreekMarble. The Tabernacle is ot Alabafter, incruftated with Lapis-Lazuli. To all this rich Work are added two Angels in their natural Proportion, over whichare the EffigiesofGod the Father, and God the Son. The five Steps leading to the Altar are of green Marble, incruftated with old yellow Marble fo artfully that this Work would eafily be taken for a Pice of Perfian Ta. peftry. The Pulpit and the Riluftrade, which feparates the Nave from the Choir, are of Marble, and psrfettly anfwerable to the Magnificence of the whole Church. I now proceed to the Arfenal, fo much celebrated in Europe, perhaps more for what it has been than what it is at prefent. Three Nobles have the Management or Cuftody of it, who relieve one another every Week. H^ that is in waiting muft vi5t the Pofts in th Ni~ht.time and the Cen-

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tinels are oblig'd each to ring a Bell every Hour, that the Officer upon Guard may know they are at their Pofts. No body can fee the Arfenal without Leave of the Nobleman in waiting, who never refufes it to Perfons of Rank. The firft thing 1 was fliew'd were four Rooms full of Arms neceflry for the Marines, where are alfo kept the Cuirafies of thofe Generais who have moft diitinguilh'd themfelves in the Service of the Republic but they are r'all full ofDuft. Then 1 was fhewed the Magazine of Anchors, and the Cellar to which the Workmen of the Arfenal go when they pleafe to a Fountain of Wine and Water mix'd. As much diluted as this Wine is, 'tis faid that there's no lefs fpent here every Year than mounts to 74000 Crowns. This is an Endowment which was fettled by one CorHaro Queen of Cyprus, for the Relief of the Workmen. Near this Cellar are the Forges, of which tbere are twelve but there are only two adually at work. The.Rope-Yard juft by it, is 410 Paces in length, and ferves at the fame time for a "Warehoufeof Hemp, of which 1 did not fee any great Quantity. In another Court there were a great many Cannon, both Iron and Brafs, a Room fullof Bullcts, a Magazine of Cordage, a TimberYr.rd, and three great. Rooms full of Armsfor the Foot Soldiers. There was another that ferv'd asan Arfenal for the Horfe, but 'twas lately burnt down by the Carcleflhefs of a Centinel. The Dock for building and refitting of Ships forms a feparate Court, in the midft of which there's a great Bafon that communicates with the Sea, and is encompafs'd with twenty fix Sheds cover'd over, which contain as many Ships, Galleys, and Galleaffes. The latter are Machines of a terrible Size, which have a fort of Battery at both ends. My Guide affur*d me that a Venetian Galleats was not afraid of twenty five Turkijh Galleys This may be but 1
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wou'd venture a Wager on the fide of the Infidels. In -this fame Dock are the Prowes of twelve Turkijb Galleys taken at the famous Battle ofLepanto. But the moft noble thing in all this Dock, is the Bucentaur^which went out of Port for the firft time in the Year 1728. This fuperb Vefei was built by AntonioCorradini; and is fo well deligh'd, and the Orhaments of Sculpture, of which there's a great number, fo well plac'd, that every thing is eafily diftinguife'd, and ftrikeswith Amazement. 'Tis gilded down to the Water-edge, and *tisfaid that the Expence of it amounted to 70000 Sequins. The Deck is cover'd from Head to Stern with Crimfon-Velvet, bedaub'd with a broadLace, and GoldFringes. A ndthe infide if poffible is more magnificent than the Outfide. There's a great Room the length of the Ship, where the Doge lits on a Throne, and the Ambaffadors and Senators on Seats like thofe of the Canons in the Choir. The Cieling confifts of Bas-reliefs in divers Compartments intirely gilt. The Floor is of Walnut-tree, incrufted with Ebony-Wood and Mother of Pearl. The Rowers who fit in the Hold of the Ship are ail of one Livery, and their Oars gilt, which makes a very fine Sight when all hands ftrike together. You know that the Bucentaur never goes out but once a-year, upon Afcenfion-dty, when the Captain who then commands muft take an Oath before he ftirsout bf the Harbour, thathewillbringherback again into the Arfenal. He carries nothing aboard ofhisown, for unlefsthe Weatherbe very fair indeed, the Ceremony is put off to another day. They tuild a new Bucentaur every hundred Years, and the old ones are laid up till they rot. I juft now hear that the Poft is going off, fo that 1 am oblig'd to defer what 1 have farther to fay of Yenicetill the next. 1 (hall be infinitely pleas'dDd4 lt

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if I can fatisfy your Curiofity, and much more if I can prove to you that no body has a more profoundVeneration for you than I, Wbo am, &c.

L ET TER XXVI.
S I R, Ftiiice, Mmj 173e, 15, Common-rwcalth keeps twelve GaU THE leys in pay, and twenty Men of War, The Capitana Galley, call'd the Fuftat JL never goes out of theGreat Canal, but is continually at Anchor before the Square of St. Mark. There's commonly four Galleys and as many Men of War in the Levant. Others lie at Anchor in the Canal of Zueco, which were lately drawn out of the Arfenal, becaufe for want of Water the Ships receive Damage. The Power of the Republic confifts chiefly in ics Maritime Force. It maintains very few Land Forces, and thofe they have are ail kept at CorfoK, which is the Rampart of Vaicc, and the Defence of the Gulph the Prefervation of which is owing to the Count de Scbulmlwrg, General in chief of the Republic for in the laft War when the tfurks attempted to take it, *twas he that oblig'd them to raife the Siege: And the Republic in acknowledgment of this important Service caus'd his Statue on Horfeback to be ere&ed in the Square of th O!d C^ftle of Cor/ou and fettled a Penfion upon him of 5opoCrowns a-year for his Life, befides hisordinary SaJary. 'Tis certain that Venicehas fuffer'd a Decay both pf Power and Commerce, The Turks h^re taken

th

Venice. 409 the Morea from her ihe has little or nothing left in and as to her Places in the Terra the Levant firma they are poor, depopulated, and meanly fortified. One of the mam Securities of Veniceis her Lakes but for fome Years paft they begin to thicken fo by the Mud and Dirt brought by the Rivers which fall into the Gulph, as in time muft prove to the very great Dtriment of Yexice,becaufeShips which us'd formerly to go in or out with eafe, can only go out now by the help of a Canal which has been eut for the purpofe. This Inconvenience might hve formerly been preventcdfor a trifle ofEiprice, whereas now 'ris paft aU remedy. The Powers of which the Venetians ought to in be moft jealous, aretheJ/r^andtheEmpcror, whofe Dominions they are in a manner inel*d. and The Great Duke of Tufcany the Duke of Parma were formerly Powers which were of Httle or no Terror to the Republic but if thofe-'Dominions ihou'd ever come under the Sovercignty of Dm Carlos, the political Syftem of Italy will be very w much alter'd, and the Veneiians ill in ail probability be oblig'd to keep fair with him. The Republic has for a long time obfervd an exaft Neutraity in the Quarrels among the Princes of Chriftendom, perhaps becaufe it knows not for which fide to for tho' the Senate htes the determine itfelf Spaniards, and cannot forget the famousConfpiracy of the Marquifs de Bedmarthe Catholic King's Ambaflador they don*t much like either the Germans pr French, whofe Power gives them Umbrage. And 1 believe, were it poffible for the Veneiians to hurt thofe three Powers at the fame time, we fhou'd quickly feetheir Republic rouze itfelf from that Lethargy in whih it's profound State-Policy has doz'd it. Sincethe Englijhand Dutcb becameMafters of tho Commerce of Europe, theTradepf J^fl/rnsas much de-

VBHiei. decay'd as its Power and their Manufactures are funk extremely. The Venetiansheretofore furnifhed almoft all Europewith Cloth their LookingGlaffes, and thofe for Drinking, were alfo in grea vogue, but thofe Manufactures are finec tranfplanted into other Countries, fo that Ventefcarce frniihcs any more than haly. 'Tis worth whiJe howeverto go and fee the Glafs-Houfe where they work Night and Day, except in Auguft and September, when the Heats arc too violent. 'Tis certain the Drinking-Glafles made here are much llronger than any other, but as they are blown they are not near fo fubftantial as the Glafs that is run however they requirc lefs Labour, and have the Advantage when they are broke of being melted again the Matter of which they are compofed being much more flexible than that of the run Glafs. The Nobles of Veniceart Slaves to Policy, Diffidence, and Sufpicion and Ambafladors are much more fo, whom every one fhuns as fufpeed Perfons, and whom a Foreigner can fcarce talk to wirhout renouncing his Correfpondence with the Nobles. An Ambaffador is oblig'd to confine himfelf to his ownFamily, or elfe to amufehimfelf in the Company of Foreigners, of whom there is always a good number in this City for no Nobleman dare vifit him without the exprefs leave of the Senate, who now indeed grant it much more freely than they did formerly. Cuftoms are alter'd here in very many things. 'Twas formerly a Crime to fee a Woman in private, and a Foreigner did not dare to run the Venture i but now the caf is quite different, for there are feveral Houfes of Quaiiry where 1 am iiidulg'd, and am often tte a tte with the Miftrefs of the Houfe, without any more notice taken of me than if 1 were in France, where Eafe and Freedom are 4i

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To much boafted. The Ladies are great Vifiters, and have Afimblies every Night, to which they repair alone in their Gondola's without any other Attendance but a Valet de Chambre, who ferves as their Gentleman-Uiher. They are mafk'd at all public Performances, and go where they have a mind to it. This eafy accefsto the Ladies contributes not a little to make my Stay in this City agreeable. 1 own to you that I am infinitely charm'd with it there are a thoufand Things here that pleafe me, and were 1 to chufe any City in Italy to live in, 'twould certainly be this, where People enjoy entire Liberty, provided they don't meddle with the State and its Government, which after all too, I don't think a Foreigner has much to do with. Here one is in the Centre of civil PJeafuresand Debauchery. God is as exemplarily ferv'd here as in any Place whatfoever. Few Nations obferve the Externals of Religion better than the Italians in genral and the Venetiansin particular, of whom it may be faid that they fpend one half of their time in committing Sin, and the other half in begging God's pardon. Mafquerades are more in fafhion here than elfewhere. People go in Mafks to take the Air, aswell as to Plays and Balls and'tis the favourite Pleafureboth of th Grandees and the Commonalty. This givcs rife to many Adventures, and fometimesone makes Acquaintance under a Mafk which would be impraticable perhaps, were not fuch Difguifes in Fafhion. 1 remember that the firft time I was here 1 ftruck up an Acquaintance in the Square of Sr. Mark with two of th firft-rate Ladies of this Country. They were maflc'd, and I was in a Scarlet Domino embroider'd with Silver, which being a Habit that had been feldom feen here, drew the Eyes of all the Company in the Square upon me, and in particular of two Ladies, one of whom twitching me

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me by the Slave, faid to me, Sir, 1 andtheLady hre, my Friend, fancy by your Air whichoutftrips our Gentlemen, diat youare a Foreigner, 4 andwe are inclin'd to think that you are no mean Perfon. We fhouldbe glad ofyour Converfatin, and you wi!ldo us a Pleafure to take a turn with us round the Square. You do me too much Honour, fairLady (&id J, waJkingon) and what you tell meof myAppearancepleafesme the more becauf you^areboththe compieateftLadiesin the Place. As you guefsby my Habit that 1 am not a commonPerfon, your Air perfuadesme that 1 have the Honourto fpeak to Ladiesof Quality. 4 Youare not miftaken (faid the fame Lady to me) this Lady my Companionis Madame M and You find (continu'd 1 amthe Wifeof Mr. C fhe) that our Namesare pretty well known in Ye4 nice. Now, after having told you who we are, may weprefumeto aflcwhoyou are ? I gratify*d their Cunofity by pulling off my Maflc, which1 due thought a Compliment to their Quality. I had fcarcetold my Name, when the Lady who had not yet fpoke one Word, faidto me, You are not fo 4 mucha Strangeramong usas you imagine your Name is very well known to me, and the lato MadameDuhamel, your Aunt, whofe Hu/band vas Commanderin chief of our Forces, was one 4 of mymoft intimatc Friends, and me often told me how much fhe wifh'd to fee you here but f 'twas a Comfort fhe did not live to enjoy. Sho went with her Hufband to Cor/ou, wherehe died not without Sufpicionof Poifon for he wasac4 cus'd of being too great a Fraubman and your Aunt who was return'd from Corfouwith a DeCgn
Frmuis, Coont Duhtmtl, Iiraienaat-Genenl of the Kiaz of Prmjla's Amy. Knight of tbe Order of the BUtk fsglt, n Coloael of a Rgiment Horfe. The Veuttiwu iavftca him ta of their Servicev\ 1 704, snd gare himlle chief Commandof the_ar 'arc:8.

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fign to go and fpend the Remainder of her Days at Berlin, died as fhe was performing Quarentine in our Port. You caus'd her Bodyto be remov'd to Berlin, and you was one of her Heirs and, tho*I dont mentionic to make a Merit of it, I muft tell 'youthat you are oblig'd to me for it, finceI pleaded for you againft a very great numRelations. My Love to your ber of M. DubameFs Aunt put me upon engaging Mr. M to cfpoufeyour Intereft, which he promoted with Succefs,and prevail'd on the Senate to preferthe of Recommendations the King of Pruffidand the Elcor of Hatuver who both protctted you, beforethe Inftancesmade by the FrenchAmbafrador in the Name of the King his Mafter, in faveur of Mcffieurs uhamel. I was infinitely pleas'd (conD dnu*dMadame M ) that 1 had an Opportunity of ferving you, and you may dpend and I mail ever intereft upon it that Mr. M. our felves heartily for all that belong to our deceafedFriend.' I madeanfwerto MadameM in Terms fuitable to her obligingExprefilons, and crav*dher Permiffionto pay my refpeb to her at her Houfe. She anfwerd mevery civilly thatfhe would fend her Hufband to me, and that then fhe fhouid be glad to fce me at her Houfe. Next Morning as 1 wasready to go out, and wait upon to whom I thought 1 ow*d a Vifit Mr. M t after the Civilities1 had receiv'dfrom his Wife, I was told that he was at my Door and defir*dto fpeak with me. I went and receiv'd him, and found him every whit as polite as his Lady. He till offer'd to fhew me the Curiofiticsof Venice his Wife was ftirring. We went and faw feverai Churches, afterwhichhe condued me to hisHoufe where I found Madame M whoreceiv'd me ,with all the Civility poffible. She wasa Woman wbo tho' forty Years of Age Ihcw'd that fhe had bcen

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been a very beautiful Lady in her time. Madame C happen'd to be in her Company, with whom me had been the Day before in the Square of St. Mark. I never faw a more beautiful Lady, or that had a nobler Carriage. She was not yet twenry Years of Age, but had been marry*d five Years to a Man, who tho' the moft ill-favour'd of his Sex had a moft amiable Behaviour. I fell in lovc with as foon as ever 1 faw her, and Madame C when I beheld her Hufband, 1 had Prefumption enough to belie ve that my Application to the Lady would not be difagreeable. But 1 foon perceiv"d that flicwas not a Woman for my turn j fhe quickly depriv'd me of all Hopes of Succefi and I no fooner faw thofe Hopes vaniih'd, which are the only Support of Lovers, but I dropp'dmy Amour. I had another in view which was attended with better Succefs M. M carry'd me to a CountryHoufe of his towards Paduat and 1 don't know where 1 was ever more agreeably entertain'd in my whole Life. Ta at thefe Country Scats one fes die Venetians in Perfection, who are quite another fort of People here than in the City; for hre they put off that grave ferious Air which they zffe in Town, and are quite fociable, civil, courteous, and live with morefplendor. As thefe Country-Houfes are near one another, the Gentlemen to whom they belong vifit each other very much, and are almoft always together but ztVenice they live with more Reftraint. 1 am in fome doubt whether 1 Ihould reckon the Mufie of the Venetian Churches in the number of its Plcafures but upon the whole, I think I ought, becaufe certainly theirChurches are frequented more to pleafe the Ear, than for real Devotion. The Church of la Pieta which belongs to the Nuns who know no other Father but Love, is moft frequented. Thefe Nuns are enter'd very young, and are taught Mufic,

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and to play on all forts o; Inftruments, in Mufic, which fome of'em are excellent Pe -formers. Apollenia aually pafies for the fineft Singer, and Annafor the firft Vielin in Italy. The ConMaria's of People to this Church can Sundays and courfe is extraordinary. 'Tis the Rendezvous Holidays the Coquettes in Voice, and fuch as are fond of all of Intrigues have here both their Hands and Hearts after my Arrivai in this full. Not many Days was at this very Church, where was a valt -City and the fineft of Mufic. As I was going Audience, a Woman who hid her Face accoftcd me, fayout, there was a Lady in a Gondola who defir'd to ing, me. Tho this fmelt ftrong of an Adfpeak with which 1 was never very fond of, 1 howventure, not went along with the Woman; and really, ever Paces from theSpot 1 found a Gondola, in above ten which was a Lady whom I knewto be the Daughter of whofe traunfortunate Baron de H of the Iownitmovd gical Cataftrophe yoa have heard. as well as Sorrow, to fee before mv Compaffion, CounLady of Rank in a ftrange mv Eyes a young fuch a Situation as made me furmife that try and in in a bad Way. But it even touch'd me to fhe was when after having made her Apology the quick, fent for me, fhe faidto me with a to me for having with Sighs, For God's fake tell Voice interrupted me what's become of my poor Father is heftill He has been the Caufe of his own Unhapliving ? and mine too he has plung'd me into an pineif butheis ftill myFather: Nothing Abyfs of Woe, make me forget the Duty 1 owe him I can be glad even to lay down my Life to reIhould Misfortunes.' 1 told her that I had not lieve his at Berlin for a long time that I had not kept been there with any body, and that up a Correfpondence I could not tell her any News-of her confequently I knew at the fame time that he died in Father. r r_ Prifon

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Prifon at Spdxdata but I was loth to be the Merfenger of fuch bad News to a Perfon who feem'd did not know to be already too mucbafflied. (reply'dMadamohellee H .) d youwtTtzx.Venice or 1 fhould hve foughtan Opportunity to fpeak with you. 1 faw you at the Church of la Piet* and th fight of youcall'd my Misfortunesfrefh to my Memory, as wellas the fad Cataftropheof your old Friend my Father. 1 could not refrain fhedding Tears, and the Rcmembrance of my Difgracebas eclips'd the Pleafure1 takein feeing you.' I endeavour'dto affilageher Grief, and to calm her ruffled Sol and therefore I went with her to ha Houfe, and whenI fawher a little compos 1 aflc'dher queftionsabout her flate of Ljfe, and dcfir'd her to tell me how flic had pafs'd her time fincefhe XdtBerlin. She anfwer'd me m every Point with a great deal of Honefty and SiropUcity. After the Execution of that Sentence (faid flie^ which degraded my Fathcr from Nobility and Honour, and fet him on a level with th bafeft Scoundrels,I had not the Courageto ftay at Ber. to find out Madamedt 1 went to H B my Aunt from whom I hoped to meet with Proteonj but I foon ezperienc'd that the Unfbrtunatehveno Relations. My Aunt would not gve me Houfe-room, and fent a Confidentof me t her*so tell me that fheadvis*d to be gone from or elfe to change my Name and not to call *H. meher Coufin,uniefi Ihada Defireto be confin'd. But alas! 1 fhould then havetaken it as a Favour if my Aunt had Olutme up for 1 wasin extreme Want, and knew not whatwould becomeof me. I lodgMat an Inn where1 got my Living by making of Linnen andWafhing, when a goodlikely cameand took up his Quarten in the young Man very fameHoule, who immediatelyftruck up an Acquaintancewith me. I know not what hefaw1
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in me to tharm h'm, for 1 did nothing but cry all the day long. Mean time he talk'd to me of r 4 Love, and gave me fo many Demonft ations of his flaming Paffion thatl found he was really finitten with me. To tell you the whole Truth, I was not long infenfibleof the fam Paffion. He even offer'd to marry me, which, fince he would not be deny'd, 1 confentedto. He told me that he was an OfHcer in the Emperor's Service, and a Native of Lubeck, and that he was corne hither to take poflffion of an Eftate fallen to him by Inheritance. 1 took what he faid to be true becaufehe was handfomely equipp'd, and had his Pockets well lin'd. In lhort, I was fmitten with him, and thought I Ihouldbe veryhappy in taking him for my Hufband. Not many Day afrer our s Marriage, he told me that he muit needs fet out for -Hungarywhere the Regiment was quarter'd, whereof he faid he was a Lieutenant, and that coniquenriy I muft make ready to go with him. We fet out from H and arriv'd happily at Vicwfr. It was in that very City that my Hufband, who till then behav'd well towards me, and whofe Condu: had bcen very regular, chang'd ail on a fudden to the reverfe. He fpent the whole Day in Gaming-Houfes, and the Night in Debauchery. Sometimeshe never oncecame home for four or five Days together, and when he did, c 'twas only to infult me, and to upbraid me with the misfortune of myFather, which I difcover'd to him before Marriage, for fear he 1hould reproach me one time or other with having deceiv'd him. C He told me that I was a Difgrace to him, that his Colonel had broke him for marrying me, and that 1 was the Author of his Ruin. I try'd to pacify him, and fpar*dno Painsnor Complaifance for it, but all to no purpofe. I heard that my -Hufband was dcfperately in Uc witt a common Proftitute, Vol I. Ec

4i8

V E NI CE.

Proftiiute, that he had ruin'd himfelffor her fake } and in a little time he was oblic'd to fell the very Clothesoff his back. He had contraed Debts, and cxpeing everyday to bearrefted by his Creditors, heleft Pitinaprivately, abandooing meto the moft dreadful Defpair.' Twas eight Months before 1 heard a Word of him. At laft 1 came to and know- that he washere at Venice^ I refolv*dto find him out. Madame the Countefeof IV who had gcneroufly aflifted me, fitted me out for th Journey, but when I came hither I did not find my Huiband, who I heard wasat Padua. I was making my fe!f ready to follow him thither, when 1 heard the News that he was kill'd by a Studentwith whom he had a Quarrel at Gaming. His Death fill'd up the Meafure of my Sorrow. found my felf quite a Stranger here without Friends or Subfiftence. 1 endeavour'd, but in vain, to get my Living by my Labour, as 1 had but 1 foundfoUttletodo that 'twas donc at H impofiblefor me to holdout longs andlmuftundoubtedly have funk under my Mifery if it had who out of Pity not been for die noble D to my Condition reliev'd me fix Years ago by granting mea PenGon: But how happy fhould I be if I could live without it, and retire for ever to fome religious Foundation!' Here the unfortuconcluded her Narrative. I fifted nate H her Sentiments about Religion I knew lhe had been educated in the Lutheran, but fiie exprefs'd her Inclination to mbrace the Catholic Religion, and alfo to turn Nun. I promis'd to ferve her all that lay in my power, and that fame Evening I who promis'd me to fpoke to Madame M enter her into Orders as foon as fhe was turn'd Catholic. A Jefuit who has had the tutoring of her for near a Month gives us Hopes that lhe will inftandy be quaiify*dto cake the Vcil. She feem to me

V E N rc

E4

419

me to be very eager for it. A few days ago 1 acDeath, with whi~h Quainted her with her FatherV> ine feem'd very much affecled, but at the fame timc lhe exprefs'd her Submiffion to the Decrees of Providence, and told me her Misfortunes with fo much Refignation, that 1 have Reafon to think fhe will be very happy in the Retirement whxh fhe is about to embrace. If this be the Cafe, I (hall think my felf very fortunate in having contributed by my Advice to her Tranquillity. Heaven gra.it her Prayers may prevail that I my felf may thofc Leffons in put praftice which 1 have taught her, as to the Neceffity of Converfion. Pardon me, Sir, this long Digreflion. As you knew the unfortunate H in his Profperity, and as you are alfo inform'd of his Difgrace, 1 !;hooght you would not be forry to hear of the Fate of his Daughter. 1 now refume my Remarks on Vtice. Two Days ago I went to fee the ScuolaSt. Rcrco, whirh are Rooms where the Fraternities of that Saint meet, in which are Piftures done by the greateft Mafters, particularly one in the gteat Room b^low, which is the Pifture of theAnnunciationdone by Tintorett a Piece highly efteem'd. This Pifturc is, without Contradiction, one of the fineft and moft affefting Paintings at Venue, becaufe of the lively Expremons ofSurprife, Admiration, and Joy which appear in the Virgin's Face. She is fitting in her Chamber, which the fkilfl Painter has reprefented as a plain mean Room in fome Diforder with old and worn out Furniture. Upon the grand Stair-cafe there's another Piairc reprefenting the Annunciation in like manner, which is done by Titian, and is not one of the worft of his Performances. The upper Rooms are adorn*d with feveral Piftures done by Tinttrrct, in which he has defcribed our Lord's Paffion. Our Saviour appearing before Pilate is an admirable Piece 'ris really moving to fee-the Modfty and Serenity ot Eea

4-20

V N I C E.

of his Countenance. A fecondPihire reprefents our Lord carrying hs Crois. In a third, we fe him faften'd on ir, and expiring for the Salvation ofMankind. Thefe are invaluablePices,and are reckon'd the compleateftthat ever Ytnaret painted. 1 have alfo been to fee the chief Palaces, which lie for the moft part on the great Canal, and that cali'd Reggio. They are verymagnificent,but thcy arc generally fo like one another that he who bas fecu one mayfay he hasfeen themail. They have lictle Court-Tards, lefs Gardens, and no Stables. Nothing goes to form a Palace at Venue but th main Body of the Building, a great Salon in thc middle, and Apartments on the Right and Left; and fetting afide the Marble, there are Palaces as whichhave only the name of magnificentelfewhere a Houfe. The Square f St.Markisthe ordinary endezvous R o of ail the Gentry at Venict. There are Nobleswho keep their conitant Circuits hre as it were, and \vho neverftir from the Place but to Bed, for they pafs their whole Time in Gaming at the Coffec. Houfes, or in the Peruke-Makers Shops. The numberof their Noblesisnot limited and any body for paying down 100000Ducatsmay purchafeNobility. ThefeGentlemencomplimenteachotherwith r the Title of ExceUencyt 'tis what they all chaland lenge from Foreigners. Mean time, fomeof thofe Excellaicits go to the Shambles, and to the Fdh. Market, and carry home their Meat or their Fifh under their Robes, and fomeare fo very poor chat they go a begging. This Title is fo very common ado here that 1had much to hindera Lackey whom I hired from giving it to me. Tho' I told him that I was by no means Excellent, he made me anfwer that hekncwfullwell what Obligationswere due to my Exccllency, and that he would not be thought to be wanting in Refpcft to my Exccllency. A
Fntub-

E N I C E.

421

frencbman lately come from Cmftantinople whom to 1 made my Complaints, how much this Title was prophan'd, aflur'd me that the Venetianswere ftill more lavtfhof it out of Venice, fo that he heard the very Grooms belonging to the Baillo of the Republic at Cmtfantiitople, compliment one another with the Title of Excellncy. Excellencies there are alfo Among the Vemetian Petits-Matres who are known by their Doublets lin'd with Scarlet, their fine white Perukes, by their fantaftical Step, and that Air of lolling which they give themfelves in their Gondola's, which are much fmaller and nimbler than the common fort. Thefe Petits-Maitres are great Beaus, and have commonly more than one Miftrds at a time, and indeed there are few Nobles but have one at leaft. Thefe Creatures, excepting the little Liberty they enjoy, are as happy asSultana's. Their Lovers treat them like Princffes, and the Venttims in general Ivay great refpect to the whole Sex. 1 have feen Fauftina the famous Singer, and Strimputta the noted Courtezan corne mafk'd upon the Square of St. Mark, kaning on the Shoulders of Noblemen, and every Man paying them as much Obeifance as if they had been Ladies of great Importance. The fam day that they appear'd on th Square there happen'd to be a Skirmim between two Women mafk'd that were Rivais, who, as foon as they knew one another, fell out, went to Cutis, tore off each other's Maiks, and at laft Knives were drawn, with which they eut one another fo deeply that one of 'cm was left dead on the Spot. I now think it high time to finilh my Letter which is already very long, and perhaps too full of Trifles. 1 have told you every Thing that came uppennoft in my Mind, fo that you have a perfeft Farrago,

423

P A D y A.

Farrago, which howeveris a Proof of-the Pleafiire I takc in corrcfpondingwith you.

XXVII.

RncigUamt, May30. 1730. S I R, S it appears by all the Letters from Rome that thcy are on the point of chufing a new JL Pope, 1 fet out fooner from Venicethan I fhould otherways have donc, and came poft to this City without ftopping much by the Way. 1 pafs'd thro' PADUA,where 1 had the Honour to pay to my y Refpe&s the Prince Emanuel of Portugal^ who is come to refide thtre for fome time, and 1 vas afierwards at the Comedy, which was indeed, a moft wretched Performance, but the Aflembly was gay and numerous Among the reft there were a great number of Students and young Fellows, parricularlyone that madea very finical Appearance, who hadten or twel vePatcheson his Face, a red Coat embroider'd with black Gawfe, a Hat, a Shoulderc Knot, Stockings, fcf the whole trimm'd with Gawi. 1 took him at firf for a Mountcbank, but 1 plainly faw that the Whimficalnefs of his Drefs was the Humour of the Country. What gave me fome Amufement was, to fee a Hare which Harlequin had taught to play Tricks, to tumble Top over Tail, to leap over a Stick, and to beat a Drum with his twQ Fore-feet.
From

FERRARA.

Bologna.

423

From Padua I went to Ferrara a City in the Ecclefiaftical State, where the Pope keeps a Legat who is alwaysa Cardinal. It appear'd to me to be a large City with fpacious Streets, and fome finePalaces, butkdid not feem to bevery populous, which is afcrib'd to the bad Air in this Country, otherwife oneof the fineft in ail Italy. The Road from Ferraravo Bologna is extremely level, and as good and agrecable in Summer as'tis unpaffable in Winter. Bologna is the fecond City in the EcclefiafticalState, and is a large fine Town. *Tis in a moft c rming Situation, ail the Country round it btmg properly a Garden, and one of the moft truitful and faireft riats in Nature. 'Tis faid this City contains near 80000 Inhabitants. The common People are civil and well bred, and none more polite to Foreigners than the Noblemen. There are ftately Palaceshre, of which1 will only mention that of the Marquis Rinucci^ becaufe to me it feem'd to be one of the moft confiderable in the City. 'Tis very magnificent, and ofa vaft exw -tent. The Grownd-Floor contains three large Apartments, the firft Story five, and the fecond as many. The Stair-cafe of this Palace is very much efteem'd for its Contrivance. In one of the Halls are two large Piftures The firft is the Confecration of the Emperor CbarUsW. perform'd by the Pope at Bologna: The fecond reprefents Frederic IV. King ofDenmark giving Audience to the Senate of Bologna: and their complimenting him on his Arrivai. In another of thofe Halls are two other curious large Piftures; the one of Cardinal Rinucci, having Audience of the Kingof Poland whenhe was fent to him as Nuncio and the fecond fhews the fame Cardinal receiving the Cap from LewisXIV. King of France^ at whofe Court hewas Nuncio when he was promoted to the Purple. The Apartments adjoining to thefe Halls are alfo

Ee 4

adorn'd

424.

BOLOGNA.

adorn'd with excellent Paintings and very richly furnilh'd. The Churches of Bolognaare not lefs magniticent than the fineft Churches in Italy. I thought that of St. Paul the moft worthy of Remark, which is fcrvM by Bernardine Fryars. The Roof is adorn'd with Paintings reprefenting the Hiftory of St. Paul. Thefe Pftures which are highlyeiteem'd are the Performancesof Antonio Caccioliand Rolli two Natives of Belogna, and they have both outdone themfelves. The Painting of the Dome where St. Paul is reprefented on his Knees ready to have his Head ftruck off is admirably fine. The high Altar is of Marble of various Colours, fini/h'd with a great deal of Art. The Seatsof the Monks are of Wallnut~Tree, and over them are feveral Piures of the Life of St. Paul drawn by an able Hand, who was Caracbe's Pupil. The Churches of St. Catherine ofBobgna, and St. Micbael in Bofa are wdl worth the Travellcr's Obfervation, on account of the choice Piftures with which they are adorn'd. St. Micbael' in Bofcoftands upon an Eminence three Miles from Bologne, to whtch there's an Entrance thro' a cover'd Gallery made like a Piazza. 'Twas a Work erecled by the Citizens of Belogna; out nf their Dvotion to a miracuJoas Image of the Holy Virgin which is rcverenc'd in thi Church. The Legatt's Palace is very ancient, but grand and magnificent. 'Tis as ftnftly guarded during th Vacancy of the Holy Seeas if the Enemy were .at the-Gates of the City. All the Avenues to it are hung with Chains The Stoifs Guards are arm'd with Cuiraflca The Guard which confifts of fifty Soldiers is, barricaded with Pallifades and Chevaux de Frife, and the Palace-Gate is defended by eight PicesofCanaon.

Wbat

3 .J

Florence.

425

What remains for me to tell you of Bolognais, that 'ris one of the Cities in halj where a Foreigner finds moft Amufement. The Nobility not only ftrive to give him Pleafure, but he has fine Paintings to feaft his Eye, and here are often excellent Concerts of Mufic, Opras, and Comedies, charming Walks, and genteel Country-Houfes which I take to be all that can be defir'd in Life. FiomBebgna I travell'd in two days to Florence, afper having been dragg'd in my Chaife thro' the Aptnnines^aprodigiousRangeof Mountains*,which is a thing I mail never do again while I live for I reaUy fuffer*dvery much in this Road, and if ever you Ibuld have a fancy to comethis way, 1 would advife you to carry Provifions or a Cook with you, for mreis not one confiderable Place in all the Road. Fiortnzohy which is almofthalf way, is a forry little Town. From thence to Scarperia the Road is extremely rugged. One defcends a high Mountain pav'd hkc aScair-cafc, which to attempt in* Chaife, youare fure of being, if mayfocallit, broke upon the Wheel, and threfore 1 chofe to walk down. At Scarperia the Road becomes more pafible, and it mends as you corne near Florence. In our Way we pafe'd thro' a Town calld Ponte that ftands at the Foot of a Hill, where the Great Duke bas a Caftle which appear'd to me to bc very well fortify'd. One perceives Florence a great wayQfF, and indeed it makes a fine point of View to fee fo great a City in a bedtiful Valley between Hills which rife infenfibly, and end at length in high Mountains, inhabited in fuch a mannermat they may be reckon'd the Suburbs of Florence. The River Arno pafls thro' both the City and the Valley. Among all the Cities of Itafy, Florencemay juftly be furnamed the Fair, fince it has all that can be defied in a great and wealthy Town, fuch as facred and profane Edifices,

426

Florence.

fices, Bridges, Monuments, and Fountains; yet 'ris not fo large nor popvlous as Btilogna. As 1 enter'd Fkrence I perceived over the Gate a Table of white Marble with a Latin Infcription on it, as foliows:
FLORENTIA, KIJB, ET Advint Friderici IV. DA-

NoRVEGIiE, QUOD IAM SUApRiESEWTIA augusta JMPLEVERIT, Mense Martio.

AUGUSTI, FELICIS, MAGNUS HoSPES felix, AN. S. i708.

'Twas the late Great Duke Cofmo who caus'd this to be engrav'd to the Honour of the Kingof Denmark. The City of Florencehas been fo well defcrib'd that 1 fhall pafs very briefly over ail that relates to the Buildings. The Square call'd Piazza del Gran Duca or the old Palace, contains Ornaments enough to embellilh a great Town. Hereyou fee a fpacious Fountain which Cofmo I. caus'd to be bilt after the Defigns oAmminati and Pbilif Baldinacci, two of the moft famous1Sculptors at that Time. Not far f remthis Fountain is the Equeftrian Statue of CofmoI. which is rais'd upon a great Pedeftal of white Marble, with this Infcription engrav'd on the chief Front ofit:
Cosmo MO, Medici, PIO, Sacre AUTHORI, Ferdinandus AN. CIO Magno Felici, EtrurijE Duc JUSTO, PriCle-

MENTI, TRURIA OPTIMO, EREXIT,

Invicto, Militi.* PaTRI F.

in EPacisque ET PRINCIPI MAG. Dx III.

13 LXXXXIIII.

On the other three Sidesof the Pedeftal are very fine Bas-Reliefs of Brafs. The firft reprefents CofmoI. recogniz'd for Sovereign by the Senateof

lorenca

Florence*

427

CoFlorenu the fecond the Ceremony of Cofmo''s. in ronation, and the third the fame Cofmo an antique triumphant Car making his pompous Entry into Sienna, which was fubmitted to his Government. Ferdinand I. de Medicis when he ereed this Statue to the Honour of his Father, employ*d in the Direction of it the famous John Boogna, who has very well anfwer'd the Opinion that had been conceiv'd of him. In the Great Duke's Gallery near the Square, 1 faw the greateft Curiofities, both among the Antients and Moderns. A Bufto of Alexanderthe Great, the eut famous Statue of Venus% by Apollodorus,with thofe of the Emperors and Empreffes of Rome, and the greateft Perfonages of former Centuries the beft Originals of the greateft Painters and a thoufand uncommon things, fuch as Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, Emeralds, Saphirs, Topazes, Amber, Porcellain, Cryftal, Porphyry, Coral, Marble, and Granite, the Particulars of which wou'd form a Volume. They are aually engraving on Plates, and feveral Perfons of Quality are contributing to the and Expence of this fine Work,whichisconfiderable, for which excellent Defigners are employ'd. This wou'd have been worthy of the Great Duke, an it feems to me that this Prince when he fees hi? Family extinct, and his Eftate pafs into the hands of Foreigners, ought at leaft to eternize the G'ory of his Anceftors by publilhing an Inventory of the immenfe Wealth which they have acquired, ?nd tranfmitted to their Pofterity. Of ail the Churches in Italy there are none more magnificent as to the out6de than the Dome of Milan, and the Cathedral of Florence, both which are entirely lin'd with Marble of varrous Colours. A Citizen of Florence, who pretf.nded to know the Hiftory of this City perfeftly well, affur'd me that its Cathedral was built out of the Impoft of
five

428

F L 0 R E N C E.

five Souswhich had been laid upon every Pice of Cloth that was then fold at Florence but 1 believe you may without Breach cf Charity take this for a Story. Over againft the Cathedral is the magnificent Baptiftery, to which there's ail Entrance thro' three Gates or Brafi, fo artfully wrought that Micbael Angelofaid they were good enough to be the Gates of Paradife. St. Laurence** Chape, which is not yet finifh'd, is the Admiration or ail Connoiflurs, and is defign'd to be the Place for the Burial of the Great Duke, whofe Remains are to be depofited in a Maufoleum of wonderful Workmanfliip, adorn'd with precious Stones. 'Tis 150 years ago that this Chapel has been building, and yet it wants two Thirds of being fini1h'd. If it were lawrul to criticife the Condut of Princes, I rfluft fay it again, that the Great Duke, who fees that his Greatnefs and his Family muft end with him, ought to put the laft hand to this Monument of the Magnificence of the Medicis For can he hope, that if he himfelf ncgleds to tranfint the Luftre of his Family to Poftenty, his Succefforswill think to do it, who are nothing to him, or at leaft but vcry little? But fuch is the Humour of John GajlonGreat Duke of Tufcany he is fo indifferent and unconcern'd about every thing, that he fees Foreigners difpofe of his Domimons, and nominate his Succeffor, and the Courriers ready to abandon him and to worihip the faid Succeflbr; and yet the Profpecl, how difagreeable foeverit may be, does not feem ro give him any Uncafinefs And he faid fome days ago, after he had fign'd his Laft Will and Teftament, declaring Don Caries Infante of Spainbis Succeffor, tha bebadjuftgot a Sonand Heir bya Dajb ofhis Peu, vobicbbe bai not heenablt topt in itnrty fontyears Marriage.
Thus,

42O Thus, Sir, 1 have given ail you will have of me this time touching Florence,where I cou'd ftay but a few days, and then made no Acquaintance, havin<* only been taken up in feeing the Curiofities of this City. At my Return from Rome1 propofe to corne hither again, and make fome ftay in order to get & little Knowledge of the Court and then you fhall be inform'd of every Remark that I make. From FlorenceI went and din'd at Caftillancello, and lay at Sienna a City in the Duchy of Tufcany, to which CofmoI. de Medicis made it fubjeft, not without great Refiftancefrom the Siennois..TheCity which is both an Archbiflioprick and an Univerfity, is very pleafantly fituate, and enjoys a very good Air. 'Tis faid that Italian is fpoke here with more Purity than in any other Town in Italy. It feem'd to me to want Inhabitants, for 1 went thro' feveral Streets and did not meet a Soul. 'Tis faid that a great many of the Nobility are fettled in Sienna, and that Strangers are fure to meet-with a civil Reception here, but as I ftaid no more than one day, I had only a curfory View of the Town. The Cathedral appear'd to me to be a.-great and noble Building lin'd with Marble. -The Great Duke's Palace is ancient, but commodious. It has a Tower which is look'd upon as a fingular piece of Architefture. The Great Princefs Piolanteof Bavaria is Govcrnefs of Sienna. She liv'd formerly in this City, and was mightily belov'd in it; but fhe has refided for fome time at Florence. The Square which is before the Palace-is oval, and hollow in the Middle, fo that it maybe laid under-water like the Square Navona at Rome. From Sienna to Yiterbo the Rotd is extremely bad, 1 paflcd the Mountain of Radifocanit fituate in one of the vileft Countries in all Italy. At the top of the Mountain there's a Caftle, where a Garifon ThisPrincefciedin 1731,at Florent. d

S I E N N A.

43

V I T E R fi

Oi

rifon of fifteen Men is kept, with a Comrianding Officer, whom 1 found at the Houfe of Entertainment WhereI alighted. He had been a Lieutenant in France in the Royal Italian Regiment, and fpoke very good Frencb. He told me that the inhabitants under his Govrnment were as bad as the Country, of which fome Moments after, I faw a Proof. A Mule-driver having a Quarrel with the Drawer, the latter ftabb'd him with a Knife in the Rim of the Bdly, with as much Sedatenefs as if hehad been doing a good AcVion and the Commandant never caus'd the Aflafln to be apprehend. ed for which when I exprefs'd my Surprize to him, he faid he had nothing to do out of his Place i and that befideshe did not dare to caufe the Aflafln to be apprehended, becaufehe had three Brothers as wicked as himfelf, who wou'd not fail to take a Revenge if he was punilh'd. And then, faid he I fliou'd hve enough to do if I were to caufe ail to be apprehended who give Wounds with Knives. a is a forry little Town, nd yet Aquapevdente is a Metropolis. BoLSENA no better, and MONTEriAscoNE tho' a Bifhoprick, wou'd not be worth mentioning, were it not for its Vineyards which produce excellent Mufcadine Wine. VITERBO, three Leagues from MoHtejkfceHet feem'd to me to be a pretty Town. 'Tis adorn'd with three fine Fountains, and* pavMwith great Flint Stones which are four foot long and two foot broad. This City has fome fine Houfes in it. 'Tis the See of a Bifhop, and its Cathedral is a Strufture which does not want for Grandeur. In this Church the Archbilhop and Eletor of Cologn was confecrated by Pope entdiB XIII. who came hither on purpofe to fave the Eledlor ail manner of difpute about Precedency with the Cardinals; who were in their turn fo difgruntled with the Pope, that none of them accompany'd him in this Journey.
MON-

RNCIGLIONE.

MONTE N a pretty Town, but 'RONCIGLI~nretty RoMcic~Morose ONE.outdolit; andindeedin ail the Ecc1efiaftical State there is not a pleafanter. It drives a great T~e 1n Snuff. and don't think 1 -camehither yefterdayat Noon, ofgoing away 'tU this Evening myChaife being broke. 1 hopehowever lie to this Night at Ra~e, from whence 1 parwe to fend You ~y good Stories fonbwith.~u will do me a P"fure to etmehmr from you; and to beYours,f~c. Jieve me in It"~ewhere,

43$

JBw/ c/ ^/e I.

HQOKSf Vgagts, and Travels, atey pul>lijh% D. Browne, witbout Temple-Bar. printedfer 1. /& Collection of Voyages an Tr aveu fotne now firlt prieted from original Manufcript, others now firft pubiifb'd in Englifli with a gnera! Prface, giving aa Account ofthe Progreis of Navigation from iu t Bcginning. Illuftrated with a great oumber of ufeful Mapi end Cuti curioufly engraven la 6 Volumes, Folio. Prie 9 N. B. Thofe Gentlemen who have the firft four Volumesof this Colkion, which were commonlyali'd Churchill s Travels, c may have the jth and 6th Volumes to corepleat their Setts. n. Mr. LEBnuvN** Tkaveu into Mufctvy, Ferji, and the E*ft Indus containing an accorate Defcrtption of whatever it rooft remarkablein thofe Countrietj and embelifli'dwith above P jzo Copper- late*, reprefentinf the fincft Profpcs, and rooft confiderableCities in rhofe Parts; the diffrent Habirs of tbe People, the fin^ular and extraordinaryBirds, Fifhej, and Plants, which are to be foond as likewife the Antiquitie* of thoft Coantries, and puticularly the noble Ruinaof the famous Palace of Ptrfifolh, call'd Chtlmbmr by the l'erfians: the wiole being delineatedon the Spot from the reipeive Objes. To which is added, An Account ot the Joarnev of Mr. Islrants, Embafldor from Mufiity, thro' Rujp and Turtuy to China: together with Remarkson the Travcls of Sir Jthn Ckuibt anJ Mr. Kempftr, nda Letter to theAutboronthat Subjed. Tranla latedfrom rhe French, with cheorigicalCoppcr-Piacci. In two Volumes, Folio. Price zl. to t. III. Remark* on fevcr^lPart* of Europe: relating chiefly to the Hiftory, Antiquitiei, and Geography of thofe Countries, rhta* which the Aurhor has traverd; as Frsttct, tbe Ltr^Ceuntries, lorrain, Alfrt'ut, Cermsny,Svutj, Tptl, Swit&erUad, taly, and Spain. Illuttratedwitb feveralAlaps, Plans, and above forty Copper- lates. ByJ. Bbeval E/qj In two Volumes, Folio. P Price s ri. IV. SIRHans Slo ane's Voyageto the IflandsoMaJif, Barttdces, Ntvij, St. Chri/itfhcr's, and Jmaica; with the Naturai Hifiory of the Herbt and Trees, Pour-rbored Beafts, Fifties, Birds, lafts, Rcptre, &c. of tbe laof thofe Iflinds. llluCtrated with the Figure* of the Thingt defcribed, in above 300 large Copper-PIates, a* bfg as the Lue, in 2 vol. Folio. Price Si. iot. N. B. The fcondVolume may be hadalone. V. Itinerarium Septentrionale; or a Jouroey thro' mort of the Couoties otScttUatd, and thofe in the North of ZngUni. In twoParts. Illn&ratedwitb 66 Copper-Plate*. ByjilexinJtr titrt* A. M. Folio. Price ooe.Guinea. VL Roma Iliostata: or Defcription of the moftbeautifal Pice*of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, antique and modern, at and near Roue. n a neat Pocket Volume. Price n.bd.

An Alphabetical 1 N D E X TO THE
FIRST A VOLUME.

Angeio, Michael, his fiying that of two Conceitain Gares wrre good eBbef~'es vents, the Ceremony nough for Paradf?, 428. of marrying them Anhalt-Cothtn, Princeiy, 17;. A bytveryy Doge of Venict, 400. Anbalt-Drjftu Leopold, Pr. 37. Their Drefs, 401. His Amour and Marria^e, and his Menacero (hoot his Tutor, AgriffM, Emprefs of Rome, 2f0. 33, 39. His Charaftcr by thc lare D. of Savoy, 39. Ahltn-Cafllt, in the Dutchy of Duke' s His Valour, 39, 4.0. His Ztli; theretreatotthe unfortunate Daughter, 62. Si. Government, t. A )X-LA-CHAPELLE, 199,3+1. Auguflus Lervh, Pr. his Wives and 1 (Tue,83. Albert, Margrave of Bnndtuourg, 81. Anhult- Zerbft, MgJ*len- Au* Alt'rt I. Emperor, 388. g*fi*, Duchefs of 54jr-GoAlbert II. Emperor, 388. tha, 18t. Anna-Mtfria's Vtol'n, 415-, Aller, R. 6t. Alpes, for whom thofe Moun- Anne, Princefs- Royal of Dontains were made, 395. mark, and Elerefs-Dowager Diftrefi of Altena, t. 53,y7. of Szxony, 100. the Inhabitants, S. Privi- Annt-Frederic*, of Tromnttt., leg'd Place for Bankrupts, 83. S9Aane-Soph'm-Charlettt, of Pr/^ ALTENaounc, t. 167. fa, Duchefs olSaxe-EyftnMch, Althm, Connt and Countet, 18,. Armunci*tion-ViflTt!, done by ff, 156. Tn/ r and Titi/ut, 419. Amelia, Emprefs of Germany, 228 co jo, &c 344. Sec r4< Anspach, 195,104. Amr.inA. Srulptor, \x&. denbturg. /toiirr. Cardinal of Auflri, Anthony Ulrie, D. of Brttnfwic390. LuntnbuTg-Wolftmbuttlt, 6g, St. AnJrnt't Order of iinfttvy, 7n 7. 75' 79Anmont'% Statue, 370. 76. 1

Vol. I,

Ff

j-

An Alphabetical Index
Anttn'itttt-Amelia of BritnfmicPUncktniourg, 72. AptUtdtrut Staruary, 4*7. JbtlUni, the Singer, 41 . ^/W, a Merchant ar Leiffic, his Houfe the Relider.ce of the K. of PoUnJ.Ss. Afpennint Moumiins, 41}'. Aquapendente, f. 430. Arch-ducbeffts, a; z, 153. 3S1. the brft Article Archittlturt, that Princes can lay out their Money in, 10. jfrtmbcrg, Duke and DuchefsDowjger, 3}*, 333. Argenfin, M. dr, 355. Arlington, Counteis of, 67. Amhtm, Mat du' de, 40. Arnim, Sigi[mni de, 146. Arnould, Se. 166. luflrlan Prites, ietnirkab!e for an Air ofGravity, 1 1 1. Their Pcoplc's Avertion to \cB*b*The feurvy Pua mi*w,22\. of a Fnntb Jefter upon them, 228. Their Epicurifm, 253. Tljeir FondPride, 154. nc for thc Title of Count, xif dits Aujir'mn and Larrain Famines united, J3, 341. Auvergne, Princcfles, 33*. 33B. M. Ch^ncellor of Saxe B Achever, GttU, 182. V*dm Dtdtn, Margrave andMargravine, 21;, 299, 300. Badea-DturUuh, Cbrijlian,Margraveof, 181, 7Q. Charlu.

.dWiwr, Princeof #W, 389. 19;, 196. 298. Margravine, Augsbourg, 27;. lts Com98, 300, 301, jo+. puifon with Antwerp, 175. BuJiani, Count, 244. Its chiefTrade, 27f, 276. Babltirg, AJtlphui, Baron of, AHgufl,of Saxa-GorhR, Prin184. Baldintuci,Pbilif, the Sculptor, celjofW'/i, 161. 42b. AHgupts III. K. of P/W, 97, 99. His T rave! and Con- Btlls of Btbtm, compar'd with thofe in the H*y-ii*rket, versionto l'opery, 101. His IX}. Mariage, io, 16;. His r. Love and Duty to his Father, BAMBERG, 201, &c. the 104. Hit Eleion and Comighty Prerogative of its Tonation, o. His Tutor, Bifhop, 201. 126,^117. His Qjccd, 98. Barbi, t. 82. Their Children, go. Barehh,Margraves. SeeBrandtnbturg. AuguftHiWilliam D. of Brxnf m'u-LunenburgWolfembuttlt, Bakeith, t. 104. Princefs, 30;. 69. 7 73 Atnuflm-Abm, Prince oitruf- Baron, the Title purchafid in fia, ii). Germait) by a Meffcnger, af6. Angu(iut, Emperor, 273. Auiic Ctuneil, at Berlin, 14. Bajfet, how a Lady msde her Gillant's Fortune at it, ftAt I^mm, 244. Tmtt of the City of Bafi-VUli, a Gtrman Dukc's St. Amftim's Fondne for 'em, 168, to God, 179. itnow 171. jtM/lri Hou&.ofwbom coniftt, 13]. A Wifh rhat Bavaria, Elcaors of, 259, iSa. it nevermay beextin-, 133, 163. Its Dirilion, 167. Riches and Revenues 167, lu great Alliance),zjo. 168.

to the Firft Volume.


i8. Ele&orefs, $<$$, 364. 1rs Apoftle, 365. Btmtffn, M. V/ Henry de, 104, 127, i8. Bmttngzrttn, General, 84. Btaufort, Marquis de, 135". Benufoire, M. i$\ Stimur, Marquis de, his Confpiracy, 409. Bticbling, M. Chancelier, 91. Btiebling, Countcft Dowager, 141. BelgrMit, 24.8. Belvedtrt-Paimct, 4. Btrudkl XIII. Pope, 337, 430. BtntHints, a fort of Republic form'd in that Order, 190. Btnfon, William, Eiq; Oireor of ihe fine Waterworks at Hirnhaufin, 67. Bentivoglio, Cardinal, his Re mark upon the /3(/>j and the neighbouring People, 595. 'Bergtnofx.oom, 3). t. 3. Its Obligation Berlin, to the Irtncb Refugees, 3. 1rs A^adeniy, 147. Xtrn/dorjf, John Harjrtig Erneft, Baron oS 1 55. Berfchen, t. 394. Beverea, Baron de, $3+, 335. Bevcrn, Brnnfivic Branch, 71 Charles, Prince of, 6, 72 Ferdinand- nlbert. Prince oi. 70, 71, 71. Etiz.aittti-C bri 71. Princefs, Bilind-i, Coont and Countef, u S. S'Jl'ifrhk. which the fi ft in roi. Ge>-CTKir, S/'tfe never given by a certain Gtrraan Kamily, 363 Blanc. M. fie, 306 Blanche, Mary, Wife to rhe Emperor Miiximitian, 389. BUnckHibittg, County,g. BLAKCKENliOURtr,t. 76, 78. Stupidicy uf the Peopie, 7S. and DuDuke TheDuke's chefs, ,76,78. ? Treaty with th: ElL-lorof Uanover for a Vote and Seac in the Dyct, 79. His ACccflon to theTitle ofthe D. of Wtlfembutt! 80. BUnckrnbm ManJtrfielJt Francis George, Count de, 3H. loektnheim, t. 340. Ethtmi, no, m, &c. 144. Whc:e and by whom its Kings and Qurtns are confeIts Saints, ib. crated, m. The Wealth and Grandeur of its Nobility, and the Poverty and Slavery of the Pc.ints, 218, 119, 121. Its States, of whom compos'd, 212. Their Avetfioa to theJufiri m, 212. Btlagnos, Count de, 397. Bolegna, John, 417. t. lioLOOTJA, 41}, 4X4.
SioLsANO. t, 392.

Belfen.t. 430. Bork, the trHjJian Miniftcr and General, J i 41. Itift, Countcfs of, I4f. BoJJagtio,t. 394. Ilot, the Arctiireft, top 18. ("ompar'd to Jltrnini, 94., Sothmar, Couvtde, tif.. Bouillon, Princes, whyihcy had rh Title of Domefiic HighniTes, tlo. Bourbon and Atijri, Houf.our Author's Wifli tint they mii;ht never be extincV, 233. Hnurcn, Duclielsof, 310, 331. Uourg, Marllli de, 306, 307. Srarn/enourg, Elcttors ot", Jt' achim 11. ijj6. Jbn Gtorge, 104. BrandttiboHrg, Ltvis, Margrave of, jhy. Br*ntnbourg Anjptch, Mit' graves, (^-r. of, 193, &c. 195.

H z

1 JI

An Alphabetical Index )6i. Margraviat 194. Her Brunfwu Lmntnbmrg WlftmPrtent to our Author, 197. buttU, Duke of. 131 Deatb in this Family pre- Bnctnt*ur, a fine VenctianGaltended to be always foretold 'ey, J99 47by the Appearanceof a Spirit, Bm/,Baronde, 6f, 66. Ba196. rooefs, 66. Mar- Burgam, Cbtrlts, Margraveof, BrtnJenbtitrg Ssrtith graves, 200, &g. 205, 8cc. !9. 5*3. 3* Chtrlti Burgundy, the Bold, t. i. Brandenbourg, Duke of, 389. Tbilif Duke, Brandtnhurg SchwiJt, Marquis 389. of, 26. MargiavineDowager, Buthltr, Cmflunt'm, Baron of, I2f. t84. Bwdjltin, Frtitric-Auguflm de, 14c. C. Brtbentau, Mademoifelede.i 6, 1 their PrePre. f^Ab'mtt Minifttrs, "57the cedence C cedence at atthe Court of JBrebtntau, tbe Palatine ot Ma- Sruff, 134. ccieli Anttn, Paioter, 414. rienianrg, 163 Bnittniimck, Htnry Jugafint Cndtts jicddtmiis, 48. de, t 46. Ctfar'iVfu withP#/y,painted, Bremtr, M. de, 195. C*lltnbtrg,AMgHflM'Hnry Brnntr, Mountain, 391,392. CM* CH~M~<~~ou-Nny GittBrtjUu, the Road from it to Ui, Count de, 145. Btrlm, 1. C*mkt, Madame de, 2f. ButenvUlitri, Marquis,Reflec- C*mki, Melfieurt de, 44. tion on hts Memoirs, 337. Cm^(, afamousPsinter, 6i. Brtzt, Marihalde, 321. Csrintbim,Htmjf Duke of, 387. Brhousel, t. 1 8. C*rlowitt.,Jibn-Gttrgt de, 147. Brimfttm, prefcrib'dto the j4m- Treaty, z38. Virtue t. ao8,8cc. JirUns by a Trntb JeBer, Cahlsbad, 118. of its Bathf, ii. Brixen, t. 391, 394. t. 393. Carlsrouhe, Bricks, a Hnmburghtr and Poet, Ctnlint, Princeft of SMxt-Sj/fituub, iif.SiBrou, M.oe, 306. Ca/ftl, cHeffe. Brnhl.John and Hrr de, 104,, C*fitl, Count de, 195. 129, i%o, 131, 132, 140. CiflilUneellt, t. 419. Adtlfhut de. 1 40- Baron de, Ctfch,M. a Minjftcr oitmJJU, f. 17. 474. >77Bru -/fie Hnnetiir, Jhn-trtitrh, CMKtnilltnbigtn, pper County, u Duke of. 219..(i 3S7St. Brmfmt Famiiy,jfy. 69. 71. Cbaint. that bound St. Fmm>, The Princes defeended from P/, and St. J'oAn, three Links of them, 198. H. HlM. Bbuhsvic, t. 69, 7f. Chliikf, 37. Ltv'u Charhmtin's Crown and Sword, BrmnfVJc-BUncktnbeurg, 199. ChtrUs, Margrave of ttJtlf, Dukeof, 70, 131. Burgau, 390. Chtrltt II. o K.

to the Firft Volume.


K. of Sph, j87. Charles Clovis, K. of France, 383. IV. Empior, 387. Coburg, t. 100. Charles V. Einpsror, 381, 387, C.thorn, Engincer, 328. +ZJ.. Cohten, t. 83. CharlesVI. Emperor, 70, 230, Ctf/iu, Altxnitr, Statuary, 386. 3+i. His Diverfions, 133 Cdljmdt, Count, 220. HisFriendflVpand Gratitude, Colhniiz., the Count and the 2J<i. His Love for ihc Em- Cardinal, 1+8, 24g. pref, 1 fj, Remarks on his CtllowTAt, Count and Countefs, Coronation, 341. 133, 143. Charles CbriJlUa, Prince of Complimenter!, naulcous, 199. trHJji, 115. Ctnde, Princefs of, 344. Charlts, K.of Strjini, jjy. Cenftrtncts, Counfcllors of, 240, Charles XII. K. aSveien, 55, 244f6, 12}, 12*. CciftMnce, Couneil of, 1 339. Charles,Prince Pihtineof Sultz- Coquets, in Fenict, the Place of i*ck, 3jx. their R.endtivou<, 41J. Chtrlu, the Bold,Dukeof Br- Ct^m, lQind, 408. Ctrntre Family's Tomb, 404,. <^, 89. Cimrlti-Albtn, Eleor of B. Ctftl, Countefs of. Miltrels of the late K. of PoUnH, 90, r 1 *", 9 t62, 163. His Ekttor>-ls, 263. 117, 118, 120, 124. Her Charles- Lmit, Eleor Palatine, Menaces againft him, 118. Count, ht, 274, 34a, 8i, 583. Pi,7/f 136. Her ditto, ji8, 3o, 331. His Daughter, 142. Revenues, 3^7. C/mt I. Dukeut flortntt, 426, 4*7 CiirUtttmturg Houfe, Jj. ChUi-burUgy afcrib'd to the Ctfin, Count de, toi, 123. Miraclesof the two BehemUCtutti of the En)pire, tbeir Pre. Sainrs, ai}, 214. heminener, 287. CbrijlUn, Margraveoi Brtndm- CourUnd, Duchefs Dowager, 200. burg-Burnth, 200. ChriftUnhrms, Margrave of Crnut, his furprifing Rife from Vlric, behind the Compter to th Brtndmburg, 18. Duke of Wirtemttrg-Oels, Mmiftry,4. and BtnftJ, 83. William, Creutx., M. de, Vrujpa* Miniof StxiGoth, Prince, 181. fter, s, 4f CbriJliaM-Lauif, of Oetmgtn,C'eutztr, Coin, 178. DacheotBlanckinturg, 70 CrJftn,t.1. Cbriflina, Princefsof Sxi Wii/- Ctdmbacb BrgnJnburg, Marfiifrls. 114, 1 if. graviate, 204. Gitrgt-WreCbrifftfbtr, St. where moft dtric-Charlei, tbe Margrave, worftiipped,394. o;. His Family and ReveCietront, the Meaning of that nues, 204, &c. 208. Word in // 395. Cuutgonda, mprefs, herTomb, E 201, }87. Cinfiuntu, Count de, 144. Cltilhiim, 37;. Cap, which Jtftpb put in BeCti/cHf Bittle, 163. jmm'tSck the Reafonour
3 Au-

An AlphabeticalIndex
Aotbor had to remcmber that Paffage, 104. Cuflomi, x remarkble Attachment to old ones, 78, 79. CyprUaus, Dr. 179. Cyprui, Csrnaro, Q. of, 406. Ciutrtmhx., yo.

Dtrubj, ElereTs of Brandiburg, 19. DRESDEN, 87, 157, &c. t. Drinking hard, in Gtrmnny, our Author'shumourous Account how u affeed him, 184, 187, ta ipo, 104, 325, to 3x7. Where he reckons it D. an iofeparablePunition of the M. de, Grand Eccleluftkal Courts, 204.. Marflal of SaxeGptba, Duhamel, Francis, General, 7, DAinnitx., ,L/ 1 cii. ' 41 1 HisLady, 411. Baron de, 15. Duvaine, General, > DancAtlman, He prophties his owa Fate, Durai, a fimous Soop-maker, 16. f.

M. 306, J07. Dtngtrvillien, Dsmnthirg, Henry de, 71. Danebrcek Order, 74. George AiGrorge-~l Dntx.\c\t, t. mvdted, 107. Re- ~A.f-Friefand, EJJ! t-crl^ Prince O, 208. Vritfand, duc'd, to8, 109. iqj. Eit/, Gf'jtril. Tifitnbc, R. 278. EhiftJ'l, Jsbn (Siorge de, 14;. Earm(ldt,. iyf. Landgraves. hrhj^M, Curt ne, 144. His i/uiy, 14+. 3f7, 36Vaun, Count and Marlhal de, tinfudtl Dater, Henryde, 146. 24.6, ^70. tlmitor, Emprefs, 140, ^81. J>tginfdit ($ch$mberg) Count de, Eieoncra, Princefs of Htubourg, 4l 4130. Z)f<r, Count de, 7, 7J. A Eleonem-ThiliptiM, Princefs of vrry fine Danccr, as well as Htjfi Rhinftls, 332. Miniller of State, 74. FMiaeth, Emprefs o(Girm*ny, T>ej*uir*'f, Story piimcd, 383. 131, 8cc. Her Abjurationof the Lutbtran Religion, 23t. J^7t, Countel'sof, 66. ElizaietbSepbi of Br*ndenDtnhojf, Graera!, y. The Diomari, Q. of, o8. bourg, Duchefs Dowager of Prince Royal, 10S. CourUnJ, zoo. of X>rvw, Tapeftry-maker at 2r/- ElizAbetb-CbriftiuM Oetingta, Duchcfs cf BUttcktnbturg, fils, ij6. DUttrichfttin, Count, 147. 76. DebtrgMiky, M. 35. Elvsn.t. 378. P plga ot Vtaitt, their Maniage EtiMnmel, rince of &n>jr, 138. of the Sea, and of the Ab- EmigrMMt, S*ltx.hurg, 375-, of befiei cf two Convenu, 399, 376. 400. Emfertri of Germai* the CeXhbnm, Count de, 6. remooy of their Audiences, 21f. Their Dining, ta. Dtrffling, a Taylor, bis Rire to be a General in the Army, Suppers,ai 7. Pifturcs, 3 70. * Emprejfei,the Refpe paid to theai, i8 to a jo, (ce. Dtrotbta-Sipbi,Princefs of frujp*, 19,

fa*-

to the Firft Volume.


His Merit and 70,71,7. Emfrefs Dowager, 129. Preferment, 72. Etfarultr. the Archited-, 10. Erdm*nfJorjf, Ernejl-Ferdintnd Ferdinand Mary, EeSor of Bvari*, 15g His Wifir, 260. de, 144.. t. 1 78. Ferdinand, Duke of Bavarh, Erfurt, Erlangen, Cbrifiinn, t. 100. 263, 264 His Duchefs, 263. Bmt]l-Aguft*>, the firft Elcc- Ferrara, t. 423. tor of oeftr, 63,67. How Fine^, of Fincktnfiein, Counr, he obtain'd that Dignity, 15. 68. Fierenzila, r. 415. and his Ferrtti*n, Barons of, 367. trnefi, ArchDuke, Wife, 389. Fjlnrmin, at Venice, their Election ot their Doge or Chief, Zrntji-Augujlus, Dukeof&mWtimar, 173. 402. rw/2 the Pm, Duke of Go- Fiix.luhm, Count de, 91, 141. His Daughrer, 1 o. /m, 178. Cliquette, in fotcign Courts, Fleming, James- Count de, l'rimeMinifter of Toi ami, whsr, 11+. ttlingtn, t. 303. 73,74,89, 90,91, ioj, 115-, Zversberg, t. 364. 14+, ij2, 155-, 162. His ReaiTm for emp'oying Fo* Eugtiit ot 54ty, Prince, his Palace. 23a. HisCharaaer, reigners before Saxons, \y;. The Origin of his Family 237, 141. His Rgiment of His Sick and his ducation, 162- His Dragoons, 137. Pa-fcrmeiusfrom firll to hft, nefs, Oeith. and Intermenr, His Marrijge and i6i,&c. 158. His Etnployments and His laft lis DucIf, 163. 16c. His Eftate, 2}3, 240. Omduct with rcjtird ro PatWill, 259. His Library, 131). trtl, 164. His Eftjte, i6f, His Nephew, 159. 166. His gnerai Charafter, Exctlltnc/, the Vtntt'umi Fond166. nefs for theTitls, 410, 421. Eysen'ach, t. 1S3. Scc^jc*. Fleming, Madcnioiftlle de, u6. Fleury, ivlarquisdr, 13$-. CarF. dinal de, 141 11 T~.A<XM,t H<rM~Ltdy, t f, Flohence, t. 4.1f. J[< 116. FAtim,a T*rki(k Lady,1 1 f, Fobfen. Mademoifclle de, 3?. Tavonrit, the Empcror's Pa- Forenim, how hc l'ived the Life of the Elcor of Brandenhce, 134. t Tmftin,he Singer, 411 tourg, ci. Fore, Marp.nl de, 3.11. FtrieUin,t 50. FerdinandI. <frMidic'u,427. Forchs, the Starojt aflTinatcd, ItrdiiMHd,K. of Co/i/i, 387. ffFirdinatd, K.. of ihe Kw, Fr*nifrt, on the Rhine, 340. Privilge ofthofe herccalled }8i. I. Emperor, 385, Rcfidcnis, 342. Ftrdinmnd 387. Hie Son's Tomb, 389, Francfort, on the OJer, 1. 1. Francis I. K. of France, his foand Wite, 390. ie m Affirmation, zij. Uriintnd-Albm, D. ofBnnfvic-Luntnitwrg and Btvtrn Irmnni, Duke, 18;, 191. tf+ + Fr4-

An Alphabctical Index
fr*n\inbtrg. Baron de, t'56. c. 358. Frankenimhi., FrtHtnjUd, tiV\e, t6%, Frdric, of Jtuftri, nick-nam'd rhe Fennylefi Prince, $Sc, 386, j.83. Titdenc, Eleor Palatine. who was chofc K. of Bohemit, 110. Frdric IV. F.mperor, jS?, 388. His Mother,'8p. Frdric, Eleoral Prince of Saxony, 99, 11t. Frdric II. Duke of Getba, 180, 181. III. theprefcnrDuk'?, His Brothrr WiS 1,182. liar, 1R1. Hit other 8rothe~' and Siflers, and bis Revenues and Guard;, Sec. 182. Wnitric-AugiiQus II. K. of Polaml, +, 10t. His Nstivity ca'cu'atfd at Ven'ut, 9;, $6. His Dcath, 96. His Queen, and her Death, 97. His Change of Re'igioo, too. The Method he took to con101. His Naverth'sSon, tural Iffur, iif, Sec. Hit Generofi-y, 164. Fsederic IV. K- of DtnmarVt CompaflTton to the Altnais, f 8, g. Hit Queen's Retirement, 59. His giving Audience to the Senate at BoUgn, 41 j, 416. Trtdiru, the Fuir, %\o. Frtdsric -William, Eleaor of t Br*ndinbmrg, his Statue, 9. His rcmarkable Speech to his SoMiers, $0. His iJaughter, 100. Vreicrit I. K. of Vttijfit, his Srarue, 8, 297. Prince Royal of Pruftndte. fa, z r. J~fftt sophia, Princefs of Pruffi, 2f. 16. Ptincefs of Tridtrict-Lti/ifa,

PthJP: 26. OfSMxi-Gctks, Princefs, 1S1. FrtdtricifilJ, Hoafe, 27.* Fritittrg, Baronde, 61. FrieJUnd,Henry-Frtdtric,Connt of. 113, IJ9, 14*. Friftni, an Archite, 288,190. Fucbi, Baron de, the PruJ/t* Minifkr, 4, 19, 41. Fuchi, Countcft de, 2fi. Count, 266. Fugger.Maximitiit, His generuus Entertainment of the Emperor Chrlts V. 176. Fubl, de, Great Marfhal,go. Fuloe, t. 184. Magnificence of its Abbot, 1 84. Convent, 380. Ff/lii/liMU, Furfttmttrg, Prince, 16/. Cardinal. 315. Furftnftldt, Abbey, 271, 273. G. (~*Al*, Days of, what, t26, V,T17, 28. 2 * Gl**t, Jtlm Duke of MiUn, 389 Gallafcb, Count de, 211 Grdmm, the bc in a!!Girm**y, 8f. Gtnmat, Chrifl'i, a Relique of it, 198. Ctfitn, John, Great Duke of Tufiany, 418. Gatis, thought by Mitbul AngtU to bc good enough for Paradife, 418. GttnbUttrt, Abbot of, hit fole Privilge of celebratingMaft booted and rpjrr'd, 191. Gtmming, Baron de, 208. QmtltMM, two Frntb Kirgs fondof the Title, 21c. George I. K. of Grtst- Bri si, his Wife, 61, 6t. Hi dminiftration, 61, 64, 68. George King, 64, 6c,. 11. GeergeWillumt Mar^rare of BrunitnbiHri-tmtiib, iQf. Gltrgt

to theFirft W.'uine.
Cutgi (St.) /obefsof, 2iz. Grunittrg, the Architefl, 6. Order B*va Un, 260. Guide, a remarkablc one thit was blind, 277. Gitrge I. Lardgrave of D*rmGhUs, the Name given to them ftd> 357 in Italy, 30^ Gtrrju* L nguige, irs Excelleocjr. "3, 195. Vanity of GulJtnfttin Huguetan, Count the Ge mns, 198. de, 3^. tic Cn-yS1, trtmb Arnbafldor,GimAuktr JiStanmbtrg, Counr, 397241. Gtrfne* Phyfician, 368. GufinvHs-Aiol^bus, 279, 274. Qtrjlirf, GttloiFrtdtric, Baron H. d' 47. M. de. 46. GtttruJt, k Mwetm* Lady, Hiftory of her. an enter- H,A*eR<t~M, Barun de, 7S. J*l 101. taining Novd, 343, <Je.Iw Haguenau, Key, 35^. 381, t. H*llt the largeft next to WejlGiUm (Sf.) Count de, 92. G//j Manufaaureoffnw,4io. minfitr, 215-. G/*m, Jtbn-rtitric Couot de, Hi<, t. 82, 377, 380. Uniwk or Gold, the Pleafure HAMBURbH, 51, 199. Itl t. with whicii our Authordrnk Difpute with Dnmnrk, 52. out of it| *n<thow hewifb'd Its Opera, 52. Its Mob, 54. to carry it oit, 204. Vindication of iti Citeni K. from the Charge of Cruelty GiJfrty of B*iU<M. of7to the Altttuit, f8. Their mfUm, 383. Gtbrn, Baronde, 45. Refpc4 to thejfi, si, 19. Gtrtx. (Htnry) Baron de, f4. llmilen,t. 68. Hit famout Copper Coin, Hmm, Count of, 3J9, 361, ;6. Hii Esecution, $7. 362. G#f/t, thc HamvirU, 6*. Hun, CburUtt-Chrlflh* of, fee G#<i4. $x,and frtitric, and 3*9t. Eru#/I. HANAU, 360. 362. Gotha, . 178. Its Duka, Hahover, 63, 68. R$m*n Catholicst hre, 63. Revenues 178, 17p. &c. Ducheifet, of the Eleftorate, 68. 181. The noble Library Eleaorefi of, 343, 344. here. 179. Their Revenues, 182. Harbouro,f 60, 68. GrMvtuitx., Count de, 284, totrdnhrg, M. GrakdMarfiial of Hantvtr, 64, 6f. 8y. 286. Gravtnitx., Countefs de, Miftrefi HttrUy, M. de. 306. of the D. of Wirtimbvg, Harrtuh, Count de, 24a, 367, 279, 28a, to 284. 368, 371. Gravit/, au Air peculiar to the Httttffi, Minifterscompu'd to Uuvth and Bsrhjux, 6f ,66. jMftrUn Princes, ni. Grtfb, the Value of that Coin, HuxfitU, gmmtCount, 33;. de, 8j. UMgwUx., Jthn-Jkltbm - GrumkH, the truflimn Minifter. 142. HSIDEL* f- 3'i 43verfity, 8.

An Alphabetical Index
Heidei.bero, t. 311, 311. Its H^/rf (St) his Ltgacy, 190. Noted for killingRats, 196. Decay to what owiog, }*j. 86, 10), Its famousTun,324. HUBERTSBOURCH, Heilrtn, J7f. U7Htnrittti-BentJiftot, the Prin- /fo/, 7A,3; 9. Remains of 'em, cefs Ptlatint, 229. the 116. htnry Il. Emperor, his Tomb, *O. I Htnry IV. Emperor, the pomthe Statuary,o. pous Interment be wifli'd bis JXAttbi, Epernics, 168. } Jtequtltt, M. if. Janfm, Cardinal, 315-, Htiiry III. K. of franc, 30p. Htnry IV. K. of Franet, bis 7#/, the Refpe (bewed them at Hambwg, f$, 59. Not Ambition to be called the firft Gentleman in hit King- tolra;ed at Anfftcb, and Their Puntftidom, ai;. why, ij8. ment for crucifying an InHtrtnkM*fmPalace, 67. fant of ChriftianParenrs on Htrftri Abbejr, tj. Htring, M. de,Vice-Chancenor Cbrifimtfi -iay, 116. Vaft number of 'em in BohtmU, of SxtGoth, 177, 181. 116. and the tsl*ti*t$, Hnmtgt, a Seat near Briltb, 357207. Htr&M, M*ximiMCount de, ugnt Baron, TrujfuinMinifter, 14.6. 31 4Iltn, Mrflieurs de, of Htuuvn, Hf/for, M. de, 108. 66,67. H#/ Princes, 357. HtjffCmffel, FhMf the Land- /a River, 364, 379, 380. t tatFRUC,. 3S0. grave of, 357, 362. Htft-D*rmJ!aJt, Ernefi-Lewit Junaf Caftillt, 387. Landgrave of, 357. His 7#Ws (St.) Village in Tircl, Wife. 3; 8. His Son andhis 378. Wife, 3f9. Hit Revenues 7<n& (Se) of ytr*fiUm, Ktf. and Troops,3<5o. of, 28. Htjfe-Rbirifeu,Pfincefsof, jja. 7* (St.) Ntpt muent, 212, Hudtfhiim, Baron, 33c. 113. of SltxAturg, Hothfltt Battle, 2a. 7A-rw*/?ABp. Hoffmun.Profeflbr of Phyfic at M//f, 20S. jn-Aiolfbut of Saxt-lVtiffmHobinle,Countde, 353. filt, 99, 1 14. helpin-Btck, UwFreJtrie Pr. yhn-Gtrg\. Eleor of &us of, ifo. y, 114. "Cbm>lu~lems Pr. Jtbh-Gtatgt III. E'eor.of of, 120, 150. Derotbj, Prin- Stxony, 94. ccfs of, 105. jfobn-GnrgtlV. Eleor, 94. Houtte, Chtlfttfhtr-frmth de, John-Augufiui of Ssxt-Gttbs, Pr. and Bp. of W'Hrtx.bntrgbt Pr. 182. 1 Adolfhus, itto, 18s. d 185. ftym, Count de, 91, 01, 117, 118. Hit Citlkophe, ij, 7*37-

to the Firft Volume.


John William, D. of Saxi-Eifiuacb, i8j. Eleor Palatine, 3*4. 3i8fanas, the MlGrenad;er,35. Joftfb, Emperor, 17+. ljer R. 258. Ijfelbacb, General, 336. t Judas" s Lanthorao be feen in two Places,81. Ixter, Barondc, 298. lagnafeo, Count, and Jtftpb* Countefsof, iji, i^i, 1^7, ISS.
Landau,. 313.

Lands, how entail'd, and how fecur'din Behemia,s r 8, s r 9. Ltrks, where they raoftabouod, 85. Laxtmbturg, the Emp:ror's Palace, 134. Leibnitx.,the Philofopher, ij-6. K Ltint,r. 63. Baron de, if. Leipsick, t. 8j. Why called 'tis K*m-MHflttph, Grand the Jewel of Saxon?,84. lis KAltfltm, Fairs frequented by a great V.ikr, 24.7, 148. number of Princes and PriuKf.hl, t. jof. Kendul,Dachcfs, 66. ceffes, $}. KiverhttUer, Counc 246. de, Ltnftnt, M. Author of theCouncil ofCw/8, 15. i Keyjtrimg Hermtmu Chut tt, iMptld of AuftrU, furnam'd tbe 54Midamede, 67. V'muut, 388. Kilmanfeck, Kutbtrg, Bironde, tf. Lwftld, Arcbduke, a 10. Kinski, Coun:s, 1^4, 120, m, Emperor, 230. of S*hzfourgb, bis *4+Bp. Houfhold and his Revenues, Kimkl, Countcfsof, 1y4. de, Klinx.dc Mademoiselle fr. 367. 375. Why compared Kaiphnuftn,Baron, the VrHJfmn to PopeSixtmsV. 367. Ltvttu Women, their great Minifter, JL44. Confinement witbin doors, Kalterfiwtx.,Countefs, 148. C Konickel, ount de, 381 rz. Xw'gf'ggy Count de, 147, 139, Ltunitz, Charles, 14a V His Marriage, i,>/j I. Landgraveof Darm14.1, 14). 143. HiiNcphew, 143, 144. ftai,V7Ltmiy the Hereditary Prince, Ktnigfitrn Caftle, 87. Koniitgfmrk,Aunr Countefs 3f9' t#w of BavarU, Emperor, of, 115. a6o, 387. Xuenbtsurgh Count de, 37). of BaJtn, Pr. 199, 303. Kundtbl, t. 370. of Sax$Gotha, P. Kurtx.rok,Baron, 74. Erne/? 182. Sf*ere, Duke of BL. a<fa varia, his Murd^r of bis Works, 170. i LAH*ntiui's Venttinn, n Masks, Minifter and biu Wife, 271. Wm, pick'4 up by our Author, His Repentance, 17;. D. of Brtinfvit411, and himfelf pick'J up Rodtlph, by a Lady in Diftrefs who luntnbirg, and BUncktnfcnew him, 416. ttutg, 70, 231. of Brtmdtnburg, -Margrave Lttliptii, King, 388. .7. 1.11'

An AlphabeticalIndex
ton, XV. K. of rranct, his Lunenburo r. 68. Marriage, 504, 309. Car- LuMnhurg-ZtU and Lutiurdinal Rahto's Speccliesupon Hontvtr Familiesunited, 61. if, jio, ai j. Luther, Martin, bis reilute ExI,ichitfltin Palace,136. preA'ionwhen difluadedto go t'uHUtuttuof thc Policeat PjWm, to the Dyet, 33c. *4<5. Lutzilbiurg, AnthtnyCount de. Unngt, M*ry-Chrifim-*licit, 1*3. Countc oi; her Husbands, M. 18}. lintr, Muru*-Cb*rlt$, Count Duchy yielded to de, 14). MAgMtnrg rhe Houfe of SrLint* f. 258. tttbtuTg, 80. Characr of it, 81. Vfski, Jobn-AUxnivr, Bp. of Magdebouro t. 48, 80. Crscrm, 149. P Jjtbkrmitx., r.and Priocefi, 342- Mintntn, Madamede, Miflre of Uwit XIV. her Fortune LtJrio, Couotiof, {65, 37J. told bj a Mifoo, 96. l*ftt, Generalde, 30. ttrrtin, Tr*nti$ Duke of. his M*khmHoufenear f//n, 19. Marriage to the Arcbducbefi, Mngtr, a Relique of our S*viour'i, 198. 253. H-f t. 327. Crlu.Vt. 1J9, 381. Manhiim Ltjtijii'm, Eltuur Cauateftof, Ututiuftl, Enufi Count de, M4 si. Itvtl, Baron df.kill'd in 1 Duel W<rf*, Julwi-A*gnjlus, Count wirh Count fUmmhtg, 16). de Ja 334,337. Marcmm Lady, the Hiftory lvtflti, Princcfs, ^42. leuif Dtrtlht Duchefi of of one, 344, <j^. of StxlGub, 181. Mmrgmrtt 3yr/ furnamMfi lemv0b, Marquifi, \o6. f iwi, and oicknam'd W^Uvndabl, mUtmr Baron of, /w*.387. 121. Hit Service to fix M*ri-Amt$ trtl'n* of MnrO Kinei. izi. His Wnrejand ^r/A 163. IiTue, 11a. Hi Son W*U*- UnrU-hUgiun, Archducbc, mar, 112, 139. 133,381. liwinitx,, Hrnry RJtlfb dt biarU nlixjtbttb*, Archducbefi and Governe of the NithirSchtnfitU. Lord of, 14$. Ihbtmirtki-Thirejn Elcorefc Undt, 233. PaUtiai, 330. MtrU-AmtllMPrincefi ofPrufLuiominki, Madame e, Rival fi, 113d to Flimt Turkifh Lady, MmrU-Awit S*pbi* Prince of Miftrcfi to the Ute K. of F Prufii, 113. of Prj/C Uni, 116, 117. UrU-ffifb Priocefc yK,113. %Mbam'trM,Gttrtt-Iin*tim Pr. of, io, iji. Jl/ri Tbtrtfa Archduche, Lttd*. Couotdf,hiiwife Reafon 13a, &c. Her Marriage to for marrying a Tradenao'i thcD of Ltrr, 233. Dautfhrer,4f M*rU-?*f*fbQ. ofrtlMtd.9*, 10a, 110, UI, 112. Ludm&burx t. 179, 187. itari.

to the Firft Volume.


UarU.Annt-Viiori of B*v. ria. 309. tdmri* Emprefs ofGirmimj, ber illuftrio'jsRelations, 2fo,j88. M*rUAdtUii$ of Stviy, a6o, 268. Maria-Gefciatiri Q: of F.rMt, J04, }Op. Mmrk'i, St. Feftival, how celebrated at Vtnitt, 401. MarrUge of the Sea, 399, 400. MrrUgi of Princes how limited by the Laws of Germ*ny, 60, 552. A Princefs charg'd with abu6ng that Sacrament of the Church of Rtmt, 10. Mtrtinitx,, Count of, < 211 Mfqn*r*Jtsat Vtniet, 412. M/5, by whom aloneccl.brated with Bootsand Spurson, 192. l/Utthun Emperor of GmtMf, 210. Msuiriffm, Abhefsof, 344. iAurict, tfillhm, Pr. of Sx$Ztits, 99. 'Eleftor of Sx*iy,381. of Sx$m,115. Count of Sx*-GMh*Pr. 18a. MximilUn, Emperor, 385, 388. His Statue, 386. Wife, 388, 389. His Daughter, 389. Father-in-law, 389. MximilU*-Em*iMl,EkOorof BvrU, tt, 163.268, 174. the 78. 379. 3*- 7^* Eleoral Pr. 263. Milndtn, M. de, the truJpM Minifter,41. MtRsEsouBot. 167,163. Itt Dukes Fondoefs for BafsViols, i(58, 170, 171. Hit Duchcfs, 169. MssTRE.r. 394, 395. Mttfih, Count de, 54, 141, 445. in ~ilo-feRa saxony,8+. MUkof our Lady, a Wioe fi called, 339. Miltitz, General, AUxmmdtr dt, 78, 100, 105, 107, 360. Minek-mitK, Cb*rltt-CbriflhMie, 46. Mirsclts afcrib'd to the two Saintsof BehimU, a 1 3, a 1 4. Mijfon, M*ximilUn, et lucizi, 308, 391. M0S1 AmfiirtUm and H*mof bwrgcompar'd, 54. Mece*ii-Jl*ifo, oge ofVnite, D 399. K*a*/ Mm&im,//# Duke of, 130, l&Auri, Count de, iff. MtlflHmt. 3 if. IlmcUt, Baron de, 306. Montbijiu Palace, 3.
MoNTEFlASCONE t. 43 O.

MONTEROSO 430. C M*t+S*n8g,