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Types of Vessels

There are various kinds and types of ships available for facilitating International Trade transactions. Ships form a major part of International Logistics. Even though there are around 45000 commercial ships all around the world, almost every ships among these is designed differently. Hence, they are classified in broader groups, with many ships not fitting into a single category. Size Categories: One of the biggest distinction made on ships sizes is the one made between the ships that can travel through the Panama Canal and the one that cannot. A ship of maximum size that can possibly fit through these locks is called Panamax ships; such a ship can have upto 75000 tonnes Dead Weight Tonnage (DWT) and its outside dimensions allow it to barely fit the within the lock, with just a few inches of clearance between the locks walls and the ship. The longest ship to cross Panama canal is the Marcona Prospector, which is 973 feet long and 106 feet wide. The widest is the USS New Jersey, which is 108 feet wide. All ships built that are larger than this size are called post-Panamax ships. Other terminologies used are: 1. Suez-Max Ships: This term is used to describe ships sized at roughly 150,000 DWT and which are of maximum size that can pass through Suez Canal. However, in 1996, Suez canal was deepened and widened, so the Suez max terminology is losing some of its validity. 2. Capesize Ships: This term is used to describe large dry-bulk carriers of capacity greater than 80,000 DWT. 3. Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC): This term is used to describe an oil tanker up to 300,000 DWT. 4. Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC): This term is used to describe an oil tanker more than 300,000 DWT. One of the ULCC is the Sea Giant with 555,000 DWT. Such ships generally are unable to go to traditional ports and hence remin deep into the sea. Their cargo is removed by the process called Lightering.

Various types of Vessels include: Container ships Ro-Ro Carriers Break Bulk Carriers Combination Carriers Lash Carriers Crude Carriers Dry Bulk Carriers Gas Carriers


Importance The containerized trade is increasing every year. About 60% of world trade and more than 70% of Indian International Logistics are handled by ocean transport. The Containerized transport is growing at about 9-10% every year. Given the fact that traditionally goods were shipped by break bulk, however, presently, most of the cargo is transported by containers For example, forestry products or grain. Also, where intermodal transport is also responding well, containers, which were developed in 1956, will definitely dominate the trade pattern. Container ships are also known as Box Ships which carry containerized cargo on a scheduled voyage. Vessels dedicated to containerized trade can carry up to 6600 TEUs (Twenty foot Equivalent Units) or the space equivalent to Twentyfoot container, but there are a large number of mixed cargo ships that can also carry containers, sometimes as few as 100 TEUs. Traditional Ships and Post Panamax ships Most container ships rely on port cranes to load/unload its cargo, but some ships have their own cranes on board. Initially, most of the ships used to be capable of going through Panama Canal and used to carry around 3000 containers. But later, the increase in international trade made the ship building industry to build Ships bigger than those were available previously. When first post-Panamax ships were delivered, they carried around 4500 TEUs and forced some substantial changes in the ports.