Você está na página 1de 7

Definition of Mobile WiMax Mobile WiMax is a broadband wireless solution that enables convergence of mobile and fixed broadband

networks through a common wide area broadband radio access technology and flexible network architecture. The Mobile WiMax Air Interface adopts Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path performance in non line-of-sight environments. Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802.16eAmendment to support scalable channel bandwidths from 1.25 to 20 MHz. The Mobile Technical Group (MTG) in the WiMax Forum is developing the Mobile WiMAX system profiles that will define the mandatory and optional features of the IEEE standard that are necessary to build a Mobile WiMax compliant air interface that can be certified by the WiMAX Forum. The Mobile WiMax System Profile enables mobile systems to be configured based on a common base feature set thus ensuring baseline functionality for terminals and base stations that are fully interoperable. Some elements of the base station profiles are specified as optional to provide additional flexibility for deployment based on specific deployment scenarios that may require different configurations that are either capacity-optimized or coverage-optimized Introduction of Mobile WiMax Release-1 Mobile WiMax profiles will cover 5,7, 8.75, and 10 MHz channel bandwidths for licensed worldwide spectrum allocations in the2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, and 3.5 GHz frequency bands. Mobile WiMax systems offer scalability in both radio access technology and network architecture, thus providing a great deal of flexibility in network deployment options and service offerings. Some of the salient features supported by Mobile WiMax are: High Data Rates. The inclusion of MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna techniques along with flexible sub-channelization schemes, Advanced Coding and Modulation all enable the Mobile WiMax technology to support peak DL data rates up to 63Mbps per sector and peak UL data rates up to 28 Mbps per sector in a 10 MHz channel. Quality of Service (QoS). The fundamental premise of the IEEE 802.16 MAC architecture is QoS. It defines Service Flows which can map to Diff Serv code points that enable end-to end IP based QoS. Additionally, sub channelization schemes provide a flexible mechanism for optimal scheduling of space, frequency and time resources over the air interface on a frame by-frame basis. Scalability . Despite an increasingly globalize economy, spectrum resources for wireless broadband worldwide are still quite disparate in its allocations. Mobile WiMax technology therefore, is designed to be able to scale to work in different canalizations from 1.25 to 20 MHz to comply with varied worldwide requirements as efforts proceed to achieve spectrum harmonization in the longer term. This also allows diverse economies to realize the multifaceted benefits of the Mobile WiMax technology for their specific geographic needs such as providing affordable internet

access in rural settings versus enhancing the capacity of mobile broadband access in metro and suburban areas. Security. Support for a diverse set of user credentials exists including; SIM/USIM cards, Smart Cards, Digital Certificates, and Username/Password schemes. Mobility. Mobile WiMax supports optimized handover schemes with latencies less than 50milliseconds to ensure real-time applications such as VoIP perform without service degradation. Flexible key management schemes assure that security is maintained during handover

Physical Layer Description : WiMax must be able to provide a reliable service over long distances to customers using indoor terminals or PC cards (like today's WLAN cards). These requirements, with limited transmit power to comply with health requirements, will limit the link budget. Sub channeling in uplink and smart antennas at the base station has to overcome these constraints. The WiMax system relies on a new radio physical (PHY) layer and appropriate MAC (Media Access Controller) layer to support all demands driven by the target applications. The PHY layer modulation is based on OFDMA, in combination with a centralized MAC layer for optimized resource allocation and support of QoS for different types of services(VoIP, real-time and non real-time services, best effort). The OFDMA PHY layer is well adapted to the NLOS propagation environment in the 2 - 11 GHz frequency range. It is inherently robust when it comes to handling the significant delay spread caused by the typical NLOS reflections. Together with adaptive modulation, which is applied to each subscriber individually according to the radio channel

capability, OFDMA can provide a high spectral efficiency of about 3 - 4 bit/s/Hz. However, in contrast to single carrier modulation, the OFDMA signal has an increased peak: average ratio and increased frequency accuracy requirements. Therefore, selection of appropriate power amplifiers and frequency recovery concepts are crucial. WiMax provides flexibility in terms of channelization, carrier frequency, and duplex mode (TDD and FDD) to meet a variety of requirements for available spectrum resources and targeted services

Abstract of 3D Internet
Also known as virtual worlds, the 3D Internet is a powerful new way for you to reach consumers, business customers, co-workers, partners, and students. It combines the immediacy of television, the versatile content of the Web, and the relationship-building strengths of social networking sites like Face book . Yet unlike the passive experience of television, the 3D Internet is inherently interactive and engaging. Virtual worlds provide immersive 3D experiences that replicate (and in some cases exceed) real life. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota , Circuit City , Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State . Introduction of 3D Internet The success of 3D communities and mapping applications, combined with the falling costs of producing 3D environments, are leading some analysts to predict that a dramatic shift is taking place in the way people see and navigate the Internet. The appeal of 3D worlds to consumers and vendors lies in the level of immersion that the programs offer. The experience of interacting with another character in a 3D environment, as opposed to a screen name or a flat image, adds new appeal to the act of socializing on the Internet. Advertisements in Microsoft's Virtual Earth 3D mapping application are placed as billboards and signs on top of buildings, blending in with the application's urban landscapes. 3D worlds also hold benefits beyond simple social interactions. Companies that specialize in interior design or furniture showrooms, where users want to view entire

rooms from a variety of angles and perspectives, will be able to offer customized models through users' homePCs . Google representatives report that the company Google is preparing a new revolutionary product called Google Goggles, an interactive visor that will present Internet content in three dimensions. Apparently the recent rumors of a Google phone refers to a product that is much more innovative than the recent Apple iPhone. Google's new three dimensional virtual reality : nyone putting on the Googgles as the insiders call them will be immersed in a three dimensional stereo-vision virtual reality called 3dLife. 3dLife is a pun referring to the three dimensional nature of the interface, but also a reference to the increasingly popular Second Life virtual reality. The home page of 3dLife is called the Library, a virtual room with virtual books categorized according to the Dewey system. Each book presents a knowledge resource within 3dLife or on the regular World Wide Web. If you pick the book for Pandia, Google will open the Pandia Web site within the frame of a virtual painting hanging on the wall in the virtual library. However, Google admits that many users may find this too complicated.

Apparently Google is preparing a new revolutionary product called Google Goggles, an interactive visor which will display Internet content in three dimensions. A 3D mouse lets you move effortlessly in all dimensions. Move the 3D mouse controller cap to zoom, pan and rotate simultaneously. The 3D mouse is a virtual extension of your body - and the ideal way to navigate virtual worlds like Second Life. The Space Navigator is designed for precise control over 3D objects in virtual worlds. Move, fly and build effortlessly without having to think about keyboard commands, which makes the experience more lifelike.

Controlling your avatar with this 3D mouse is fluid and effortless. Walk or fly spontaneously, with ease. In fly cam mode you just move the cap in all directions to fly over the landscape and through the virtual world Hands on: Exit Reality: The idea behind ExitReality is that when browsing the web in the old-n-busted 2D version you're undoubtedly using now, you can hit a button to magically transform the site into a 3D environment that you can walk around in and virtually socialize with other users visiting the same site. This shares many of the same goals as Google's Lively (which, so far, doesn't seem so lively), though ExitReality is admittedly attempting a few other tricks. Installation is performed via an executable file which places ExitReality shortcuts in Quick Launch and on the desktop, but somehow forgets to add the necessary ExitReality button to Firefox's toolbar . After adding the button manually and repeatedly being told our current version was out of date, we were ready to 3D-ify some websites and see just how much of reality we could leave in two-dimensional dust.

Exit Reality is designed to offer different kinds of 3D environments that center around spacious rooms that users can explore and customize, but it can also turn some sites like Flickr into virtual museums, hanging photos on virtual walls and halls. Strangely, it's

treating Ars Technical as an image gallery and presenting it as a malformed 3D gallery .

3D Shopping is the most effective way to shop online. 3DInternet dedicated years of research and development and has developed the worlds' first fully functional, interactive and collaborative shopping mall where online users can use our 3DInternet's Hyper-Reality technology to navigate and immerse themselves in a Virtual Shopping Environment. Unlike real life, you won't get tired running around a mall looking for that perfect gift; you won't have to worry about your kids getting lost in the crowd; and you can finally say goodbye to waiting in long lines to check out. REFERENCE: 1]. http://www.GOOGLE.COM [2]. http://world.std.com/~walthowe/ [3]. http://netways.shef.ac.uk/index.htm [4].http://www.science.widener.edu/~wither s/pyra mid.htm 5].ftp://ftp.uwashington.edu/public/Internet

Features of 3g.
Data rates
ITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a

minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,"[20] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum or average rates or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various rates are sold as 3G intended to meet customers expectations of broadband data.

Security
See also: Mobile_security#Attacks_based_on_the_GSM_networks 3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.[21] In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.

Applications of 3G
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:

Mobile TV Video on demand Video Conferencing Telemedicine Location-based services Global Positioning System (GPS)