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Hazmi

Ayuruhaiza Nurhani Nurliyana Ardilah Arifah

INDICES AND LAW OF INDICES


In an , a is a base and n is an index.
The laws of indices are: am x an = am+n . e.g

45 x 48 = 45+8 = 413 am/an= am-n. e.g 67/64 =67-4 =63 (am)n = amn e.g (42)2 = 44 (ab)n = anbn e.g (6x4)7 = 67 x 47 (a/b)n = an /bn e.g (8/12) 3 = 83 / 123

Zero index :
g0= 1 , a is not zero Negative index:

a-n = 1/an , a is not zero


Fractional index: a

= a = ( ) a>0,n>0

Applications of Indices
Crime rate enables to study the changes in different forms of crime. Industrial production, agricultural production indices reveal the

changes in the respective quantities over a period of time. Index numbers are used in determining the purchasing power of money. Index numbers are considered in the calculation of dearness allowance payable to employees. Index numbers are very useful in deflating. i.e., in the process of finding real values like real wages, real income, real sales Index numbers are useful in studying seasonal variations. Index numbers are useful in the formulation of economic and business policies. Index numbers reveal trends and tendencies. They are employed in forecasting future economic activity and in prediction.

History of Indices
Although the word "index" was not adopted in economics until the early twentieth century, it is possible to calculate the "consumer price index" for a very long period using data collected from different sources. In this lesson we will study the history of price indices from as far back as the days of Charlemagne around 850 AD through to the late nineteenth century.

QUADRATIC
In mathematics, the term quadratic describes

equations or formulas that involve squaring or such terms. Quadratus is Latin for square.

History of Quadratic Formulae


The Babylonians (1800B.C)-had early vision
In Sulba Sutras- Ancient India (8th century) Quadratic

equation of the form ax2=c and ax2+bx=c were explored using geometric methods Babylonians and Chinese mathematicians used the same method (completing the square) to solve quadratic equations with the (+)root but did not have a general formula Euclid (Greek mathematician) produced a more abstract geometrical method around 200 B.C

Quadratic Formulae
Formations of quadratic equation given roots

X2 (S.O.R)x+ (P.O.R)= 0
Factorisation method:

(px+q) (hx+k)= 0
Quadratic formula:

b2-4ac > 0 : real roots b2-4ac < 0 : no roots b2-4ac = 0 : equal and real

Quadratic Equation
A general quadratic equation can be written in the

form ax2+ bx + c where x represents a variable or an unknown, and a, b, and c are constants with a 0. (If a = 0, the equation is a linear equation.)
The constants a, b, and c are called respectively, the

quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant term or free term.

Quadratic Functions
The general form of a quadratic function is f(x) = ax2+ bx + c; a, b, c are constants and a 0. Characteristics of a quadratic function:

(a) Involves one variable only (b) The highest power of the variable is 2

The graph is a parabola, a u-shaped figure.


The parabola will open upward or downward. A parabola that opens upward contains a vertex

that is a minimum point. A parabola that opens downward contains a vertex that is a maximum point.

Example of quadratic formulae in life


1) Joseph threw a wiffle ball out of a window that is four units high. The
position of the waffle ball is determined by the parabola y = -x + 4. At how many feet from the building does the ball hit the ground?

The ball lands at the solution of this quadratic equation. There are two solutions. One at 2 and the other at 2. This picture assumes that Joseph threw the ball to the right so that the wiffle balls lands at 2.

Application of quadratic formulae


1) Parabolic curve : used in the construction of bridge.

PAST QUESTIONS
FORMATION OF QUADRATIC EQUATION GIVEN ROOTS
1. The equation equation 8x - 2kx + k = 0 has two unequal roots. Given
that one of the roots is twice the value of the other root, find the value of k. a = 8 , b = -2k c = k roots : and 2

x - (S.O.R)x + (P.O.R) = 0
S.O.R = 3 = ( -2k ) = k 8 12 P.O.R = 2 = k 8

subsitute = 2 ( k ) = k 12 2k = k 144 8 16k = 144k 16k - 144k = 0 k=9

FACTORISATION
2. (3x+1) (x-1)
3x2-2x-1 3x2-2x-1-15 3x2-2x-16 (3x-8) (x-2) X= 8/3 or 2 = 15 =15 =0 =0 =0

QUADRATIC FORMULAE
3.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (CTS METHOD 1)


4. If the minimum value of f(x) = kx2 + 2kx 9 is -11, find the value of k.

min value1= a > 0 CTS formula : a ( x + b )2 + c - b2 2a 4a k ( x + (2k) 2 + ( -9 ) (2k)2 2k 4k k (x + 1)2 - 9 4k2 4k k (x + 1)2 - 9 k = 0 -9 k = -11 k = 11 - 9 k=2

CTS (METHOD 2)
2x2 - 5x - 6 = 0 2x2 - 5x = 6 x2 - x = x2 x = 3 x2 x +

=3+

( x - )2 = 48 + (xx )2 = = 1.25 - 2.136 or 1.25 + 2.136

x = -0.886 or x = 3.386

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS - DRAWING A GRAPH


2x2 + 4x 9

a ( x + b )2 + c - b2 2a 4a 2 ( x + 4 )2 9 - 16 4 8 2 ( x + 1 )2 11
since a>0 , min value = -11 min point = (-1, -11)

(-1, -11)