Você está na página 1de 26

Titration Curves

Chem 18.1 Experiment 8

Titration

method of analysis that will allow you to determine the equivalence point of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask

Titrant
solution in the burette usually a strong base or acid

Analyte
solution being titrated often the unknown

Titration Set-up

Titration Curves

are the graphs obtained by plotting the pH of the reaction mixture against the volume of base (or acid) added during the titration of either an acid by a base or vice versa.

If the pH of an acid solution is plotted against the amount of base added during a titration, the shape of the graph is called a titration curve. All acid titration curves follow the same basic shapes.

Equivalence point
The volume of titrant and pH at which the amount of acid equals the amount of base present in the original solution, or the amount of base equals the amount of acid present in the original solution. Not the same as end point

Results and Discussion

Titration of Weak Acid with Strong Base


Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HOAc with O.1M NaOH
14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 3 5 9 12 16 19 21 23 25 32 38 40 48 51 53 55 60 mL of titrant

Equivalence point: volume: 50.5 mL 8.96-pH

Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HOAc with O.1M NaOH


14 12 10 pH 8

6
4 2 0

0 5 12 19 23 32 40 51 55 mL of titrant

Discuss the titration curves obtained in Part A


Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HOAc with O.1M NaOH
14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 12 19 23 32 40 51 55 mL of titrant

Curve begins at low pH Near the equivalence point there is a rapid increase in pH
Equivalence point higher than 7, indicating the presence of basic salt Curve ends at high

Titration of Strong Acid with Strong Base


Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HCl with 0.1M NaOH
14
12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 77 78 80 mL of titrant

Equivalence point: volume: 77.5 mL 7.5-pH

Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HCl with 0.1M NaOH


14 12 10 pH

8
6 4 2 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 77 80 mL of titrant

Titration of 25mL of 0.1M HCl with 0.1M NaOH


14 12 10

8
pH 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 77 80 mL of titrant

Solution of strong acid will always have a lower initial pH Before reaching eq. pt, pH increases slowly but as it approaches the said point, solution experiences steeper rise in pH Theoretically, the eq. pH of a strong acid-strong base titration is 7

Titration of Weak Base with Strong Acid


Titration of 25mL of 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1M HCl
10 9 8 7 6 pH 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 3 5 6 7 8 mL of titrant 9 10 11

Equivalence point: volume: 6.5 mL pH: 5.355

Titration of 25mL of 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1M HCl


10
8

pH

6 4 2

0
0 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 mL of titrant

Titration of 25mL of 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1M HCl


10

9
8 7 6 pH 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 mL of titrant

Pattern of weak basestrong acid titration quite similar with that of weak acid-strong base, except that the pH of the solution decreases as titration continues Equivalence point less than 7 Cation of weak base (NH4+) will undergo hydrolysis

Weak Acid and Weak Base


Curve begins at higher acidic pH and ends at low basic pH. There is not a great pH change at the equivalence point (pH ~ 7) making this a very difficult titration to perform.

Guide Questions
Construct the theoretical titration curves for the following by plotting pH versus the volume of the titrant computed after every 5mL of the titrant has been added. A. 25 mL 0.1M HOAc with 0.1 M NaOH B. 25 mL 0.1M HCl with 0.1 M NaOH C. 25 Ml 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1 M HCl Show sample computations.

25 mL 0.1M HOAc with 0.1 M NaOH


mL of mL of total HOAc NaOH vol (mL) pH

25 25 25 25 25

0 5 10 15 20

25 30 35 40 45

2.87 4.14 4.56 4.74 5.35

25 25
25

25 30
35

50 55
60

8.72
11.9 5 12.2

Calculations:
A.

25 Ml 0.1M HOAc with 0.1M NaOH

25 mL 0.1M HCl with 0.1 M NaOH


mL mL of total of NaOH vol HCl (mL) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 pH

1.00 1.18 1.30 1.48 1.78 7.00 11.95 12.22

Calculations
B. 25 mL 0.1M HCl with 0.1M NaOH

25mL 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1M HCl


mL of mL total NH4O of vol H HCl (mL) pH

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

11.13 9.86 9.43 9.08 8.65 5.28 2.04 1.78

Calculations
C. 25 mL 0.1M NH4OH with 0.1M HCl