Você está na página 1de 53

Compiled by : Manish Jain Gr.

Floor , Ashoka apartment Bhawani Singh Road C-scheme , Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan ( INDIA) Ph. 91-0141-2743536 , 91-9829063132 Email: fdarchitect@gmail.com Web : www.frontdesk.co.in

Construction Material Paint & polish

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


Among the factors that will influence the

selection on types of finishing are as follows: a) Price b) Sound insulator, heat insulator c) Attractive / beautiful or not d) Durable / long lasting e) Resistant to chemical reaction

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)



Wood Finishes
Plastering Wall Paper Wood panel Stone, marble, tile

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Can be used for material made of wood,

steel, concrete and bricks. Function of paint is a) to protect the material from weathering, oxidation process and damages by insects. b) to improve the beauty of the material c) to facilitate the cleaning process of the surface Major paint companies are : ASIAN PAINT , NEROLAC , BERGER ,ICI
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


This is perhaps the most economical type of painting available in the Indian market today. It can be classified as a "Whitewash" job. The major constituents of distemper are chalk, lime, water and some coloring agents if necessary. Distemper is a water based paint.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

An emulsion is a liquid having fine suspended particles. It is commonly known as plastic paint. This is water based and provides a rich and Matt finish to interior walls. The differentiating factor of emulsion paints is its acrylic quality. Its composition imparts excellent durability to the painted surface and gives the walls a just painted look. It washable and most stains can be removed easily by wiping with a cloth dipped in a mild soap solution. The paint film is also fungus and mildew resistant. Covering capacity on new surface per coat is Exterior Interior 5.5 to 6 m2 / litre 17 m2 / litre

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Enamel paint is paint that air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces that are outdoors or otherwise subject to hard wear or variations in temperature Typically the term "enamel paint" is used to describe oil-based covering products, usually with a significant amount of gloss in them, however recently many latex or water-based paints have adopted the term as well. The term today means "hard surfaced paint" and usually is in reference to paint brands of higher quality, floor coatings of a high gloss finish, or spray by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in) paints

Solvent based paints (Lustre/Enamel)

Solvent based paints - Lustre paints, Enamel paints and oil paints all come under the category of solvent based paints. They cannot be pre-mixed with water. Oil based paints take a longer time to dry and often produce strong odors which are irritating and sometimes even toxic in nature. The advantage with these paints is that they really last long and produce rich and desiring effects on the wall.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Painting The Wall Using Emulsion Paint

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Painting the floor

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Oil Paint protect the steel from become corroded

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Three Types of Wood Finishes

Transparent Coatings- coatings that can be seen
through. Ex. Varnish, Shellac, lacquer , PU , Melamine

Penetrating Finishesthan just coat it.

these soak into the wood rather Ex. Linseed Oil, Danish Oil

Opaque Finishesbe seen through.

covers the surface completely, cannot Ex. Paint, enamel

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Transparent Coatings
Varnisha preparation consisting of various resins and drying oil (linseed oil, tung oil, and walnut oil.) dissolved in an Turpentine ,oil , water or in alcohol. When applied to the surface of wood, it dries and leaves a hard, glossy transparent coating.

Shellac- a varnish made by

dissolving this material in alcohol or a similar solvent.

Lacquer Resin

a protective coating consisting of a resin, sometimes with pigment added.

Resin is a thick and sticky yellowish- brown substance used to chemically bond materials together. Resins that are used in varnishes include amber, kauri gum, dammar, copal, rosin (pine resin), sandarac, balsam, elemi, and others by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Comparison of different TRANSPERENT COATING

Appearance Protection Durability
Needs frequent reapplication


Ease of Application


Rubbing Qualities
Needs to be buffed

Wax Shellac Nitrocellulose lacquer Conversion varnish Linseed oil

Creates shine Some yellow or orange tint, depending on grade used Transparent, good gloss

Short Term

Can easily be Safe when solvents in easy, needs sanding removed with paste wax evaporate solvents Safe when solvent French polishing Completely evaporates, used as difficult technique to reversible using food and pill coating master. alcohol Used toxic solvents Good protection is needed, especially if painted Uses toxic solvents, including toluene. Breathing protection is needed Requires nice equipment. Kick-on Completely products also irreversible available Requires spray equipment. Used in Difficult to reverse professional shops only Easy, apply with Relatively safe, rags and wipe off. Needs sanding out metallic driers are Takes relatively long as oil is absorbed poisonous time to dry Easy, apply with Relatively safe, rags and wipe off. Needs sanding out metallic driers are Faster to dry than as oil is absorbed poisonous linseed oil Brush or spray. Relatively safe, uses Brushing needs Can be stripped petroleum based good technique to using paint solvents avoid bubbles & removers streaks

Fair against water, good on solvents Durable except alcohol Soft and somewhat durable


Decent protection

Excellent soft finish

Transparent, good gloss

Excellent protection against many Hard and durable substances Fairly durable, depending on number of coats Fairly durable, depending on number of coats

Excellent hard finish

Yellow warm glow, pops grain1, darkens with age

Very little


Tung oil

Warm glow, pops grain1, lighter Water resistant than linseed Not as transparent as lacquer, Good protection yellowish/orange tint Transparent, many coats can look like plastic


Alkyd varnish



Polyurethane varnish Water-based polyurethane

Excellent protection Relatively safe, uses Can be stripped against many Durable after approx. Application requires petroleum based using paint substances, tough 30 day curing period some level of skill solvents removers finish Good protection. Newer products (2009) also UV stable Brush or spray. Fast Safer than oil-based, Can be stripped Durable after approx. drying demands fewer volatile organic using paint 10 day curing period care in application compounds (VOCs) removers techniques Fairly durable, depending on Easy, apply with number of coats Relatively safe, uses by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in) rags and wipe off. (archaic product, little petroleum based Faster to dry than used with the solvents linseed oil availability of modern


Bad, coats do not meld leading to white rings if rubbing out cuts through coat Bad, coats do not meld leading to white rings if rubbing out cuts through coat

Oil-varnish mixes

Similar to oils unless many coats applied, Low, but more than then takes on pure oil finishes characteristics of

Needs sanding out as oil is absorbed

None unless many coats applied

TYPE OF Varnishes depends on solvent used : 1. Oil varnishes : Amber, copal in linseed oil 2. Spirit Varnishes: Lac , shallec etc. in methylated spirit 3. Turpentine varnish: Rosin, Gum dammer , mustic in turpentine 4. Water Varnish : Shellac in hot water ( with borax , potash or soda added) to dissolve the shellac
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


Asian Paints PU Exterior Matt Asian Paints PU Exterior is a two component Polyurethane wood finish. It has a Clear-Matt finish. Asian paints PU Exterior provides excellent weather resistance, light fastness & preserves natural beauty of wood on exteriors for years Asian Paints PU Interior Glossy Asian Paints PU Interior Glossy is a two component Polyurethane wood finish.it forms a tough coating that offers excellent resistance to scratches & stains.It has a unique non-yellowing property that accentuates the natural beauty of wood & keeps the furniture looking good for years.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


It has good hardness & has excellent resistance to staining fom oils,food & hot beverages. Asian Paints Melamyne Glossy
Asian Paints Melamyne Glossy is an acid curing solvent based 2 pack wood finish. It is specifically formulated as an protective & decorative clear coating of wood .

Asian Paints Melamyne Gold Clear Glossy Asian Paints Melamyne Gold Clear Glossy is an acid cured solvent based 2 pack wood finish.I t imparts an clear finish. It not only protects the wood but retains the natural look for years.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Decorative Coatings DU-PONT

Alesta AP : Architectural polyester
DuPont offers a complete range of products with excellent mechanical and weathering resistance characteristics, which makes them particularly suitable for outdoor architectural purposes. As well as a standard durable finish, DuPont has also developed Superdurable finishes for extremely hostile weathering environments. The range includes full gloss, semi-gloss or matt finishes, and varying levels of textures such as leatherette, wrinkled and sand textured. Both speckled and metallic finishes are readily available .

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Decorative Coatings DU-PONT

Alesta PU : Polyurethanne
For more than 25 years, polyurethane powder coatings have been successfully used for industrial applications. These products based on hydroxyl resins combined with isocyanates offer excellent chemical resistance and very good flow.
Fields of Applications The polyurethane powder coatings are particularly suitable for : :: Household appliances. :: Garden and office furniture. :: Automotive accessories. :: Agricultural machinery. :: Anti-graffiti clearcoats.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Decorative Paint & Coatings

Setco Chemicals (I) Private Limited
Srt. No. (1) DECOSIL (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) NEOPRIME NEOTEX POLYURETHANE COATING SYSTEM (TWO PACK) WOODLUX MELAMINE WOOD FINISH WOOD PRIME POLYURETHANE COATING SYSTEM (TWO PACK) WEATHERTHANE POLYURETHANE COATING SYSTEMS (TWO PACK) - NEOLUX POLYURETHANE COATING SYSTEMS (TWO PACK) ACROTHANE CLEAR SANDING SEALER (ONE PACK & TWO PACK) POLYURETHANE ONE PACK CLEAR & PIGMENTED SYSTEM PAINTS DESCRIPTION Interior & Exterior speciality paints based on selected acrylic polymers. It is a two pack polyester polyurethane primer system, capable of providing highly durable coating systems for serve exposure conditions. This is used in protective and decorative applications of paints on wooden surface in Texturised and Smooth finishes for interior applications. Two pack Polyurethane Clear & Pigmented Coating used in decorative application and top coat finish. It is a two pack systems applied on wooden substrates to produce glossy, semi-glossy, matt finishes that enhance the life of wood to a great extent. It is a two component solvent based penetration primer developed for wood and wood substrates. Two component Polyurethane Clear & Pigmented Coating used in protective & decorative application and top coat finish. Two component Polyurethane Pigmented Coating used in protective & decorative application. Clear &

(8) (9)

(10) (11)

Two component Polyurethane. Clear & Pigmented Coating used in protective & decorative application and top coat finish. It is used on wood and wood substrates to fill up minor pores & rectify minor unevenness of surface. One pack comes in paste form and Two pack comes in liquid form. It is by oil modified polyester polyurethane paints supplied in clear finish and pigmented a Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in) system.

Penetrating Finishes
Linseed Oil- A yellowish oil extracted from the seeds of flax and used as a drying oil in paints and varnishes and in linoleum, printing inks, and synthetic resins.

Danish Oil- is a blend of oils and resins that penetrates, seals, and preserves wood surfaces.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Brushes used for Finishing

Two main brushes used are bristle brushes

and foam polybrushes.

Natural bristle brushes- are made with hog hair,

commonly used with oil base paints.

Synthetic bristle brushes- are made of nylon or

polyester, commonly used with water soluble finishes, and most oil base finishes.

Foam polybrushes- made of plastic foam tapered on

both sides to a sharp point, can be used on most finishes.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying Wood finish :

The steps required to create a durable wood finish are called a finish system, is comprise the following:

1) Preparatory steps:
i) Stripping away of old finish ii) Bleaching iii) Patching (if necessary) iv) Sanding v) Priming or sealing

2) Staining
3) Grain filling 4) Glazing 5) Top coating:
i) Filling nail holes ii) Final top coating

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

6) Maintenance

Stripping away of old finish:

1. Mechanical stripping:
This involves using sharp blades or scrapers to physically lift the old finish from the wood surface. Depending on the material, the application of a stream of hot air from a heat gun as the surface is scraped may facilitate the removal of the existing finish. The other mechanical method for removing an existing finish is to use abrasive materials commonly referred to a sand paper.

2. Chemical stripping:
There are many chemical compounds sold as paint strippers or finish removers. Most of these contain Methylene Chloride or NMethyl-2-Pyrolidone (NMP) as an active ingredient. These compounds are generously applied, usually by brush, over the existing finish and the adhesion between the wood and the finish will be broken. If the existing finish consists of several coats, multiple applications may be required. by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Sanding is crucial to preparing your wood for

a finish, whether it be hand or power sanding. Anyone tell me why? Different grit sand paper

Coarse- (80 grit) Medium to fine- (100-180 grit) Very Fine- (220-280 grit)

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying Stains and Clear Finishes

Staining- is the process to change the color of the wood without changing its texture. Types of stains: Pigment stains -are made by adding color pigments together. Penetrating stains are made by mixing aniline dyes in oil.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying Stains Cont

Wood Stain Finishes:
Wood Toned

- Lightly pigmented wood-toned

finishes add color to the wood, while enhancing its natural beauty.
Semi-Transparent- Semi-transparent finishes allow

both the natural grain and texture to show through.

Solid Color- The most durable finish, solid color

stains reveal the texture of the wood, but generally conceal the grain.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Clear Finishes
Two basic types of clear top-coat finishes:

Those that penetrate the wood

Ex- linseed oil, danish oil

Those that stay on top of the surface

Ex. Shellac, varnish, polyurethane and lacquer

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying Sealer
After stain has dried completely, a sealer

should be applied over the stain before a clear finish is applied. Why?
-This prevents the stain from bleeding into the clear coat which causes the end result to be cloudy.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying a filler
This is put on over the sealer to seal the pores of

the wood before applying a clear finish.

Apply filler first along the grain of the wood. Then work by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in) across the grain to fill the pores completely.

Applying VARNISH
A paint coating that lacks pigment & which gives

a transparent / translucent finish to wood. paint that provides a hard glossy transparent coating It greatly enhances natural beauty& figure of wood. Method polishing the wood with varnish is French Polishing. Ensure the surface are clean (no dust) and smooth before applying varnish.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying Paint and Enamel

These may include, water based latex or oil

based. An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Before applying paints, a primer should be applied, priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying an Oil-Based Polyurethane:

One can apply an oil-based polyurethane using a fine-bristled brush, a clean cloth or a foam brush. Avoid using inexpensive bristle brushes, as these will tend to leave obvious brush strokes. Brush with the grain of the wood, using a sufficient, but not overly thick coat of polyurethane. Avoid overbrushing, but be sure use long strokes to brush out as many bubbles as possible. The few remaining bubbles will typically disappear within moments. After the first coat has dried ( wait 24 hours), lightly sand the entire surface (again, with the grain) with grit sandpaper. The polyurethane will sand easily, so be careful not to sand through the thin coat and damage the stain underneath. Wipe off all dust caused by the sanding before applying a second coat. Repeat these steps until the desired level of protection is achieved (two to three coats is usually enough). After your final coat, you may choose to rub out the finish with steel wool to a consistent sheen by Ar.Manish Jain ( paste wax level, followed by an application ofwww.frontdesk.co.in) for a nice luster.

Applying a Water-Based Polyurethane:

Water-based polyurethanes don't match well with oil-based stains, so if you're applying over stain, you'll want to "rough up" the stained surface slightly before applying your water-based polyurethane using some synthetic steel wool. Since oil and water don't mix, this will help the polyurethane to avoid beading on the surface like water on a freshly-waxed car. Apply a very thin coat of polyurethane with a fine brush, foam pad or cloth. Work with the grain, and avoid applying too much polyurethane to avoid raising the grain. The initial coat should be dry within a couple of hours, and a second coat can be applied. If applying in this manner, one shouldn't need to sand between coats as with the oil-based version. However, in order to get the same amount of protection, you may need to add a dozen or more coats of the water-based polyurethane.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Applying varnish on the wood

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Varnish Applied Wood Looks Shiny

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)


Sanding, Washing, Scraping Surface Cleaning

Waterproofing , Cement , Patching

Anti-algal/fungal insecticide

Patch Work

Biocide Treatment

Self-priming or Cement Paint Emulsion Finish

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Finishing -Priming Coats - Finishing Coats


Sanding, Washing, Scraping Surface Cleaning

Waterproofing , Insecticides, Cement Patching

Smoothening Work

Patch / Repair work

POP & Putty Work

Priming Coats, Touch up Putty Fine Smoothening Finishing

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Finishing -Priming Coats - Finishing Coats


FERROUS Surface Preparation (Degreasing & Derusting)
Sand Blasting Acid alkali Bath

NON - FERROUS Surface Cleaning Surface Preparation (Degreasing & Derusting) Patch Work

Sand Blasting Acid alkali Bath

Metal Primers
Knifing Putty

Etch Priming Biocide Treatment

Primer Surface r
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Finish Coats


Hard/Soft/Ply Wood, Particle Board, Acoustic Board, etc. Natural/Manufactured Surface Cleaning

Removing Knots, Surface Resins, etc. Use of Beeswax, Adhesives & Sawdust, etc. Use of fine grained Sandpaper for smooth, clear & clean surface To ensure absence of Porosity, Surface Resins, etc. for a damage free finish

Cleaning & Surface Cleaning Smoothening Filling Surface Cleaning

Progressive Sanding Surface Cleaning

Sealer/Primer & Surface Cleaning Putty

Finish Coats Surface Cleaning Enamel, Polyurethane, Melamine, Varnish, by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in) Beeswax, etc.

Defect in Paint
Patterned cracking in the surface of the paint film resembling the regular scales of an alligator.

Bubbles resulting from localized loss of adhesion and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Defect in Paint
Formation of fine powder on the surface of the paint film during weathering, which can cause colour fading. Although some degree of chalking is a normal, desirable way for a paint film to wear, excessive film erosion can result in heavy chalking.

The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat, which will lead to complete failure of the paint. Early on, the problem appears as hairline cracks; later, flaking of paint chips occurs.
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Defect in Paint
Dirt Pickup
Accumulation of dirt, dust particles and/or other debris on the paint film; may resemble mildew.

Crusty, white salt deposits, leached from mortar or masonry as water passes through it.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Defect in Paint
Leaching out of the existing paint film.

Formation of small bowl-shaped depressions.

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

A mixture of lime or gypsum with sand & water which then

hardens into a smooth solid. Plastering is done after bricklaying work. After plastering, painting can be done. There are 2 types of plaster Gypsum Based and Cement Based Cement based plaster commonly used in wall putty. Need to be done by skillful workers to acquire smooth surface and beautiful plastering work. Plaster work can easily be repaired
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Wall Plastering
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Ceiling plastering
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Variety of patterns, colours & finishes

Most popular alternative to painting

Understanding the impact of pattern, color

and design can make a room appear larger and more stylish. Selection of wallpaper have to consider the climate to ensure long lasting

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)

Application Of Wallpaper
by Ar.Manish Jain ( www.frontdesk.co.in)