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Iowa State University Leadership Styles

Autocratic...........................Democratic

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The University of Michigan One-Dimensional Two Leadership Styles Model


Job Centered........Employee Centered

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The Ohio State & University of Michigan Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles


C O N S I D E R A T I O N

High Low Structure and High Consideration

Ohio State University


High Structure and High Consideration

Low Structure and Low Consideration Low

High Structure and Low Consideration

Initiating Structure
Low High

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Although there is no one best leadership style in all situations, employees are more satisfied with a leader who is high in consideration.
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Blake, Mouton, and McCanse Leadership Grid High 1,9 9,9


C O N C E R N P E O P L E

Country Club

Team Leader

5,5
Middle of the Road Impoverished

Authority-Compliance

Low

1,1
1 Low CONCERN for PRODUCTION

9,1
9 High
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Major Motivation Theories


Classification of Motivation Theories
1. Content Motivation theories

Specific Motivation Theory


a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. Two-factor theory c. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory

2. Process Motivation Theories

Type of Reinforcement
3. Reinforcement Theory a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment
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The Motivation Process


Need Motive Behavior Consequence Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction

Feedback

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3 Content Motivation Theories


Hierarchy of Needs Acquired Needs

Two-Factor
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Hierarchy of Needs Theory


SelfActualization Esteem

Social Safety
Physiological
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Herzbergs 2-factor Motivation Model


High

Maintenance Factors (Extrinsic Motivators: pay, benefits, job security, working conditions, policies)

Low

Not Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Motivator Factors (Intrinsic Motivators: work itself, recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility) Satisfied (motivated) Not satisfied (not motivated)

Acquired Needs Theory


(employees are motivated by their need for:)

Power Affiliation Achievement

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Process Theories Seek To Understand:


Why peoples needs change, How and why people choose to try and satisfy those needs in different ways, The mental processes people go through, and How they evaluate their satisfaction.

Equity Theory
(proposed that employees are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.)

Our inputs (contributions)

= =

Others input (contributions) Others outcomes (rewards)


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Our outcomes (rewards)

Expectancy Theory
Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort.
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Expectancy Theory
Motivation =
expectancy x instrumentality x valence Expectancy - belief about ability to do the task Instrumentality - the belief a reward will be forthcoming Valence - the value the individual places on the reward

Leaders can use Expectancy Theory


1) By using clearly defined objectives, 2) By tying performance to rewards,

3) Assuring rewards are valued,


4) Employees believe what you say, and 5) Setting high expectations as a selffulfilling prophecy.

Goal Setting
Effective Goals = Initiative + Action verb + Singular, specific, measurable result + Target date

You Get What You Reinforce

Types of Reinforcement
1) Positive Reinforcement - offer rewards for desired behavior 2) Avoidance Reinforcement (negative) - rules designed to get employees to avoid behaviors. 3) Extinction - reduce undesirable behavior by withholding reinforcement when behavior occurs. 4) Punishment - undesirable consequence for undesirable behavior.