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WORKING CONDITIONS, LABOUR WELFARE AND HEALTH SAFETY

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD WORKING CONDITION


Improve the performance of the workers Increased Productivity Improved Quality of Products and Services Less Wastage of resources Improved Moral of Employees Increases Profitability. Healthy workers are more productive and can produce at a higher quality; Fewer work-related accidents and diseases lead to less absence. In turn, this results in lower costs and less disruption of the production processes; Equipment and a working environment that are optimized to the needs of the working process and that are well-maintained lead to higher productivity, better quality and less health and safety risks Reduction of injuries and illnesses means less damages and lower risks for liabilities.

Provision regarding working conditions FACTORIES ACT-1948


OBJECTIVE OF THE ACT The Act seeks to impose upon the owner or the occupier certain obligations to protect the workers and to secure for them employment in conditions conducive to their health and safety The Act has been enacted primarily with the object of protecting workers employed in factories against industrial and occupational hazards.

Welfare Measures

secs 42 to 49

Washing facilities. Sec42 Facilities for storing and drying clothing. Sec43 Facilities for sitting. Sec44 First-aid appliances one first aid box not less than one for every 150 workers. Sec45 Canteens when there are 250 or more workers.
Sec46

Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms when there are 150 or more workers. Sec 47 Creches when there are 30 or more women workers. Sec 48 Welfare office when there are 500 or more workers. Sec 49
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Labour Welfare
It includes various services, benefits and facilities offered to employees by the employer. Through such generous fringe benefits employers makes life worth living for workers. The basic purpose of labour welfare is to enrich the life of employees and keep them happy and contented. Labour laws require the employer to extend certain benefits to employees in addition of wages.

Importance of Labour welfare


Enables workers to have a richer and more satisfying life. Raises the standard of living Promotes a sense of belonging among workers, preventing them from resorting to unhealthy practices like absenteeism, labour turn over, strike etc. Prevents social evils like drinking, gambling, etc. by improving the material, social and cultural conditions of work.

Working Hours, Spread Over & Overtime of Adults


Weekly hours not more than 48. Daily hours, not more than 9 hours. Intervals for rest at least hour on working for 5 hours. Overlapping shifts prohibited. Extra wages for overtime double than normal rate of wages. Restrictions on employment of women before 6AM and beyond 7 PM. Secs. 51, 54 to 56, 59 & 60

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TYPES OF WELFARE FACILITIES


Education Housing Transportation Recreation Other facilities: Canteen, restrooms, Washing facilities, medical aid, leave travel concessions etc

Employment of Young Persons


Prohibition of employment of young children e.g. 14 years. Non-adult workers to carry tokens e.g. certificate of fitness. Working hours for children not more than 4 hrs. and not permitted to work during night shift..Secs. 51, 54 to 56, 59 & 60

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EMPLOYMENT OF WOMAN
Prohibition of women workers at night shift Women shall not be allowed to work in any factory except between the hours of 6 A.M. and 7 P.M.. The inspector may relax this norm but prohibited between 10 P.M. and 5 A.M. Working hours not more than-weekly 48 hours & daily 9 hours

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EMPLOYEE SAFETY
The main purpose of effective safety programs is to prevent work-related injuries and accidents. A well managed factory will see that there are no physical hazards such as: i) Slipping and falling hazards ii) Obstruction and collision hazards iii) Equipment hazards iv) Hazards from falling objects v) Fire hazards

Importance of industrial safety


to prevent accidents in the plant by reducing the hazard to minimum. to eliminate accident caused work stoppage and lost production. to achieve lower workmens compensation, insurance rates and reduce all other direct and indirect costs of accidents. to prevent loss of life, permanent disability and the loss of income of worker by limiting causes of accidents. to evaluate employees morale by promoting safe work place and good working condition. to educate all members of the organization in continuous state of safety mindness and to make supervision competent and intensely safety minded

To ensure Safety Measures

secs 21 to 41

Fencing of machinery. Sec 21 Work on or near machinery in motion. sec22 Employment prohibition of young persons on dangerous machines. sec23 Striking gear and devices for cutting off power. sec24 Self-acting machines. Sec25 Casting of new machinery. sec26 Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers. Sec 27 Hoists and lifts. sec28 Lifting Machines, chains, ropes etc. sec 29 Revolving Machinery. sec30 Pressure Plant. Sec 31
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Safety Measures

(contd)

Floors, staircases etc.


Pits , sumps , openings & in floors, etc.

Sec32 Sec 33 sec34

Excessive weight.

Protection of eyes. Precautions against dangerous fumes. Precaution in cases of fire. Specification of defective parts or tests of stability.
Safety of building & machinery

sec35
sec36 sec38

&

sec39 sec 40 sec41

Maintenance of building.

secs 21 to 41
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ACCIDENTS IN THE FACTORY


An accident may be defined as an unplanned event or happening. This is, an accident is something unexpected, not predictable, foreseen or intended. An unsafe act and / or unsafe condition cause the accident event; resulting in interruption to work activities, damage to property or injury to a person.

ACCIDENTS IN THE FACTORY


CAUSES: UNSAFE CONDITIONS-include such facts as: improperly guarded equipments, defective equipments, dangerous procedures in and around machines or equipment, improper illumination and ventilation. UNSAFE ACTS- throwing materials, operating machines at unsafe speeds, using unsafe equipments, using unsafe procedure in loading, placing, mixing, lifting etc.

Cost of Accidents
Injured person: (i) Suffering and pain (ii) Worry (iii)Absence of recreation (iv)Loss of wages (v)Medical expenses (vi)Loss of limb of life

Cost of Accidents
Supervisor: {i) Worry (ii)Loss of prestige (iii)Selecting a training substitute (iv)More supervision required for new man (v)Loss of output (vi)Loss of Moral/confidence

Cost of Accidents
Management (a) Direct: Compensation Payments Medical expenses.

(b) Indirect:
(i) Last of time of injured person. (ii) Lost time of other employees {iii} Lost time of foremen, supervisor or other executives (iv) Cost of time spend by first aid attendant (v) Cost due to damage to machines, tools, and other properties due to spoilage of material (vi) Incidental cost due to interference with production (whole assembly line could be stopped (vii) Cost under employee welfare and benefits schemes. Company will pay them. (viii) Cost due to continuous of wages of injured worker in full for specified period. (ix) Cost due to less of profit on the injured worker (x) Overhead cost per injured worker. (xi) Miscellaneous expenses such as for hiring and training new employees, over time wages, renting equipments, etc

Accident Measurement
.The three types of accidents are; I. Minor Accidents. 2.Reportable Accidents 3.Fatal & Poisons Accidents

Minor Accidents. As it is clear from the word "M1NOR" that this category of accident includes only those accidents that are less harmful in nature to workers and thus preventing the employee from working for the period less than 48 hours from the time of the accident.

Reportable Accidents: In this category the nature of accident is little bit complicated then the minor accidents. Here injuries caused to the worker prevent him from working for the period of 48 hours or more

Fatal Accidents: This category includes the highly complicated accidents that could result in the death of the injured worker. The death could occur on the spot of the accident or due to unbearable injuries causes to the worker means when worker could not sustain those injuries.

ACCIDENT REPORTS & RECORDS


Where any accident occurs in a factory which either (a) cases loss of life to a person employed in the factory; or (b) disables any such person for more than two days from earning full wages at the work at which he was employed, The Manager of the factory or person having control of the machinery in such factory shall forthwith report the occurrence of such accident to the Chief Factory Inspector and in connection therewith he shall furnish such particulars as the Chief Factory Inspector in any case from time to time require.

The Manager of the factory or person having control of the machinery as aforesaid shall also from time to time in like manner report to the Chief Factory Inspector (a) all accidental fires and explosions; (b) the collapse or failure of any building or structure; (c) accidents to machinery or plant which result in the cessation of work beyond the shift or day on which the accident occurs; (d) any industrial disease which may be prescribed by the Chief Factory Inspector, which may occur in the factory.