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Coastal hazards - Definitions

Natural Hazard
The probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a specified period of time and within a given area

Coastal hazards - Main types Short term:


A. Cyclone - hurricane - typhoon B. Tsunami C. Flash flooding from river

Long term:
D. Land subsidence E. Sea level rise F. Coastal Erosion
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Definitions : Coastal Hazards


Cyclone An atmospheric closed circulation rotating counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Storm Surge An abnormal rise in sea level accompanying a


cyclone or other intense storm, and whose height is the difference between the observed level of the sea surface and the level that would have occurred in the absence of the cyclone. Storm surge is usually estimated by subtracting the normal or astronomic high tide from the observed storm tide.

Storm Tide The actual level of sea water resulting from the
astronomic tide combined with the storm surge.

- Hurricanes / Cyclones

Typhoons or hurricanes are tropical revolving

storms. The are called cyclones, when they occur in the Indian Ocean area.
It are low-pressure systems or depressions

around which the air circulates in an anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere, but in a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere.
The speed of the circulating air may exceed 33

metres per second near the earths surface.


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- Hurricanes / Cyclones

Most tropical cyclones originate between 5 and

30 degrees latitude on both sides of the equator.


On average 80 cyclones are formed every year,

Two thirds of those in the northern hemisphere.


Tropical cyclones are the most devastating of all

natural phenomena. It usually effects large areas.


It may cause river flooding, storm surge and

land-sliding.

- Hurricanes / Cyclones
- Winds up to 62 km/hr - Winds from 63-87 km/hr - Winds from 88-118 km/hr - Winds >118 km/hr

Cyclone classification according to intensity:


Depression Cyclonic storm Severe cyclonic storm Severe cyclonic storm of hurricane

intensity

- Hurricanes / Cyclones

Number of casualties caused by some cyclone

events in Bangladesh:
1822 1876 40.000 400.000 1961 1965 11.500 31.300

1897
1911 1917

175.000
120.000 70.000

1970
1971 1985

300.000
11.000 11.100

1919
1958 1960
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40.000
12.000 11.600

1988
1991

5.700
145.000

A. Hurricanes
Hurricane for

Florida
coast

A - Hurricanes / Cyclones
Vertical section of a cyclone

Source: Mitigating natural Disasters UN Publication, 1991

Heat-flow clouds

Air circulation

- Hurricane / Cyclones

Horizontal section of a cyclone

EYE

Source: Mitigating natural Disasters UN Publication, 1991

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A. Cyclones

Typical cyclone path


affecting Bangladesh

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A - Hurricanes / Cyclones
Example of 29 April 1991 cyclone in Chittagong,

Bangladesh:


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On 23 April 1991 the cyclone was first detected as a depression - wind speeds not exceeding 62 km/hr On 25 April it intensified into a deep depression in the evening and turned into a cyclonic storm at midnight On 27 April it developed into a severe cyclonic storm with wind speeds up to 115 km/hr, having 990 mb as the central pressure The same day it turned into a storm with a hurricane core with wind speeds exceeding 130 km/hr. On 28 April it crossed Chittagong port in the morning. The estimated pressure drop was 60 mb.

A - Hurricanes / Cyclones
Pressure drop of 29 April 1991 cyclone in

Chittagong, Bangladesh:

Pressure drop
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A - Hurricanes / Cyclones
Example G.I.S. data analysis from Bangladesh

Bangladesh Points of landfall cyclones

Pixel information

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Field Photographs during Orissa Cyclone

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Coastal dynamics A - Hurricanes


Hurricane Mitch
Multi-temporal Radarsat images 30 October 1998

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B - Tsunami waves
Tsunami Japanese word for Harbor wave A series of waves of extreme length and period

triggered by a sudden displacement of the sea floor: seismic activity or volcanic eruption
The wave travels outwards in all directions from

the source area with speeds of over 500 km/hr


Still it can have a velocity of over 50 km/hr and a

height of 30 m at the coast


Several waves may follow each other at intervals

of 15 - 45 minutes
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B - Tsunami waves
Waves of extreme length and period

150 km

Source: Lausch, E. - Tsunami- GEO 4/April, 1997

Triggering Quake
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B - Tsunami waves
Waves are triggered by: Seismic activity /

displacement of the sea floor


Source: Lausch, E. Tsunami- GEO 4/April, 1997

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B - Tsunami waves
Waves are triggered by volcanic eruption

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B - Tsunami waves
Urban flood disaster - 12 July 1993
Okushiri Island Japan

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B - Tsunami waves
Hilo town
Tsunami wave

Hawaii - 1 April 1946

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B - Tsunami waves
House at risk, Hawaii - 9 March 1957

Oahu Island

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A - Hurricanes / Cyclones
Website tropical storm tracks:
http://www.hawaii.edu/news/storm.tracks.html http://cnn.com/WEATHER/

Hurricane Floyd:

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B - Tsunami waves

Interesting websites:

NOAA: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/

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Multitemporal Changes in the Sagar Island between 1968 and 2002

Erosion Accretion 2 2 (km ) (km ) 1968-1996 1996-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2002


6.44 7.833 3.021 0.108 16.598 13.519 15.666 0.482 17.751 0.001

1996-1998: Erosion trend 1998-1999: Accretion trend 1999-2000: Accretion trend 1996-2002: Erosion is dominant

The erosion trend is likely to be continued


20 15 10 5 0
19681996 19961998 19981999 19992000 20002002

erosion accretion

-5 -10 -15 -20


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GRID Analysis for shoreline change detection for every 10 m


Euclidian distance Grid of 1968

Direction Grid of 1968

10 m cell shoreline arc cover of

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depth

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Salt affected mudflat along Gulf of Cambay

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Salt water intrusion along Gulf of Cambay

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Erosion/accretion along Kakinada Coast

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Coastal turbulence induced erosion

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