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of military tribunals, held by victorious Allied forces of World War II Notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany Held in the city of Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, in 1945-1946, at the Palace of Justice Initial trials were held from November 20, 1945 October 1, 1946


a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court


legal instruments

London Agreement Signed by representatives of the USA, UK, France and the USSR, in London on August 8, 1945 Provided for the establishment of the International Military Tribunal to try war criminals Trial began on November 20, 1945


legal instruments

Law No. 10 Issued by the Allied Control Council in Berlin on December 20, 1945 Closely resembled the London Agreement but provided for war trials in each of the four zones of occupied Germany


Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), known as the Tokyo Trials, Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply the Tribunal, was convened on April 29, 1946, to try leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes:
Class A: crimes were reserved for those who

participated in a joint conspiracy to start wage war, and were brought against those in the highest decision-making bodies

Class B: crimes were reserved for those who

committed conventional atrocities or crimes against humanity Class C: crimes were reserved for those in the planning, ordering, authorization, or failure to prevent such transgressions at higher level in the command structure

to implement the Cairo Declaration, Postdam Declaration, Instrument of Surrender and Moscow Conference


19, 1946, Gen. MacArthur issued a special proclamation order for the establishment of the said tribunal The charter followed generally the model set by the Nuremberg Trials The tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948

United Nations court of law dealing with war crimes that took place during the conflicts in the Balkans in the 1990s Provides victims an opportunity to voice the horrors they witnessed and experienced Established, in May 1993, by the United Nations in response to mass atrocities then taking place in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina


war crimes court created by the UN and the first international war crimes tribunal since the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals Established by the Security Council in accordance with Chapter VII of the UN Charter The key objective is to try those individuals most responsible for appalling acts such as murder, torture, rape, enslavement, destruction of property and other crimes listed in the Tribunal's Statute


and Jurisdiction

To bring to justice those responsible for serious

violations of international humanitarian law committed in the former Yugoslavia since 1991 and thus contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace in the region ICTY has jurisdiction over the territory of the former Yugoslavia from 1991 onwards

It has jurisdiction over individual persons and not

organizations, political parties, army units, administrative entities or other legal subjects


by the Security Council for recognizing the serious violations of humanitarian law committed in Rwanda, and acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter Purpose: to contribute to the process of national reconciliation in Rwanda and to the maintenance of peace in the region


was established for the prosecution of persons responsible for genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994 May also deal with the prosecution of Rwandan citizens responsible for genocide and other such violations of international law committed in the territory of neighboring States during the same period


Court of Justice Special Court for Sierra Leone Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia Special Tribunal for Lebanon


als Shelton, Dinah. "War Crimes Trials." Microsoft Encarta 2007Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Mi litary_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East

http://www.icty.org/sections/AbouttheICTY http://www.unictr.org/AboutICTR/GeneralIn

formation/tabid/101/Default.aspx http://www.un.org/en/law/index.shtml